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Tugas M1 LA1 Personal Letter

LEARNING ACTIVITY 1
TASK 1
Now, you will compare the Social Functions of the four personal letters.
Regarding the contexts, the receivers, the purposes by answering the following questions.
L1 L2 L3
It is a personal and It is a personal and informal letter It is a personal and informal letter
Context informal letter for a close for someone new for replying a letter from
friend someone new
Receiver A close Friend A new contact A new friend
To share the last news To make a friend to help To introduce the writer identity.
Purpose about her mom’s health improving the addressee English
skill

TASK 2
In this task, you are going to analyse the letter structure by the senders and receivers.
1. What personal relation do each sender of the letter to the addressees? Provide evidence from the
letters!
2. What is the tone of each letter? Provide evidences from the letters.

1. Based on the letter 1, the sender and the addressee are old friends. It can be seen
that Aleena as the sender of the letter said “It has been a very long time since we met or wrote to
each other. So, they used to meet each other before.
According to Letter 2 and 3 which has the correlation, it can be implied that they,
sender and the addressee, have never met each other before. Letter 2 told that the sender sent this
letter to his friend’s friend. The sender of this letter wanted to improve his English while the
addressee (who is the sender of Letter 3) wants to practice English. One thing to make sure that
they have never met each other is that the sender of Letter 2 asks the addressee to introduce himself
and the addressee replied it in Letter 3.
2. The tone of the letter is informal but The letter 1 is more friendly than the other
letter. It can be seen from the word choice of the letters. The letters use the word ‘dear’ and ‘hello’
for the opening and the closing of the letter 3, the sender said “Anyway, I must go and get on with
my work! “ it tells us that the style of language is not formal. In Letter 1 also tells us that the sender
uses word ‘take care’ and ‘love’.
TASK 3
Fill in the table by referring to the previous letter in task 1
In this task, you are going to analyze the letter structure by the senders and receivers. Fill
in the table by referring to the previous letter in task 1.
Letter 1 Letter 2 Letter 3
Date of Writing April 17, 2018 It’s not written It’s not written
Sender Aleena Alexa Ivo
Greetings form Dear Hello (Informal/Friendly) Hello
(Informal/Friendly) (Informal/Friendly)
Main content The sender shares The sender wants to start The sender replies
her bad experience friendship with someone new a letter from a new
to an old friend friend
Personal news The sender’s The sender’s friend told him She introduces
mother is sick and to that the addressee wants to herself
it disturbs her days practice English so the sender
gives a good response to
make a friend with the
addressee
Complementary Love Thanks Best wishes
close/Sign off
Receiver Fatima Ivo Alexa

TASK 4
Now, report the similarities and differences of the four letters by filling out the table below.
Letter 1 Letter 2 Letter 3
To exchange news about the To make a relationship To exchange information
Social
sender’s last vocation and her with a new friend to a new friend.
function
mother’s condition
Similarities
 Date  Salutation  Salutation and name
Text
 Salutation and name  Introduction  Introduction
structures
 Introduction  Body  Body
 Body  Complimentary 
close Closing (to indicate the
 Closing (to indicate the letter (short expression;thanks) letter is going to
is going to end; Give my love end;anyway I must go and
to your mom and dad and get on with my work!)
loads of love to you too)  Complimentary close
 Complimentary close (short (short expression; best
expression; love) wishes)
 Signature (name of the  Signature (name of the
writer; Aleena) writer; Ivo)
Lexico-gram simple present tense  simple present tense  simple present tense
matical  simple past tense to tell the
Feature past experience
to exchange information to To inform that the sender To reply the letter from a
Social
someone already known wants to make a friend new friend.
function
with someone new.
Differences
There is a date There is no date, name of There is no date
Text
addressee, closure, nor
structures
signature

