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THE DAILY OBSERVER
Tuesday,
ERIES
LECT(3UrdREEditSion)
September 19,
2017
:
dy guides Page 01
CSEC stu anguage
s h L
Engli nology
on Tech
Informati
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PRODUCTION TEAM
EDITOR: Debra-Gail Williamson • ASSOCIATE EDITOR – DESIGN: Rorie Atkinson • GRAPHIC ARTIST / PAGINATOR: Roy France

CONT R IBUTOR S

ENGLISH LANGUAGE MATHEMATICS SOCIAL STUDIES


Shawnette Myers-Lawrence Kamau Karenga Charmaine Fuller-Wallace

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HUMAN & SOCIAL BIOLOGY PRINCIPLES OF BUSINESS PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTS
Shandeen Robinson-White Leroy Munroe Hilary Bassaragh Tedmore Clarke

INTEGRATED SCIENCE ENGLISH LITERATURE COMMUNICATION STUDIES CARIBBEAN STUDIES


Marlene Grey-Tomlinson Simone Gibbs Janet Hendricks Debgeri Whitely
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ENGLISH
LANGUAGE Lesson 2
with
Shawnett Myers-Lawrence

THE SCHOOL BASED ASSESSMENT

Hello everyone!

In today’s lesson I will outline the SBA and attempt to explain


some of the areas that might pose some challenge for
students. Over the course of these series I will look at the
various sections of the SBA in detail and walk you through
some activities which will help you to do well on this paper.
The groups will produce a written report for which all
OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT members of the group will be credited. The individual
component of the portfolio means that students will EACH
Whether you are doing English A or English B or both you produce a written document which contains all the
are required to do the SBA. It is the same activity for either elements of the portfolio. EACH student will create the plan
subject. The rationale behind this is that though these of investigation, reflections and do the oral component
subjects are taught and tested as two discrete subjects individually.
both candidates and teachers are encouraged to take a
more integrated approach in their study of these. There is
This type of portfolio can prove challenging for both
the tendency to see the SBA as a part of English. If you are
teachers and students as it requires much monitoring for
sitting English B only, there is no need to worry since you
all the parties since the participation of the group
are allowed to use material such as your literature texts
as part of your project. members is graded. Teachers who have tried corporative
learning activities know the challenges that this may pose
Each student will be required to work individually and as in getting students to work well in groups. Often what
part of a group. What this means is that students will ends up happening is that one or two members do all the
select a topic for their portfolio and will be grouped with work while all students get the credit. Often the task is not
other students who have similar topics. Groups should be complete as students spend more time arguing rather than
between four and five students. In the groups students doing the activities. It is therefore imperative that teachers
will work to discuss the issues attached to the general and sensitize students about the SBA and get started as soon
specific topics, share, explain and clarify ideas, help each
as possible.
other to locate sources from which information may be
garnered, practice the skills of teamwork, communication,
compromise, leadership and time management. JOL ENGLISH LANGUAGE continues on next page
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JOL ENGLISH LANGUAGE continued from previous page

THE PORTFOLIO
Students will select a topic, theme, issue or event that is worthy of some research or investigation. Teachers are expected
to guide students in this selection. Students must note that the topic must be approved by the teacher therefore there must
be no changes or surprises when the time comes for final submission. The portfolio consists of the following elements:

THE PLAN OF INVESTIGATION


This introduces the portfolio and provides information about the topic under investigation. This is a short piece of
writing with a word limit of one hundred. You must ensure that they discuss:
! Your reason for choosing the theme of topic
! How the investigation will benefit you as a student of English
! How you intend to gather information about your topic and how you intend to present this information in the
oral component of the SBA.

This introduction requires you to think about the entire process of putting your portfolio together. It may take some
refining and revision since adjustments may be made during the preparation of the portfolio.

COLLECTION OF RELATED MATERIAL AND WRITTEN REPORT


You will gather a minimum of three pieces of material related to the topic or theme. These materials may be in audio,
visual, audio-visual, or print media. One of the three pieces MUST be in print. These pieces will be used as the basis of
the process of investigation.

When selecting your pieces you are expected to select those that examine your theme in some way. Each piece does
not have to treat the issue in the same way or show the same aspect of the issue. Here are some types of media you
may select:
! songs ! talk show clips
! poems ! newspaper or magazine articles
! videos ! excerpts from plays or novels
! movie clips ! paintings

In deciding which pieces to choose, you will have to discuss the pieces that you have collected in relation to the topic
or issue that you are investigating. What do the pieces have to say about the issue? What perspectives are presented?
Do the pieces agree or diverge in their presentation of the issue?

Please note that this part of the portfolio is prepared by the GROUP. This aspect of the portfolio requires students to
develop their oral and written communication skills. The skills of collaboration and critical thinking are also emphasized.

The written report itself summarises both the process of the investigation and the outcomes or conclusions that you
have drawn from the research. It should identify the selected material, your reason for selecting these pieces and your
analysis of these pieces in relation to your theme. Your report should be between 250 to 300 words in length.

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REFLECTION
Each student is required to have three entries. This is one of the individual components of the portfolio.

" In the first entry you are expected to indicate how each of the selected pieces helped to shape your thinking about the
theme or topic. You will have to ask yourself if you have learned anything new about the topic. Have the pieces helped
you to change your perspective about the topic in any way? Have the pieces merely reinforced views that were previously
held? If your answer to the last question is yes, then maybe you should rethink your selection of pieces.

" The second entry focuses on the use of language in pieces which you have selected. In looking at the use of language
you will need to focus on several things including:
! Vocabulary ! Language variety
! Register ! Literal or metaphorical use of language
You are therefore not examining the content of the pieces; you are examining how the writer expresses these ideas.

" The third reflection requires you to look at how the process of doing the portfolio impacted on the student as a
person. The portfolio is not just an intellectual effort; it is supposed to develop affective or soft skills. In other words
you are expected to learn how to compromise with others, develop leadership skills, express yourself with greater
confidence and fluency, manage your time well etc. In writing this last entry you have to carefully look at the process
and measure the extent to which you have improved in some way.

Each of these entries should be done in class under the supervision of the teacher. You may however, think about each reflection
and decide in advance what you would like to say. Remember the reflection is not a singular event but is itself a process.

ORAL PRESENTATION
The oral presentation is another individual component of the portfolio. It emphasizes the skills of creativity and
communication. This presentation is a personal response which each student will deliver based on the theme or topic
and lasts between 3 and 5 minutes. The presentation must be done primarily in Standard English. It may be done in
any genre that you choose whether poetry, prose or drama. You may also select from a variety of modes for presentation
such as role plays, skits, monologue, speech, dub poem, narrative. A brief overview of the presentation should be
included which indicates the genre chosen, the sources and a rationale or justification for the language varieties used.
You are expected to include a brief plan of the oral presentation in the written portfolio.

Some students may find this section of the portfolio frightening since there is a natural anxiety attached to performing
before an audience regardless of the size. Do not fear. The best way to combat anxiety is with preparation.

Hopefully, you now have a better understanding of the SBA. As we progress we will examine each aspect in greater
detail so that you can do your best.

Until Next Week! ☺

Shawnett Myers-Lawrence is on the staff of St. Hugh’s High School $ Email: shawnomyl@yahoo.com
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MATHEMATICS Lesson 2
with Kamau Karenga

NUMBERS 7 8 9

+
Today we will talk about NUMBERS, a basic component of NUMERACY. 4 5 6 –
Numeracy is the ability to reason and apply simple numerical concepts.
Basic numeracy skills consist of comprehending fundamental arithmetic like 1 2 3 –:
addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Numeracy and literacy are

+
absolutely essential for us to lead happy and productive lives.
0 • =
TYPES OF NUMBERS
A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure and label. There Even/Odd Numbers:
are many kinds of numbers. They include: Natural, Whole, Integer, Real, – An even number is exactly divisible
Rational, Irrational, Even, Odd, Prime and Composite. These definitions are by 2. Every other number in a list
required for CSEC mathematics. of integers will be even; just as
every other number is odd. All
integers are either even or odd.
NAME SYMBOL LIST DESCRIPTION
– Even numbers are divisible by 2
counting numbers, exactly; odd numbers will leave a
called ‘baby numbers’ remainder of 1.
Natural N {1, 2, 3, 4, 5 …}
or numbers a baby
could recite. Prime Numbers:
natural numbers and A prime number has only two factors
zero; a baby does not – one (1) and itself.
Whole W {0, 1, 2, 3, 4 …}
understand the
concept of ‘nought’. NOTE: a. One (1) is not a prime
number because it has only
positive and negative one factor, itself.
Integer Z {…-2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3…}
whole numbers
b. Two (2) is the only even
any number that can prime number.
be expressed exactly as
Rational Q {-2, 0, ½, 1/3, 5/19, 99} c. Prime numbers do not end
a ‘ratio’ or a fraction
(99 is 99/1) in 2, 4, 6, 8, 0 or 5.
numbers that cannot d. All prime numbers are
be expressed exactly, positive integers.
__ __ __
Irrational Q’ {ϖ, √3 , √5 , √7 } even if expressed to a
thousand decimal JOL MATHEMATICS
places. continues on next page
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The list of prime numbers less than 100 are: A multiple can be distinguished by remembering
‘Multiplication Tables’.
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43,
The first 5 multiples of 24 are:
47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89 and 97. 24 x 1 = 24, 24 x 2 = 48, 24 x 3 = 72,
24 x 4 = 96, 24 x 5 = 120.

Composite Numbers:
So, the first 5 multiples of 24 are:
24, 48, 72, 96 and 120.
a. Any number that is not a prime number is composed of
several prime numbers, and is called a composite
number (except 1).
Example 1
b. Even numbers and numbers that end in 5 are composite
numbers. From the list of numbers below, write the following:

c. Any number (less than 100) that is divisible by 3 or 7 (i) all the factors of 30
without a remainder is a composite number.
(ii) the 5 prime numbers
Composite numbers up to 50 are:
(iii) any multiples of 4
4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22,
List of Numbers: 1, 3, 8, 12, 16, 20, 13, 15, 2, 4, 5, 17, 24, 6
24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38,

39, 40, 42, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49 and 50. Solution 1

(i) The numbers that give a product of 30 are:


FACTORS AND MULTIPLES 1 x 30 = 30, 2 x 15 = 30, 3 x 10 = 30, 5 x 6 = 30.

