Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 135

Module

FOR LEVEL B1 & B2 CERTIFICATION


10
AVIATION LEGISLATION

Aviation Maintenance Technician


Certification Series

-- Regulatory Framework
-- Certifying Staff/Maintenance
-- Approved Maintenance Organizations
-- Air Operations
-- Certification of Aircraft, Parts and Appliances
-- Continuing Airworthiness
-- Applicable National and International
Requirements
Eng. M. Rasool
MODULE 10
FOR LEVEL B1 & B2 CERTIFICATION

AVIATION LEGISLATION

Aviation Maintenance Technician


Certification Series

72413 U.S. Hwy 40


Tabernash, CO 80478-0270 USA

www.actechbooks.com

+1 970 726-5111
+1 970 726-5115 fax
Eng. M. Rasool

AVAILABLE IN
Printed Edition and Electronic
(eBook) Format

AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN CERTIFICATION SERIES

Copyright © 2016 — Aircraft Technical Book Company. All Rights Reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior
written permission of the publisher.

To order books or for Customer Service, please call +1 970 726-5111.

www.actechbooks.com

Printed in the United States of America


Eng. M. Rasool

WELCOME
The publishers of this Aviation Maintenance Technician Certification Series welcome you to the world of
aviation maintenance. As you move towards EASA certification, you are required to gain suitable knowledge and
experience in your chosen area. Qualification on basic subjects for each aircraft maintenance license category or
subcategory is accomplished in accordance with the following matrix. Where applicable, subjects are indicated by
an "X" in the column below the license heading.

For other educational tools created to prepare candidates for licensure, contact Aircraft Technical Book Company.

We wish you good luck and success in your studies and in your aviation career!

EASA LICENSE CATEGORY CHART

A1 B1.1 B1.2 B1.3


B2
Module number and title Airplane Airplane Airplane Helicopter
Avionics
Turbine Turbine Piston Turbine

1 Mathematics X X X X X
2 Physics X X X X X
3 Electrical Fundamentals X X X X X
4 Electronic Fundamentals X X X X
5 Digital Techniques / Electronic Instrument Systems X X X X X
6 Materials and Hardware X X X X X
7A Maintenance Practices X X X X X
8 Basic Aerodynamics X X X X X
9A Human Factors X X X X X
10 Aviation Legislation X X X X X
11A Turbine Aeroplane Aerodynamics, Structures and Systems X X
11B Piston Aeroplane Aerodynamics, Structures and Systems X
12 Helicopter Aerodynamics, Structures and Systems X
13 Aircraft Aerodynamics, Structures and Systems X
14 Propulsion X
15 Gas Turbine Engine X X X
16 Piston Engine X
17A Propeller X X X

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation iii


Eng. M. Rasool

FORWARD
PART-66 and the Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) and Guidance Material (GM) of the European Aviation
Safety Agency (EASA) Regulation (EC) No. 1321/2014, Appendix 1 to the Implementing Rules establishes the
Basic Knowledge Requirements for those seeking an aircraft maintenance license. The information in this Module
of the Aviation Maintenance Technical Certification Series published by the Aircraft Technical Book Company
meets or exceeds the breadth and depth of knowledge subject matter referenced in Appendix 1 of the Implementing
Rules. However, the order of the material presented is at the discretion of the editor in an effort to convey the
required knowledge in the most sequential and comprehensible manner. Knowledge levels required for Category A1,
B1, B2, and B3 aircraft maintenance licenses remain unchanged from those listed in Appendix 1 Basic Knowledge
Requirements. Tables from Appendix 1 Basic Knowledge Requirements are reproduced at the beginning of each
module in the series and again at the beginning of each Sub-Module.

How numbers are written in this book:


This book uses the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standard of writing numbers. This methods
displays large numbers by adding a space between each group of 3 digits. This is opposed to the American method which
uses commas and the European method which uses periods. For example, the number one million is expressed as so:

ICAO Standard 1 000 000


European Standard 1.000.000
American Standard 1,000,000

SI Units:
The International System of Units (SI) developed and maintained by the General Conference of Weights and
Measures (CGPM) shall be used as the standard system of units of measurement for all aspects of international civil
aviation air and ground operations.

Prefixes:
The prefixes and symbols listed in the table below shall be used to form names and symbols of the decimal multiples
and submultiples of International System of Units (SI) units.

MULTIPLICATION FACTOR PReFIx SyMbOL


1 000 000 000 000 000 000 = 101⁸ exa E
1 000 000 000 000 000 = 101⁵ peta P
1 000 000 000 000 = 1012 tera T
1 000 000 000 = 10⁹ giga G
1 000 000 = 10⁶ mega M
1 000 = 103 kilo k
100 = 102 hecto h
10 = 101 deca da
0.1 =10-1 deci d
0.01 = 10-2 centi c
0.001 = 10-3 milli m
0.000 001 = 10-⁶ micro µ
0.000 000 001 = 10-⁹ nano n
0.000 000 000 001 = 10-12 pico p
0.000 000 000 000 001 = 10-1⁵ femto f
0.000 000 000 000 000 001 = 10-1⁸ atto a

International System of Units (SI) Prefixes

iv Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
PREFACE

The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) is an agency of the European Union established in 2002. Its mission
is to promote the highest common standards of safety and environmental protection in civil aviation. This module
explores the structure of the EASA system and many key regulations enforced by the competent authorities of the
27 Member States.

Module 10 Syllabus as outlined in PART-66, Appendix 1.

LEVELS
CERTIFICATION CATEGORY ¦ A B1 B2

Sub-Module 01 - Regulatory Framework


Role of the International Civil Aviation Organization; 1 1 1
Role of the European Commission;
Role of EASA;
Role of the Member States and National Aviation Authorities;
Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 and its implementing rules Regulations
(EC) 1702/2003 and 2042/2003;
Relationship between the various Annexes (Parts) such as Part-21,
Part-M, Part-145, Part-66, Part-147 and Air Operations.

Sub-Module 02 - Certifying Staff — Maintenance


Detailed understanding of Part-66. 2 2 2
Sub-Module 03 - Approved Maintenance Organizations
Detailed understanding of Part-145 and Part-M Subpart-F. 2 2 2
Sub-Module 04 - Air Operations
General understanding of Air Operations; 1 1 1
Air Operators Certificates;
Operator's responsibilities, in particular regarding continuing airworthiness
and maintenance;
Aircraft Maintenance Programme;
MEL/CDL;
Documents to be carried on board;
Aircraft placarding (markings).

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation v


Eng. M. Rasool
LEVELS
CERTIFICATION CATEGORY ¦ A B1 B2

Sub-Module 05 - Certification of Aircraft, Parts and Appliances


(a) General - 1 1
General understanding of Part-21 and EASA certification specifications
CS-23, 25, 27, 29.

(b) Documents - 2 2
Certificate of Airworthiness; restricted certificates of airworthiness and
permit to fly;
Certificate of Registration;
Noise Certificate;
Weight Schedule;
Radio Station License and Approval.

Sub-Module 06 - Continuing Airworthiness


Detailed understanding of Part-21 provisions related to continuing airworthiness; 2 2 2
Detailed understanding of Part-M.

Sub-Module 07 - Applicable National and International Requirements


(a) Maintenance Programmes, Maintenance checks and inspections; 1 2 2
Airworthiness Directives;
Service Bulletins, manufacturers service information;
Modifications and repairs;
Maintenance documentation: maintenance manuals, structural repair manual,
illustrated parts catalogue, etc.;
Only for A to B2 licenses:
Master Minimum Equipment Lists, Minimum Equipment List, Dispatch
Deviation Lists;

(b) Continuing airworthiness; - 1 1


Minimum equipment requirements - Test flights;
Only for B1 and B2 licenses:
ETOPS, maintenance and dispatch requirements;
All Weather Operations, Category 2/3 operations.

vi Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation vii


Eng. M. Rasool
REVISION LOG

VERSION ISSUE DATE DESCRIPTION OF CHANGE MODIFICATION DATE


001 2016-02 Module Revision and Release 2016-02-01

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

viii Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
CONTENTS

AVIATION LEGISLATION Developing Nation Assistance‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.11


Welcome‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ iii Questions‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.13
Forward‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ iv Answers‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.14
Preface‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ v
Revision Log‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ viii SUB-MODULE 02
Acknowledgments‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ viii CERTIFYING STAFF — MAINTENANCE
Contents‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ ix Knowledge Requirements‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.1
Introduction‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.2
SUB-MODULE 01 General‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.2
REGULATORY FRAMEWORK Definitions‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.2
Knowledge Requirements‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.1 Part-66‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.3
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)‥‥‥ 1.2 Scope (66.A.1)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.3
The Chicago Convention‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.2 License Categories (66.A.3)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.3
Second Freedom Agreement‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.2 Aircraft Groups (66.A.5)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.3
Fifth Freedom Agreement‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.3 Application (66.A.10)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.3
ICAO Goals And Objectives‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.3 Eligibility (66.A.15)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.5
ICAO Composition And Concerns‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.3 Privileges (66.A.20) ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.5
Technical Annexes‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.4 Requirements for Exercising Privileges‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.6
Annex 1 - Personnel Licensing‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.4 Definitions for Exercising Privileges‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.6
Annex 6 - Operation Of Aircraft‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.4 Basic Knowledge Requirements (66.A.25)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.7
Annex 8 - Airworthiness Of Aircraft‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.4 Basic Experience Requirements (66.A.30)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.8
Annex 10 - Aeronautical Telecommunications‥‥ 1.4 New License‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.8
The Role Of The European Commission (EC)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.4 License Extension‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.8
Role of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA)‥ 1.5 Alternate Experience‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.9
EASA Responsibilities‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.6 Continued Validity of the Aircraft
Independence And Supervision‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.6 Maintenance License (66.A.40)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.9
International Recruitment‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.6 Endorsement with Aircraft Ratings (66.A.45)‥‥‥‥‥ 2.9
Studies And Research‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.7 Limitations (66.A.50)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.10
EASA Internal Structure And Operation‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.7 Evidence of Qualification (66.A.55)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.10
Staff And Language‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.7 Conversion Provisions (66.A.70)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.10
Management Board‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.7 Part-66.B Procedures For Competent Authorities ‥‥‥‥ 2.11
Executive Director‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.7 Scope (66.B.1)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.11
Board Of Appeals‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.7 Basic Knowledge Requirements‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.11
Working Methods‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.7 Competent Authority (66.B.10)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.12
Financial Requirements‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.8 Record-keeping (66.B.20)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.12
The Role Of Members States‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.9 Mutual Exchange Of Information (66.B.25)‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.12
Sharing Of Roles‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.9 Exemptions (66.B.30)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.12
Member State Obligation‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.9 Procedure For The Issue Of An
Rules And Authority‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.9 Aircraft Maintenance License By The
Regulation (EC) 216/2008‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.9 Competent Authority (66.B.100)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.12
Regulation (EC) 748/2012‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.9 Procedure For The Issue Of An Aircraft
Regulation (EC) 1321/2014‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.10 Maintenance License Via A Maintenance
Air Transport EASA Operations‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.11 Organization Approved In Accordance
EASA Relations With The Other Aviation With Annex (Part-145) (66.B.105)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.13
Authorities‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.11 Procedure For The Change Of An Aircraft
Multilateral Cooperation‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.11 Maintenance License To Include An Additional
Bilateral Cooperation‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 1.11 Basic Category Or Subcategory (66.B.110)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.13

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation ix


Eng. M. Rasool
CONTENTS

Procedure For The Change Of An Aircraft Extent of Approval (M.A.603)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.13


Maintenance License To Include An Aircraft Maintenance Organization Manual (M.A.604)‥‥‥‥ 3.14
Rating Or To Remove Limitations (66.B.115)‥‥‥‥‥ 2.13 Facilities (M.A.605)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.15
Procedure For The Renewal Of An Aircraft Personnel Requirements (M.A.606)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.15
Maintenance License Validity (66.B.120)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.13 Certifying Staff (M.A.607)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.15
Procedure For The Conversion Of Licenses Components, Equipment and Tools (M.A.608)‥‥‥ 3.16
Including Group Ratings (66.B.125)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.14 Maintenance Data (M.A.609)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.16
Procedure For The Direct Approval Of Maintenance Work Orders (M.A.610)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.16
Aircraft Type Training (66.B.130)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.15 Maintenance Standards (M.A.611)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.16
Information in Part-66 Appendices‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.15 Component Certificate of Release to
Questions‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.17 Service (M.A.612)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.16
Answers‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 2.18 Component Certificate of Release To
Service (M.A.613)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.16
SUB-MODULE 03 Maintenance Records (M.A.614)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.17
APPROVED MAINTENANCE Privileges of the Organization (M.A.615)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.17
ORGANIZATIONS Organizational Review (M.A.616)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.17
Knowledge Requirements‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.1 Changes to the Approved Maintenance
Introduction‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.2 Organization (M.A.617)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.17
Part 145‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.2 Continued Validity of Approval (M.A.618)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.17
Part 145 – Maintenance Organization Requirements‥‥ 3.2 Findings (M.A.619)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.18
General (145.1)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.2 Questions‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.19
Definitions (145.A.5)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.2 Answers‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.20
Scope (145.A.10)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.3
Application (145.A.15)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.3 SUB-MODULE 04
Terms of Approval (145.A.20)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.3 AIR OPERATIONS
Facility Requirements (145.A.25)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.3 Knowledge Requirements‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.1
Personnel Requirements (145.A.30)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.3 General Understanding‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.2
Certifying Staff and Category B1 and B2 Air Operators Certificates (AOC)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.2
Support Staff (145.A.35)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.6 General Rules For Air Operator Certification
Equipment, Tools and Material (145.A.40)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.8 (OPS 1.175)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.2
Acceptance of components (145.A.42)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.8 Contents and Conditions of the Air Operator
Maintenance Data (145.A.45)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.9 Certificate (OPS 1.175 Addendum)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.3
Production planning (145.A.47)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.10 Issue, variation and continued validity of an
Certification of Maintenance (145.A.50)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.10 AOC (OPS 1.180)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.3
Maintenance Records (145.A.55)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.10 Operator’s Responsibilities‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.4
Occurrence Reporting (145.A.60)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.11 Laws, Regulations And Procedures — Operator’s
Safety and Quality Policy (145.A.65)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.11 Responsibilities (OPS 1.020)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.4
Maintenance Organization Common Language (OPS 1.025)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.4
Exposition (MOE) (145.A.70)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.12 Responsibilities (M.A.201)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.4
Privileges of the Organization (145.A.75)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.12 Continuing Airworthiness Management
Limitation on the Organization (145.A.80)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.13 Organization (Subpart-G)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.4
Changes to the Organization (145.A.85)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.13 Maintenance Program (M.A.302)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.5
Continue Validity (145.A.90)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.13 Aircraft Maintenance Program‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.5
Findings (145.A.95)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.13 General Presentation‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.5
Part-M - Subpart-F - Maintenance Organization‥‥‥‥ 3.13 The General Maintenance Review Board
Scope (M.A.601)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.13 (MRB) Process‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.7
Application (M.A.602)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 3.13 Powerplant and Systems Program‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.7

x Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
CONTENTS

Obligations from Certification Maintenance Part 21 – Subpart-J‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.5