TASK 5
Now, you will learn how to construct a personal letter. To begin with, rearrange the structure of a
personal letter here into a good order!
1. Brisbane, June 5th 2018
2. Dearest John and Jane,
3. I hope this letter finds you well .I’m just writing to thank you both for the holiday and
for the photos you sent. The photos arrived this morning in the post. They reminded me what a
great time I had during my stay with you last month. You really were fantastic hosts, and
I couldn’t have asked for better guides to show me around
4. Sorry I didn’t write to you earlier, but I’ve been working flat out since the moment I arrived
home. Do you remember I told you I had an assignment to finish? Well, the deadline was two
weeks earlier than I thought It was!
5. Anyway, I’m back to normal now and I’ve handed in all of my assignments. In fact, now that I’m
free ,why don’t you both come and stay? There’s a spare room here ,so you’re welcome to use it
whenever you like.
6. Hope to see you soon,
7. Peter
TASK 6
In this task, you will learn more about how you exchange Rearrange the multiply
email here into a correct order.

It can be seen that the correct order of the multiply email is : F – B – D – E – A – C


Tugas M1 LA4 Task 1 - 4 dan Assignment
in PPGDALJAB

Key Features

Hortatory Exposition Texts Social Function:

To persuade the readers or listeners that something should or should not be the case.

Generic Structure:

 Thesis : Announcement or issue of concern

 Argument : Reasons for concern, leading to recommendation

 Recommendation : Statement of what ought or ought not to happen

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features:

1. Focus on generic human and non-human participants, except for speaker or writer referring to
self.
2. Use of:
 Mental Processes : to state what writer thinks or feels about issue e.g. realise, feel,
appreciate.

 Material Processes : to state what happens e.g. is polluting, drive, travel, spend, should be treated

 Relational Processes : to state what is or what should be

 Use of simple present tense.

TASK 1

In this activity, you will have to read two texts. Make necessary notes of their key features. It may facilitate
you in doing the other tasks. Enjoy it.

Text 1

In all the discussion over the removal of lead from petrol there doesn’t seem to have been any
mention of difference between driving in the city and the country.
While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive, I feel that when you travel
through the country, where you only see another car every five to ten minutes, the problem is not as
severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads.

Those who want to penalise older, leaded petrol vehicles and their owners don’t seem to
appreciate that, in the country, there is no public transport to fall back upon and one’s own vehicle is the
only way to get about.

I feel that country people, who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who
already spend a great deal of money on petrol, should be treated differently to the people who live in the
city.

(Source: Gerot, L., & Wignell, P. (1994). Making Sense of Functional Grammar).

Generic Structure Analysis

 Thesis ; paragraph 1 (the removal of lead from petrol)

 Argument 1 ; paragraph 2 (different petrol car crowd in city and country)

 Argument 2 ; paragraph 3 (punishment to the old car is not followed by an increase in

public transportation in the country)

 Recommendation ; paragraph 4 (the old car should be treated differently dealing with the region

(country/city))

Language Feature Analysis

Focusing on the writer : using the first personal pronoun "I"

Using abstract noun ; discussion

Using action verb : treat,

Using thinking verb ; think, seem

Using passive voice ; should be treated differently

Using simple present tense ; there doesn't seem…, there is no public transport.., etc

Text 2

The Impact of Tsunami


The Asian 2004 tsunami was probably the worst natural disaster in human memory because of the
numbers of people affected. Many studies have been written about its impact on human life, communities
and livelihoods. In this context, the fisheries sector has featured prominently as one of the areas most
affected by the disaster. This study focuses on the issue whether or not fishery resources were affected
by the tsunami, particularly in Indonesia and Sri Lanka, the two most impacted countries. The answer to
this question is fundamental to promote necessary efforts to recover fishery livelihoods in the regions.

Data from the Aceh Province Fisheries Statistics Yearbooks (1995–2005 shows there was a general
decrease then an increase in the overall number of boats from 1994 to 2004, but part of this was
attributable to switching from many small boats to a smaller number of larger boats with inboard engines.
Using only data on total number of boats, not the details of their capacity, the catch per boat increases
from 4.4 tonnes/boat/year in 1994 to 8.4 tonnes/boat/year in 1998. Between 2002 and 2004 catch per
boat decreased while the number of boats increased and production fluctuated. The number of vessels
and the catch per vessel are almost mirror images and the best catches over the past decade tended to
occur when the total number of boats was below 15 000.