We will now look at the concepts of FACTORS and There are no more pairs of numbers to give a product
MULTIPLES. These two concepts are often confused. They of 30.
are related but they are actually quite different.
Therefore, the factors of 30 are: 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 15
A factor is defined as a number which goes into another and 30.
number without leaving a remainder.
(ii) The prime numbers from the list are: 2, 3, 5, 13 and 17.
Example: To find the factors of the number 24, we examine
numbers that give a product of 24. (iii) Multiples of 4 (from the list) are: 4, 8, 12, 16, 20
and 24.
Those numbers are: 1 x 24, 2 x 12, 3 x 8 and 4 x 6.

So, the factors of 24 are: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24. JOL MATHEMATICS continues on next page
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– Divide the numbers by the prime factors until the


HCF AND LCM
answer is 1.
We are often required to find the HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR
(HCF) or the LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE (LCM) of a set of – If the factor divides into all the numbers, it is common.
numbers. Again, we must be clear as to the difference
between FACTORS and MULTIPLES. – If the number cannot be divided by the factor, just carry
the number down. [In the third line, 5 cannot go into
Example 2 6, so we carry the 6 down.]

Highest Common Factor (HCF): From this grid we can determine:

a. What is the HCF of the numbers 24 and 60? (a) the HCF = 2 x 2 x 3 or 12 (common factors)

First, we find the prime factors of each number. (b) the LCM = 2 x 2 x 5 x 3 x 2 or 120 (all the prime
– Prime factors of 24 are 2 x 2 x 2 x 3;
factors in the table)
– Prime factors of 60 are 2 x 2 x 3 x 5.

By examination we see that the common factors are 2 x 2 Example 3


and 3.
Find the HCF and the LCM of the numbers 48, 60 and 96.
Therefore, the HCF is 2 x 2 x 3 = 12.
Solution 3
Lowest Common Multiple (LCM):
Using the grid method:
b. Let’s find the LCM of the same numbers 24 and 60.

– The multiples of 24 are 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144... Common Prime
Number Number Number
Factors Factors
– The multiples of 60 are 60, 120, 180, 240… → 2 48 60 96
→ 2 24 30 48
We can see that the LCM is 120.
2 12 15 24
The Grid Method: 2 6 15 12
2 3 15 6
Here is a method which may be employed. First, set up a → 3 3 15 3
grid with the numbers. 5 1 5 1
1 1
Common Factors Prime Factors Number Number
→ 2 24 60
The HCF is 2 x 2 x 3 = 12 (common factors)
→ 2 12 30
5 6 15 The LCM is 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 5 = 480
→ 3 6 3 (all the prime factors in the table)
2 2 1
1 1 JOL MATHEMATICS continues on next page
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EVALUATION OF POWERS

When you are asked to evaluate a number that has a power, you must understand that the ‘power’ is telling you how
many times to multiply the other number by itself. For instance, 34 is telling us to multiply the 3 (called the base) by
itself 4 times. If you get an answer of 12, you are wrong; because 34 is in fact 3 x 3 x 3 x 3, which is equivalent to 9 x 9
or 81. In practice, when writing the 34, the 3 (the base) must be obviously bigger than the 4, and the 4 (the power or
the index or superscript) must look like it is floating at the top of the 3.

Example 4

Evaluate the following: i) 24 ii) 45 iii) 72 iv) 56

Solution 4

i) 24 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 16

ii) 45 = 4 x 4 x 4 x 4 x 4 = 1,024

iii) 72 = 7 x 7 = 49

iv) 56 = 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 = 15,625

SQUARE ROOT AND CUBE ROOT TABLES


You are required to know your square root and cube root tables in order to do well at CSEC Maths. Let’s start with
‘square’ numbers.

SQUARES

12 = 1, 22 = 4, 32 = 9, 42 = 16, 52 = 25, 62 = 36, 72 = 49, 82 = 64, 92 = 81, 102 = 100, 112 = 121, 122 = 144

From this, the following square roots can be determined.


__ ___ __ ___ ___ ___
√1 = 1, √4 = 2, √9 = 3, √16 = 4, √25 = 5, √36= 6
___ ___ ___ ____ ____ ____
√49 = 7, √64 = 8, √81 = 9, √100 = 10, √121 = 11, √144 = 12

Remember: Square root is the opposite of square.

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CUBES

The recommended ‘cube’ numbers for you to memorize are 1 to 5: 13 = 1, 23 = 8, 33 = 27, 43 = 64, 53 = 125

From this the following cube roots are determined:


__ __ ___ ___ ____
!1 = 1, !8 = 2, !27 = 3, !64 = 4, !125 = 5

Remember: Cube root is the opposite of cube.

The cube root sign has the ‘little 3’ as part of the sign, to distinguish it from square root.

EVALUATION

1) What is the least number of marbles that can be shared equally among 6, 9, 12 or 15 children?

Solution: What is required to share the marbles equally is the LCM.

We use the grid method.

Prime Factors Number Number Number Number

2 6 9 12 15

2 3 9 6 15
The LCM is the product of the factors:
2 x 2 x 3 x 3 x 5 = 180
3 3 9 3 15
Answer:
The least number of marbles is 180.
3 1 3 1 5

5 1 1 1 5

1 1 1 1

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2) Find (a) the HCF and (b) the LCM of 20, 25, 35 and 45.

Solution: For the HCF we use the grid and identify the common factors.

Prime
Common Number Number Number Number
Factors
% 5 20 25 35 45
2 4 5 7 9
(a) The HCF is 5 (the only common factor)
2 2 5 7 9
5 1 5 7 9 (b) The LCM is the product of all the factors:
5x2x2x5x7x3x3
7 1 1 7 9
Therefore, the LCM is 6,300.
3 1 1 1 9
3 1 1 1 9
1 1 1 3

WATCH THE VIDEO BELOW FOR MORE.

Our next lesson will be on FRACTIONS. PEACE and LOVE!

Kamau Karenga is on the staff of Portmore Community College $ Email: kkarenga@pcc.edu.jm


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SOCIAL
STUDIES Lesson 2
with
Charmaine Fuller-Wallace

CSEC SOCIAL STUDIES


SCHOOL BASED ASSESSMENT (SBA)
This week’s lesson will be focusing on the School Based " Pages must be numbered and there should be a header
Assessment (SBA) on each page with a shortened version of the topic in
all Caps. For example: “DRUG ABUSE: MAIN DRUGS USED,
CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES AND SOLUTIONS”.
THE REQUIREMENTS OF
THE SCHOOL BASED ASSESSMENT " Please note there is no need for an introduction after
the acknowledgement.
Please Read Carefully
" The SBA should be completed over a period of
time. The teacher should guide students with the
" The word limit for the Social Studies SBA is 1000 SBA process. Students can divide the different
words. This word limit excludes the areas into tasks.
acknowledgement, content page and
bibliography/reference and appendices. " The SBA is marked out of 40 and has the following
weighting:
" Research should be in double line spacing, font size
12, right margin 1.5 inches and left 1 inch. It is ITEM WEIGHTING
advisable to use Calibri, Times New Roman or Arial Statement of the Problem 2
(not Arial Black or other fonts that sometimes make Reason/s for choosing the Topic 2
it difficult to read). Use only ONE font. Method of Investigation 2
Data Collection Instrument 4
" Research must be written in the past tense. When Procedures Used for Data Collection 2
writing the SBA, do not use the first-person Presentation of Data 6
discourse, for example: ‘I’ or ‘me’ instead use terms Analysis and Interpretation of Data 8
such as ‘the researcher’, ‘the writer’, or ‘the Findings 3
investigator’.
Recommendations
3
and Implementation Strategy
" The source for bar and pie charts and tables or any Writing Skills 4
other appropriate presentation method must be
Overall Presentation 4
shown. This should be shown as fieldwork, date and
TOTAL 40 MARKS
year beneath each diagram. This is a strategy to
decrease plagiarism and reinforce proper research
ethics. Diagrams must be in a box. JOL SOCIAL STUDIES continues on next page
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SCHOOL BASED ASSESSMENT (SBA) GUIDELINES

TOPIC

The topic must be written in a statement format and must target a specific group in a specific area.

EXAMPLES

a) Single Parent Families in the community of Spring Garden, Portland:


reasons for the level, problems faced, and solutions.

b) Street children in the Spanish Town area: causes, problems faced


and solutions to the problem.

TASK 1:
PROBLEM STATEMENT (2MARKS)

The following should be taken into consideration when writing the Problem Statement.

" It must be taken from a topic in the syllabus

" It is an action research, so ensure that the topic is a problem that exists in your school / community

" It must be in the form of a question

" It is advisable to write more than one

" Before you begin writing the question/s, you should introduce the topic in two/three lines.

" Even though CXC marks for only one question it is advised that you have about two or three

" Ensure that the problem statement/s is/are clear, specific and measureable.

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Problem Statement Questions can focus on:

" Causes/reasons for/factors that contribute to the level

" Effects/consequences

" Solutions

" Level

EXAMPLES

Topic: Single Parent Families in the community of Lavender Avenue, St. Catherine: reasons for the
level, problems faced and solutions.

Problem Statement: Single Parent Families seem to be a growing problem in the community of
Lavender Avenue, St. Catherine. This SBA therefore seeks to find answers to the questions outlined
below.

1. What are the factors that contribute to the increasing level of single parent families in the
community?

2. Which age group accounts for the highest level of single parent families in the community?

3. What are the problems faced by single parent families in the community?

4. What can be done to reduce the problems faced by single parent families in the community?

TASK 2:
REASON FOR CHOOSING THE TOPIC (RATIONALE) (2 MARKS)

This is the reason for choosing the topic. Students should give a brief overview of the topic as well as an explanation
as to the reason/s for choosing the topic. Also include brief information about the area where the study/research will
take place. The following must be included BEFORE giving the reason/s:

a) The specific geographic location of the community/ area or institution where the problem will be
investigated, that is, urban/rural community/area or educational/health institution. You are allowed to
name places but NOT institutions.

EXAMPLE:
A prominent high school in Westmoreland Jamaica/rural St. Elizabeth or Street children in Spanish Town,
St. Catherine.