Requirements (CMR)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.9 Approval Requirements (21A.245)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.5
Structure Program‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.9 Privileges (21A.263)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.6
Analysis of Accidental Damage‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.10 Duration and Continued Validity (21A.259)‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.6
Damage Analysis due to the Environment‥‥‥‥‥ 4.10 Documents‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.6
The “ALI” (Airworthiness Limitation Items)‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.10 Type Certificates‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.6
Zonal Inspection Program (ZIP)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.11 Scope‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.6
Analysis of Zip Tasks‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.11 Validity‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.7
The MRB Report (Maintenance Review Board)‥‥‥ 4.12 Supplemental Type Certificates‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.7
Maintenance Planning Document (MPD)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.12 Certificates of Airworthiness‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.8
Minimum Equipment Lists & CDL Restricted Certificates of Airworthiness‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.9
(Operator's Responsibilities)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.12 Permits to Fly‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.11
MEL‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.12 Aircraft Registration‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.11
CDL‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.12 Noise Certification‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.12
Documents To Be Carried (OPS 1.125)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.12 Weight Schedule‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.12
Manuals To Be Carried (OPS 1.130)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.12 Mass and Balance Documentation
Additional Information And Forms To (Air Operations 1.625)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.13
Be Carried (OPS 1.135)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.13 Radio Station License and Approval‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.14
Identification of Parts and Appliances‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.13 Approval‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.14
Identification of Products (21A.801)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.13 Questions‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.15
Identification of Parts anD Appliances (21A.804)‥‥ 4.13 Answers‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.16
Marking of Break-In Points‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.13
Emergency Markings‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.14 SUB-MODULE 06
Emergency Exit Markings (CS 26.110)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.14 CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS
Interior Emergency Lighting and Emergency Knowledge Requirements‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.1
Light Operation (CS 26.120)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.15 Part 21 General Provisions‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.2
Questions‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.17 Scope‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.2
Answers‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 4.18 Undertaking ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.2
Failures, Malfunctions And Defects ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.2
SUB-MODULE 05 Airworthiness Directives ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.2
CERTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT, PARTS AND Part-M‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.3
APPLIANCES General – Subpart-A‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.3
Knowledge Requirements‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.1 Scope (MA 101)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.3
Certification Specifications (CS)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.2 Accountability – Subpart-B‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.3
Sailplanes And Powered Sailplanes (CS 22)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.2 Responsibilities (MA 201)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.3
Normal, Utility Aerobatic And Commuter Occurence Reporting (MA 202)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.4
Airplanes (CS 23)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.2 Continuing Airworthiness - Subpart-C‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.4
Large Airplanes (CS 25)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.3 Continuing Airworthiness Tasks (MA 301)‥‥‥‥ 6.4
Small Rotorcraft (CS 27.1)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.3 Maintenance Program (MA 302)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.5
Large Rotorcraft (CS 29.1)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.3 Airworthiness Directives (MA 303)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.6
CS-VLA Very Light Airplanes‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.4 Data For Modif ications And Repairs
Production Organization Approval‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.4 (MA 304)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.6
Approval Requirements (21A.145)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.4 Aircraft Continuing Airworthiness Record
Privileges (21A.163)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.5 System (MA 305)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.6
Obligations Of The Holder (21A.165)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.5 Owner And/Or The Operator Obligations
Duration And Continued Validity (21A.159)‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.5 (MA 306)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.6
Design Organization Approval‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 5.5 Operator Technical Log System (MA 306)‥‥‥‥‥ 6.7

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation xi


Eng. M. Rasool
CONTENTS

Maintenance Standards – Subpart-D‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.7 Scope‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.4


Maintenance Data (MA 401)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.7 Types of Service Bulletins‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.5
Performance of Maintenance (MA 402) ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.7 Alert SB‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.5
Aircraft Defects (MA 403)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.8 Standard SB‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.5
Components – Subpart-E‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.8 Engine Conversion SB‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.5
Installation (MA 501)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.8 Service BUlletin Contents‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.5
Components Maintenance (M 502)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.8 General‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.5
Caution‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.9 Planning Information‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.5
Control of Unserviceable Components Material Information‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.7
(MA 504)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.9 Service Letter (SL)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.7
Maintenance Organization – Subpart-F‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.9 Modifications And Repairs‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.7
Continuing Airworthiness Management Maintenance Documentation‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.7
Organization - Subpart-G‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.10 Minimum Equipment Lists‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.7
Certificate of Release to Service (CRS) – MMEL/MEL‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.7
Subpart-H‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.10 DDL Dispatch Deviation List (OR CDL)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.7
Aircraft Certificate Of Release To Minimum Equipment Requirements -
Service (MA 801)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.10 Test Flights‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.8
Component Certificate Of Release To ETOPS‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.8
Service (MA 802)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.11 Definition:‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.8
Pilot-Owner Authorization (MA 803)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.11 Maintenance Program‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.8
Airworthiness Review Certificate – Subpart-I‥‥‥‥‥ 6.11 Pre-Departure Service Check‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.8
Aircraft Airworthiness Review (MA 901)‥‥‥‥‥ 6.11 Reliability Program‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.8
Validity Of The Airworthiness Review Competence Of Continuing Airworthiness
Certificate (MA 902) ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.13 And Maintenance Personnel (CAMO)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.9
Findings (MA 905) ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.13 Training Program‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.9
Procedure For Competent Authorities - Section-B ‥ 6.14 All Weather Operations (CAT 2 and 3 Operations)‥‥‥ 7.9
Competent Authority (MB 102)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.14 Definitions:‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.9
Record-Keeping (MB 104)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.14 Air Operations Subpart-E‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.9
Questions‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.15 Low Visibility Operations — General
Answers‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 6.16 Operating Rules (OPS 1.440)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.9
Maintenance‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.10
SUB-MODULE 07 General‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.10
APPLICABLE NATIONAL AND Equipment Approval‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.10
INTERNATIONAL REQUIREMENTS Maintenance Control System‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.10
Knowledge Requirements‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.1 Maintenance Control Manual‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.10
Introduction‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.2 Questions‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.11
Maintenance Checks And Inspections‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.2 Answers‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.12
General‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.2
"A" Check ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.2 Acronym Index‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ A.1
"B" Check ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.2 Glossary‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ G.1
"C" Check ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.2 Index‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ I.1
"D" Check ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.2
Airworthiness Directives‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.3
Purpose ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.3
Issuance‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.4
Service Bulletins‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.4
ATA Spec 2200‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 7.4

xii Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool

FRAMEWORK
REGULATORY
PART-66 SYLLABUS LEVELS
CERTIFICATION CATEGORY ¦ A B1 B2

Sub-Module 01
REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
Knowledge Requirements

10.1 - Regulatory Framework 1 1 1


Role of the International Civil Aviation Organization;
Role of the European Commission;
Role of EASA;
Role of the Member States and National Aviation Authorities;
Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 and its implementing rules Regulations
(EC) 1702/2003 and 2042/2003;
Relationship between the various Annexes (Parts) such as Part-21,
Part-M, Part-145, Part-66, Part-147 and Air Operations.

Level 1
A familiarization with the principal elements of the subject.

Objectives:
(a) The applicant should be familiar with the basic elements of the
subject.
(b) The applicant should be able to give a simple description of the
whole subject, using common words and examples.
(c) The applicant should be able to use typical terms.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 1.1


Eng. M. Rasool
INTERNATIONAL CIVIL THE CHICAGO CONVENTION
AVIATION ORGANIZATION The Chicago Convention def ines the rights and
(ICAO) obligations of the signatory states regarding the operation
of aircraft. After working for five weeks on the problems
ICAO is a specialized agency of the United Nations effecting international civil aviation, the representatives
(UN) created through the Chicago Convention on of 52 States present established a new convention. The
International Civil Aviation signed goals of this convention related to international civil
on the 7th of December, 1944. aviation were cited in the Preamble as follows:
Its headquarters are located • WHEREAS the future development of international
in Montreal. (Figure 1-1) civil aviation can greatly help to create and preserve
friendship and understanding among the nations
On 1 November 1944, and peoples of the world, yet its abuse can become a
representatives from 54 threat to the general security; and
nations met in Chicago • WHEREAS it is desirable to avoid friction and
to establish a framework to to promote that co-operation between nations and
regulate the development of peoples upon which the peace of the world depends;
worldwide civil aviation. Fifty-two • THEREFORE, the undersigned governments
countries signed the "Chicago Convention". It had to be having agreed on certain principles and arrangements
ratified by 26 states to come into force. As an interim, in order that international civil aviation may
an international aviation intermediate agreement was be developed in a safe and orderly manner and
adopted. This gave birth to the Provisional International that international air transport services may be
Civil Aviation Organization (PICAO) charged with established on the basis of equality of opportunity
follow up work for the fledgling organization. and operated soundly and economically; have
accordingly concluded this Convention to that end."
PICAO functioned as a provisional organization until
the 4th of April 1947. ICAO as it is known today During the 5 weeks that it sat, the conference produced
was born after the 26th state ratif ied the Chicago 6 important documents:
Convention. In October 1947, ICAO became a • The Convention on International Civil Aviation. (The
specialized United Nations agency linked to the Chicago Convention)
Economic and Social Council of the U.N. Today, • The Interim Agreement on International Civil Aviation
ICAO consists of 190 signatory states, of which only (PICAO).
three are not members. • The International Air Services Transit Agreement or
"Two Freedom" agreement.
• The International Air Transport Agreement or "Fifth
Freedom" agreement.
• The drafts of twelve Technical Annexes.
• A standard form of Bilateral Agreement for the exchange
of routes and air services.

SECOND FREEDOM AGREEMENT


The International Air Services Transit Agreement or
"Two Freedom" agreement is an agreement under which
the aircraft of Member States may fly over each other's
territory for non-traffic purposes (i.e. refueling). This
particular document was a great step forward in the path
of international air transport development over a large
part of the world.

Figure 1-1. ICAO headquarters in Montreal, Canada.

1.2 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
FIFTH FREEDOM AGREEMENT meets every three years. The assembly reviews in detail
Another important document/agreement developed the work of the Organization and sets policy for the
was the Fifth Freedom Amendment. It states that each coming years. It also votes a triennial budget.

FRAMEWORK
REGULATORY
Member State grants to other Member States:
• the "Second Freedom" agreed rights The Council is a governing body elected by the Assembly
• the right to offload passengers / freight uploaded in for a three-year term. It is composed of 36 states. The
the country of origin of the aircraft Assembly chooses the Council Member States from
• the right to upload passengers / freight destined for three categories: states of chief importance in air
the country of origin of the aircraft transport, states which make the largest contribution to
• the right to upload / offload passengers destined or the provision of facilities for air navigation, and states
coming from any Member State. whose designation will ensure that all major areas of
the world are represented. As the governing body, the
ICAO GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Council gives continuing direction to the work of ICAO.
ICAO's aims and objectives are to draw up the principles It is in the Council that Standards and Recommended
and techniques of international air navigation and to Practices are adopted and incorporated as Annexes to
promote the planning and development of international the Convention on International Civil Aviation. The
air transport so as to: Council is assisted by the Air Navigation Commission
• Foster the planning and development of international (technical matters), the Air Transport Committee
air transport so as to ensure the safe and orderly (economic matters), the Committee on Joint Support of
growth of international civil aviation throughout Air Navigation Services and the Finance Committee.
the world;
• Encourage the arts of aircraft design and operation The Secretariat, headed by a Secretary General, is
for peaceful purposes; divided into five main divisions: the Air Navigation
• Encourage the development of airways, airports, Bureau, the Air Transport Bureau, the Technical
and air navigation facilities for international civil Cooperation Bureau, the Legal Bureau, and the Bureau
aviation; of Administration and Services. In order that the work
• Meet the needs of the peoples of the world for safe, of the Secretariat shall ref lect a truly international
regular, efficient, and economical air transport; approach, professional personnel are recruited on a
• Prevent economic waste caused by unreasonable broad geographical basis.
competition;
• Ensure that the rights of contracting states are fully ICAO works in close cooperation with other members
respected and that every contracting state has a fair of the United Nations family such as the World
opportunity to operate international airlines; Meteorological Organization (WMO), the International
• Avoid discrimination between contracting states; Telecommunication Union (ITU), the Universal Postal
• Promote safet y of f light in internationa l air Union, the World Health Organization (WHO) and
navigation; the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Non-
• Generally promote the development of all aspects of governmental organizations which also participate in
international civil aeronautics. ICAO's work include the International Air Transport
Association IATA, the Airports Council International
ICAO COMPOSITION AND (ACI), the International Federation of Air Line Pilots'
CONCERNS Associations IFALPA, and the International Council of
According to the terms of the Convention, the Aircraft Owner and Pilot Associations (IAOPA).
Organization is made up of an Assembly, a Council of
limited membership with various subordinate bodies The breadth of ICAO concerns include standardization
and a Secretariat. The Chief Officers are the President in such areas as communication, navigation, and
of the Council and the Secretary General. surveillance of aircraft as well as air traffic control
management. It has established 9 regions for setting up
The Assembly, composed of representatives from all installations and services such as airports, navigational
contracting states, is the sovereign body of ICAO. It aids, weather stations, communications, etc. Facilities