Minimal provincial fisheries data are available for the period since the tsunami, but at Lampulo,
Banda Aceh, it was possible to obtain some monthly data on catch, catch per boat, trips and number of
boats between February 2004 and May 2006. These data show that catch per boat and total catch actually
increased in 2005 and 2006 compared with 2004. This is considered to be related to the reduced number
of boats and fishing trips after the disaster.

The quantity and productivity of marine fish resources in Sri Lanka is driven by the presence of a
narrow continental shelf and the lack of significant areas of upwelling. Between 1977 and 1980, acoustic
surveys of coastal waters were undertaken4 to estimate a potential yield of about 250_000 tonnes/ year.
The yearly data give a good picture of how the fisheries were behaving over longer time frames before
the tsunami. The monthly catch data show significant seasonal patterns that tend to repeat over the years
and different responses to the tsunami which can be highlighted as follows:

Monthly total catches in Batticaloa, Sri Lanka, quickly rebounded after February/March 2005 so
that catches were back in the normal range for that time of year. At Ampara catches rebounded but not
back to the monthly equivalent levels of 2004.

For small pelagic species one district showed an increase in catches after the tsunami, two districts
had lower catches a year after the tsunami, while four districts showed no difference in catches and a
continuation of long-term trends within a few months of the tsunami.

The available evidence shows that overall, impacts of the tsunami on fisheries are more related to
ongoing and new tsunami-related “human” factors, rather than the physical or biological effects of the
disaster on resources and ecosystems. That is, existing overexploitation trends had already brought many
of the fisheries under severe stress before the tsunami. (Adapted from http://www.fao.org/3/a-
ai000e.pdf
Generic Structure Analysis

 Thesis ; paragraph 1

(whether or not fishery resources were affected by the tsunami)

 Arguments ; paragraph 2-6 (catch per boat and total catch actually increased in 2005 and 2006
compared with 2004, catches were back in the normal range for 2005, two districts had lower catches a
year after the tsunami, while four districts showed no difference in catches)

 Reiteration ; paragraph 7

Language Feature Analysis

Focusing on the non-human participants : using the data

Using abstract noun ; impact

Using passive voice ; is considered, be related, is driven

Using simple present tense ; the available evidence shows that overall, Monthly
total catches in Batticaloa, Sri Lanka

Can you identify the two texts above? Are they, both, hortatory exposition texts? Well, to confirm it you’d
better watch the video available in below

I think the first text is absolutely a hortatory exposition, but I have any difficulties in analyzing the second
text, I guess it is analytical text because of the last paragraph.

PART 2: IDENTIFYING HORTATORY EXPOSITION TEXTS

TASK 2

Now read the text below and identify whether or not its generic structure is similar with that of the two
previous texts. Write your notes of identification in a table available below.

Text 3

The Need for a Youth-Centered Tobacco Control Policy


(1) Use of tobacco products is the nation's deadliest addiction.

Smoking cigarettes is the leading cause of avoidable death in the United States. More than
400,000 people die prematurely each year from diseases attributable to tobacco use. The toll of deaths
attributable to tobacco use is greater than the combined toll of deaths from AIDS, car accidents, alcohol,
suicides, homicides, fires, and illegal drugs.

(2) Smoking is the main cause of 87% of deaths from lung cancer, 30% of all cancer deaths, 82% of deaths
from pulmonary disease, and 21% of deaths from chronic heart disease. Use of smokeless tobacco is a
cause of oral cancer. In a study of women who did not smoke but did use snuff chronically, the risk for
oral cancers was 50 times greater than for nonusers.

(3) According to a recent estimate by the Office of Technology Assessment, each smoker who died in 1990 as
a result of his or her smoking, on average, would have lived at least 15 additional years if a non-smoker.
For the population at large, this premature mortality translates into 6 million years of potential life lost
each year.

(4) It is difficult, of course, to calculate a dollar value for the human costs of tobacco-related diseases. The
suffering of patients and families resulting from tobacco-related morbidity and mortality is unquantifiable.
Lost productivity and health care expenditures can be quantified, but the magnitude of the estimates
depends on a variety of theoretical and technical questions, including whether the costs of health care
should be offset by the "savings" in social security expenditures and health care costs not incurred
because people died prematurely.