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b) An estimate of the population in the TASK 3:


community/area or institution (this must
METHOD OF INVESTIGATION (2 MARKS)
be realistic).
Students can use one or more data collection
c) A short introduction of the problem method/instrument such as Questionnaire, Interview or
Observation. However whichever method/s you select, give
a brief description, then write two or more reasons
d) Then finally, the reason/s for choosing the
justifying your choice. Your responses must be in a sentence
topic/problem. At least two reasons should
and not in bullet form. It is also suggested that sources are
be stated. used to support what is written. If sources are used:

EXAMPLE: 1. start by saying: According to Blake (2014)


“questionnaires have a number of advantages,
• What was observed these include...” OR

• What was heard and from whom 2. after justifying why you choose the method, put the
source at the end of the last word in bracket like this:
• Include mass media broadcast on the issue, (Blake, 2014).
if any
IMPORTANT: Write only the advantages. DO NOT write the
drawbacks/disadvantages of the method selected and
DO NOT compare with another method.
EXAMPLE

The area under investigation is Spring Garden, a small EXAMPLE


suburban community which is located in Portland,
In order to obtain information about this social
Jamaica. This community has approximately 195
problem, the researcher used printed questionnaires,
households and 520 persons. Several households in which allowed participants to state their opinions
the community seem to be headed by one parent - with privacy. Ramsawak and Umraw (2010) state
mainly females. Lee (2005) defines a single -parent that questionnaires: saves money and time; gives
people time to think before they write their answers;
home as, “a household in which one biological or
reduces interviewing bias as respondents are not
adoptive parent raises at least one child under 18 influenced by the researcher; and it allows the
years of age, without the presence of a second adult”. researcher to gain information from a large number
As a child growing up in the community, the of people in a relatively short period of time.
researcher has observed that there seems to be an
increase in the number of persons who are from
The SBA guidelines continue next week.
single parent households. Also, there have been
many articles in the print media that address the HAVE A FABULOUS WEEK! ☺
increasing number of single parent households in
Jamaica. These reasons motivated the researcher to Charmaine Fuller-Wallace is on the staff of
conduct the survey. St. Andrew Technical High School
$ Email: charmief2@yahoo.com
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INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY Lesson 2
with
Shandeen Robinson-White

CONTINUATION OF
EXAMINATION STRATEGIES
Welcome! In today’s lesson we will look at simple
examination techniques that we take for granted. Some of
these strategies may be the difference between you
getting a grade ‘1’ or a grade ‘2’.

You can work so hard to study large quantities of


information for an exam, but if you don’t prepare yourself
mentally and physically before that exam, all that hard
work can sadly go to waste. When the time comes to take
your major exams, you really have to relate to yourself as
a top class athlete. You need to eat the right foods, have
the right mental attitude and let your body rest when it
needs to, leading up to your exams.

TYPICAL QUESTIONS TESTING HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE


This section of the syllabus is tested at the knowledge level, meaning you are expected to know the answer. Ninety-nine
percent (99%) of the time you are not expected to explain anything, just write down the answer.

The questions may be


in the form of:

(i) fill in the blank

(ii) matching
or
(iii) listing

SOFTWARE

HARDWARE

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Typical command terms used include:

1. List 2. Name 3. State 4. Arrange 5. Give 6. Identify

Look at the following examples:

EXAMPLE 1
Name ONE example of an operating system software for personal computers (1 mark)

Question analysis
The fact that this question values 1 mark indicates that you just need to write the answer. Not a sentence, just the
answer. Note also the command term used, “Name”.

A typical answer is: Windows 7 or Windows 8 or Linux.

NOTE: I did not just put ‘Windows’. Neither should you should write ‘APPLE’. Those are the manufacturers.
The examiner wants the name of the operating system.

Even though it is a simple question, it is very easy to lose that one mark. It could be the difference between a grade
One (1) and two (2)

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EXAMPLE 2 EXAMPLE 4

State TWO functions of an operating system (2 marks) Tick the box which best describes each of the following
items. (4 marks)
Question analysis
HARDWARE SOFTWARE
Command term used was ‘State’. The two marks allotted
indicate two different functions.
Spreadsheet
Answers include: user interface, memory management or
file management (any 2). RAM

Again, there is no need to explain what is meant by


Database
user interface. However, you could state ‘provides
user interface’.
Plotter

EXAMPLE 3
Question analysis
State the difference between simplex and half-duplex data
transmission (2 marks) The four (4) marks indicate that you need to tick 4 boxes.
As the verb suggest, tick () do not put an X. The question
Question analysis is testing whether you are able to differentiate between
hardware and software component (basic knowledge).
Even though this question values 2 marks, you will need
to write more than 2 words. The examiner will be looking
for specific phrasing or wordings in your response. Answer:

For example, simplex transmission allows data to be


HARDWARE SOFTWARE
transmitted in one direction only, while duplex
transmission allows data to be transmitted in both
directions but in only one direction at a time. Spreadsheet 3
The key phrases are: RAM 3
1. one direction only
Database 3
2. both directions
Plotter 3
However, you need to be clear as to which is which. Do not
say one transmits data in one direction only. The examiner
will assume you are guessing, and you lose the marks. JOL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY continues on next page
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EXAMPLE 5

State the proper technical terms in the space provided for EACH of the TWO underlined phrases in the paragraph below:

Jason received computer hardware from his mother who lives in Philadelphia, but the software was missing.
He therefore decided to purchase the necessary software. In order for his system to run, he realised that he would
have to purchase Asoftware to manage the resources of the computer as well as Bsoftware which could provide
for her particular needs.

Question analysis

Again, the command term “state” does not require any explanation. Just write the name of the software. Note it says
“TWO”, therefore you need to write two different answers. Each answer will value one mark.

Secondly, the answer is specific; you cannot write anything except the answer and expect to gain marks. Hence, it is
testing your knowledge. The clues are in the underlined phrases, such as “manage the resources” and “provide for her
particular needs”.

Answers: (A) Operating system (B) Application software

EXAMPLE 6

Complete the sentences below using items from the list. Some words will not be used.

a bar code reader OMR MICR

a magnetic stripe reader a scanner a data logger

a simulation validation a biometric system

(a) Captures images directly into the computer ______________________________________________________________________.

(b) Data from a cheque is input using ________________________________________________________________________________.

(c) Data from a tin of beans in a supermarket is input using ________________________________________________________.

(d) Inputting pencil marks from exam papers is done using ________________________________________________________.

(e) Uniquely identifies individuals as a form of security measure ___________________________________________________.


[5 marks]

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Question analysis
Here is an example of a ‘fill in the blank’ type questions. Sometimes you may be given a list to choose the terms from
OR you may not be given a list.

For the five (5) marks you need to write down 5 terms, one for each question. Do not put two answers for one question.
When you do that you are telling the examiner that you are guessing and that you do not know the answer.

Again, look for clues in the question: “capture images”; “data from cheque”; “uniquely identifies”; and so on.

Answers:
(a) A Scanner (b) MICR (You do not need to write what MICR stands for in this case)
(c) A bar code reader (d) OMR (e) A biometric system

The following are typical multiple choices on the topic – hardware.


Test yourself before looking at the answers:

Question 1: Devices that accept data from outside computer and transfer into CPU are called
(a) input devices (b) digital devices (c) analogue devices (d) truth table peripherals

Question 2: Central Processing Unit (CPU) consists of


(a) control unit (b) arithmetic and logic unit (c) main store (d) all of above

Question 3: Devices that are used to receive data from central processing unit are classified as
(a) output/input devices (b) digital devices (c) signalled devices (d) output devices

ANSWERS: (1) A (2) D (3) D

For more info...


You may find more information on Operating systems and user interface in the
Jamaica Observer Information Technology booklet, 3rd edition; as well as your textbook or on the Internet at:
http://www.gcflearnfree.org/computerbasics/understanding-operating-systems/1/,
or on YouTube (for those who prefer to watch and listen rather than to read) at
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5AjReRMoG3Y.

Word to the wise – Aristotle said: Excellence is an art won by training and habituation.

Next week we will continue analysing questions from Section 1 of Paper 2. Until then, keep reading.

Shandeen Robinson-White is affiliated with Maths Unlimited and Hillel Academy.


$ Email: teacherrobwhite@hotmail.com
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www.jamaicaobserver.com JOL LECTURE SERIES Jamaica Observer Limited


HUMAN & SOCIAL
BIOLOGY Lesson 2
with
Leroy Munroe

CONTINUATION OF
SYLLABUS OUTLINE
Hi everyone! This week’s lesson is a continuation of the
syllabus outline from last week’s lesson. I hope you have
found it to be of great help as you prepare for your exam
in May/June of 2018.

Our quote of the day is: EDUCATION IS THE MOST POWERFUL


WEAPON FOR CHANGING THE WORLD. (Nelson Mandela)

SECTION B CONT’D

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

a) Explain the need for a transport system in the human body; look at the limitations of simple diffusion and the
relationship between surface area and volume.

b) Identify the materials which need to be transported around the human body.

c) Relate the structures of the heart to their functions; chambers, valves and blood vessels of the heart (diagrams
should be drawn and labelled), pacemaker, compare the differences in thickness of the right and left ventricles.

d) Describe the structure and function of the heart; the role of the heart as a double pump.

e) Explain the concept of blood pressure; explain systole and diastole.

f) Describe the structure and function of the circulatory system in humans; distinguish between pulmonary and
systemic circulation.

g) Relate the components of the blood to its function; plasma, serum, red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets.

h) Relate the structures of the arteries, veins and capillaries to their functions; thickness of walls, size of lumen, presence
or absence of valves, diagrams should be drawn.

i) Relate the structures of red blood cells, phagocytes and lymphocytes to their functions; diagrams of these cells
should be drawn.