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 1.3


Eng. M. Rasool
standards, customs formalities and public health aircraft to ensure the best safety and efficiency of service.
are also issues for ICAO. In analyzes economic and It is divided into three parts:
legal question of concern to the international aviation Part 1: A i r c r a f t i n v o l v e d i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l
community such as avoiding total deregulation and commercial air transport.
setting international law. ICAO is also involved Part 2: Aircraft involved in international general
i n t e c h n ic a l c o o p e r at ion for d e v e l o p m e nt b y aviation.
communicating international data for the identification Part 3: International helicopter flights.
of future challenges in international aviation.
ANNEX 8 - AIRWORTHINESS OF AIRCRAFT
TECHNICAL ANNEXES This annex is of importance to technicians in that it
The ICAO Council has elaborated and adopted 18 deals with the allowance of the import and export of
technical annexes concerning the following aspects of aircraft, their exchange by way of lease agreements and
international aviation as follows: charters, as well as in service operations.
Annex 1: Personnel Licensing
Annex 2: Rules of the Air ANNEX 10 - AERONAUTICAL
Annex 3: Meteorological Service for International Air TELECOMMUNICATIONS
Navigation Aeronautica l telecommunication agreement and
Annex 4: Aeronautical Charts cooperation is required for successful international
Annex 5: Units of Measurement to be Used in Air and aviation operations. Annex 10 deals with issues related
Ground Operations to aeronautical telecommunications. It subdivides this
Annex 6: Operation of Aircraft subject matter and addresses specific issues in a series of
Annex 7: A ircraft Nationalit y and Registration volumes as follows:
Marks Volume 1: Radio Navigation Aids
Annex 8: Airworthiness of Aircraft Volume 2: Communications Procedures
Annex 9: Facilitation Volume 3: Communications Systems
Annex 10: Aeronautical Telecommunications Part 1 - Digital Data Communications Systems
Annex 11: Air Traffic Services Part 2 – Voice Communications Systems
Annex 12: Search and Rescue Volume 4: Surveillance Radar and Collision Avoidance
Annex 13: Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation System
Annex 14: Aerodromes Volume 5: Aeronautical Radio Frequency Spectrum
Annex 15: Aeronautical Information Services Utilization
Annex 16: Environmental Protection
Annex 17: Securit y : Sa feg ua rd ing Internationa l THE ROLE OF THE EUROPEAN
Civil Aviation Against Acts of Unlawful COMMISSION (EC)
Interference
Annex 18: Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air The European Commission is one of the institutions of
Annex 19: Security Management the European Union (EU). (Figure 1-2) It is independent
of the individual EU states and holds great powers. The
ANNEX 1 - PERSONNEL LICENSING European Commission represents and defends the
Of particular concern to maintenance personnel is European Union as a whole entity. It presents legislative
Annex 1 entitled Personnel Licensing. As the title proposals and oversees the application of policies and
suggests, it deals with training and issuance of licenses implementation of the EU budget.
as well as medical standards for pilots, crew, aircraft
maintenance technicians, air traffic controllers, ground Since 1 November 2004, the European Commission
crew, and airport radio operators. has a commissioner for each Member State (27 total
commissioners). The Commission has a president, a
ANNEX 6 - OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT vice president, who is also the representative for foreign
The main object of this annex is to standardize, as much affairs and safety policy, and 25 members each in charge
as possible, the operation of international air transport of an individual area of concern (for example, regional

1.4 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
policy, business, action on climate, etc.) In November of 1. Initiation of Legislative Power - most of the
2014, the number of commissioners was reduced to two legislative acts of the Council (Council of Ministers
thirds of the number of Member States (18 total). The of the European Union) require a proposal for such

FRAMEWORK
REGULATORY
members of the Commission are chosen from Member action from the Commission. The Council cannot
State nationals following a fair rotation system between amend a proposal without a unanimous ruling. The
member countries. The Commission is responsible to Commission can modify the proposal as long as the
the European Union parliament. council has not ruled on it.
2. Guardianship of Treaties - the Commission ensures
The Commission is assisted by a secretary general who compliance with and enforcement of European law
prepares the work and ensures coordination between its and secondary legislation (regulations, directives,
branches and other institutions. The length of mandate decisions, etc.) under the control of the Court of
of the Commission is five years as is the term of office of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). It inquires,
the European parliament. The commission meets at least prevents and penalizes members for non-compliance
once a week in Brussels, generally on a Wednesday, and with European treaties. It can appeal to the Court
during the monthly sessions of the European Parliament of Justice of the European Union if a state does not
in Strasburg. (Figure 1-2) follow the opinion that the European Commission
has previously sent.
The European Commission 3. Execution Power - the Commission is the body
promotes the general that executes policies and measures adopted by
interests of the EU the Council of Ministers of the European Union.
and takes appropriate It administers the budget and manages common
initiatives to that end. policies and funding. The Council monitors EC
It ensures external activities through various committees.
representation of the
EU with international organizations in most areas. The ROLE OF THE EUROPEAN
EC also provides delegations to third countries (non-EU AVIATION SAFETY AGENCY
states). European Commission responsibilities include: (EASA)

The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA or the


Agency) is the centerpiece of the European Union’s
strategy for aviation safety. Its mission is to promote
and achieve the highest common standards of safety
and environmental protection in civil aviation. EASA is
the agency of the EU that looks after flight safety. It is
based in Cologne (Germany) and became operational in
September 2003. The agency employs over 400 agents
from all European Union countries. (Figure 1-3)

The creation of EASA paved the way for a new EU


legislation on safety and the environmental compatibility
of civil aviation. The new Basic Regulation (EC) No
216/2008 entered into force on 8 April 2008 and sets out
the tasks of the Agency.

EASA's mission is to promote the highest possible level


of safety and environmental protection in civil aviation.
It facilitates the free movement of goods, persons and
services, promotes cases for regulatory and certification
Figure 1-2. European Commission headquarters in Brussels, Belgium. processes and assists Member States in meeting their

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 1.5


Eng. M. Rasool
EASA currently has the following responsibilities:
• Provide technical expertise to the EU for new
legislation.
• Implement and monitor the implementation of
security policies including conducting inspections
in Member States.
• Carry out the certification of aircraft and equipment.
• Issue licenses to organizations providing the design,
manufacture and maintenance of aeronautical
products.
• Allow operators of third countries (those outside
the EU).
• Perform research and analysis into safety.

In 2009, the European Commission extended the


areas of competence of EASA even further. The
Agency is now also responsible for safety on airports
and in air traffic management (ATM) as well as in Air
Navigational Services (ANS).

The Agency also has the power to conduct certain


tasks for which collective action is more effective than
action by individual Member States. In particular,
EASA is responsible for the certification of aeronautical
products. It also helps the Commission monitor the
implementation of rules and safeguards that may
be required. EASA provides technical assistance
to aeronautical authorities of third countries and
international organizations for safety and environmental
compatibility of civil aviation. Finally, the Agency
Figure 1-3. EASA headquarters in Cologne, Germany.
supports the European Union and its Member States in
their cooperation with and assistance to third countries.

INDEPENDENCE AND SUPERVISION


obligations under ICAO. At the global level, EASA To protect from political interference, decisions of
promotes and defends its views on the safety standards safety must be undertaken by a neutral and independent
to be applied in civil aviation. authority with the necessary skills. EASA and its
executive director are under the supervision of an
EASA RESPONSIBILITIES independent board of the Agency, which is responsible
for monitoring the proper application of EC measures
At f irst, EU regulations merely established EASA and regulations. The executive director is appointed
and the basis for action in the field of certification by the board that is composed of representatives from
of aeronautical products, organizations and persons Member States and the Commission. The board, under
involved in the design, production and maintenance of the control of the Commission, defines priorities, sets
aircraft. In a second step, the Commission, assisted by the budget and monitors the operation of EASA.
EASA, gradually propose amendments as necessary to
extend the scope of the text to any other field relevant to INTERNATIONAL RECRUITMENT
the safety of civil aviation. It is the duty of EASA to enroll the largest possible
n u m b e r o f E u r o p e a n p a r t n e r s t o it s s y s t e m .

1.6 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
Regulations allow the involvement of all countries by the Agency. This includes guidelines, which must
that agree to adopt and implement EU legislation in be approved by the Commission for the allocation of
the field of air transport. certification tasks to qualified entities.

FRAMEWORK
REGULATORY
STUDIES AND RESEARCH EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
Through research and studies, the agency develops The executive director alone is empowered to adopt acts
expertise on everything related to the safety of civil concerning safety and environmental protection. He or
aviation. It develops legislation and implements she decides on inspections and investigations and is the
measures to control the safety of aeronautical products manager of the Agency. As such, the executive director
through the communication with the organizations and is responsible for the preparation and implementation of
individuals associated with their handling. the budget and work program as well as for all questions
related to personnel.
EASA INTERNAL STRUCTURE AND
OPERATION BOARD OF APPEALS
EASA is an independent body of the European Union A board of appeals is set up to review individual decisions
with its own legal identity. It is headed and represented taken by the Agency. There is a clear separation of
by its executive director. The Agency may, with the functions between the board of appeals and the agency.
consent of the Member State concerned, establish local The members of the board of appeal must be independent.
offices in any Member State.
Appeals may be lodged against:
STAFF AND LANGUAGE • Decisions granting type certificates.
The Agency's staff consists of a limited number of • Decisions made in the context of an investigation.
officials approved by the EC or Member States to carry • Decisions relating to fees.
out management duties. (Figure 1-4) Other employees
are recruited by EASA on a limited basis, according Appeals cause a deferral of an action taken by the
to its requirements. All opinions addressed to the Agency only when so decided by the Agency. Appeals
Commission concerning actions to be adopted must may be made against final decisions only. Any person
be made in all official languages of the community may appeal a decision addressed to, or of direct and
which are: Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, individual concern to, that person.
Estonian, Finnish, French, Irish, German, Greek,
Hungarian, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, The board of appeal may conclude its examination
Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovenian, either by making a decision or by referring the case
Spanish, and Swedish. Applications to the Agency to the competent body of the Agency, in which case
for certif ication may be f iled in any of the off icial the Agency is bound by the reasoning of the board.
languages of the Community and the Agency will Provision is made for review of the decisions of the
reply in the same language. board of appeals by the Court of Justice of the European
Communities under the same terms as the review of EU
MANAGEMENT BOARD acts. Member States may appeal against decisions taken
A management board is composed of one representative by the Agency on type certification and on inspections.
from each Member State and one representative from
the Commission. The board elects a chairperson and a WORKING METHODS
deputy chairperson from among its members. The term The management board develops transparent procedures
of office is three years and is renewable. for the adoption of opinions, acceptable means of
compliance and guidance material. These procedures
The management board exercises a supervisory function. must ensure the use of the relevant expertise, wide
It appoints the executive director, adopts the annual consultation of all interested parties and the right of
report and work program (after approva l by the each Member State to be associated with the adoption
Commission) and makes budgetary decisions. The process. Special procedures must be developed to allow
board dictates the working procedures to be followed the Agency to take immediate action in case of safety

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 1.7


Eng. M. Rasool

Figure 1-4. EASA Corporate structure.

problems. Similar transparent procedures apply in the FINANCIAL REQUIREMENTS


case of individual decisions. The Agency's budget is financed by a contribution from
the EU fees. It charges fees for publications and training
The Agency and the qualified entities acting on its it provides. Financial control is ensured by the financial
behalf may undertake the inspections and investigations controller of the Commission. A court of auditors of
necessar y in order to perform the tasks assigned the European Communities examines the Agency's
to them. The Agency conducts inspections in the accounts and publishes an annual report on EASA’s
Member States to verify that EASA regulations and activities. The discharge of the Agency budget is given
implementing rules are applied correctly. The Agency to the Executive Director by the European Parliament.
is authorized to conduct the investigations required A financial regulation specifying the procedure to be
in order to issue any relevant certificates and ensure followed in preparing and implementing the budget is
continued safety oversight. adopted by the management board, after obtaining the

1.8 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
agreement of the Commission and the opinion of the REGULATION (EC) 216/2008
court of auditors. Regulation (EC) 216/2008 of the European Parliament
and of the EU Council was passed on 20 February

FRAMEWORK
REGULATORY
THE ROLE OF MEMBERS 2008. It established common rules in the field of civil
STATES aviation and it established the European Aviation
Safety Agency (EASA). In the process, it paved the way
The role of EASA Member States is limited to providing for EASA authority and development while repealing
expertise as appropriate for rulemaking and certification other Council directives on aviation previously on
tasks. They issue individual airworthiness certificates the books. This regulation applies to the design,
and approvals to organizations and personnel in their production, maintenance and operation of aeronautical
territory. If required, the Member States take action products, parts and appliances, as well as personnel and
on a case by case basis to ensure safety or appropriate organizations involved in the design, production and
operational flexibility. maintenance of such products, parts and appliances.
It also applies to personnel and organizations involved
SHARING OF ROLES in the operation of aircraft. EC 216/2008 does not
Many functions of the Member States are shared apply when products, parts, appliances, personnel and
responsibilities with EASA as a whole or with the organizations are engaged in military, customs, police,
European Commission. Others are the sole responsibility or similar services. Member States must ensure that
of that country’s Civil Aviation Authority. The table such services are practicable in their own countries and
below gives insight as to the role of each entity in some are aligned with objective set forth in EC 216/2008.
common functions.
REGULATION (EC) 748/2012
MEMBER STATE OBLIGATION C om m i s s ion R e g u l at ion ( E C) 74 8 /2 01 2 of 3
Since the Community is a supranational organization, August 2012 established implementing rules for the
Member States may no longer issue their own rules, air worthiness and environmental certif ication of
dev iate from common r u les, impose add itiona l aircraft and related products, parts and appliances, as
requirement to EASA rules, or conclude arrangements well as for the certification of design and production
with third countries. organizations. It defines common technical requirements
and administrative procedures for the airworthiness
RULES AND AUTHORITY and environmental certification of products, parts and
appliances. (EC) 748/2012 specifies and/or authorizes
The European Commission has adopted standards for the following:
rule making. The chart in Figure 1-5 illustrates the a. The issue of type-certif icates, restricted type-
establishing regulations and the locations of various certif icates, supplemental type-certif icates and
functions under those regulations. changes to those certificates.