(5) The Office of Technology Assessment put the social cost of smoking in 1990 at $68 billion. This high-end
estimate includes $20.8 billion in direct health costs, $6.9 billion in lost productivity attributable to
smoking-related disability, and $40.3 billion in lost productivity attributable to smoking-related premature
deaths. Whatever its total magnitude, the social cost of smoking is substantial. Even based on conservative
assumptions, expected lifetime medical expenditures of the average smoker exceed those of the average
non-smoker by 28% for men and 21% for women. Each year, decisions by more than I million youths to
become regular smokers commit the health care system to $8.2 billion in extra medical expenditures over
their lifetimes

(6) The nation has a compelling interest in reducing the social burden of tobacco use. This can be
accomplished by preventing people from starting to use tobacco and by getting users to quit. The premise
of this report is that, in the long run, tobacco use can be most efficiently reduced through a youth-centred
policy aimed at preventing children and adolescents from initiating tobacco use. Moreover, because the
prevalence of tobacco use among youths has remained stubbornly constant for 10 years, and may even
be rising, a youth-centred prevention policy must be aggressively implemented if tobacco-related
morbidity and mortality are to be significantly reduced

(Adapted from https://www.nap.edu/read/4757/chapter/3)


Thesis : Smoking cigarettes is the leading cause of avoidable death in the United States.

Text
No Identification
Resource

1 Purposes : To present opinion that the removal lead of petrol should not be done because
of the using of car in country

Generic Structure Analysis

 Thesis ; paragraph 1 (the removal of lead from petrol)

 Argument 1 ; paragraph 2 (different petrol car crowd in city and country)

 Argument 2 ; paragraph 3 (punishment to the old car is not followed by an increase


in public transportation in the country)

Text 1  Recommendation ; paragraph 4 (the old car should be treated differently dealing with
the region (country/city))
The removal
lead of
petrol
Language Feature Analysis

Focusing on the writer : using the first personal pronoun "I"

Using abstract noun ; discussion

Using action verb : treat,

Using thinking verb ; think, seem

Using passive voice ; should be treated differently

Using simple present tense ; there doesn't seem…, there is no public transport.., etc

Purpose : to attempt to persuade the reader to believe something by presenting one side of
the argument.

Text 2: The Generic Structure Analysis


Impact of  Thesis ; paragraph 1
Tsunami
(whether or not fishery resources were affected by the tsunami)

 Arguments ; paragraph 2-6 (catch per boat and total catch actually increased in
2005 and 2006 compared with 2004, catches were back in the normal range for 2005, two
districts had lower catches a year after the tsunami, while four districts showed no
difference in catches)

 Reiteration ; paragraph 7

Language Feature Analysis

Focusing on the non-human participants : using the data

Using abstract noun ; impact

Using passive voice ; is considered, be related, is driven

Using simple present tense ; the available evidence shows that overall,
Monthly total catches in Batticaloa, Sri Lanka

3 Purpose : To persuade the readers to pay attention for a youth-centred prevention policy
must be aggressively implemented.

Generic Structure Analysis

 Thesis ; paragraph 1 (Smoking cigarettes is the leading cause of avoidable


death in the United States)

 Argument 1 ; paragraph 2 (Smoking is the main cause of deadly disease)


Text 3: The Argument 2 ; paragraph 3 (each smoker who died in 1990 as a result of his or her
Need for a smoking)
Youth-
 Argument 3 : paragraph 4 and 5 (many costs are wasted because of cigarettes)
centered
Tobacco  Recommendation ; paragraph 6 (a youth-centred prevention policy must be
ControlPolicy
aggressively implemented

Language Feature Analysis

Focusing the non-human participants : using smoking.

Using passive voice ; must be aggressively implemented


Using simple present tense ; The nation has a compelling interest ,etc

Conclusion : Based on the identification above, it shows us that the first and third text are hortatory exposition
while the second text is an analytical exposition.
PART 3: CONSTRUCTING HORTATORY EXPOSITION (TASK 3)

TASK3 KB4

Choose only one out of three topics below to write a hortatory exposition text. Be sure to apply the things
we have just discussed in this module. List of the topics to choose

1. Roles of TV for Learning

2. Embedding soft skills in teaching-learning process

3. Healthy food and creative thinking

EMBEDDING SOFT SKILLS IN TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS

The essence of the goal of education is to develop people to have knowledge and skills with
independent and responsible personality. To support the purpose of education, people must have hard
skills and soft skills. hard skills can be obtained instantly because it is knowledge, while soft skill is a non-
knowledge ability. Soft skills should be embedded in the learning process for several reasons.