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j) Explain the process and the importance of blood


SKELETAL SYSTEM
clotting; role of platelets fibrinogen, calcium ions,
thrombin in blood clotting.
a) Identify the major bones of the skeleton; cranium,
k) Explain the causes and effects of heart attacks; this clavicle, scapula, vertebral column, humerus, radius,
should include hypertension (high blood pressure) ulna, rib cage, sternum, pelvic girdle, femur, tibia,
atherosclerosis, coronary thrombosis (blood clot in fibula.
coronary artery), artificial pacemaker.
b) Relate the structure of the skeleton to its function;
l) Describe the structure and function of the lymphatic movement, protection, support, breathing, production
system; role of tissue fluid and lymph; location and of blood cells.
function of lymph nodes. Describe how tissue fluid and
c) Relate the structure of a typical bone to its
lymph are formed.
functions; diagram of long bone required (internal
view).
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
d) Distinguish between bone and cartilage; comparison of
a) Explain the importance of breathing in humans. characteristics of bone and cartilage.

b) Relate the structures of the respiratory tract to their e) Explain the importance of cartilage.
functions; a diagram of the system should be drawn.
f) Distinguish between tendons and ligaments;
c) State the factors affecting rate of breathing; comparison of characteristics and functions of tendons
and ligaments.
these include exercise, smoking, anxiety, drugs,
environmental factors, altitude, and weight. g) Identify a hinge joint, fixed joint and a ball and socket
joint; diagrams required.
d) Explain the concept of vital capacity; tidal air,
residual air. h) Describe movement in the hinge and ball and socket
joints; diagrams required; thickness of walls, size of
e) Distinguish between gaseous exchange and
lumen, presence or absence of valves.
breathing; inclusion of gaseous exchange in the alveoli;
diagram of alveolus required. i) Identify the biceps and triceps of the upper arm;
diagrams required; points of origin and insertion
f) Identify characteristics common to gaseous exchange
(location and definition).
surfaces.
j) Explain how skeletal muscles function in the movement
g) Differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic of a limb, diagrams required.
respiration.
k) The role of antagonistic muscles in the development of
h) Explain the role of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and limbs; effect of exercise - muscle tone.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the transfer of energy.
l) Explain the importance of locomotion to man.
i) Explain the technique of mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
m) Evaluate the factors which adversely affect the skeletal
j) Explain the effects of cigarette smoking; effects of system; include posture and poor footwear
smoking as it relates to nicotine addiction, damage to (misalignment of ankle).
the lungs, carcinogenic properties and reduction in
oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. JOL HUMAN & SOCIAL BIOLOGY continues on next page
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c) Related disorders such as ovarian, cervical and prostate


EXCRETION AND HOMEOSTASIS
cancer.

a) Explain the importance of excretion in human beings,


d) Describe the menstrual cycle; use of diagram for
include definition of excretion.
illustration; include role of hormones; follicle
b) Explain the roles of the organs involved in excretion; stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH),
lungs, skin and kidney; examples of metabolic waste. oestrogen and progesterone.

c) Relate the structures of the kidney to their e) Explain ovulation, fertilisation, implantation and
functions; diagram of the internal structure of the development of the embryo; a diagram of the foetus in
kidney should be drawn, structure and function of the
the uterus should be observed, role of placenta,
nephron a diagram should be drawn, selective
umbilical cord, and amniotic sac;
re-absorption of substances; how urine is made, look
at renal dialysis.
f) Describe the birth process; diagrams of the processes
d) Relate the structures of the skin to their should be observed.
functions; diagram should be drawn.
g) Outline the importance of prenatal care; importance of
e) Definition of homeostasis, examples of homeostasis. ante-natal and post-natal care including the
advantages of breastfeeding.
f) Explain the concept of negative feedback mechanism,
include regulation of CO2.
h) Explain how birth control methods prevent pregnancy:
g) Describe the regulation of blood sugar; explain the role natural, barrier, hormonal and surgical methods.
of insulin and glucagon.
i) Explain the advantages and disadvantages of birth
h) Distinguish between heat and temperature; control methods; the use of condoms to prevent STIs.

i) Describe the regulation of temperature.


j) Discuss the issues related to abortion; include
spontaneous abortion (miscarriage);
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
k) Reasons for abortion; advantages and disadvantages of
a) Distinguish between sexual and asexual reproduction; abortion.
including advantages and disadvantages.
l) Explain the importance of family planning; social and
b) Describe the structure and function of the reproductive
economic implications.
systems in human beings; include the structure of the
gametes, diagram of both male and female systems
should be drawn and labelled. JOL HUMAN & SOCIAL BIOLOGY continues on next page
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SECTION C e) State the importance of exercise and diet;

f) Discuss the causative agent, signs, symptoms,


HEREDITY AND VARIATION prevention and control of the following diseases:
influenza, bronchitis, pneumonia, gonorrhoea, syphilis,
herpes, hiv/aids, malaria, cholera, typhoid, ringworm,
a) Definition, process and importance of mitosis and
tuberculosis, gastroenteritis, dengue and leptospirosis.
meiosis, stages should be drawn.
g) Describe the effects of sexually transmitted infections
b) Importance of genetic variation to living organisms;
on a pregnant mother and the foetus and discuss the
impact of diseases on the human population, mainly
c) Distinguish between genetic and environmental
socio- economic implications.
variations.
h) Explain the effects of vectors on human health.
d) Explain the inheritance of a single pair of characteristics
(monohybrid inheritance).This should include
i) Describe the life cycle of both the mosquito and
explanation of the genetic terms and drawing of housefly.
genetic diagrams e.g (Punnett Square).
j) State how and why persons should maintain personal
e) Inheritance of sex (gender) in human beings; hygiene.

f) Genetic engineering, looking at both advantages and k) Explain the methods used to control the growth of
disadvantages; this should include recombinant DNA in micro-organisms,
the manufacturing of insulin, its application to the
production of food and medicine. l) Define sterilization and methods of sterilization e.g.
boiling, canning, autoclaving, ultra-high temperature.
SECTION D
m) Distinguish between disinfectant and antiseptics;
immunity and immunization; and vaccine and
DISEASE AND ITS IMPACT ON HUMANS vaccination.

a) Define the term health and diseases. n) Explain the use of common antibiotics and anti -fungal
agents.
b) Classification of diseases e.g infectious, nutritional
deficiency, mental, self inflicted etc. o) Define the terms antibiotics, antigen, antibody and
anti-toxin.
c) State the main causes, signs/symptoms and possible
treatment of asthma and how it affects the respiratory p) Explain the different types of immunity.
tract.
q) Discuss the use and misuse of drugs and the social
d) State the causes, sign/symptoms, treatment and effects misuse of drugs may have on the individual,
prevention of chronic life style diseases such as obesity, family and community.
diabetes type 1 and 2, cardiovascular diseases (coronary
heart diseases and hypertension). JOL HUMAN & SOCIAL BIOLOGY continues on next page
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SECTION E

THE IMPACT OF HEALTH PRACTICES ON THE ENVIRONMENT

a) Define pollution and identify pollutants in the environment (domestic, industrial and agricultural).

b) State the effects of water and air pollution.

c) Discuss the effects of pollution to humans and the environment.

d) Use a diagram to describe the water cycle.

e) Identify ways of purifying water in the home, look at the experiment on how to test water for bacteria.

f) Describe the processes involved in large scale water purification.

g) How human activities impact the water supplies and why contaminated water is detrimental to human beings.

h) Differentiate between proper and improper sewage disposal and the impact of improper sewage
disposal practices.

i) Compare the biological filter and active sludge methods in the treatment of sewage.

j) The function and importance of the different parts of pit latrines and why siting of pit latrines are important.

k) Describe landfills and their importance to the Caribbean.

l) Differentiate between landfill and a dump including advantages and disadvantages.

m) Look at the impact of solid waste to the environment and analyse measures used to control solid waste volumes
(recycle, reuse, reduce).

n) State the difference between biodegradable and non-biodegradable.

See you next week ☺

Leroy Munroe is on staff of the Trench Town Polytechnic College


$ Email: leroy_munroe@yahoo.com or lmunroe46@gmail.com
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PRINCIPLES OF
BUSINESS Lesson 2
with
Hilary Bassaragh

BUSINESS TERMS

Resources used in the business. This will either be there for a long or short term. E.g.
ASSETS
furniture and cash.

BARTER This refers to the direct exchange of goods and services without the use of money.

Capital is a factor of production, that is, goods created for the use in production; for
CAPITAL
example, machinery and equipment. Capital may also be money used in the business.

COMMODITY A commodity is a product, especially a good rather than a service.

A consumer may be defined as an individual or a group of individuals who uses goods


CONSUMER
and services for their own consumption.

Entrepreneurship is the process or act of organizing resources and the acceptance of


ENTREPRENEURSHIP
risk and uncertainty with the ultimate aim of making a profit.

Owner of a business, person who came up with the idea of the business. The
ENTREPRENEUR
entrepreneur is the person who organises production and bears the risks.

This refers to a business or firm. The term is often applied to a newly formed venture.
ENTERPRISE
Another view of the term is that it is an undertaking, especially a bold or difficult one.

An economy or economic system refers to the way the scarce economic resources of
a country are managed. Therefore, the economy of Jamaica is the way Jamaica
manages its resources. There are four (4) broad categories of economy:
ECONOMY 1. The free market economy
2. The command economy (planned economy)
3. The mixed economy
4. The traditional economy (subsistence economy)

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This refers to items that one can see and touch. There are two main types of goods:
GOODS
‘goods for consumers’ and ‘goods for producers’.

It is human physical and mental effort used in production, usually to earn a salary or
LABOUR wage. There are different ways of classifying labour: Skilled, semi-skilled and
unskilled.

Loss is the opposite of profit. The term ‘loss’ indicates that the cost of production is
LOSS
greater than the selling price.

While many persons define market as a place where goods and services are traded,
we should bear in mind that not all markets operate in specific places. Therefore, it
MARKET is more accurate to define a market as a situation in which buyers and sellers
communicate for the purpose of buying goods and services. There are four elements
of a market: buyer, seller, goods/services and price.

This term is often used synonymously with enterprise. However, more specially, it
ORGANIZATION refers to the administrative personnel or operations of a business. Thus, it looks at
the order or arrangement of the business.

A producer is one who makes goods and creates services using different quantities
PRODUCER
and types of factors of production.

This is the excess of revenue over expenses. It may also be defined as the positive
PROFIT
that results from selling goods and services for more than it costs to produce them.

REVENUE Money earned from selling goods or services

On the other hand, services refer to items that we cannot see. A service is
SERVICES experienced. There are two types: direct or personal services, e.g. teaching, and
impersonal services, e.g. insurance

This refers to the concentration of efforts in production on one or few processes rather
SPECIALIZATION than completing the entire process. The main advantage of specialization is that it
increases output.

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A business venture is started from Before starting a business, it is recommended that you have a business
the need to create additional wealth plan. (Lesson three has information on this topic). This will aid in
or independence but one must answering some of the following questions, it will also help you to keep
understand the cost and rewards your objectives in mind.
associated with starting a business
before leaping into one. Regardless
of its origin a business exists:
QUESTIONS

" What to produce or service to perform?


