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Integrated Water Recycling:

Multiple Choice Questions

International Appraisal: Thomas Wintgens

1. How could water stress in a river catchment level be described?


…A by the total annual run-off
…B by the total annual rainfall
…C by the degree of groundwater overabstraction
…D by the water exploitation index
…E by any of the above mentioned parameters, depending on the
context

2. If the water exploitation index in a river catchment is 20%, what does this mean:

…A the yearly water abstraction exceeds the renewable freshwater


resources by 20%
…B 20% of the available freshwater water resources are abstracted per
year
…C 20% of the population is without piped water supply
…D none of the above mentioned definitions apply

3. How does increased water recycling impact on the water exploitation index (WEI) of
a catchment?

…A More water recycling will increase the WEI because more water will
be used.

…B More water recycling will not change the WEI because no additional
freshwater will be available.

…C The WEI will decrease with more water recycling because additional
water resources will be made available.

…D The WEI will decrease if the increase in water recycling will


substitute freshwater abstraction.

4. What is the difference between "managed water reuse" and "incidental water reuse":

…A "Incidental water reuse" only happens if cross-connections occur in


dual reticulation systems.

…B "Incidental water reuse" happens in any river catchment where


wastewater is discharged upstream of an abstraction point for water
supply.

…C "Incidental water reuse" happens if no proper management system


for the water recycling scheme is in place.

…D "Managed water reuse" only refers to direct reuse applications.


5. Water a water stress mitigation options applied in regions such as Catalonia/Spain:

…A Increased water transfers for neighbouring river basins.

…B Desalination

…C Water reuse

…D Water conservation

6. Why do membranes have a key role in high-quality water recycling around the world:

…A They have become so easily affordable in ever country

…B Particles, including bacteria, can be retained by micro- and


ultrafiltration (MF/UF) membranes

…C Reverse osmosis and nanfiltration (RO/NF) membranes can retain


salts and dissolved organics

…D MF/UF is an ideal pre-treatment to RO/NF


Managed Aquifer Recharge Peter Dillon, CSIRO

1. What is managed aquifer recharge?


a) a means of increasing groundwater reserves
b) a way of recycling stormwater
c) a way of recycling treated effluent
d) a way of enhancing water storage for cities
e) all of the above?

2. What differentiates Managed Aquifer Recharge from other forms of recharge


enhancement?
a) its intentional
b) it doesn’t pollute aquifers
c) it is a form of recycling
d) it is intended for aquifer protection or to recover water for economic use
e) it uses wells not infiltration basins

3. How many wells are used in the simplest configuration of ASR and ASTR
respectively?
a) 1 and 1
b) 2 and 2
c) 1 and 2
d) 2 and 1
e) 1 and 0
4. Australia’s oldest managed aquifer recharge project began
a) 1992
b) 1960s
c) 1970s
d) 2008
e) 1996

5. Aquifer storage and recovery:


a) is an acceptable form of waste disposal
b) can only be done in confined aquifers
c) uses a basin to infiltrate water
d) is all of the above
e) is none of the above

6. The cheapest form of managed aquifer recharge where land value is low is:
a) Aquifer Storage and Recovery:
b) Basin Infiltration
c) Soil Aquifer Treatment
d) Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery
e) Infiltration Gallery

7. Australian Guidelines for Managed Aquifer Recharge ::


a) are part of the National Water Quality Management Strategy
b) are one of the Phase 2 Guidelines for Water Recycling
c) are based on a risk management framework
d) use a staged approach to project assessment
e) all of the above

8. Managed aquifer recharge will fail if :


a) there is no aquifer
b) the intention is to produce drinking water supplies
c) the aquifer is brackish
d) treated sewage effluent is the source of recharge water
e) all of the above
9. A monitored attenuation zone is needed:
a) to allow water quality improvement in the aquifer
b) to assure protection of public health and the wider aquifer
c) to protect the groundwater from incompatible overlying land uses
d) to stop third parties taking water that has been banked for a reason
e) to control arsenic release from aquifer minerals

10. Which of the following factors will not facilitate development of managed aquifer
recharge as part of appropriate future water supplies for cities:
a) Improved understanding of urban hydrogeology
b) Demonstration projects
c) Reducing the price of energy
d) Open space to allow urban stormwater harvesting
e) Water resources planning that evaluates all costs and benefits of available
options
Health Risk Assessment Questions Diane Wiesner

