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International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET)

Volume 7, Issue 6, Nov–Dec, 2016, pp.75–80, Article ID: IJEET_07_06_007

Available online at
ISSN Print: 0976-6545 and ISSN Online: 0976-6553
Journal Impact Factor (2016): 8.1891 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com
© IAEME Publication


Swapnil Shende, Sankalp Pund, Pratik Suryawanshi, Shubhankar Potdar
Under Graduate, Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Matunga, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

The Paper analyses the use of a single phase inverter for remote residential loads powered by
solar photovoltaic arrays for meeting household energy requirements. The study also describes the
importance and role of PI controller in the proposed model for stand-alone systems to mitigate the
effect of the variations by manual tuning of the controller. The paper discusses the behaviour of the
tuned controller and the outcome such tuning.
Key words: Proportional Control, Pulse Width Modulation, Boost Converter, Manual Tuning.
Cite this Article: Swapnil Shende, Sankalp Pund, Pratik Suryawanshi, Shubhankar Potdar,
Analysis of PI Controller’s Manual Tuning Technique for Residential Loads Powered by Solar
Photovoltaic Arrays. International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology, 7(6), 2016, pp.

In today’s time solar fuelled systems and machinery have become an essential part of human life. With
depleting resources it is important to find solutions for human energy need apart from the conventional
resources. Solar energy is received across the globe in uneven amounts. With abundance in this non-
polluting and renewable energy resource it is essential to not only create but to create and run systems
which are efficient and can meet the household energy demands. The proposed model described in detail
further runs on solar energy and is made efficient with use of PI controller for mitigating the atmospheric
and human effects on the system. The two inputs to the solar arrays in the simulation is temperature and


The kind of system discussed here is a stand-alone system and can be interpreted as a remote system where
grid connection can be unmanageable task. The key discussion proposed here are the need for such
systems and their need to be efficient. The system proposed here is a simulation study to understand how
the system will perform in real life scenario and is there a margin for implementation of these kinds of
system. If implement what role does the PI controller would play in making the system more efficient and
executable. The data considered is closest to the practical valuation of quantities. The different conditions
or variation which the solar photovoltaic system has to bear are discussed below.

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Swapnil Shende, Sankalp Pund, Pratik Suryawanshi, Shubhankar Potdar

2.1. Effect of Irradiation on Solar PV Arrays

In case of irradiation value increase the maximum power that can be extracted increases linearly but the
voltage at which the maximum power point occurs as shown in the figure.1 stays almost the same.
Maximum power point is point which occurs at a certain voltage and current value such that the system
yields the maximised output. The curves show the values at irradiations 1KW/m2 and 0.6KW/m2.

Figure 1 P-V and I-V Characteristics at different Irradiations

2.2. Effect of Temperature on Solar PV Arrays

The net effect of increasing temperature is to reduce the open circuit voltage linearly. The magnitude of
this reduction is inversely proportional to open circuit voltage and short circuit current increases slightly
with increasing temperature because of an increase in heat generated carriers in the cell. The change also
depends on how the cell is made. However, the overall effect on efficiency seems to be similar to that on
voltage. The figure.2 shows values at temperatures 45oC and 25oC respectively.

Figure 2 P-V and I-V Characteristics at different Temperatures

2.3. Effect of Shading and Dirt on Solar PV Arrays

When a portion of array is shaded, the output falls due to internal short-circuiting. In case the current
drawn from the series string of cells is lesser than the current that can be produced by the shaded cell, the
current developed by the string is restricted. If voltage available from the rest of the cells is greater, current
will continue to flow through the cells in the shaded portion, power is absorbed in the shaded cell, losing it
in the form of heat energy destroying the cells lamination and damaging its material. The breakdown
voltage for common cells is between 10 to 30 volts. Usually the reverse voltage of a shaded cell is greater
than the forward voltage of an illuminated cell; hence one shaded cell is able to absorb the power of many

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Analysis of PI Controller’s Manual Tuning Technique for Residential Loads Powered by
Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

other cells in the same string, abruptly affecting panel output. To avoid such conditions, By-pass diodes are
used in parallel with the cells as shown in figure.3.

Figure 3 Series PV cells with by-pass diodes


3.1. The Proportional-Integral Controller
A Proportional-integral controller can be used for the regulation of output voltage. As shown in fig.4 block
diagram of PI controller, it processes on the error between reference and the output. Proportional control
gives output proportional to instantaneous error and integral control gives output proportional to integral of
the error.

