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(GROUP 6) WALL CONSTRUCTION • Unitized Curtain Wall System

CURTAIN WALL - A curtain wall system is an


outer covering of a building in which the outer
walls are non-structural, utilized to keep the
weather out and the occupants in

Curtain wall systems are non-


structural cladding systems for the external
walls of buildings. They are generally associated
with large, multi-storey buildings

thin, usually aluminum-framed wall, containing


in-fills of glass, metal panels, or thin stone. CURTAIN WALL ADVANTAGE:
CURTAIN WALLS BRIEF HISTORY • can be constructed from much lighter
Curtain wall systems emerged in the 19th materials like glass
century with the development of • allows for the filtration of natural light
large glass panels and became more common into the building
from the 1930's when aluminium was made • prevents air and moisture from entering
available as a construction material for the first the building
time
• can also act as a fire stop, slowing or
Components of CURTAIN WALLS preventing the spread of fire between
floors of the building

• providing a unique and more elegant


look to the building facade

• provide additional sound insulation


from the outside of the building

CURTAIN WALL DISADVANTAGE:

• regular maintenance

• in order to keep out moisture and


wind, a sealant must be applied to the
perimeter, and this sealant must be
TYPES OF CURTAIN WALL
replaced every 10 years or so
• Stick Curtain
• cost and time required to install them
Wall System
• curtain walls utilizing the stick system,
for example, require a great deal of
time to assemble, and their
performance depends on the quality of
the installation
• unitized curtain walls consist of factory- • Stone veneer
assembled frames which reduces
• Metal
installation time and cost but incurs
greater costs for shipping and storage. • Fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP)
• Moreover, curtain walls can be a major
cause of project delay. The installation • Louvres or vents
of these structures may be delayed by INFILLS
unfavourable weather conditions. This
could in turn lead to additional costs on Infill refers to the large panels that are inserted
labour and manpower. into the curtain wall between mullions

CURTAIN WALL DETAIL • Glass


• Fabric veneer
• Stone veneer
• Panels
• Louvers
• Windows and vents

FABRIC VENEER

• Less Expensive

• Faster to Install

• Low density

• Lightweight

STONE VENEER

• Aesthetic Appearance

• Thin blocks

PANELS

• Aluminum panels

• Copper

• ACP

LOUVERS

• Allow to filter outside air


CURTAIN WALL MATERIALS
WINDOWS AND VENTS
• Vision glass
• Both glaze and ventilation to the
• Spandrel glass building
WINDOW WALL • curtain wall provides greater structural
strength
Window Wall System is an exterior wall
system spanning between the top surface • curtain wall creates a void from floor to
of a lower floor slab and the bottom surface floor
of an upper floor slab.

• cost-effective alternative to curtain


walls

• often used in residential applications as


they allow for more customizable
sections such as windows and balcony
doors

• can reach up to 12 ft without support

WINDOW WALL vs. CURTAIN WALL

• window wall is generally less expensive


than curtain wall

• window walls are easier to install

• less noise transfer and energy loss can


be repaired easily

DISADVANTAGES OF WINDOW WALL

• less continuous look than curtain wall


systems

• has to be built with more pieces


(mullions) and joints

• over time, the seals can dry out and


crack, causing water to leak into the
building

MATERIAL
ADVANATAGES OF WINDOW WALL Glazing
• customizability • Obscure Insulating Glass
• ease of installation • Tinted Insulating Glass
• cost savings • Clear Insulating Glass
• require less engineering and safety • Tempered Insulating Glass
considerations
• Security Glass:
• reduce project cycle times
• Laminated Glass:

CLADDING

• the application of one material over


another to provide a skin or layer

• used to provide a degree of thermal techniques such as diffusion,


insulation and weather resistance, and deformation and lasers
to improve the appearance of buildings
• Balance of both function and aesthetic
INTERIOR CLADDING
• New metals can be installed over any
• TIMBER CLADDING type of cladding- brick, pre cast
• PVC CLADDING concrete, stucco and other metal
systems
• STONE CLADDING
• Used in soffits and fascias, external wall
• BACKPAINTED GLASS CLADDING and guttering systems
• CERAMIC CLADDING TYPES OF METAL CLADDING
• WALLPAPER • Profiled Metal Cladding
EXTERIOR CLADDING • Cassette Panel Cladding
• TERRACOTTA CLADDING PROFILED METAL CLADDING
• STONE CLADDING • industrial, agricultural, retail and leisure
• METAL CLADDING (ACP CLADDING) buildings