► To satisfy the needs and wants of
individuals by providing them " How much of it to produce?
with goods or offering services. If
you were to look inside your " Where to locate?
community, you would see
supermarkets, dentists, banks, " Where to source raw material/finished goods?
tailors, hairdressers, sugarcane " Where to get assets?
factories and power plants. Each
taking care of our individual " Where to source capital?
needs and wants and in some
cases relying on each other " How many persons will I need to start production?
for supplies.

► To provide jobs for people. When Individuals go into business because of circumstances, these include:
the business makes a profit,
some of it will go into the 1. Having an idea that it can increase one’s mobility
business. The owner may use
this to expand his production or 2. Being made redundant, an individual may opt to venture on their
purchase more goods for resale own, knowing that they have the skills and experience to succeed
so as the business grows, the
need will arise for him to employ 3. The opportunity to be your own boss, not wanting to work for
more workers. someone else (independence)

► To help improve the standard of 4. The lure of increased wealth


living for its employees. When
the business employs an 5. Inability to find gainful employment
individual, he will be rewarded
with pay for his/her contribution. 6. Boredom (an individual may be retired and does not want to
However, if the business is to run feel helpless)
efficiently, then the welfare of its
workers should be considered. 7. Invest his/her money for retirement
Some businesses have developed
the skills of the workers by either Next week we will look at why business fails and functional areas of a
providing on the job training or business and how to write a business plan.
sending employees to school to
retool themselves. Similarly, they
offer scholarship to employees’
Hilary Bassaragh is on the staff of The Queen’s School
$ Email: ac_teacher@yahoo.com
children and sponsorships.
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PRINCIPLES OF
ACCOUNTS Lesson 2
with
Tedmore Clarke

CLASSIFICATION OF ACCOUNTS

Hello everyone! ☺
Today’s lesson focuses on the following areas:

" the different classes of accounts;

" whether the cash account can have a credit balance;

" the type of balances that various accounts should have;

" the preparation of an income statement (trading and profit and loss account) and a statement of financial
position (balance sheet).

OVERVIEW
Accounts can be classified under two broad headings: personal accounts and impersonal accounts. Impersonal accounts,
however, are further sub-divided into nominal and real accounts. Hence, there are three classes of accounts: personal,
nominal and real accounts.

Personal Accounts relate to those accounts bearing the names of persons or firms as their title, such as ‘T. Harrison’ or
‘Best Buy Ltd.’ (debtors and creditors, also called accounts receivable and accounts payable, respectively).

Nominal Accounts relate to expenses and revenues, such as Purchases, Sales, Rent Expense, Commissions Revenue, etc.
Nominal accounts are those accounts that are used in the trading and profit and loss account (income statement) except
for closing stock.

Real Accounts are those accounts that record tangible assets, such as Premises, Machinery, Vehicles, Stock (Inventory),
Cash and Bank accounts.

NOTE: The Capital account and the Drawings account may be seen as special types of personal accounts
representing the proprietor (owner of the business).

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TUTORIAL NOTES
ACCOUNTS 1. ‘Balances’ refer to balances brought down (b/d)
unless otherwise indicated.
2. Both carriage inwards and carriage outwards have
debit balances as they are both expenses. Carriage
inwards is charged to the trading account because
PERSONAL ACCOUNTS IMPERSONAL
(debtors it is directly related to the buying of goods and may
and creditors) ACCOUNTS be considered as part of the purchase price of the
goods. Carriage outwards, on the other hand, is
connected with the distribution of goods and is
accordingly charged to the profit and loss account.
REAL ACCOUNTS NOMINAL ACCOUNTS
(revenues and
(tangible assets) expenses) The Impact of Profit or Loss and Drawings on Capital

Where the firm makes a profit for a particular accounting


Can the Cash Account have a Credit Balance? period, this profit is viewed as ‘interest’ earned by the
proprietor on his investment, thereby increasing his
It is NOT possible for the cash account to have a credit
overall investment in the business. Accordingly, any net
balance, because cash cannot be spent if it’s not available;
profit (also called net income) earned should be added to
the cash must be physically handed over in order to
the capital of the business. However, a net loss (like
complete the payment. It is therefore INCORRECT to show
drawings) will reduce the proprietor’s overall investment
a credit balance on the cash account. Note, however, that
in the business and should therefore be deducted from the
the bank account may show a credit balance. This is called
capital of the business.
an overdraft and comes about because the bank has
allowed the proprietor to pay out more money than he
had in his bank account. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF
SOLE-TRADERS
The financial statements (also called the final accounts) of
Accounts and their Balances a sole-trader will usually consist of a Trading and Profit
Purchases and Loss Account (also called the Income Statement) and
Losses a Balance Sheet (also called a Statement of Financial
Expenses Position). The trading and profit and loss account reflects
Assets DEBIT BALANCES the profitability position of the business for a particular
Drawings period, while the balance sheet examines the financial
Sales Returns condition of the business as at the end of that period.
(Returns Inward)
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FORMATS
Note that the above list forms the acronym: PLEADS.
The final accounts of a business may be presented using
Capital any one of two formats: The Horizontal Format or the
Liabilities Vertical Format. Where the examiner requires a specific
Income/Revenues format, he will indicate this; otherwise either of the two
Profits CREDIT BALANCES is acceptable. Illustrations in these lessons will utilise the
Provisions VERTICAL FORMAT, which is the more popular.
Returns Outward
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VERTICAL FORMAT FOR THE TRADING AND PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT

Where the trading and profit and loss account (income statement) is prepared vertically, the following outline should
be displayed:

Net Sales

Less Cost of Goods Sold

[=] Gross Profit/(Loss)

Add Other Revenues

[=] Total Gross Income

Less Expenses

[=] Net Profit/ (Loss)

TUTORIAL NOTE: Gross Profit is also called Gross Income and Net Profit, Net Income.

VERTICAL FORMAT FOR THE BALANCE SHEET

The first total for the vertical balance sheet (or statement of financial position) is obtained by using the following
outline:
Fixed Assets

Add Working Capital (Current Assets Less Current Liabilities)

[= Total #1]

The second total, which must be equal to the first (above) is then obtained as follows:

Closing Capital/Owner’s Equity

Add Long-Term Liabilities

[= Total #2]

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A specimen for the complete income statement is as follows:

John Brown
Trading and Profit and Loss Account for period ended … .
Net Sales/Turnover:
Sales xx
Less Returns Inward/Sales Returns xx
Net Sales xx
Less Cost of Goods Sold/Cost of Sales:
Opening stock/Inventory xx
Add Net Purchases:
Purchases xx
Add Carriage Inwards/Carriage on Purchases xx
Gross Purchases xx
Less Returns Outward/Purchases Returns xx
Net Purchases xx
Cost of Goods Available for Sale xx
Less Closing Stock/Inventory xx
Cost of Goods Sold xx
Gross Profit/(Loss) xx
Add Other Income/Additional Revenues:
Rent Received/Rent Revenue xx
Commissions Received/Commission Revenue xx
Interest Received/Interest Revenue xx
Discounts Received/Discount Revenue xx
xx
Total Gross Income xx
Less Expenses:
Carriage Outwards/Carriage on Sales xx
Discounts Allowed xx
Commissions Paid xx
Interest Paid xx
Rent, Rates and Insurance xx
Wages and Salaries xx
Motor Expenses xx
Office and General Expenses xx
Light, Heat, Petrol, Oil and Fuel xx
Sundry Expenses xx
xx
Net Profit/(Loss) xx
==

TUTORIAL NOTE:

Instead of beginning the income statement with the phrase “Net Sales”, some teachers prefer to identify it after the
subtraction of “Returns Inward”. Either way is acceptable. It is also not compulsory to include the phrase “Add Net
Purchases” or to identify “Gross Purchases”.

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A specimen for the statement of financial position is as follows:

John Brown
Balance Sheet as at … .
Fixed Assets (Non-current Assets):
Premises (Land and Buildings) xx
Fixtures, Fittings, Furniture and Equipment xx
Plant and Machinery xx
Motor Vehicles xx
Total Fixed Assets xx
Add Working Capital:
Current Assets:
Closing Stock/Inventory xx
Debtors/Accounts Receivable xx
Bank xx
Cash xx
Total Current Assets xx
Less Current Liabilities:
Creditors/Accounts Payable xx
Short-Term Loans xx
Bank Overdraft xx
Total Current Liabilities xx
Working Capital/Net Current Assets xx
xx
==
Financed By:
Capital Employed/Closing Capital/Owner’s Equity:
Opening Capital xx
Add Net Profit/Less Net Loss xx
xx
Less Drawings xx
Closing Capital xx
Long-term Liabilities/Non-current Liabilities:
Mortgage xx
Other Long-term Loans xx
Total Long-term Liabilities xx
xx
==

TUTORIAL NOTE:

Long-term liabilities may be shown as a deduction from the assets instead of as part of financing. It is also not
compulsory to include the phrase “Add Working Capital” or label the totals for the different categories of assets or
liabilities.

JOL PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTS continues on next page


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JOL PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTS continued from previous page

ORDER OF PERMANENCE VS ORDER OF LIQUIDITY

The above balance sheet was prepared based on the Order of Permanence, whereby the most ‘permanent’ item in each
category of assets (or liabilities) is displayed first and the least ‘permanent’ item shown last. The Order of Liquidity,
on the other hand, displays the least ‘permanent’ (or most ‘liquid’) item in each category first and the most ‘permanent’
(or least ‘liquid’) item last.

Tedmore Clarke is on the staff of Quality Academics


$ Email: tedmoreorless@hotmail.com

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INTEGRATED
SCIENCE Lesson 2
with
Marlene Grey-Tomlinson

FOOD AND NUTRITION –


CROP PRODUCTION (PART 1)
Hello students, in this the first of two lessons, we will
describe the methods used in the production of crops.

STRIP CONTOUR CROPPING

Strip contour cropping is the practice of growing two or


more crops in alternating strips along the contour of the
land. In this system, a row crop more susceptible to
erosion, like corn or soybeans, is planted alternating
with a cover crop less susceptible to erosion, like grass
meadow, clover or oats. Similar to contour cropping, crops
are planted perpendicular to the wind or water flow.
Soil detached from the row crops by the forces of wind or water will get trapped by the cover crop. Strip farming reduces
soil erosion from wind and water and otherwise improves agricultural production.