1. DALYS are:
…A used for assessing the severity of a disease
…B for predicting whether a disease is a pandemic
…C important to managing microbial health hazards
…D used for undertaking health risk assessments

2. The reference pathogens used in health risk assessment in the Australian Recycled
Water guidelines are:
…A polio virus, E.coli and cryptosporidium
…B camphylobacter, giardia and rotavirus
…C rotavirus, E.coli and cryptosporidium
…D camphylobacter, cryptosporidium and rotavirus

3. Given that Australian sewage contains about 2000 Cryptosporidium, using the
formula for calculating DALYs, discussed in the lectures, calculate the target
reduction for Cryptosporidium that you would need to achieve for concentrations
equivalent to 10-6 DALYs:
… A 2.5 x 10-3 Cryptosporidium,
… B 1.6 x 10-2 Cryptosporidium
… C 4.6 x 10-2 Cryptosporidium
… D 2.5 x 10-3 rotavirus

4. The greatest source of risks to human health from a well managed recycled water
scheme comes from:
…A biofilm which has built up over time in distribution pipes
…B residual traces of industrial chemicals
…C compliance with a log-6 reduction regime (rather than log-9)
…D none of the above

5. Complete the Table giving the log reductions achievable from the following forms of
treatment –refer to lecture if you need to!

Log reduction to Bacteria Viruses Protozoa


achieve

Secondary treatment 0–2 0.5 – 1.5

Filtration and > 5.0 3.0 – 4.0


disinfection

UV light 2.0 -> 4.0 1.0 –> 3.0 > 3.0

Chlorination 2.0 – 6.0 1.0 – 3.0

Lagoon storage 1.0 – 4.0 1.0 – 4.0


Public Participation: Greg Hampton

Citizen’s juries are sometimes used for:


1. Informing the public about a development
2. participatory decision making
3. obtaining feedback from the public
4. collaborating with the public

Surveys can be used for:


1. ascertaining public knowledge about a development
2. assessing public preferences for options in a development
3. informing the public about options in a development
4. assessing public opinion in shopping mall displays

The Toowoomba situation was hampered by:


1. Public factions that were difficult to deal with
2. A misinformed public
3. A lack of public deliberation
4. A refusal to accept expert opinion

It is best to hire a public participation practitioner who will:


1. Advocate for you as the client
2. Support your preferred option
3. Manage an objective public participation process
4. Keep the public happy

A participatory inquiry:
1. Is a waste of money
2. Might be useful in situations of controversy
3. Is likely to misinform the public
4. Will develop amateurish opinion

Scientific evidence should be:


1. True to scientific opinion despite complexity
2. Explained in a way which is simple but true to the evidence
3. Be presented in a complex manner if necessary
4. Presented with authority

Scientific evidence should:


1. Support the preferred option
2. Be limited to what the public can understand
3. Not be presented when there is controversy
4. Express diverse views if there are varying opinions
Legal Issues: Wendy Ambler

1. Which one of the following statements is false?


a. The regulation of water recycling involves discretionary judgement.
b. The regulation of water recycling can take many forms including acts, rules,
guidelines and policy statements.
c. The regulation of water recycling is solely the responsibility of the Commonwealth
Government.
d. The regulation of water recycling is often reactive filling needs as they arise.

2. Which of the following statements is FALSE?

a. The National Water Initiative is an agreement signed by the Commonwealth


Government and all States and Territories of Australia.
b. The Commonwealth Government and all States and Territories of Australia have
cooperated to produce mandatory guidelines for the supply, use and regulation of
recycled water schemes.
c. Water re-use and recycling where cost effective are encouraged under the National
Water Initiative.
d. The Commonwealth Government and all States and Territories of Australia have
prepared implementation plans for the National Water Initiative.

3. New South Wales has introduced an access regime relating specifically to water industry
infrastructure services. The framework for the access regime is embodied in ‘hard law’
legislation and expanded by other ‘soft law’ guidelines.

a. True
b. False
Marketing : Sara Dolnicar

1. Which of the following uses has the lowest public acceptance level for recycled water
among the uses listed:

Flushing the toilet


Brushing teeth
Doing laundry
Watering vegetables

2. What should marketing be primarily used for in the context of introduding recycled water
schemes in Australia?

Informing the public about the advantages and disadvantages of recycled water
Convincing the public that recycled water is safe
Ensuring that the public does not believe arguments put forward in scare campaigns
Win votes for proposed water recycling projects

3. Which of the following sources of information is most trusted by Australian in terms of


information about recycled water, according to surveys?