STANDARDS CERTIFICATES
Airworthiness/Environment
Type certificates EASA/EC EASA
Design Organization Approvals EASA/EC EASA
Individual Airworthiness Certificates EASA/EC CAA
Production Organization Approvals (EC) EASA/EC CAA
Production Organization Approvals (non-EC) EASA/EC EASA

Maintenance (145, Subpart-F, CAMO, 66, 147)


Organizations (Non-EC country) EASA EASA
Organizations (EC country) EASA/EC CAA
Part-66 Licenses (Only issued by Member State) EASA/EC CAA

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 1.9


Eng. M. Rasool
Commission Regulation
(EC) 216/2008

Airworthiness and
Environmental Certification
Regulation (EC) 748/2012

Section A: Annex (Part 21)


Requirements for applicants and acquired rights
and obligations.

Section B: Certification
Procedures for competent authorities. Specifications
CS22 - CS23 - CS25...
Appendix:
EASA Forms

Regulation (EC) 1321/2014


Continuing airworthiness of aircraft
and aeronautical products

Annex I Part M
Continuing Airworthiness

Section A:
Requirements for applicants and acquired rights
Annex II Part 145 and obligations
Maintenance Organization
Approvals
Section B:
Procedures for competent authorities

Annex III Part 66 Appendix:


Certifying Staff EASA Forms

Annex IV Part 147


Training Organization
Approvals

Figure 1-5. EASA regulations.

b. The issue of certificates of airworthiness, restricted The following def initions apply in Regulation EC
certificates of airworthiness, permits to f ly and 1702/2003:
authorized release certificates. a. "JAA" means the "Joint Aviation Authorities".
c. The issue of repair design approvals. b. "JAR" means "Joint Aviation Requirements".
d. the showing of compliance with environmental c. "Part 21" means the requirements and procedures
protection requirements. for the certification of aircraft and related products,
e. The issue of noise certificates. parts and appliances, and of design and production
f. The identification of products, parts and appliances. organizations annexed to this Regulation.
g. The certification of certain parts and appliances. d. "Pa r t-M" mea ns t he appl ic able cont i nu i ng
h. T he cer t if icat ion of desig n a nd product ion airworthiness requirements adopted in pursuance to
organizations. the basic Regulation.
i. The issue of airworthiness directives.

1.10 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
REGULATION (EC) 1321/2014 MULTILATERAL COOPERATION
Another Commission regulation (EC) 1321/2014 EA SA helps t he EU and its Member States in
was passed on 26 November 2014. It deals with the harmonizing its rules and standards on the international

FRAMEWORK
REGULATORY
continued airworthiness of aircraft and aeronautical level. In particular, specialists from the EASA regulatory
products, parts and appliances, and the approval directorate participate in the work of ICAO.
of organizations and personnel involved in these
tasks. This Regulation establishes common technical BILATERAL COOPERATION
requirements and administrative procedures for The Agency acts in a way to promote circulation of
ensuring the continuing airworthiness of aircraft. European products and services throughout the world.
This includes any component for installation on It assists third country regulators with certification of
these aircraft that are either registered in a Member European products and service providers. Reciprocally,
State or registered in a third country and used by an European certificates may be issued on the basis of
operator for which a Member State ensures oversight of certificates having already been issued in third countries
operations. The provisions of (EC) 1321/2014 related when there is sufficient confidence in the standards used
to commercial air transport are applicable to licensed by those countries. To do this, the EU must conclude
air carriers as defined by EU law. bilateral agreements or arrangements dependent on the
nature of the subject. Functioning arrangements have
AIR TRANSPORT EASA OPERATIONS been concluded with Brazil, Canada, China, Israel,
Aircraft used for commercial air transport must be Japan, New Zealand, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore,
maintained in an airworthy condition in accordance United States and the Committee of Aviation Interstates
with Part-M of EASA regulations. Maintenance must of the Community of Independent States.
be performed by a Part 145 approved maintenance
organization using Part 66 qualified personnel trained DEVELOPING NATION ASSISTANCE
in a Part 147 approved training center. To ensure the highest level of civil aircraft safety,
because European citizens travel throughout the world
EASA RELATIONS WITH and because third country aircraft use EC airports, the
THE OTHER AVIATION EASA assists developing countries in improving their
AUTHORITIES standardization rules. In these endeavors, the Agency
acts in tandem with the European Commission on the
EASA r u le mak ing is tight ly coordinated w ith development and execution of significant cooperation
internationa l cooperation. The development of projects in Asia and Central America.
international standards may become EU law. There are
agreements and international arrangements in place in
the European Community which are considered during
EASA operations. EASA works in concert with Member
State national aviation authorities to be effective.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 1.11


Eng. M. Rasool

1.12 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool

QUESTIONS
Question: 1-1 Question: 1-5

FRAMEWORK
REGULATORY
The Chicago Convention on civil aviation of EASA and its executive director are under the
1944 defines the rights and obligations for the supervision of an __________________ board of the
__________________ of aircraft. Agency.

Question: 1-2 Question: 1-6


The International Air Services Transit Agreement A __________________ is set up to review individual
that is known as the "Two Freedom” agreement allows decisions taken by the Agency.
aircraft to __________________ the territory of
signatory countries.

Question: 1-3 Question: 1-7


Annex 1 of ICAO is concerned with Aircraft used for commercial air transport must be
__________________ licensing. maintained in an airworthy condition in accordance
with __________________ of EASA regulations.

Question: 1-4
The __________________ presents legislative
proposals and oversees the application of policies and
implementation of the EU budget.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 1.13


Eng. M. Rasool

ANSWERS
Answer: 1-1 Answer: 1-5
operation. independent.

Answer: 1-2 Answer: 1-6


overfly. board of appeals.

Answer: 1-3 Answer: 1-7


personnel. Part-M.

Answer: 1-4
European Commission (EC).

1.14 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool

CERTIFYING STAFF
MAINTENANCE
PART-66 SYLLABUS LEVELS
CERTIFICATION CATEGORY ¦ A B1 B2

Sub-Module 02
CERTIFYING STAFF — MAINTENANCE
Knowledge Requirements

10.2 - Certifying Staff — Maintenance 2 2 2


Detailed understanding of Part-66.

Level 2
A general knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject
and an ability to apply that knowledge.

Objectives:
(a) The applicant should be able to understand the theoretical
fundamentals of the subject.
(b) The applicant should be able to give a general description of the
subject using, as appropriate, typical examples.
(c) The applicant should be able to use mathematical formula in
conjunction with physical laws describing the subject.
(d) The applicant should be able to read and understand sketches,
drawings and schematics describing the subject.
(e) The applicant should be able to apply his knowledge in a practical
manner using detailed procedures.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 2.1


Eng. M. Rasool
INTRODUCTION maintenance of large aircraft, have appropriate
aircraft type rated certifying staff qualif ied as
Current EASA Part-66 succeeds the Joint Aviation category C in accordance with Part-66 and 145.A.35.
Requirements (JARS) Part-66 that previously bound In addition the organization shall have sufficient
the European Union states in a collaborative aviation aircraft type rated staff qualified as category B1
safety effort. EASA Part-66 sets forth the requirements and B2 in accordance with Part-66 and 145.A.35 to
applicable to aircraft maintenance staffs that issue support the category C certifying staff.
certificates of ‘release to service’ of aircraft or aircraft
parts under the framework of EASA Part 145. Approved B1 and B2 support staff shall ensure that all relevant
Maintenance Organizations. A brief timeline of the tasks or inspections have been carried out to the required
evolution that has resulted in today’s EASA Part-66 is standard before the category C certifying staff issues the
as follows: certificate of release to service.
• Date of approval of the JAR66
December 1997 The organization shall maintain a register of any such B1
• Beginning of Implementation of JAR66 and B2 support staff.
June 1st, 1998
• Mandatory Application of JAR66 The category C certifying staff shall ensure that
June 1st, 2001 compliance has been met and that all work required
• Entrance into force of EASA by the customer has been accomplished during the
September 23rd, 2003 particular base maintenance check or work package, and
• Enter into force of EASA Part-66 shall also assess the impact of any work not carried out
September 28th, 2004 with a view to either requiring its accomplishment or
agreeing with the operator to defer such work to another
GENERAL specified check or time limit.

The implementation of EASA Part-66 regulations DEFINITIONS


(Annex III of the EC 1321/2014) is directly linked to Within the scope of the basic Regulation, the following
EASA Part 145 requirements. definitions shall apply:
• Aeroplane/Airplane: an engine driven fixed-wing
Part 145, paragraph 145.A.30 (g) and (h) specify: aircraft heavier than air, that is supported inflight
g. Any organization maintaining aircraft, except by the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings.
where stated otherwise, shall in the case of aircraft • Aircraft: any machine that can derive support in the
line maintenance, have appropriate aircraft rated atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than
certifying staff qualified as category B1, B2, B3, as reactions of the air against the earth’s surface.
appropriate, in accordance with Annex III (Part-66) • Airframe: the fuselage, booms, nacelles, cowlings,
and point 145.A.35. fairings, airfoil surfaces (including rotors but
excluding propellers and rotating airfoils of engines),
In addition, such organizations may also use appropriately and landing gear of an aircraft and their accessories
task trained certifying staff holding the privileges and controls.
described in points 66.A.20(a)(1) and 66.A.20(a)(3)(ii) • Certifying staff: personnel responsible for the release
and qualified in accordance with Annex III (Part-66) of an aircraft or a component after maintenance.
and point 145.A.35 to carry out minor scheduled line • Component: any engine, propeller, part or appliance.
maintenance and simple defect rectification. • Continuing airworthiness: all of the processes
ensuring that, at any time in its operating life, the
The availability of such certifying staff shall not replace aircraft complies with the airworthiness requirements
the need for category B1, B2, B3 certifying staff, as in force and is in a condition for safe operation.
appropriate. • Helicopter: a rotorcraft that, for its vertical motion,
h. Any organization maintaining aircraft, except depends principally on its engine-driven rotors.
where stated otherwise, shall in the case of base • EASA: European Aviation Safety Agency.

2.2 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
• Large Aircraft: an aircraft, classified as an aeroplane established at more than one location whether or not
with a maximum takeoff mass of more than 5 700 within the territory of the Member States.
kg, or a multiengined helicopter. • Pref light inspection: the inspection carried out
• Maintenance: any one or combination of overhaul, before flight to ensure that the aircraft is fit for the
repair, inspection, replacement, modification or intended flight.
defect rectification of an aircraft or component, • Propeller: a complete propeller including all parts

CERTIFYING STAFF
with the exception of pref light inspection. attached to and rotating with the hub and blades,

MAINTENANCE
• Organization: a natural person, a legal person or and all equipment required for the control and
part of a legal person. Such an organization may be operation of the propeller.

PART-66

The basis of Part-66 is Annex III of Regulation (EC) 1. Group 1: complex engine powered aircraft as well
1321/2014. as multiple engine helicopters, airplanes with
maximum certified operating altitude exceeding
SCOPE (66.A.1) FL290, aircraft equipped with fly-by-wire systems
The following sections establish the requirements for the and other aircraft requiring an aircraft type rating
issue of an aircraft maintenance license and conditions when defined so by the Agency.
of its validity and use for airplanes and helicopters. The 2. Group 2: aircraft other than those in Group 1
Part-66 section(s) from which the information is taken belonging to the following subgroups:
is located in parenthesis and lettering or numbering of • Sub-group 2a: single turbo-propeller engine
subsections is retained in most cases. A blank Part-66 airplanes
license is shown in Figure 2-1. • Sub-group 2b: single turbine engine helicopters
• Sub-group 2c: single piston engine helicopters.
LICENSE CATEGORIES (66.A.3) 3. Group 3: piston engine airplanes other than those
i. Aircraft maintenance licenses include the following in Group 1.
categories:
• Category A APPLICATION (66.A.10)
• Category B1 Note: The “competent authority” specified below is
• Category B2 typically the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) of a country.
• Category B3 a. An application for an aircraft maintenance license or
• Category C change to such license shall be made on an EASA
j. License categories A and B1 are subdivided into Form 19 in a manner established by the competent
subcategories depending on the kind of aircraft authority and submitted thereto. (Figure 2-2)
and the type of powerplant(s) installed. These b. T he appl icat ion for a change to an a ircra f t
subcategories are: maintenance license shall be made to the competent
• A1 and B1.1 Airplanes Turbine authority of the Member State that issued the
• A2 and B1.2 Airplanes Piston aircraft maintenance license.
• A3 and B1.3 Helicopters Turbine c. In addition to the documents required in points
• A4 and B1.4 Helicopters Piston 66.A.10(a), 66.A.10(b) and 66.B.105, as appropriate,
k. Category B3 is applicable to piston-engine non- the applicant for additional basic categories or
pressurized airplanes of 2000 kg MTOM and below. subcategories to an aircraft maintenance license shall
submit his/her current original aircraft maintenance
AIRCRAFT GROUPS (66.A.5) license to the competent authority together with the
For the purpose of ratings on aircraft maintenance EASA Form 19.
licenses, aircraft shall be classified in the following
groups:

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 2.3


Eng. M. Rasool

Figure 2-1. A Part-66 aircraft maintenance license.