Figure 4 Block diagram of a PI controller unit

Transfer function of PI controller is:
G(s) = Kp + Ki/s
Kp= proportional gain and Ki=integral gain
When proportional gain increases, the rise time and steady state error decreases while over shoot
increases and minor changes are seen in settling time. In case of increase in integral gain there is a
considerable decrease in rise time, while steady state error is completely eliminated. PI controller is used
very widely in industries as it has the ability to reduce steady state error to zero[10].For the presented
model, voltage regulation is required as per the requirements of residential loads. A reference voltage of
230 volts RMS value is given to PI controller. Output at load terminals is compared with reference and the
error is fed back to PI controller. As the controlling variable of output voltage is modulation index for
PWM inverter, the PI controller output is given to reference signal generator of PWM generator, thereby
changing the modulation index. In this way, PI controller has been utilized to regulate the output voltage.

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Swapnil Shende, Sankalp Pund, Pratik Suryawanshi, Shubhankar Potdar

3.2. Manual Tuning of PI Controller

In this technique we make the variations manually, the process is time consuming but it yields results for
the experiment. The values for Ki and Kp are set to get desired voltage corrective action in short time. Our
controller needs to compensate for the changes caused due to variation of temperature, irradiation and load.
To get the desired result output voltage has to be rectified in minimum time that could be 1 or 2 cycles. By
making changes and by trial and error method we can bring the value of the output voltage in the desired


The following table includes the experimental values for different components used in the proposed model.
Some of these values are assumed the results yielded are outcome of setting these values to the respective
blocks of components.

Component Parameter values

Photovoltaic Array Irradiation Temperature Voc(open-circuit) Isc(short-circuit)
(2 modules in series) 1000W/m2 25oC 73volts 32.4 ampere
Boost Converter L C F(frequency) D(duty cycle)
0.463 mH 2mF 20000Hz 0.6
Single Phase Rm Xm r1 r2 x1 x2
Transformer(N=1:4) 250ohm 1.27H 0.005ohm 0.025ohm 0.159mH 0.79mH
Low Pass LC filter L C
15mH 50 micro Farad

Irradiation is assumed to vary between 600W/m2 to 900 W/m2 and temperature is considered to vary
bet 25oC to 45oC. Maximum load on the system considered here is 1000 W.

4.1. The Model for Residential load using PV Arrays with PI Controller

Figure 5 Model with a PI controller

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Analysis of PI Controller’s Manual Tuning Technique for Residential Loads Powered by
Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

The system designed here has the PV array which is a 2 module in series and 4 strings in parallel
arrangement. The inputs to this array are temperature and irradiation as shown. The output of this array is
given to a boost converter which is an assembly to improve or increases output voltage by some factor.
This output is given to the PWM inverter, also to the inverter PI controller is connected to optimise the
inverter output comparing it with the entire assembly output. The inverter output further goes through a
low pass filter and later the linear transformer makes the appropriate step up action to provide for the load
requirement. By manual tuning which is a trial and error technique we find the desired output from the
designed system at controller gain values of Kp=0.004 and Ki=0.3.

4.2. Results at Different Conditions from the Model

The following graphs figure 6 and 7 show the effects of irradiation and load changes on the assembly’s
output parameters.

Figure 6 Output voltage and current w.r.t change in irradiation and load

Figure 7 RMS Output voltage and current w.r.t. change in load and irradiation
As shown in the graph the irradiation value increases at 0.2 second, the RMS value of voltage and
current increases but eventually return to their previous values. When the load is decreases suddenly at 0.4
seconds the voltage increases but, current dips. After about 2 cycles the voltage and current regain their
initial values this happens due to the PI action of the controller which compares the changes makes the
adjustments to inverter output. This makes the current steady and hence the changing power requirements
are met simultaneously.

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Swapnil Shende, Sankalp Pund, Pratik Suryawanshi, Shubhankar Potdar

The paper deals with the analysis of stand-alone system which is powered by solar energy and gives a
simple solution for dealing with the inefficiency of such systems. The text also shows the effects faced by
such systems at different conditions and proposes a simple model with residential load (the load and other
components of model are assumed closest to real scenarios).The paper discussed the pros and cons of the
PI controller manual tuning technique and how it can affect the system to give us the desired output via
trial and error technique. The use of PI controller along with PWM inverter is observed to be satisfactorily
regulating and providing the desired result from the assembly. The future work in this project includes the
use other kind of PI tuning, use of maximum power point tracking for further better output and automated
architecture for better output from solar arrays.

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