The health minister


A leading scientist in the field
Their own GP
The local water authority
Reverse Osmosis and Membranes: Long Nghiem

Reverse osmosis membranes:


a) Can effectively remove ALL contaminants in reclaimed water
b) Can effectively remove most but not all contaminants in reclaimed water
c) Cannot effectively remove large molecular weight organic contaminants
d) Cannot effectively remove negatively charged organic contaminants

The effect of membrane degradation (due to chlorine exposure) on the rejection of


micropollutants
a) Is negligible for all types of membranes
b) Is more severe for nanofiltration membranes than for reverse osmosis membranes
c) Is more severe for reverse osmosis membranes than for nanofiltration membranes
d) Is not at all important in in-direct potable water recycling

Membrane fouling during the treatment of reclaimed wastewater can be quite problematic
because:
a) Secondary treated effluent has a considerable content of organic matter
b) Foulant composition of secondary treated effluent can be very inconsistent and
fouling behaviour can vary greatly
c) Secondary treated effluent is bio-active and thus can have a high biofouling
propensity
d) All of the above

The primary role of advanced water treatment processes in the treatment train of an in-direct
potable water recycling scheme is:
a) To make the scheme more expensive
b) To provide adequate removal of contaminants that have not been effectively
removed by conventional wastewater treatment and to provide an additional safety
factor to the whole scheme
c) To remove salinity
d) To remove cryptosporidium and giardia
Probabilistic Techniques for Assessing Exposure to Contaminants: Stuart Khan

1. Variability in recycled water quality contaminant concentration may arise from:


a- variations in source water quality
b- variations in conventional wastewater treatment performance
c- variations in advanced water treatment process performance
d- all of the above

2. Probabilistic exposure assessment incorporates the analysis of:


a- contaminant variability and diversity
b- contaminant variability and uncertainty
c- contaminant toxicity and uncertainty
d- contaminant toxicity and diversity

3. Water quality data is widely recognised to commonly approximate:


a- Beta-Poisson distribution statistics
b- Normal distribution statistics
c- Lognormal distribution statistics
d- Weibull distribution statistics

4. A Monte-Carlo simulation involves:


a- guessing an answer and testing that answer
b- randomly sampling a distribution of values with multiple iterations
c- assessing the toxicity of chemicals using bioassays
d- construction of a scale model to test hypotheses

Operation and Audit: Michael Muston

1. If a third pipe reuse scheme supplying recycled water for toilet flushing and outdoor
uses, similar to that already operating at Rouse Hill and Sydney Olympic Park, were
to be developed in Sydney what are the maximum potential annual per capita
potable water savings that could be achieved?
…A 60 KL
…B 40 KL
…C 90 KL
…D 25 KL

2. In a treatment plant producing recycled water for golf course irrigation the
monitoring activities that will best detect a barrier failure and prevent pathogens
being present in recycled water would be:

…A Daily measurements of faecal coliform counts to confirm


compliance with guideline requirements
…B Online measurement of total dissolved salts (TDS) or electrical
conductivity (EC)
…C Online measurement of turbidity
…D Online measurement of chlorine residual
… EOnline measurement of chlorine dose rate
…F Online flow measurement of untreated water and treated recycled
water to allow daily flow balance

3. Biofilms are a potential problem in the distribution systems of recycled water


schemes. What are the key factors that control the formation of biofilms in a
recycled water distribution systems?
…A Maintaining a chlorine residual in the recycled water
…B The ration of N:P: AOC (available organic carbon) should be
100:10:1
…C Reducing the dissolved organic carbon
…D Decrease in pH of recycled water
…E Use of MF membranes as part of the reuse treatment train