2.4 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool

CERTIFYING STAFF
MAINTENANCE
Figure 2-2. Form 19 application for an aircraft maintenance license (AML).

d. Where the applicant for change of the basic categories ELIGIBILITY (66.A.15)
qualifies for such change via the procedure referred An applicant for an aircraft maintenance license shall be
to in point 66.B.100 in a Member State other than at least 18 years of age.
the Member State which issued the license, the
application shall be sent to the competent authority PRIVILEGES (66.A.20)
referred to in point 66.1. The following privileges shall apply:
e. W here the applicant for change of the basic 1. A category A aircraft maintenance license permits
categories qua lif ies for such change v ia the the holder to issue certificates of release to service
procedure referred to in point 66.B.105 in a following minor scheduled line maintenance and
Member State other than the Member State which simple defect rectification within the limits of tasks
issued the license, the maintenance organization specifically endorsed on the certification authorization
approved in accordance with Annex II (Part- referred to in point 145.A.35 of Annex II (Part-145).
145) shall send the aircraft maintenance license The certification privileges shall be restricted to work
together with the EASA Form 19 to the competent that the license holder has personally performed
authority referred to in point 66.1 for stamp and in the maintenance organization that issued the
signature of the change or reissue of the license, as certification authorization.
appropriate. 2. A category B1 aircraft maintenance license shall
f. E a c h a p p l i c a t i o n s h a l l b e s u p p o r t e d b y permit the holder to issue certificates of release to
documentation to demonstrate compliance with service and to act as B1 support staff following:
the applicable theoretical knowledge, practical • Maintenance performed on aircraft structure,
training and experience requirements at the time powerplant and mechanical and electrical systems,
of application. • Work on avionic systems requiring only simple

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 2.5


Eng. M. Rasool
tests to prove their ser viceabilit y and not respective specialization. The principal function of
requiring troubleshooting. the category C certifying staff is to ensure that all
3. A category B2 aircraft maintenance license shall required maintenance has been called up and signed
permit the holder to issue certificates of release to off by the category B1, B2 and B3 support staff, as
service and to act as B2 support staff for following: appropriate, before issue of the certificate of release
• Ma intena nce per for med on av ion ic a nd to service. Only category C personnel who also hold
electrical systems, and category B1, B2 or B3 qualifications may perform
• Electrical and avionics tasks within power plant both roles in base maintenance.
and mechanical systems, requiring only simple
tests to prove their serviceability, and REQUIREMENTS FOR EXERCISING
• Minor scheduled line maintenance and simple PRIVILEGES
defect rectification within the limits of tasks The holder of an aircraft maintenance license may not
specif ically endorsed on the certif ication exercise its privileges unless:
authorization referred to in point 145.A.35 of a. In compliance with the applicable requirements of
Annex II (Part-145). This certification privilege Annex I (Part-M) and Annex II (Part-145); and
shall be restricted to work that the license holder b. In the preceding tqo year period he/she has,
has personally performed in the maintenance either had six months of maintenance experience
organization which issued the certif ication in accordance with the privileges granted by the
authorization and limited to the ratings already aircraft maintenance license or, met the provision
endorsed in the B2 license. for the issue of the appropriate privileges; and
4. A category B3 aircraft maintenance license shall c. He/she has the adequate competence to certify
permit the holder to issue certificates of release to maintenance on the corresponding aircraft; and
service and to act as B3 support staff for: d. He/she is able to read, write and communicate to an
• Maintenance performed on airplane structure, understandable level in the language(s) in which the
power plant and mechanical and electrical technical documentation and procedures necessary
systems, to support the issue of the certificate of release to
• Work on av ionic systems requir ing on ly service are written.
simple tests to prove their serviceability and
not requiring troubleshooting. DEFINITIONS FOR EXERCISING PRIVILEGES
The category B3 license does not include any A The following definitions apply: (GM.66.20)
subcategory. Nevertheless, this does not prevent the
B3 license holder from releasing maintenance tasks Electrical system: the aircraft electrical power supply
typical of the A1.2 subcategory for piston engine source, plus the distribution system to the different
nonpressurized aeroplanes of 2000 Kg MTOM and components contained in the aircraft and relevant
below, within the limitations contained in the B3 connectors. Lighting systems are also included in this
license. definition. When working on cables and connectors
5. A category C aircraft maintenance license shall which are part of these electrical systems, the following
permit the holder to issue certificates of release to typical practices are included in the privileges:
service following base maintenance on aircraft. The • Continuity, insulation and bonding techniques and
privileges apply to the aircraft in its entirety. testing.
• Crimping and testing of crimped joints.
The category C license permits certif ication of • Connector pin removal and insertion.
scheduled base maintenance by the issue of a single • Wiring protection techniques.
certificate of release to service for the complete
aircraft after the completion of all such maintenance. Avionics system: an aircraft system that transfers,
The basis for this certification is that the maintenance processes, displays or stores analogue or digital data
has been carried out by competent mechanics and using data lines, data buses, coaxial cables, wireless
category B1, B2 and B3 support staff, as appropriate, or other data transmission medium, and includes the
have signed for the maintenance tasks under their system’s components and connectors.

2.6 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
Examples of avionics systems include the following: • Defect rectification.
• Autoflight. • Component replacement with use of external test
• Communication, Radar and Navigation. equipment, if required. Component replacement
• Instruments (see NOTE below). may include components such as engines and
• In Flight Entertainment Systems. propellers.
• Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA). • Scheduled maintenance and/or checks including

CERTIFYING STAFF
• On-Board Maintenance Systems. v isua l inspec t ions t hat w i l l detec t obv ious

MAINTENANCE
• Information Systems. unsatisfactory conditions/discrepancies but do not
• Fly by Wire Systems, require extensive in depth inspection. It may also
(related to ATA27 “Flight Controls”). include internal structure, systems and power plant
• Fibre Optic Control Systems. items which are visible through quick opening
access panels/doors.
NOTE: Instruments are formally included within • Minor repairs and modifications which do not require
the privileges of the B2 license holders. However, extensive disassembly and can be accomplished by
maintenance on electromechanical and pitot-static simple means.
components may also be released by a B1 license holder. • For temporary or occasional cases (Airworthiness
Directives (AD’s) and Service Bulletins (SB’s) the
Simple test: a test described in approved maintenance quality manager may accept base maintenance tasks
data and meeting all the following criteria: to be performed by a line maintenance organization
• The serviceability of the system can be verified using provided all requirements are fulfilled. The Member
aircraft controls, switches, Built-in Test Equipment State will prescribe the conditions under which
(BITE), Central Maintenance Computer (CMC) or these tasks may be performed.
external test equipment not involving special training.
• The outcome of the test is a unique go – no go Base maintenance: any task falling outside the criteria
indication or parameter, which can be a single that are given above for line maintenance.
value or a value within an interval tolerance. No
interpretation of the test result or interdependence of NOTE: Aircraft maintained in accordance with
different values is allowed. "progressive" type programs need to be individually
• The test does not involve more than 10 actions as assessed in relation to this paragraph. In principle,
described in the approved maintenance data (not the decision to allow some "progressive" checks to be
including those required to configure the aircraft carried out is determined by the assessment that all
prior to the test, i.e. jacking, flaps down, etc, or tasks within the particular check can be carried out
to return the aircraft to its initial configuration). safely to the required standards at the designated line
Pushing a control, switch or button, and reading maintenance station.
the corresponding outcome may be considered as
a single step even if the maintenance data shows BASIC KNOWLEDGE
them separated. REQUIREMENTS (66.A.25)
a. An applicant for an aircraft maintenance license,
Troubleshooting: the procedures and actions necessary, or the addition of a category or subcategory to such
using approved maintenance data, in order to identify a license, shall demonstrate by examination a level
the root cause of a defect or malfunction. It may include of knowledge in the appropriate subject modules
the use of BITE or external test equipment. in accordance with the Appendix I to Annex III
(Part-66). The appropriate subject module license
Line maintenance: any maintenance that is carried category chart from Appendix 1 is reproduced
out before flight to ensure that the aircraft is fit for the on the “Welcome” page at the beginning of this
intended flight. module. The examination shall be conducted either
by a training organization appropriately approved
It may include: in accordance with Annex IV (Part-147) or by the
• Trouble shooting. competent authority.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 2.7


Eng. M. Rasool
b. The training courses and examinations shall be passed training course approved in accordance with
within 10 years prior to the application for an aircraft Annex IV (Part-147).
maintenance license or the addition of a category c. For category C with respect to large aircraft:
or subcategory to such aircraft maintenance license. • Three years of experience exercising category
Should this not be the case, examination credits may B1.1, B1.3 or B2 privileges on large aircraft or
however be obtained in accordance with point (c). as support staff according to point 145.A.35, or,
c. The applicant may apply to the competent authority a combination of both; or
for full or partial examination credit to the basic • Five years of experience exercising category
knowledge requirements for: B1.2 or B1.4 privileges on large aircraft or as
• Basic knowledge examinations that do not meet support staff according to point 145.A.35, or a
the requirement described in point (b) above, and combination of both.
• Any other technical qualification considered by d. For category C with respect to other than large
the competent authority to be equivalent to the aircraft:
knowledge standard of Annex III (Part-66). • Three years of experience exercising category B1
or B2 privileges on other than large aircraft or as
Credits sha l l be granted in accordance w ith support staff according to point 145.A.35(a), or a
Subpart-E of Section B of this Annex (Part-66). combination of both;
d. Credits expire 10 years after they are granted to the e. For category C obtained through the academic
applicant by the competent authority. The applicant route:
may apply for new credits after expiration. • an applicant holding an academic degree in
a technical discipline, from a university or
BASIC EXPERIENCE other higher educational institution recognized
REQUIREMENTS (66.A.30) by the competent authority, three years of
NEW LICENSE experience working in a civil aircraft maintenance
An applicant for an aircraft maintenance license shall environment on a representative selection of tasks
have acquired: directly associated with aircraft maintenance
a. For category A, subcategories B1.2 and B1.4 and including 6 months of observation of base
category B3: maintenance tasks.
• Three years of practical maintenance experience
on operating aircraft, if the applicant has no LICENSE EXTENSION
previous relevant technical training; or An applicant for an extension to an aircraft maintenance
• Two years of practical maintenance experience license shall have a minimum civil aircraft maintenance
on operating aircraft and completion of training experience requirement appropriate to the additional
considered relevant by the competent authority category or subcategory of license applied for as defined
as a skilled worker, in a technical trade; or in Appendix IV to this Annex (Part-66). The experience
• One year of practical maintenance experience shall be practical and involve a representative cross
on operating aircraft and completion of a basic section of maintenance tasks on aircraft. At least 1 year
training course approved in accordance with of the required experience shall be recent maintenance
Annex IV (Part-147). experience on aircraft of the category/subcategory for
b. For category B2 and subcategories B1.1 and B1.3: which the initial aircraft maintenance license is sought.
• Five years of practical maintenance experience
on operating aircraft if the applicant has no For subsequent category/subcategory additions to an
previous relevant technical training; or existing aircraft maintenance license, the additional
• Three years of practical maintenance experience recent maintenance experience required may be less than
on operating aircraft and completion of training one year, but shall be at least three months. The required
considered relevant by the competent authority experience shall be dependent upon the difference
as a skilled worker, in a technical trade; or between the license category/subcategory held and
• Two years of practical maintenance experience applied for. Such additional experience shall be typical
on operating aircraft and completion of a basic of the new license category/subcategory sought.

2.8 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
ALTERNATE EXPERIENCE 1. For Group 1 aircraft, the appropriate
Notwithstanding paragraph (a), aircraft maintenance aircraft type rating.
experience gained outside a civil aircraft maintenance 2. For Group 2 aircraft, the appropriate
environment shall be accepted when such maintenance aircraft type rating, manufacturer sub-
is equivalent to that required by this Annex (Part-66) group rating or full sub-group rating.
as established by the competent authority. Additional 3. For Group 3 aircraft, the appropriate

CERTIFYING STAFF
experience of civil aircraft maintenance shall, however, aircraft type rating or full group rating.