• STICK FRAME CLADDING • Provided for insulation

• CURTAIN WALL (GLASS) • corrugated, trapezoidal, sinusoidal or


half round sheets
• FIBER CEMENT CLADDING
• steel and aluminum
• BRICK CLADDING
• greater thermal movement corrosion
METAL CLADDING resistant
• the protective material such as metal TYPES OF METAL CLADDING
powder or foil is bonded to a substrate
by applying heat and/or pressure • Aluminium Cladding

• a method of protecting one metal (or • Copper Cladding


composite) by forming a layer of a • Galvanized Steel/ Steel Cladding
second metal to its surface by using
• Zinc Cladding
• Brass Cladding • Either welded or bolted into structural
frame Full insulation
• Bronze Cladding
CURTAIN WALL SYSTEM
• Titanium Cladding
• Attached to structural frame with clip
ADVANTAGES OF METAL CLADDING
angles or subframing

• Standard design requiring less time in


• Requires low maintenance preconstruction and manufacturing

• Fire retardant INFILL SYSTEM

• Lightweight material • Installed from the interiors

• Pest resistant • Installed between exterior floor slab


edges an exposed exteror columns
• Energy efficient
TILT-UP CONSTRUCTION
• Provides adequate heat insulation
• Tilt-up construction involves site-casting
• Easily available and easy to install the concrete walls of a building on its
• Customizable floor slab or on a separate casting bed
and then tilting and lifting them into
DISADVANTAGE position by crane. The result is rapid
• Not moisture resistant construction arising from a well-
planned process more akin to a factory
• Can be expensive, depending upon the production line, but retaining the
material and amount of labor flexibility of in-situ concrete work.
• Difficult to repair if broken or dented SITE PREPARTION PROCESS
INSTALLATION SYSTEMS • Site preparation
• Attached System • Construction of footings and foundation
slab
• Curtain Wall System
• Forming of panels
• Infill System
• Rebar steel placement
ATTACHED SYSTEM
• Embeds and inserts
• Attached directly to structural frame in
large panels Panel installation

UNITIZED SYSTEM

may include factory glazing. These


completed units are installed on the
• Unitized system is a type of curtain wall
building structure to form the building
system which involves factory
enclosure.
fabrication and assembly of panels and
ADVANTAGE • visible joint lines down the length of
each mullion
• Lower field installation cost
RAINSCREEN SYSTEM
• Speed Construction
• A system where siding (wall cladding) of
• Less labor work
an exterior wall stands off from
• Suitable for skyscrapers the moisture-resistant surface of an air
barrier applied to the sheathing
DISADVANTAGE
(sheeting) to create a capillary break
• Critical planning requirement and to allow drainage and evaporation
• Quality control • utilizes a surface to help keep the rain
• Panel alignment issues out, as well as an inner layer to offer
STICK BUILT SYSTEM thermal insulation, prevent excessive
air leakage and carry wind loading
• installed in long pieces between floors
vertically and between vertical embers • rainscreen systems are designed on the
horizontally principle that water will not move on
• processed, manufactured at factory and its own
assembled, installed and completed at TYPES OF RAINSCREEN
site
• Drained and ventilated rainscreen
LADDER SYSTEM: cladding system
• similar to a stick system, a ladder • Pressure-equalized (PE) rainscreen
system has mullions which can be split cladding systems
and then either snapped or screwed
together consisting of a half box and RAINSCREEN
plate • metal sheeting (aluminum, stainless
• fast-track curtain wall system for low- steel, zinc, copper)
rise projects.
• metal composite materials (aluminum
• designed for use in low to medium rise bonded to a lightweight core:
new build or refurbishment projects polyethylene or polyurethane)
• could be somehow considered as a • terracotta, brick slips, stone, timber
combination of stick and unitized

ADVANTAGE

• Faster installation on site


• Suitable for storefronts and small areas
• Can be fabricated in a shop

DISADVANTAGE

• reduced structural performance