4. To prevent the risk of cross connection the distribution system should incorporate
the following (pick the most correct answer):
…A
• An air gap (minimum 150 mm) to prevent back flow from any
stored recycled water to potable supply systems;
• No direct connection of pipes or other fittings carrying reuse
water to potable water supply systems;
• Colour coding and signage to clearly identify reuse water
pipework and to prevent reuse water being used for
purposes with quality requirements that are not planned for
in the scheme design and operation;
• Reuse water supply systems operated at higher pressures
than potable supply systems in the vicinity; and
• An ongoing public education and contractor awareness
program

…B
• An air gap (minimum 150 mm) to prevent back flow from any
stored recycled water to potable supply systems;
• No direct connection of pipes or other fittings carrying reuse
water to potable water supply systems;
• Colour coding and signage to clearly identify reuse water
pipework and to prevent reuse water being used for
purposes with quality requirements that are not planned for
in the scheme design and operation;
• Reuse water supply systems operated at lower pressures
than potable supply systems in the vicinity; and
• Distinct plumbing and connection systems that are not
interchangeable with potable supply pipe fittings and
fixtures.
• A comprehensive ongoing public education and contractor
awareness program

…C
• An air gap (minimum 150 mm) to prevent back flow from any
stored recycled water to potable supply systems;
• No direct connection of pipes or other fittings carrying reuse
water to potable water supply systems;
• Colour coding and signage to clearly identify reuse water
pipework and to prevent reuse water being used for
purposes with quality requirements that are not planned for
in the scheme design and operation;
• Reuse water supply systems operated at lower pressures
than potable supply systems in the vicinity; and
• An intensive public relations campaign at the
commencement of the scheme
…D
• Maintain a high chlorine residual (>1ppm) in the recycled
water system;
• No direct connection of pipes or other fittings carrying reuse
water to potable water supply systems;
• Colour coding and signage to clearly identify reuse water
pipework and to prevent reuse water being used for purposes with
quality requirements that are not planned for in the scheme design
and operation;
• Reuse water supply systems operated at lower pressures
than potable supply systems in the vicinity; and
• Distinct plumbing and connection systems that are not
interchangeable with potable supply pipe fittings and fixtures.

5. An Audit Plan for a recycling scheme should address the following criteria (pick the
most correct answer):
…A
• Compliance to legislation, regulation and licensing requirements that
particularly apply to the operation of the scheme
• Compliance to relevant water quality guidelines and standards
• Risk Management – how is this being managed and what is the
documentary evidence including human health risks, environmental
risks and operational risks;
• Failure and disaster management planning and associated training
and testing;
• Monitoring procedures and analysis of monitoring data as well as
response to alarms, cross matching of data from independent
sources to develop greater confidence in reliability of data etc.;
• How does the scheme operation compare to current best practice
(including operational reliability, efficiency and effectiveness);
• Community management including ongoing public education and
awareness, maintaining appropriate access for community to
relevant information, managing of complaints, monitoring of
community issues and concerns;

…B
• Compliance to legislation, regulation in particular to ensure financial
and contractual compliance
• Compliance to relevant water quality guidelines and standards
• Risk Management – how is this being managed and what is the
documentary evidence including human health risks, environmental
risks and operational risks;
• Failure and disaster management planning and associated training
and testing;
• Monitoring procedures and conforming to reporting requirements for
monitoring data;
• How does the scheme operation compare to current best practice
(including operational reliability, efficiency and effectiveness);
• Community management including ongoing public education and
awareness, maintaining appropriate access for community to
relevant information, managing of complaints, monitoring of
community issues and concerns;
…C
• Compliance to legislation, regulation and licensing requirements that
particularly apply to the operation of the scheme
• Compliance to relevant legislation and regulation
• Business management planning and implementation;
• Monitoring procedures and analysis of monitoring data as well as
response to alarms, cross matching of data from independent
sources to develop greater confidence in reliability of data etc.;
• What are the key cost drivers for the scheme;
• Community management including ongoing public education and
awareness, maintaining appropriate access for community to
relevant information, managing of complaints, monitoring of
community issues and concerns;
…D
• Compliance to legislation, regulation and licensing requirements that
particularly apply to the operation of the scheme
• Compliance to relevant water quality guidelines and standards
• Risk Management – how is this being managed and what is the
documentary evidence including human health risks, environmental
risks and operational risks;
• Failure and disaster management planning and associated training
and testing;
• Monitoring procedures and monitoring data reporting arrangements;
• How does the scheme operation compare to current best practice
(including operational reliability, efficiency and effectiveness);