MAINTENANCE
be required to ensure adequate understanding of the • For category B3, the relevant rating is ‘piston-
civil aircraft maintenance environment. Experience engine non-pressurized airplanes of 2 000 kg
shall have been acquired within the 10 years preceding MTOM and below.
the application for an aircraft maintenance license or the • For category A, no rating is required, subject
addition of a category or subcategory to such a license. to compliance with the requirements of point
145.A.35 of Annex II (Part-145).
CONTINUED VALIDITY OF THE b. The endorsement of aircraft type ratings requires
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE LICENSE the satisfactory completion of the relevant category
(66.A.40) B1, B2 or C aircraft type training.
a. The aircraft maintenance license becomes invalid c. In addition to the requirement of point (b), the
five years after its last issue or change, unless the endorsement of the first aircraft type rating within
holder submits his/her aircraft maintenance license a given category/subcategory requires satisfactory
to the competent authority that issued it, in order to completion of the corresponding on the job training,
verify that the information contained in the license as described in Appendix III to Annex III (Part-66).
is the same as that contained in the competent d. By derogation from points (b) and (c), for Group 2
authority records, pursuant to point 66.B.120. and Group 3 aircraft, aircraft type ratings may also
b. The holder of an aircraft maintenance license shall be granted after:
complete the relevant parts of EASA Form 19 (see • Satisfactory completion of the relevant category
Appendix V) and submit it with the holder’s copy B1, B2 or C aircraft type examination described
of the license to the competent authority that issued in Appendix III to this Annex (Part-66); and
the original aircraft maintenance license, unless the • In the case of B1 and B2 category, demonstration
holder works in a maintenance organization approved of practical experience on the aircraft type. In
in accordance with Annex II (Part-145) that has a that case, the practical experience shall include
procedure in its exposition whereby such organization a representative cross section of maintenance
may submit the necessary documentation on behalf of activities relevant to the license category.
the aircraft maintenance license holder. In the case of a category C rating for a person
qualified by holding an academic degree as specified
Any certif ication privilege based upon an aircraft in point 66.A.30(a)(5), the first relevant aircraft type
maintenance license becomes invalid as soon as the examination shall be at the category B1 or B2 level.
aircraft maintenance license is invalid. The aircraft e. For Group 2 aircraft:
maintenance license is only valid when issued and/ 1. The endorsement of manufacturer sub-group
or changed by the competent authority and when the ratings for category B1 and C license holders
holder has signed the document. requires complying with the aircraft t ype
rating requirements of at least two aircraft
ENDORSEMENT WITH AIRCRAFT t y pes from the same manufacturer which
RATINGS (66.A.45) combined are representative of the applicable
a. In order to be entitled to exercise certif ication manufacturer sub-group.
privileges on a specific aircraft type, the holder of an 2. The endorsement of full sub-group ratings for
aircraft maintenance license needs to have his/her category B1 and C license holders requires
license endorsed with the relevant aircraft ratings. comply ing w it h t he a ircra f t t y pe rat ing
• For category B1, B2 or C the relevant aircraft requirements of at least three aircraft types
ratings are the following: from different manufacturers which combined

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 2.9


Eng. M. Rasool
are representative of the applicable sub-group. • A f ter a satisfactor y practica l assessment
3. The endorsement of manufacturer sub-groups performed by the competent authority.
and full sub-group ratings for category B2 license c. For limitations referred to in point 66.A.70,
holders requires demonstration of practical limitations shall be removed upon satisfactory
experience which shall include a representative completion of examination on those modules/
cross section of maintenance activities relevant to subjects defined in the applicable conversion report
the license category and to the applicable aircraft referred to in point 66.B.300.
sub-group.
f. For Group 3 aircraft: EVIDENCE OF QUALIFICATION
1. The endorsement of the full Group 3 rating for (66.A.55)
category B1, B2 and C license holders requires Personnel exercising certification privileges as well as
demonstration of practical experience, which support staff shall produce their license, as evidence
shall include a representative cross section of of qualification, within 24 hours upon request by an
maintenance activities relevant to the license authorized person.
category and to the group 3.
2. For category B1, unless the applicant provides CONVERSION PROVISIONS (66.A.70)
evidence of appropriate experience, the group 3 a. The holder of a certifying staff qualification valid in
rating shall be subject to the following limitations, a Member State, prior to the date of entry into force
which shall be endorsed on the license: of Annex III (Part-66) shall be issued an aircraft
• Pressurized airplanes. maintenance license by the competent authority of
• Metal structure airplanes. this Member State without further examination
• Composite structure airplanes. subject to the conditions specified in Section B
• Wooden structure airplanes. Subpart-D.
• Airplanes with metal tubing structure b. A person undergoing a certifying staff qualification
covered with fabric. process valid in a Member State, prior to the date
g. For the B3 license: of entry into force of Annex III (Part-66) may
1. The endorsement of the rating "piston-engine continue to be qualified. The holder of a certifying
non-pressurized airplanes of 2000 kg MTOM staff qualification gained following such process
and below" requires demonstration of practical shall be issued an aircraft maintenance license by
experience which shall include a representative the competent authority of this Member State
cross-section of maintenance activities relevant without further examination subject to the conditions
to the license category. specified in Section B Subpart-D.
2. Unless the applicant provides evidence of c. Where necessary, the aircraft maintenance license
appropriate experience, the rating referred to in shall contain limitations in accordance with point
point 1 shall be subject to the following limitations, 66.A.50 to ref lect the differences between (i) the
which shall be endorsed on the license: scope of the certifying staff qualification valid in
• Wooden structure airplanes the Member State before the entry into force of this
• Airplanes with metal tubing structure Regulation and (ii) the basic knowledge requirements
covered with fabric and the basic examination standards laid down in
• Metal structure airplanes Appendix I and II to this Annex (Part-66).
• Composite structure airplanes. d. By derogation to paragraph (c) for aircraft not
involved in commercial air transport other than
LIMITATIONS (66.A.50) large aircraft, the aircraft maintenance license shall
a. Limitations introduced on an aircraft maintenance contain limitations in accordance with point 66.A.50
license are exclusions from the certification privileges to ensure that the certifying staff privileges valid in
and affect the aircraft in its entirety. the Member State before the entry into force of this
b. For limitations referred to in point 66.A.45, limitations Regulation and the privileges of the converted Part-
shall be removed upon: 66 aircraft maintenance license remain the same.
• Demonstration of appropriate experience; or

2.10 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
PART-66.B PROCEDURES FOR COMPETENT AUTHORITIES

The procedures to be followed by Member State LEVEL 2: A general knowledge of the theoretical and
competent authorities is given in Section B of Part-66. practical aspects of the subject and an ability to apply
that knowledge. Objectives:
SCOPE (66.B.1) a. The applicant should be able to understand the

CERTIFYING STAFF
This section establishes the procedures including the theoretical fundamentals of the subject.

MAINTENANCE
administrative requirements to be followed by the b. The applicant should be able to give a general
competent authorities in charge of the implementation and description of the subject using, as appropriate,
the enforcement of Section A of this Annex (Part-66). typical examples.
c. The applicant should be able to use mathematical
BASIC KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS formulae in conjunction with physical laws describing
Knowledge levels for Category A, B1, B2, B3 and C the subject.
Aircraft Maintenance License Basic knowledge for d. The applicant should be able to read and understand
categories A, B1, B2 and B3 are indicated by knowledge sketches, drawings and schematics describing the
levels (1, 2 or 3) against each applicable subject. Category subject.
C applicants shall meet either the category B1 or the e. The applicant should be able to apply his knowledge in
category B2 basic knowledge levels. a practical manner using detailed procedures.

The knowledge level indicators are defined on 3 levels as LEVEL 3: A detailed knowledge of the theoretical and
follows: practical aspects of the subject and a capacity to combine
and apply the separate elements of knowledge in a
LEVEL 1: A familiarisation with the principal elements logical and comprehensive manner. Objectives:
of the subject. Objectives: a. The applicant should know the theory of the subject
a. The applicant should be familiar with the basic and interrelationships with other subjects.
elements of the subject. b. The applicant should be able to give a detailed
b. The applicant should be able to give a simple descr ipt ion of t he subject using t heoret ica l
description of the whole subject, using common fundamentals and specific examples.
words and examples. c. The applicant should understand and be able to use
c. The applicant should be able to use typical terms. mathematical formulae related to the subject.

Figure 2-3. Part-66C Appendix IV table showing experience requirements for license extensions.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 2.11


Eng. M. Rasool
d. The applicant should be able to read, understand and 7. The applicable conversion report used for
prepare sketches, simple drawings and schematics conversion;
describing the subject. 8. The applicable credit report used for crediting.
e. The applicant should be able to apply his knowledge in c. Records referred to in points 1 to 5 of point (b) shall
a practical manner using manufacturer's instructions. be kept at least 5 years after the end of the license
f. The applicant should be able to interpret results validity.
from various sources and measurements and apply d. Records referred to in points 6, 7 and 8 of point (b)
corrective action where appropriate. shall be kept for an unlimited period.

COMPETENT AUTHORITY (66.B.10) MUTUAL EXCHANGE OF


a. General INFORMATION (66.B.25)
• The Member State shall designate a competent a. In order to implement the requirement of this
authority with allocated responsibilities for the Reg u lation, the competent authorities sha l l
issuance, continuation, change, suspension or participate in a mutual exchange of information in
revocation of aircraft maintenance licenses. accordance with Article 15 of Regulation (EC) No
• This competent authority shall establish an 216/2008.
adequate organizational structure to ensure b. Without prejudice to the competencies of the
compl ia nce w it h t h is A n ne x ( Pa r t- 6 6). Member States, in the case of a potential safety
17.12.2014 L 362/91 Official Journal of the threat involv ing severa l Member States, the
European Union EN concerned competent authorities shall assist each
b. Resources other in carrying out the necessary oversight action.
• The competent authority shall be appropriately
staffed to ensure the implementation of the EXEMPTIONS (66.B.30)
requirements of this Annex (Part-66). All exemptions granted in accordance with Article 14.4
c. Procedures of Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 shall be recorded and
• T he competent author it y sha l l establ ish retained by the competent authority.
documented procedures detailing how compliance
with this Annex (Part-66) is accomplished. These PROCEDURE FOR THE ISSUE OF AN
procedures shall be reviewed and amended to AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE LICENSE
ensure continued compliance. BY THE COMPETENT AUTHORITY
(66.B.100)
RECORD-KEEPING (66.B.20) a. On receipt of EASA Form 19 and any supporting
a. The competent authority shall establish a system of documentation, the competent authority shall verify
record-keeping that allows adequate traceability of EASA Form 19 for completeness and ensure that
the process to issue, revalidate, change, suspend or the experience claimed meets the requirement of this
revoke each aircraft maintenance license. Annex (Part-66).
b. These records shall include for each license: b. The competent authority shall verify an applicant's
1. The application for an aircraft maintenance examination status and/or confirm the validity of any
license or change to that license, including all credits to ensure that all required modules of Appendix
supporting documentation; I have been met as required by this Annex (Part- 66).
2. A copy of the aircraft maintenance license c. When having verified the identity and date of birth
including any changes; of the applicant and being satisfied that the applicant
3. Copies of all relevant correspondence; meets the standards of knowledge and experience
4. Details of any exemption and enforcement actions; required by this Annex (Part-66), the competent
5. Any report from other competent authorities authority shall issue the relevant aircraft maintenance
relating to the aircraft maintenance license license to the applicant. The same information shall
holder; be kept on competent authority records.
6. The records of examinations conducted by the d. In the case where aircraft types or groups are
competent authority; endorsed at the time of the issuance of the first

2.12 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
aircraft maintenance license, the competent authority 2. Reissue the said license to include the applicable
shall verify compliance with point 66.B.115. aircraft rating; or
3. Remove the applicable limitations in accordance
PROCEDURE FOR THE ISSUE OF with point 66.A.50. The competent authority
AN AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE record system shall be changed accordingly.
LICENSE VIA A MAINTENANCE b. In the case where the complete type training is not

CERTIFYING STAFF
ORGANIZATION APPROVED IN conducted by maintenance training organization

MAINTENANCE
ACCORDANCE WITH ANNEX appropriately approved in accordance with Annex IV
(PART-145) (66.B.105) (Part-147), the competent authority shall be satisfied
a. A maintenance organization approved in accordance that all type training requirements are complied with
with Annex II (Part-145), when authorized to before the type rating is issued.
carry out this activity by the competent authority, c. In the case where the On the Job Training is not
may (i) prepare the aircraft maintenance license required, the aircraft type rating shall be endorsed
on behalf of the competent authority or (ii) make based on a Certificate of Recognition issued by a
recommendations to the competent authorit y maintenance training organization approved in
regarding the application from an individual for a accordance with Annex IV (part-147).
aircraft maintenance license so that the competent d. In the case where the aircraft type training is not
authority may prepare and issue such license. covered by a single course, the competent authority
b. Maintenance organizations referred to in point (a) shall shall be satisfied prior to the type rating endorsement
ensure compliance with points 66.B.100 (a) and (b). that the content and length of the courses fully satisfy
c. In all cases, the aircraft maintenance license can the scope of the license category and that the interface
only be issued to the applicant by the competent areas have been appropriately addressed.
authority. e. In the case of differences training, the competent
authority shall be satisfied that (i) the applicant's
PROCEDURE FOR THE CHANGE previous qualification, supplemented by (ii) either a
OF AN AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE course approved in accordance with Annex IV (Part-
LICENSE TO INCLUDE AN 147) or a course directly approved by the competent
ADDITIONAL BASIC CATEGORY OR authority, are acceptable for type rating endorsement.
SUBCATEGORY (66.B.110) f. Compliance with the practical elements shall
a. At the completion of the procedures specif ied be demonstrated (i) by the provision of detailed
in points 66.B.100 or 66.B.105, the competent practical training records or a logbook provided by
authority shall endorse the additional basic category a maintenance organization appropriately approved
or subcategory on the aircraft maintenance license in accordance with Annex II (Part-145) or, where
by stamp and signature or reissue the license. available, (ii) by a training certificate covering the
b. The competent authority record system shall be practical training element issued by a maintenance
changed accordingly. training organization appropriately approved in
accordance with Annex IV (part-147).
PROCEDURE FOR THE CHANGE g. Aircraft type endorsement shall use the aircraft type
OF AN AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE ratings specified by the Agency.
LICENSE TO INCLUDE AN
AIRCRAFT RATING OR TO REMOVE PROCEDURE FOR THE RENEWAL
LIMITATIONS (66.B.115) OF AN AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE
a. On receipt of a satisfactory EASA Form 19 and any LICENSE VALIDITY (66.B.120)
supporting documentation demonstrating compliance a. The competent authority shall compare the holder's
with the requirements of the applicable rating together aircraft maintenance license with the competent
with the accompanying aircraft maintenance license, authority records and verify any pending revocation,
the competent authority shall either: suspension or change action pursuant to point
1. Endorse the applicant's aircraft maintenance 66.B.500. If the documents are identical and no
license with the applicable aircraft rating; or action is pending pursuant to point 66.B.500, the