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CONTOUR PLOUGHING

Contour ploughing or contour farming is the farming practice of ploughing and/or planting across a slope following
its elevation contour lines. These contour lines create a water break which reduces the formation of gullies during
times of heavy water run-off; which is a major cause of top soil loss and soil erosion. The water break also allows more
time for the water to settle into the soil. In contour ploughing, the ruts made by the plough run perpendicular rather
than parallel to slopes, generally resulting in furrows that curve around the land and are level. This method is also
known for preventing tillage erosion. Tillage erosion is the soil movement and erosion caused by tilling a given plot of
land. A similar practice is contour bonding where stones are placed around the contours of slopes. Soil erosion
prevention practices such as this can drastically decrease negative effects associated with soil erosion such as reduced
crop productivity, worsened water quality, lower effective reservoir water levels, flooding and habitat destruction.
Contour farming is considered an active form of sustainable agriculture.

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TERRACING

‘Terrace farming’ is the method of growing crops on the sides of hills or mountains by planting on graduated
terraces built into the slope. Though labour-intensive, the method has been used effectively to reduce soil erosion
and water loss.

Instead of flowing freely down the hillside, water stops on the level plain. In this way, the lower terraces are not eroded
and, also, the higher terraces get enough water. On a straight, steep slope, water would tumble down the hillside,
carrying crops and much-needed soil with it, letting nothing grow. But add the element of a terrace, and you have flat
areas on which to farm.

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JOL INTEGRATED SCIENCE continued from previous page

CROP ROTATION

‘Crop rotation’ is a common farming practice where different series of crops are planted in the same area each sequential
season. Planting different crops on the same piece of land has been used since Roman times and has been proven to
improve plant nutrition, benefit soil health, and control the spread of diseases.

One way to think about crop rotations is to change the crop in a field each year. The new crop planted will be from a
different family. The idea behind this is to change what nutrients the crop uses, and the insects it attracts. So, the pests
never get use to one field because it is constantly being changed.

In terms of soil, each crop needs different nutrients. Changing the crop every year prevents reduction in any one nutrient
in the field.

Crop rotation can include livestock as well. The livestock help to increase the soil nutrients with manure.

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JOL INTEGRATED SCIENCE continued from previous page

GREENHOUSE FARMING

‘Greenhouse farming’ is the term used to define any major agriculture endeavour that is done inside a greenhouse.
The green house allows the farmer to grow many different kinds of crops in climates and areas that may not have
allowed the development of such crops. The development of greenhouse farming techniques has resulted in more
overall food for the whole world and helped to reduce world hunger problems. Greenhouse farming is also useful in
providing people with any fruit or vegetable even if the food is out of season.

The ability to carefully control temperature is usually considered the most important advantage of greenhouse farming.
Farmers can create their greenhouses using materials that maximize the heat from the sun. Some farmers may also
include heaters inside the greenhouses, which can be helpful in very cold climates.

Another advantage of greenhouse farming is that it allows the farmer to take advantage of vertical space. In a normal
farming environment, the growing area is generally flat, but this is not always true when farming in greenhouses.
Many farmers will have plants sitting in shelves or hanging from the ceilings, and this sometimes allows the farmer to
pack more plants in a smaller space than is usual.

It is very common for greenhouse


farmers to use a technique called
hydroponics. This involves growing
plants suspended in liquid.
Sometimes this liquid is simply
water, but usually it is mixed with
special nutrients. This often allows
plants to grow larger and more
rapidly than they normally would.

The main disadvantages of


greenhouse farming are generally
related to cost. When farmers plant
outdoors, they only require the
money for seed, labour, and
whatever additional costs are
associated with equipment or land.
Greenhouse farming introduces a
whole new set of expenses related
to buildings and maintenance of
those buildings. Farmers who have
to artificially heat the inside of
their greenhouses generally have
even greater costs of electricity or
fuel to deal with.

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THE DAILY OBSERVER Tuesday, September 19, 2017 Page 40
JOL INTEGRATED SCIENCE continued from previous page

HYDROPONICS

‘Hydroponics’ is a method of growing plants without using soil, that is, soil less. This technique instead uses a water
based nutrient rich solution, which the plants use more effectively than taking nutrients from the soil. There are several
types or variations of hydroponics.

Unlike plants grown in soil, plants grown in a hydroponics system do not need to develop extensive root structures to
search for nutrients. It is easier to test and adjust pH levels. In the hydroponics method, plants are raised in a perfectly
balanced growing medium where the plants only need to expend minimal energy to acquire nutrients from the roots.
The energy saved by the roots is better spent on fruit and flower production.

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JOL INTEGRATED SCIENCE continued from previous page

TISSUE CULTURE

‘Tissue culture’ is when a tissue of a plant is put into a test tube and grown. If the test tube is free of micro-organisms
and the media in the test tube has the correct balance of chemicals and growth hormones, that little piece of plant
will reproduce replicas or clones of the parent plant. That little piece of plant material can replicate in incredible
numbers so theoretically, one small piece can produce an infinite number of clones.

JOL INTEGRATED SCIENCE continues on next page


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JOL INTEGRATED SCIENCE continued from previous page

WATCH THE THE VIDEO BELOW FOR MORE.

Until next week when the lesson continues, have fun learning!

Marlene Grey-Tomlinson is on the staff of Excelsior High School $ Email: mgrey.xlcr@gmail.com

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♦ Information Technology BUY
♦ Spanish YOUR
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ENGLISH
LITERATURE Lesson 2
with
Simone Gibbs

THE SCHOOL BASED ASSSESSMENT


(S.B.A.)
Thanks for joining me for another week’s lesson.

Last week I gave you some information about the various


changes in the English B (Literature) syllabus and the format
of the examination. Primarily, I focused on Papers 01 and
02. This week I will pay particular attention to the latest
addition to the examination – the School Based Assessment
(S.B.A.) or Paper 031 and the substitute, Paper 032, which
would be done by privately registered candidates.

Later in this lesson I will begin a discussion on one of the


prescribed novels, Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird .

MORE ABOUT THE SCHOOL BASED ASSSESSMENT (S.B.A.)

1. You MUST do the S.B.A. and submit it to your teacher BEFORE you sit the examination in May, 2018. It will be graded
by your teacher and the grade submitted to CSEC. If you do not hand in an S.B.A. you would have automatically
failed the examination, even if you sit the other two papers.

2. If you are doing both English A (Language) and English B (Literature) you only need to submit ONE S.B.A. The grade
that you receive will be added to the final grade of both subjects. If you are only doing English B, however, and not
English A, you have to submit the S.B.A.

3. The S.B.A. will be 21% of the final grade. It includes both individual and group work.

4. You must create a portfolio on an issue/theme/topic which has been selected by your group, consisting of 4 – 5
students. The topic must be approved by your teacher.

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JOL ENGLISH LITERATURE continued from previous page

5. There are SIX parts to the S.B.A. which are as follows:

" Plan of Investigation


Introduce your topic and state why you decided to focus on this issue. You should also state what benefits you
hope to derive from this process. In other words, what ways you hope to improve your skills in English. Thirdly,
what you plan to do in order to achieve your objectives.

" Participation Measure


A measure of your (individual) participation, which will be assessed by your teacher.

" Indicators of Group Activity


You must present AT LEAST three (3) pieces of material, one of which should be printed material, which reflect
your theme/issue/topic. These pieces will provide students with material for personal commentary (in the
Reflection) as well as group activities. They will also provide students with material to sharpen the skills they
had outlined in the Plan of Investigation.

" Reflection
THREE entries in which the student reflects on the pieces presented on the theme/issue/topic. The first reflection
should discuss how each piece helped to shape the candidate’s thinking about the topic. The second reflection
should focus on the use of language in the pieces presented. The final reflection should state how the process
of doing the S.B.A. has improved the candidate’s life.
N.B. EACH reflection should discuss all THREE pieces. Reflections should be written in class and therefore
supervised by the teacher.

" Written Report


In approximately 250 – 300 words summarise the process, procedures and the outcome. This should include the
material collected, reasons for selection and an analysis of the material.

" Oral Presentation


This is a personal response related to the theme/issue/ topic, delivered orally, predominantly in Standard
English, lasting for about 3 – 5 minutes. It can be done in any genre of English, for example, drama, poetry,
prose, speech etc.
N.B. You MUST submit a brief plan of the oral presentation in your portfolio.

The above might seem like a lot of ground to cover, but if you begin the process early and tackle one task at a time,
you will get the job done. As the Chinese proverb says “A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.”

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JOL ENGLISH LITERATURE continued from previous page

MORE ABOUT PAPER 032 – THE SUBSTITUTE PAPER TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD – AN INTRODUCTION

1. It will be done like Papers 01 and 02. It will last


for 2 hours.

2. It will be 21% of the final grade.

3. It will consist of a guided critique of THREE (3) pieces


of stimuli on a topical issue. Firstly, an excerpt from a
recent newspaper article. Secondly, a cartoon strip or
lyrics to a song. Finally, a poem, short story or public
speech on the same issue.
Harper Lee, author of this novel, chose not to write an
introduction to the book. In fact, in a 1993 interview,
4. There will be THREE (3) compulsory questions. The first thirty-three (33) years after the book was first
TWO will require short responses. The last question will published, she asked the literary world to “please spare
ask you to create an imaginative piece in response to Mockingbird an Introduction”. According to Lee,
the theme selected. You will be required to select ONE “Introductions inhibit pleasure, they kill the joy of
of the issues raised in the stimulus presented and write anticipation, they frustrate curiosity.”
a personal response in any literary genre, for example,
drama, poetry, prose, song etc. Your response should However, with all due respect to the author (now
be approximately 1 – 2 pages in length. deceased), I believe that no literary work can be fully
understood or enjoyed without first gaining some
information about the text BEFORE you actually start
5. You will be asked about issues within the stimuli. reading it. When readers, and in particular students, are
These will include the possible impact on the introduced to certain aspects of the text, it can serve to
audience (viewers as well as readers) and language whet their appetite. In other words, an introduction can
techniques used. serve to promote curiosity and heighten anticipation.
Readers will want to know how the story ends.