Soft skills cannot be obtained instantaneously by learners, this needs to be inculcated at any time
because soft skills are a habit that must be cultivated over time over their innate traits. So the need of
soft skill growth of students from an early age and continue until the highest education.

In the learning process, growing soft skill of students is very important because soft skill in the
form of responsibility, self-discipline, honest, friendly, ethical, creative, hard work and confidence that
will bring students to good emotional intelligence (Emotional Intelligence). With good emotional
intelligence, it will be able to assist the students in searching for better and more complex knowledge.

Soft skills are special abilities, including social interaction, technical and managerial skills. This
ability is one of the things that every student must have in entering the workforce. Based on data adopted
from the Havard School of Business, the skills and abilities given in the learning bench, 90 percent are
technical skills and the rest are soft skills. In fact, the required thing is to face the workforce is only about
15 percent of the ability of hard skills. From these data, it can draw the common thread that in entering
the workplace, soft skill has a more dominant role.

Based on the reasons above, soft skill should be invested in the learning process as the initial
foundation to create graduates or human beings in accordance with the purpose of education itself.
ASSIGNMENT M1 LA4

Please do the assignment below to rehearse anything you have learnt in this activity and send it to the
link provided.
When your mind map is completed, use it to analyse any text of hortatory available in this module!

TEXT 1

Purposes : To present opinion that the removal lead of petrol should not be done because of the
using of car in country

Generic Structure Analysis

• Thesis ; paragraph 1 (the removal of lead from petrol)

• Argument 1 ; paragraph 2 (different petrol car crowd in city and country)

• Argument 2 ; paragraph 3 (punishment to the old car is not followed by an increase in


public transportation in the country)

• Recommendation ; paragraph 4 (the old car should be treated differently dealing with the
region (country/city))

Language Feature Analysis

Focusing on the writer : using the first personal pronoun "I"

Using abstract noun ; discussion

Using action verb : treat,

Using thinking verb ; think, seem

Using passive voice ; should be treated differently

Using simple present tense ; there doesn't seem…, there is no public transport.., etc

TEXT 2

Purpose : to attempt to persuade the reader to believe something by presenting one side of the argument.

Generic Structure Analysis

• Thesis ; paragraph 1

(whether or not fishery resources were affected by the tsunami)

• Arguments ; paragraph 2-6 (catch per boat and total catch actually increased in 2005 and
2006 compared with 2004, catches were back in the normal range for 2005, two districts had lower
catches a year after the tsunami, while four districts showed no difference in catches)
• Reiteration ; paragraph 7

Language Feature Analysis

Focusing on the non-human participants : using the data

Using abstract noun ; impact

Using passive voice ; is considered, be related, is driven

Using simple present tense ; the available evidence shows that overall, Monthly total
catches in Batticaloa, Sri Lanka

TEXT 3

Purpose : To persuade the readers to pay attention for a youth-centred prevention policy must be
aggressively implemented.

Generic Structure Analysis

• Thesis ; paragraph 1 (Smoking cigarettes is the leading cause of avoidable death in


the United States)

• Argument 1 ; paragraph 2 (Smoking is the main cause of deadly disease)

• Argument 2 ; paragraph 3 (each smoker who died in 1990 as a result of his or her smoking)

• Argument 3 : paragraph 4 and 5 (many costs are wasted because of cigarettes)

• Recommendation ; paragraph 6 (a youth-centred prevention policy must be aggressively


implemented

Language Feature Analysis

Focusing the non-human participants : using smoking.

Using passive voice ; must be aggressively implemented

Using simple present tense ; The nation has a compelling interest ,etc

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ARTICLE Tugas M1 KB 3 Task 1 - 6 Dan Assignment

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