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 2.13


Eng. M. Rasool
holder's copy shall be renewed for 5 years and the file • Aeroplane single piston engine — metal
endorsed accordingly. structure, either full group or manufacturer
b. If the competent authority records are different from the group: converted to ‘full group 3’. For the
aircraft maintenance license held by the license holder: B1 license the following limitations shall be
1. The competent authority shall investigate the included: composite structure aeroplanes,
reasons for such differences and may choose not wooden structure aeroplanes and metal
to renew the aircraft maintenance license. tubing and fabric aeroplanes,
2. The competent authority shall inform the • Aeroplane multiple piston engines — metal
license holder and any known maintenance structure, either full group or manufacturer
organization approved in accordance with group: converted to ‘full group 3’. For the
Annex I (Part-M) Subpart-F or Annex II (Part- B1 license the following limitations shall be
145) that may be directly affected of such fact. included: composite structure aeroplanes,
3. The competent authority shall, if necessary, take wooden structure aeroplanes and metal
action in accordance with point 66.B.500 to tubing and fabric aeroplanes,
revoke, suspend or change the license in question. • Aeroplane single piston engine — wooden
structure, either full group or manufacturer
PROCEDURE FOR THE group: converted to ‘full group 3’. For the
CONVERSION OF LICENSES B1 license the following limitations shall
INCLUDING GROUP RATINGS be included: metal structure aeroplanes,
(66.B.125) composite structure aeroplanes and metal
a. Individual aircraft type ratings already endorsed on tubing and fabric aeroplanes,
the aircraft maintenance license referred to in point • Aeroplane multiple piston engine — wooden
4 of Article 5 shall remain on the license and shall structure, either full group or manufacturer
not be converted to new ratings unless the license group: converted to ‘full group 3’. For the
holder fully meets the requirements for endorsement B1 license the following limitations shall
defined in point 66.A.45 of this Annex (Part-66) for be included: metal structure aeroplanes,
the corresponding group/sub-group ratings. composite structure aeroplanes and metal
b. The conversion shall be performed in accordance tubing and fabric aeroplanes,
with the following conversion table: • Aeroplane single piston engine — composite
1. For category B1 or C: structure, either full group or manufacturer
• Helicopter piston engine, f ul l group: group: converted to ‘full group 3’. For the
converted to ‘full sub-group 2c’ plus the B1 license the following limitations shall
aircraft type ratings for those single piston be included: metal structure aeroplanes,
engine helicopters which are in group 1, wooden structure aeroplanes and metal
• Helicopter piston engine, manufacturer group: tubing and fabric aeroplanes,
converted to the corresponding ‘manufacturer • Aeroplane mu lt iple piston eng ine —
sub- group 2c’ plus the aircraft type ratings for composite structure, either full group or
those single piston engine helicopters of that manufacturer group: converted to ‘full
manufacturer which are in group 1, group 3’. For the B1 license the following
• Helicopter turbine engine, full group: limitations shall be included: metal structure
converted to ‘full sub-group 2b’ plus the aeroplanes, wooden structure aeroplanes
aircraft type ratings for those single turbine and metal tubing and fabric aeroplanes,
engine helicopters which are in group 1, • Aeroplane turbine — single engine, full
• Helicopter turbine engine, manufacturer group: converted to ‘full sub-group 2a’ plus
group: converted to the corresponding the aircraft type ratings for those single
‘manufacturer sub- group 2b’ plus the turboprop aeroplanes which did not require
aircraft type ratings for those single turbine an aircraft t ype rating in the previous
engine helicopters of that manufacturer system and are in group 1,
which are in group 1, • Aeropla ne t u rbine — single eng ine,

2.14 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
manufacturer group: converted to the require an aircraft type rating in the previous
corresponding ‘manufacturer sub-group 2a’ system and are in group 1;
plus the aircraft type ratings for those single • Helicopter: converted to ‘full sub-groups
turboprop aeroplanes of that manufacturer 2b and 2c’, plus the aircraft type ratings for
which did not require an aircraft type rating those helicopters which did not require an
in the previous system and are in group 1, aircraft type rating in the previous system

CERTIFYING STAFF
• Aeroplane turbine — multiple engine, full and are in group 1.

MAINTENANCE
group: converted to the aircraft type ratings c. If the license was subject to limitations following the
for those multiple turboprop aeroplanes conversion process referred to in point 66.A.70, these
which did not require an aircraft type rating limitations shall remain on the license, unless they are
in the previous system; removed under the conditions defined in the relevant
2. For category B2: conversion report referred to in point 66.B.300.
• Aeroplane: converted to ‘full sub-group
2a’ and ‘full group 3’, plus the aircraft type PROCEDURE FOR THE DIRECT
ratings for those aeroplanes which did not APPROVAL OF AIRCRAFT TYPE
require an aircraft type rating in the previous TRAINING (66.B.130)
system and are in group 1, The competent authority may approve aircraft type
• Helicopter: converted to ‘full sub-groups training not conducted by a maintenance training
2b and 2c’, plus the aircraft type ratings for organization approved in accordance with Annex IV
those helicopters which did not require an (Part-147), pursuant to point one of Appendix III
aircraft type rating in the previous system to this Annex (part-66). In such case the competent
and are in group 1; authority shall have a procedure to ensure the aircraft
3. For category C: type training complies with Appendix III of this
• Aeroplane: converted to ‘full sub-group Annex (Part-66).
2a’ and ‘full group 3’, plus the aircraft type
ratings for those aeroplanes which did not

INFORMATION IN PART-66 APPENDICES

A few other areas of concern to the EASA aircraft Appendix IV specifies experience requirements for
maintenance professional are located in the Part- Part-66 license extensions. Figure 2-3 is taken from
66 Appendices. Basic examination standards are Appendix IV. It shows the experience requirements for
listed in Appendix II. This includes the number of adding a new category or subcategory to an existing
questions per each module examination and the time Part-66 license. The experience shall be practical
allotted to take each exam. Appendix III defines the maintenance experience on operating aircraft in the
aircraft type training requirements and the associated subcategory relevant to the application. Note that the
examination standards. experience requirement will be reduced by 50 % if the
applicant has completed an approved Part-147 course
relevant to the subcategory.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 2.15


Eng. M. Rasool

2.16 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool

QUESTIONS
Question: 2-1 Question: 2-5
The implementation of EASA Part-66 regulations Practical experience requirements are ____________
(Annex III of the EC 1321/2014) is directly linked to for those that complete a a basic training course
EASA Part ______ requirements. approved in accordance with Part-147.

CERTIFYING STAFF
MAINTENANCE
Question: 2-2 Question: 2-6
The license categories A1 and B1.1 permit the holder Personnel exercising certification privileges as well as
to issue certificates for release to service which kind of support staff shall produce their license, as evidence of
aircraft? qualification, within _______ hours upon request by an
authorized person.

Question: 2-3 Question: 2-7


The holder of an aircraft maintenance license may not Section B of Part 66 deals with procedure for
exercise its privileges unless,in the preceding 2-year __________________ __________________.
period, he/she has had _______ months of maintenance
experience in accordance with the privileges granted by
the aircraft maintenance license.

Question: 2-4
Instruments are formally included within the privileges
of the B2 license holders. However, maintenance on
electromechanical and pitotstatic components may also
be released by a _______ license holder.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 2.17


Eng. M. Rasool
ANSWERS

Answer: 2-1 Answer: 2-5


145. lower.

Answer: 2-2 Answer: 2-6


Airplanes turbine. 24.

Answer: 2-3 Answer: 2-7


6. competent authorities.

Answer: 2-4
B1.

2.18 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool

APPROVED MAINTENANCE
PART-66 SYLLABUS LEVELS

ORGANIZATIONS
CERTIFICATION CATEGORY ¦ A B1 B2

Sub-Module 03
APPROVED MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS
Knowledge Requirements

10.3 - Approved Maintenance Organizations 2 2 2


Detailed understanding of Part-145 and Part-M Subpart-F.

Level 2
A general knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject
and an ability to apply that knowledge.

Objectives:
(a) The applicant should be able to understand the theoretical
fundamentals of the subject.
(b) The applicant should be able to give a general description of the
subject using, as appropriate, typical examples.
(c) The applicant should be able to use mathematical formula in
conjunction with physical laws describing the subject.
(d) The applicant should be able to read and understand sketches,
drawings and schematics describing the subject.
(e) The applicant should be able to apply his knowledge in a practical
manner using detailed procedures.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 3.1


Eng. M. Rasool
INTRODUCTION by that Member State, or;
2. For organizations having their principal place of
An aircraft can be used for commercial transport when business located in a third country, the Agency
operated by an approved Air Operations operator whose
maintenance is performed by an approved Part 145 DEFINITIONS (145.A.5)
organization and certificates of release to service (CRS’s) Within the scope of the basic Regulation, the following
are issued by approved Part-66 certifying staff. Airlines definitions shall apply:
or air transport operators, are approved to operate a fleet • Aeroplane/Airplane: an engine-driven fixed-wing
of aircraft. The maintenance on the fleet is performed aircraft heavier than air that is supported in flight by
either in-house or by an external organization. the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings.
• Aircraft: any machine that can derive support in the
PART 145 atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than
reactions of the air against the earth’s surface.
The European Regulations in Part 145 related to • Airframe: the fuselage, booms, nacelles, cowlings,
maintenance organizations highlight the following fairings, airfoil surfaces (including rotors but
main features: excluding propellers and rotating airfoils of engines),
1. There is a clear distinction between the responsibilities and landing gear of an aircraft and their accessories
of a maintenance organization (Part 145) and an and controls.
operator (Air Operations). • Certifying staff: personnel responsible for the release
2. A maintenance organization must create and file of an aircraft or a component after maintenance.
with EASA a Maintenance Organization Exposition • Component: any engine, propeller, part or appliance.
(M.O.E) that contains information specifying the • Continuing airworthiness: all of the processes
scope of work performed and that shows how the ensuring that, at any time in its operating life, the
organization intends to comply with this Part. aircraft complies with the airworthiness requirements
3. The crucial role of quality assurance to guarantee, in force and is in a condition for safe operation.
with respect to the Authority, conformity with • Helicopter: a rotorcraft that, for its horizontal motion,
EASA requirements in accordance with the M.O.E. depends principally on its engine-driven rotors.
4. The importance of the CRS (Certificate of Release • EASA: “European Aviation Safety Agency”
to Service) which is a transfer of the aircraft from the • Large Aircraft: an aircraft, classified as an aero plane
maintenance organization to the operators. with a maximum takeoff mass of more than 5700 kg,
or a multi-engine helicopter.
PART 145 – MAINTENANCE • Maintenance: any one or combination of overhaul,
ORGANIZATION repair, inspection, replacement, modification or
REQUIREMENTS defect rectification of an aircraft or component, with
the exception of pre-flight inspection.
The EASA Part 145 Regulation establishes common • Organization: a natural person, a legal person or
technical requirements and administrative procedures for part of a legal person. Such an organization may be
ensuring the continuing airworthiness of aircraft, including established at more than one location whether or not
any component for installation thereto, which are: within the territory of the Member States.
• Registered in a Member State; or • Pre-flight inspection: the inspection carried out
• Registered in a third countr y and used by an before flight to ensure that the aircraft is fit for the
operator for which a Member State ensures oversight intended flight.
of operations. • Propeller: a complete propeller including all parts
attached to and rotating with the hub and blades, and
GENERAL (145.1) all equipment required for the control and operation
For the purpose of this Part, the competent authority of the propeller.
shall be:
1. For organizations having their principal place of
business in a Member State, the authority designated

3.2 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
SCOPE (145.A.10) Where dust/other airborne contamination results
This section establishes the requirements to be met by an in visible surface contamination, all susceptible
organization to qualify for the issue or continuation of an systems are sealed until acceptable conditions are
approval for the maintenance of aircraft and components. re-established.
3. Lighting is such as to ensure each inspection
APPLICATION (145.A.15) and maintenance task can be carried out in an
An application for the issue or change of an approval effective manner.
shall be made to the competent authority in a form and 4. Noise shall not distract personnel from carrying
manner established by such authority. out inspection tasks. Where it is impractical
to control the noise source, such personnel are

APPROVED MAINTENANCE
TERMS OF APPROVAL (145.A.20) provided with the necessary personal equipment

ORGANIZATIONS
The organization shall specify the scope of work to stop excessive noise causing distraction during
deemed to constit ute approva l in its exposition inspection tasks. 17.12.2014 L 362/66 Official
(Appendix IV to Annex I (Part-M) contains a table of Journal of the European Union EN
all classes and ratings). 5. Where a particular maintenance task requires the
application of specific environmental conditions
FACILITY REQUIREMENTS (145.A.25) different to the foregoing, then such conditions
The organization shall ensure that: are observed. Specific conditions are identified in
a. Facilities are provided appropriate for all planned the maintenance data.
work, ensuring in particular, protection from the 6. The working environment for line maintenance is
weather elements. Specialised workshops and bays are such that the particular maintenance or inspection
segregated as appropriate, to ensure that environmental task can be carried out without undue distraction.
and work area contamination is unlikely to occur. Therefore where the working environment
1. For base maintenance of aircraft, aircraft deteriorates to an unacceptable level in respect
hangars are both available and large enough of temperature, moisture, hail, ice, snow, wind,
to accommodate aircraft on planned base light, dust/ other airborne contamination, the
maintenance; particular maintenance or inspection tasks must
2. For component maintenance, component be suspended until satisfactory conditions are re-
workshops are large enough to accommodate the established.
components on planned maintenance. d. Secure storage facilities are provided for components,
b. Of f ice accom mod at ion is prov ided for t he equipment, tools and material. Storage conditions
management of the planned work referred to in point ensure segregation of serviceable components and
(a), and certifying staff so that they can carry out their material from unserviceable aircraft components,
designated tasks in a manner that contributes to good material, equipment and tools. The conditions of
aircraft maintenance standards. storage are in accordance with the manufacturer's
c. The working environment including aircraft hangars, instructions to prevent deterioration and damage of
component workshops and office accommodation is stored items. Access to storage facilities is restricted
appropriate for the task carried out and in particular to authorized personnel.
special requirements observed. Unless otherwise
dictated by the particular task environment, the PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
work ing env ironment must be such that the (145.A.30)
effectiveness of personnel is not impaired: Part 145 specifies the role of a few key positions in the
1. Temperatures must be maintained such that maintenance organization management hierarchy. A
personnel can carry out required tasks without chart illustrating these positions is given in Figure 3-1.
undue discomfort. a. The organization shall appoint an accountable
2. Dust and any other airborne contamination are manager who has corporate authority for ensuring
kept to a minimum and not be permitted to reach that all maintenance required by the customer can be
a level in the work task area where visible aircraft/ financed and carried out to the standard required by
component surface contamination is evident. this Part. The accountable manager shall:

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 3.3


Eng. M. Rasool

Accountable Manager

Quality Manager

Maintenance Director

B1, B2 & C Aircraft Mechanics


Planner Support Staff
Certifying Staff & Avionics

Figure 3-1. Management structure required for Part 145 maintenance operations.