6. It is expected that you would have done research on The following discussions, therefore, of some of the
features of To Kill a Mockingbird is my humble attempt at
characteristic features of oral presentations and you are
informed about this area. As such, questions will be an introduction to this great novel. As we would say in
given on the topic. Jamaica, “I hope Harper Lee doesn’t turn over in her grave’,
as a result. Instead, it is my hope that the discussions will
be beneficial to you as you work towards doing well in the
If you require further information on both the English A upcoming examinations.
and B syllabus, please visit www.cxc/org and follow the
links provided. JOL ENGLISH LITERATURE continues on next page
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JOL ENGLISH LITERATURE continued from previous page

NARRATIVE VOICE
The story is a first-person narrative, told by Jean Louise Finch (Scout), a six (6) year old girl who lives with her brother,
Jeremy Atticus Finch (Jem) and her widowed father, Atticus Finch. Calpurnia, their cook, spends much time with the
family as well. The events in the story are therefore based on childhood experiences (like the happenings at school
and the activities during summer break) and relayed with wonder and childhood innocence. That is, with a view that
is likely to be impartial and without the bias and prejudices of adulthood. Consequently, readers get a greater
opportunity to form their own opinions about the occurrences in the novel.

SETTING
Maycomb is the name given to the small town in which the story is set. It is situated in the southern state of Alabama
in the United States of America. The majority of the persons in Maycomb are poor; both black and white. It is the
1930’s; approximately thirty (30) years before the Civil Rights Movement allows black people equal rights and
opportunities. Maycomb is therefore a town that is divided along racial lines. Prejudice and injustice are common.

CHARACTERS
I will discuss various characters as the lessons continue, but for the purpose of this introduction, the following will
be highlighted:
Scout: Narrator. She invites us into the inner workings of a small town in the Deep South by relaying the experiences
of her daily life.
Jem: Scout’s brother who is four (4) years older. He is her best friend and protector who helps to guide her (although
roughly sometimes) into the real world.
Dill (Charles Baker Harris): Ms. Rachel’s nephew who spends the summer with her and becomes the children’s friend.
He has had a variety of experiences. He has a flair for adventure.
Atticus: Scout and Jem’s father. He is an attorney who seeks to treat all human beings fairly, despite the colour of
their skin and the odds stacked against them. He hopes his children will be just as fair.
Calpurnia: Although she is the Finch’s black cook, she is more like a family member. Atticus values her greatly. She
opens up the world of the black people to the children (and to readers). She is an example of femininity to Scout.
She plays the role of mother to the children as well.
The Ewells: The poorest white family in Maycomb. They are filthy, lazy people who are notorious for behaving in
ways that are contrary to normal people, including breaking the laws.
Boo (Arthur) Radley: A mysterious character who has been locked away by his family for many years. Various stories
are told about him. He is believed to be one of the mockingbirds in the novel.
Tom Robinson: A black man accused of raping a white woman (Mayella Ewell). He too is one of the mockingbirds
in the novel.

That’s the lesson for this week. Please join me next week for more on To Kill a Mockingbird .

Simone Gibbs is on the staff of Calabar High School $ Email: simonecgibbs@yahoo.com


THE DAILY OBSERVER Tuesday, September 19, 2017 Page 47
HEART CAREER TALK continued from previous page
www.jamaicaobserver.com

Article
with Career Development Services 2
THE NATIONAL TRAINING AGENCY

WHY IS CAREER DEVELOPMENT IMPORTANT?


Career development was once viewed as finding a job and growing to the highest level of that job. The typical career
for a person in the 1960s and 1970s for example, usually lasted about 40 years and was usually fixed in one industry
or occupational area (teacher, doctor etc).

With technology and the rapid changes taking place in the world of work, this view point of career development has
been forced to change. Businesses are more unwilling to make long term commitment to workers and workers are also
unwilling to make long term commitments to businesses. In the 1980s and 1990s, people began to change their jobs
approximately 5-10 times throughout their lifetime. Job security is no longer in employment but more in the individuals’
ability to gain employment. Individuals who want to maintain their employability have to be willing to constantly
learn new skills.

Career development is no longer one of choice but is now a process that all individuals must understand in order to be
successful in the modern world of work. This therefore means that career services must be accessible by all persons.

WHY SHOULD CAREER DEVELOPMENT BE A NATIONAL CONCERN?


Career Development is directly linked to learning and helps individuals to focus on their personal strengths. If all
individuals were to choose career areas that match up with what they are good at and what they are interested in,
then the working world would be more productive and the standard of living would increase for everybody in the
country.

It also teaches persons about the labour market so they can all understand the jobs that are in demand and the ones
that are no longer popular and would be difficult for them to get hired. This would make it easier for persons to find
jobs or to start their own businesses.

A third way in which career development benefits the country is that it promotes equal opportunities by teaching that
any job can be for anyone whether you are male or female. The focus of job opportunities is not on gender (male or
female) but on a person’s interest, skills and ability to do the job well.

Career development can therefore benefit society by:


" Increasing productivity – Skills available and jobs in demand
" Reducing mismatches with workers and jobs
" Fostering equality among workers
" Eliminating gender stereotypes

HEART CAREER TALK continues on next page


THE DAILY OBSERVER Tuesday, September 19, 2017 Page 48
HEART CAREER TALK continued from previous page

WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP career management skills is also being aware which
subjects or courses to choose in order to get the
BETWEEN CAREER DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING? jobs/careers that best suits you. It involves a lot of career
Career Development promotes learning and most planning, career information and career decision making.
importantly ‘lifelong learning’. Lifelong learning may be In the end you should be able to present yourself
broadly defined as learning that is pursued throughout effectively in order to gain a job or get selected for a course
life; this means learning that is flexible, diverse and of study. For career management skills to be developed
available at different times and in different places. Because persons need access to quality career information.
people face a lot of changes throughout their careers, and
the world of work also changes very fast, persons have to WHAT IS CAREER INFORMATION?
continuously learn new things in order to keep their jobs
" It includes information on education and training
and perform well. For example, when a new cell phone or
opportunities, occupational information and
a tablet or a new app is released, we have to learn how to
explanations about the different types of
operate these new items so that we can properly use the
occupations and jobs.
new instruments or apps. " It also involves information on the different types of
jobs that are available, including new jobs and jobs
What are some key things that career development help that are no longer popular.
persons with? " Most importantly, it includes information on
" It helps persons to develop knowledge and skills to different jobs as it relates to preferences of
manage their careers throughout their lifetime. individuals so that persons can select jobs,
" Whether you are just about to enter the world of occupations and careers that match them.
work or you are about to retire, career information " It also includes information on résumés, how to
will assist you in making decisions to get maximum create cover letters and to conduct interviews. There
benefits from any stage of your career. are many other great features of career information
" It helps you to identify job opportunities and to that you will learn as you go through the career
choose the job or jobs that best fits you. This will development process.
lead to happiness, appreciation for the job and " Career information is very critical to career success,
the information by itself is not enough, as persons
improved performance when you are in a job that
may find it difficult to understand the information
fits your interests and skills.
on their own and usually require assistance. This
" One of the most important benefits of career assistance normally comes from a career
development is that it helps individuals to make practitioner (career counsellor or guidance officer).
informed choices and good decisions. Choosing a
career is a very difficult task, career development
makes this task easier by helping you to understand THE ROLE OF A CAREER PRACTITIONER
how to make decisions and why a decision is good Career practitioners provide career information to persons,
or bad for you. When this is understood, persons will help persons to understand the information and provide
find it easier to choose subjects or courses in career guidance. They assist persons with personal career
universities or occupational areas which they want planning and help them to understand the career path
to pursue. This is called career management skills. that best suits them. These persons are skilled in career
guidance techniques, knowledgeable about learning
opportunities, the world of work, career tools and
WHAT ARE CAREER MANAGEMENT SKILLS? resources. They usually provide guidance for persons either
‘Career management’ skills is the ability to understand jobs in groups or individually.
and courses that match up with your personality, skills and
interest and to choose these jobs. An important part of HEART CAREER TALK continues on next page
THE DAILY OBSERVER Tuesday, September 19, 2017 Page 49
HEART CAREER TALK continued from previous page

WHAT IS CAREER GUIDANCE? WHERE ARE CAREER DEVELOPMENT/COUNSELLING


PROGRAMMES OFFERED?
Career guidance is the delivery of career services intended Some aspects of counseling programmes are offered at the
to help individuals, of any age and at any point throughout following:
their lives, to make educational, training, occupational " Schools—-all age, junior high, high and technical
choices and to manage their careers. This is where schools (inclusive of Special Needs schools)
someone knowledgeable about career development assists " Community Colleges
persons that seek information that will help them to make " Human Resource and Employment agencies
decisions which will lead to their careers. Some of the " Placement Services
career resources and services they provide are career " Heart Trust/NTA-Regional offices, Workforce colleges
brochures and handouts, posters and flyers, interest and TVET Institutes located throughout the island
inventories and self assessment, job placements, " Universities—All Major universities such as
counseling, job search techniques and many others. University of the West Indies (UWI), University of
Technology (UTECH) etc.
" Ministry of Labour (MOL)
CONCLUSIONS " Private Sector Organisations
" Government and Non-government Organisations
" Career development is very important to students
and other individuals as it helps persons to plan
Here are some other names of career
their careers and their lives. It assists persons with
professionals (see article 1).
learning and encourages lifelong learning.
The broad term given to all career professionals
is CAREER PRACTITIONERS
" It provides valuable career information which helps
This is further broken down as:
individuals to choose a career that best matches " Career educators
them as well as benefits the country as a whole. " Career coaches
" Employment officers
" Career counselors help individuals to understand the " Placement officers
information and inform persons about jobs and
occupations that are available.

" Career Development is very critical to the success of


persons as it helps them to properly manage their
careers and by extension their lives.

WHO BENEFITS FROM


CAREER DEVELOPMENT/COUNSELLING
Erica Williams is the Manager, Career Development
Services at HEART Trust/NTA,
Everyone –students from all levels of the education and
National TVET Centre, Gordon Town Road, St. Andrew
training system such as primary, junior high, high $ E-mail: erica_williams@heart-nta.org
schools, community colleges, technical institutes, Telephone: 977-1700-5, 970-2139.
universities, employers, community members, teachers, Website: www.heart-nta.org.
youths and adults.
ERIES
LECT(3UrdREEditSion)
:
dy guides
CSEC stu anguage
s h L
Engli nology
on Tech
Informati
ORDER YOUR COPY TODAY!
NOW Online
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Online:

► Communication
Studies 51–54

► Caribbean
Studies 55–57

AD MAJOREM DEI GLORIAM


ST. GEORGE’S COLLEGE, KINGSTON: These sixth formers seen looking crisp in
white shirts and ties at their Manning Cup match against Tarrant High School
We welcome comments on September 11, 2017. (PHOTO: GARFIELD ROBINSON)
& suggestions
► Call: 936-9458 or 384-2810
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LECTURE SERIES (3 rd
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English Language and Information Technology AVAILABLE
Available at JAMAICA OBSERVER LIMITED: • Kingston – 926-7655
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Also available at bookstores islandwide.
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COMMUNICATION
STUDIES Lesson 2
with
Janet Hendricks

THE INTERNAL ASSESSMENT (IA)

Hello, everyone. In our first lesson we looked at the


structure of the subject, Communication Studies and the
areas to be covered. In this lesson we will discuss the
Internal Assessment (IA). The IA includes the preparation
of a portfolio on a selected theme and an oral
presentation, not exceeding 10 minutes, which contributes
20% to the final marks in the examination.

SELECTING YOUR THEME

Try to think of an area that is of interest to you. It is important in selecting your theme that it is one that you find
particularly interesting as this will certainly make it more meaningful while preparing and conducting your research.
The theme is a broad area of general interest that you will break down into topics. The topics are the aspects of the
theme that you will seek to investigate. From this investigation/research you will formulate the oral presentation.

Try to stay away from overused themes and controversial issues. However, if you should choose an overused theme,
make it interesting by looking at an unexplored aspect of it.

Here are some suggestions for themes and topics.

THEMES TOPICS

(a) Gender Divide. (b) Gender Discrimination.


1. Gender
(c) Women in ‘male dominated’ fields.

(a) The impact of socialisation on individuals.


2. Culture
(b) Trends: Fashion & Partying. (c) Beauty Industry: Cosmetology.

(a) Development vs. devastation. (b) Government’s responsibility for the


3. The Environment
environment. (c) Urban Planning.

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THEMES TOPICS
(a) Primary Health Care Services
(b) The effect of lifestyle choices on health.
4. Health
(c) Proper nutrition and learning. (d) The effects of ageing on the brain.
(e) Children’s health issues: i) autism ii) cerebral palsy iii) obesity
(a) The homeless/street people in the society.
5. Societal Concerns
(b) Crimes against children
(a) The value of physical education in school.
(b) Extracurricular activities and the learning process
6. Education
(c) Teacher migration and the effects on the education system
(d) Physical environment – its effect on the learning process
(a) Effective Parenting. (b) A Single Parent.
7. Family Life (c) The impact of divorce on the family. (d) Coping with grief.
(e) The effects of changing family roles and responsibilities.
(a) Self-esteem and self-worth (b) Obsession and addiction
8.Teenagers
(c) Teens and fashion
9. Social Media and Networking Teens and social media
10. Career choices Satisfaction or remuneration in career choices.
(a) Lack of sensitivity to the mentally ill.
11. Mental Health
(b) Caring for mentally ill family members.
12. Food Technology Genetically modified foods
13. Surgery: Advances (a) Less invasive surgeries (b) Plastic surgery
14. The Elderly Treatment of the elderly in the society
(a) Impact of monopoly on a ‘third world’ country
15. Economy
(b) The cost of urban living vs rural living in Jamaica
16. Crime (a) Human trafficking (b) Gruesome killings – a rising trend
(a) Gender inequality in sports (b) Drugs in sports
17. Sports (c) Bribery and its effect on the spirit of sports
(d) Transfer of student athletes
(a) Term limits (b) Accountability of elected officials
18. Politics
(c) Code of conduct for elected officials
19. Technology Impact of technology on media
Dancehall music: The nature and degree of aggression in the lyrical content
20. Music
and its effect on teens/youth.

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THE PORTFOLIO

The Portfolio consists of an oral and a written section. The oral section is the speech that will be assessed internally.
The written section will be externally assessed by the examination body.

The Portfolio is structured around a theme which is selected by the student and approved by the teacher. You are
required to complete the entire portfolio in order to maximise the 20 % value.

STRUCTURE OF THE PORTFOLIO

The Portfolio consists of the four parts outlined below:

1. General Introduction

2. Exposition: oral presentation based on research findings

3. Reflective Section: a reflective piece – an original piece of writing in the form of drama, poetry or prose. A preface
to the piece must be included.

4. Analytical Section: this will be an analytical essay based on the reflective piece.

The General Introduction

The general introduction gives a brief background on your area of research, your rationale for the selected theme, your
personal and academic interests and how the information to be investigated will be presented throughout the portfolio.
The introduction has a value of 12 marks and a word limit of two hundred (200) words. It should include the following:

1. The theme and purpose [2 marks]

2. The treatment of the theme in the Expository and Reflective sections [4 marks]

3. The theme’s relation to your academic interest [2 marks]

4. The theme’s relation to your personal interest [2 marks]

5. The theme’s relation to your work-related interests [2 marks]

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The Expository Section (Speech)

The presentation of the speech can be exciting for some students and terrifying for others. One important key to
overcoming anxiety is that you practise your speech. The speech is worth 16 marks. Ensure that your presentation
includes:

1. A brief background to the issue and an explanation of your interest in the topic.

2. Detailed information on research conducted and your sources of information; the issues to be discussed;
challenges faced in gathering and processing information; the evaluation of your sources; and a conclusion
emerging from the research.

You will speak for seven to ten minutes, but no longer than ten minutes.

The Reflective Section


Preface [4 marks]

The preface for your reflective piece should state:

1. the purpose of the piece

2. the targeted audience

3. the situation or context that is suitable for the piece

The Reflective Piece [10 marks]

The student will create an original piece of writing from drama, poetry or prose genres. The piece must be creative
and consideration must be given to the treatment of your selected theme throughout the piece. The piece must also
include two of the four language conventions: registers, dialectal variations, examples of communicative behaviours,
and attitudes to language. Avoid making your piece predictable and cliché.

The value of the reflective piece is 10 marks and the piece should not exceed 800 words.

The Analytical Section

The analytical section is in the form of an analytical essay of 350 words. In this section the student will critically analyse
two of the language conventions used in the reflective piece. An understanding of how language is central to
communication is critical to the writing of this essay. The analysis will seek to highlight how the two features serve to
enhance, develop and illustrate the theme. Careful planning and concise use of language is essential in this section.

Have a good week.

Janet Hendricks is on the staff of Wolmer’s High School for Girls


$ Email: jmalarve@yahoo.com
THE DAILY OBSERVER Tuesday, September 19, 2017 Page 55

www.jamaicaobserver.com JOL LECTURE SERIES Jamaica Observer Limited


CARIBBEAN
STUDIES Lesson 2
with
Debgeri Whitely

NATURE AND PURPOSE


OF RESEARCH

EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES

1. Define the term Research


2. Identify FOUR reasons for
conducting research Caribbean Sea
3. Explain the nature and purpose
of research
• State the different forms of
knowledge which are
recognized in research
• Assess systematic enquiry
and the generation of new
knowledge in research.
• Appreciate how to make WHY CONDUCT RESEARCH?
research both reliable and
Instruction: In the diagram presented below highlight FOUR reasons
valid
people conduct research.
• Examine the nature of
problem-solving

WHAT IS RESEARCH?
Research is “a human activity based on
intellectual investigation and aimed at
discovering, interpreting, establishing
facts and relationships, and revising Why conduct
human knowledge on different aspects of
the world.” For more information visit: Research?
https://www.scribd.com/mobile/docum
ent/297571241/Caribbean-Studies-The-
Nature-and-Purpose-of-Research-2014

It is an organized (planned, not


spontaneous) and systematic (clearly
established procedures) way of finding
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THE NATURE OF RESEARCH

Research is carried out on a daily basis by everyone within society whether we are aware or not. The research process
is for many of us just the way we do things. We research the best buys in the various gadgets on the market now-a-days.
We research book reviews or even movies before shopping for books or heading out to watch a movie. We research
the best schools for our children and ourselves, and we probably perform some kind of research in our jobs. In our
search for information we may interview friends or other knowledgeable people; read articles in magazines, journals,
or newspapers; listen to the radio; search encyclopedia on CD-ROM, and even explore the internet/world wide web for
information.

Research is a way of life; it is the basis for many of the important decisions in our lives. Without it, we are deluged
with information, subjected to the claims of advertisers, or influenced by hearsay in making sense of the world around
us. This informal, experiential research helps us decipher the flood of information we encounter daily. Use this link for
more information: http://www.umuc.edu/writingcenter/onlineguide/tutorial/chapter4/ch4-01.html

FORMS OF KNOWLEDGE MAJOR VIEWS / PERSPECTIVES ABOUT RESEARCH

As a people, we come by knowledge in many different Mainstream – (answers the question why?) It looks to
ways. Three forms are as follows: tradition, experience explain events.
and scientific.
Alternative – (seeks to understand and ask how or what?)
Instructions: Using the information in the table below, The researcher acknowledges that he or she has to rely
identify the three forms of knowledge. on the people in the context on their cultural knowledge
and ‘know how’ in deciding what kinds of data are
Forms of important and what may be the best ways of going about
Definitions data collection.
Knowledge
Radical – (purpose – driven. Looks at what can be done)
The process of doing and
It is collaborative by nature; people getting together as
1. _____________ seeing things and of having
things happen to you. researchers to better understand their context and to
improve it.

The transmission or Systematic Enquiry – Is the methodical investigation often


handing down of customs,
using scientific methods.
norms and beliefs from
2. _____________ generation to generation
through the process of Generation of New Knowledge – deals with advancing the
socialization. state of understanding as in Pure Research (is scientific
research aimed to improve scientific theories for
improved understanding or prediction of natural or
This is acquired through
other phenomena).
3. _____________ the experiments and
reports of scientists.
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RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY IN RESEARCH

Reliability
– in research refers to the degree to which an instrument is interpreted in the same way by all the subjects being
interviewed. The reliability of an instrument therefore depends on the consistency with which the repeated
measurements give the same result.

Validity
– research is ‘valid’ when the questions asked and the methods used are likely to produce relevant answers to the
questions posed by the researcher. The questions must be about what is being studied. Validity, then, is a
characteristic of research that says that the data collected should be faithful to what the researchers are interested
in finding out (accurate inferences based on your research).

Problem Solving
– research aims at solving a particular problem

Independent Research
! Examine the different types of research and research design
! Draw a diagram representing the research process

ANSWER SHEET

Why conduct research?

" To generate new knowledge

" To solve a problem

" To be able to predict an event or outcome

" To test a theory

Forms of Knowledge
1. Experience

2. Tradition

3. scientific

Debgeri Whitely is on the staff of St. Hugh’s High School


$ Email: dwhitely@sthughshigh.org