1. Ensure that all necessary resources are available to d. The organization shall have a maintenance man-hour
accomplish maintenance in accordance with point plan showing that the organization has sufficient
145.A.65(b) to support the organization approval. staff to plan, perform, supervise, inspect and quality
2. Establish and promote the safety and quality monitor the organization in accordance with the
policy specified in point 145.A.65(a). approval. In addition the organization shall have a
3. Demonstrate a basic understanding of this procedure to reassess work intended to be carried out
Annex (Part-145). when actual staff availability is less than the planned
b. The organization shall nominate a person or group staffing level for any particular work shift or period.
of persons, whose responsibilities include ensuring e. The organization shall establish and control the
that the organization complies with this Part. Such competence of personnel involved in any maintenance,
person(s) shall ultimately be responsible to the management and/or quality audits in accordance with
accountable manager. a procedure and to a standard agreed by the competent
1. The person or persons nominated shall represent authority. In addition to the necessary expertise
the maintenance management structure of the related to the job function, competence must include
organization and be responsible for all functions an understanding of the application of human factors
specified in this Part. and human performance issues appropriate to that
2. The person or persons nominated shall be person's function in the organization. ‘Human factors’
identified and their credentials submitted in a means principles which apply to aeronautical design,
form and manner established by the competent certification, training, operations and maintenance
authority. and which seek safe interface between the human and
3. The person or persons nominated shall be able other system components by proper consideration of
to demonstrate relevant knowledge, background human performance. ‘Human performance’ means
and satisfactory experience related to aircraft human capabilities and limitations which have an
or component maintenance and demonstrate a impact on the safety and efficiency of aeronautical
working knowledge of this Part. operations. 17.12.2014 L 362/67 Official Journal of
4. Procedures shall make clear who deputises for the European Union EN
any particular person in the case of lengthy f. The organization shall ensure that personnel who
absence of the said person. carry out and/or control a continued airworthiness
c. The accountable manager under point (a) shall appoint non-destructive test of aircraft structures and/
a person with responsibility for monitoring the quality or components are appropriately qualified for the
system, including the associated feedback system as particular non-destructive test in accordance with the
required by point 145.A.65(c). The appointed person European or equivalent Standard recognised by the
shall have direct access to the accountable manager to Agency. Personnel who carry out any other specialised
ensure that the accountable manager is kept properly task shall be appropriately qualified in accordance with
informed on quality and compliance matters. officially recognised Standards. By derogation to this

3.4 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
point those personnel specified in points (g) and (h)(1) i. Appropriate a ircra f t rated cer tif y ing
and (h)(2), qualified in category B1 or B3 in accordance staff qualified as category B1, B2, B3, as
with Annex III (Part-66) may carry out and/or control appropriate, in accordance with Annex III
colour contrast dye penetrant tests. (Part-66) and point 145.A.35; or
g. Any organization maintaining aircraft, except where ii. Appropriate aircraft rated certifying staff
stated otherwise in point (j), shall in the case of qualified in category C assisted by support
aircraft line maintenance, have appropriate aircraft staff as specified in point 145.A.35(a)(i).
rated certifying staff qualified as category B1, B2, B3, i. Component certifying staff shall comply with Annex
as appropriate, in accordance with Annex III (Part- III (Part-66).
66) and point 145.A.35. j. By derogation to points (g) and (h), in relation to

APPROVED MAINTENANCE
the obligation to comply with Annex III (Part-66),

ORGANIZATIONS
In addition such organizations may a lso use the organization may use certifying staff qualified in
appropriately task trained certifying staff holding accordance with the following provisions:
the privileges described in points 66.A.20(a)(1) and 1. For organization facilities located outside the
66.A.20(a)(3)(ii) and qualified in accordance with Community territory certifying staff may be
Annex III (Part-66) and point 145.A.35 to carry out qualified in accordance with the national aviation
minor scheduled line maintenance and simple defect regulations of the State in which the organization
rectification. The availability of such certifying staff facility is registered subject to the conditions
shall not replace the need for category B1, B2, B3 specified in Appendix IV to this Part.
certifying staff, as appropriate. 2. For line maintenance carried out at a line station
h. Any organization maintaining aircraft, except where of an organization which is located outside the
stated otherwise in point (j) shall: Community territory, the certifying staff may be
1. In the case of base maintenance of large aircraft, qualified in accordance with the national aviation
have appropriate aircraft type rated certifying staff regulations of the State in which the line station
qualified as category C in accordance with Part-66 is based, subject to the conditions specified in
and point 145.A.35. In addition the organization Appendix IV to this Part. 17.12.2014 L 362/68
shall have sufficient aircraft type rated staff Official Journal of the European Union EN
qualified as category B1, B2 as appropriate in 3. For a repetitive pre-flight airworthiness directive
accordance with Part-66 and point 145.A.35 to which specifically states that the f light crew
support the category C certifying staff. may carry out such airworthiness directive, the
i. B1 and B2 support staff shall ensure that organization may issue a limited certification
all relevant tasks or inspections have been authorization to the aircraft commander and/
carried out to the required standard before or the flight engineer on the basis of the flight
the category C certifying staff issues the crew license held. However, the organization
certificate of release to service. shall ensure that sufficient practical training
ii. The organization shall maintain a register of has been carried out to ensure that such aircraft
any such B1 and B2 support staff. commander or flight engineer can accomplish the
iii. The category C certifying staff shall ensure airworthiness directive to the required standard.
that compliance with point (i) has been met 4. In the case of aircraft operating away from
and that all work required by the customer a supported location the organization may
has been accomplished during the particular issue a limited certification authorization to
base maintenance check or work package, the commander and/or the f light engineer
and shall also assess the impact of any work on the basis of the f light crew license held
not carried out with a view to either requiring subject to being satisfied that sufficient practical
its accomplishment or agreeing with the training has been carried out to ensure that the
operator to defer such work to another commander or flight engineer can accomplish
specified check or time limit. the specified task to the required standard. The
2. In the case of base maintenance of aircraft other provisions of this point shall be detailed in an
than large aircraft have either: exposition procedure.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 3.5


Eng. M. Rasool
5. In the following unforeseen cases, where an Evaluation of
aircraft is grounded at a location other than the Competencies

main base where no appropriate certifying staff


Type Qualified 21 Years Old
are available, the organization contracted to
provide maintenance support may issue a one-off
certification authorization:
i. to one of its employees holding equivalent
Recent Part-66
type authorizations on aircraft of similar Experience CRS Authorization License Holder
technology, construction and systems; or
ii. to any person with not less than five years
maintenance experience and holding a valid
ICAO aircraft maintenance license rated Continuous
Training MOE Training
for the aircraft type requiring certification
prov ided there is no organization Approval
Rating
appropriately approved under this Part at
that location and the contracted organization Figure 3-2. Quality system responsibilities.
obtains and holds on file evidence of the
experience and the license of that person. they may sign certificates of release to service
within the limitations stated in such authorization
All such cases as specified in this point shall be reported to on behalf of the approved organization
the competent authority within seven days of the issuance b. Excepting those cases listed in points 145.A.30(j)
of such certification authorization. The organization and 66.A.20(a)3(ii) the organization may only issue
issuing the one-off authorization shall ensure that a certification authorization to certifying staff in
any such maintenance that could affect flight safety is relation to the basic categories or subcategories and
re-checked by an appropriately approved organization. any type rating listed on the aircraft maintenance
license as required by Annex III (Part-66), subject to
CERTIFYING STAFF AND CATEGORY the license remaining valid throughout the validity
B1 AND B2 SUPPORT STAFF period of the authorization and the certifying staff
(145.A.35) remaining in compliance with Annex III (Part-66).
a. In addition to the appropriate requirements of points c. The organization shall ensure that all certifying
145.A.30(g) and (h), the organization (Figure 3-2) staff and support staff are involved in at least six
shall ensure that certifying staff and support staff have months of actual relevant aircraft or component
an adequate understanding of the relevant aircraft maintenance experience in any consecutive two year
and/or components to be maintained together with period. For the purpose of this point ‘involved in
the associated organization procedures. In the case actual relevant aircraft or component maintenance’
of certifying staff, this shall be accomplished before means that the person has worked in an aircraft
the issue or re-issue of the certification authorization. or component maintenance environment and has
i. ‘Support staff ’ means those staff holding an either exercised the privileges of the certification
aircraft maintenance license under Annex III authorization and /or has actually carried out
(Part-66) in category B1, B2 and/or B3 with the maintenance on at least some of the aircraft type
appropriate aircraft ratings, working in a base or aircraft group systems specified in the particular
maintenance environment while not necessarily certification authorization. 17.12.2014 L 362/69
holding certification privileges. Official Journal of the European Union EN
ii. ‘Relevant aircraft and/or components’, means d. The organization shall ensure that all certifying
those aircraft or components specified in the staff and support staff receive sufficient continuation
particular certification authorization. training in each two year period to ensure that
iii. C er t i f ic at ion aut hor i z at ion’ me a ns t he such staff have up to date knowledge of relevant
authorization issued to certifying staff by the technology, organization procedures and human
organization and which specifies the fact that factor issues.

3.6 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
e. The organization shall establish a programme for ceased employment with the organization or as
continuation training for certifying staff and support soon as the authorization has been withdrawn.
staff, including a procedure to ensure compliance In addition, upon request, the maintenance
with the relevant points of 145.A.35 as the basis for organization shall furnish the staff referred to in
issuing certification authorizations under this Part to this point with a copy of their personal record on
certifying staff, and a procedure to ensure compliance leaving the organization. The staff referred to in
with Annex III (Part-66). this point shall be given access on request to their
f. Except where any of the unforeseen cases of point personal records as detailed above.
145.A.30(j)(5) apply, the organization shall assess k. The organization shall provide certifying staff with
all prospective certifying staff for their competence, a copy of their certification authorization in either a

APPROVED MAINTENANCE
qualification and capability to carry out their intended documented or electronic format.

ORGANIZATIONS
certifying duties in accordance with a procedure as l. Certifying staff shall produce their certification
specified in the exposition prior to the issue or reissue authorization to any authorized person within 24
of a certification authorization under this Part. hours.
g. When the conditions of points (a), (b), (d), (f) and, m. The minimum age for certifying staff and support
where applicable, point (c) have been fulfilled by staff is 21 years.
the certifying staff, the organization shall issue a n. The holder of a category A aircraft maintenance
certification authorization that clearly specifies the license may only exercise certification privileges on
scope and limits of such authorization. Continued a specific aircraft type following the satisfactory
validity of the certification authorization is dependent completion of the relevant category A aircraft task
upon continued compliance with points (a), (b), (d), training carried out by an organization appropriately
and where applicable, (c). approved in accordance with Annex II (Part-145)
h. The certification authorization must be in a style or Annex IV (Part-147). This training shall include
that makes its scope clear to the certifying staff and practical hands on training and theoretical training
any authorized person who may require to examine as appropriate for each task authorized. Satisfactory
the authorization. Where codes are used to define completion of training shall be demonstrated by an
scope, the organization shall make a code translation examination or by workplace assessment carried out
readily available. ‘Authorized person’ means the by the organization. 17.12.2014 L 362/70 Official
officials of the competent authorities, the Agency Journal of the European Union EN
and the Member State who has responsibility for the o. The holder of a category B2 aircraft maintenance
oversight of the maintained aircraft or component. license may only exercise the certification privileges
i. The person responsible for the quality system described in point 66.A.20(a)(3)(ii) of Annex III
shall also remain responsible on behalf of the (Part-66) following the satisfactory completion of
organization for issuing certification authorizations (i) the relevant category A aircraft task training and
to certifying staff. Such person may nominate other (ii) 6 months of documented practical experience
persons to actually issue or revoke the certification covering the scope of the authorization that will be
authorizations in accordance with a procedure as issued. The task training shall include practical hands
specified in the exposition. on training and theoretical training as appropriate
j. The organization shall maintain a record of all for each task authorized. Satisfactory completion of
certifying staff and support staff, which shall contain: training shall be demonstrated by an examination
1. The details of any aircraft maintenance license or by workplace assessment. Task training and
held under Annex III (Part-66); and examination/assessment shall be carried out by the
2. All relevant training completed; and maintenance organization issuing the certifying staff
3. The scope of the certification authorizations authorization. The practical experience shall be also
issued, where relevant; and obtained within such maintenance organization.
4. Particulars of staff with limited or one-off
certification authorizations. The organization
shall retain the record for at least three years
after the staff referred to in this point have

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 3.7


Eng. M. Rasool
EQUIPMENT, TOOLS AND MATERIAL ACCEPTANCE OF COMPONENTS
(145.A.40) (145.A.42)
a. The organization shall have available and use the a. All components shall be classified and appropriately
necessary equipment, tools and material to perform segregated into the following categories:
the approved scope of work. 1. Components which are in a satisfactory condition,
1. Where the manufacturer specifies a particular released on an EASA Form 1 or equivalent and
tool or equipment, the organization shall marked in accordance with Subpart-Q of Annex
use that tool or equipment, unless the use of I (Part-21) to Regulation (EU) No 748/2012.
alternative tooling or equipment is agreed by the 2. Unser viceable components which shall be
competent authority via procedures specified in maintained in accordance with this section.
the exposition. 3. Unsalvageable components which are classified
2. Equipment and tools must be permanently in accordance with point 145.A.42(d).
available, except in the case of any tool or 4. Standard parts used on an aircraft, engine,
equipment that is so infrequently used that its propeller or other aircraft component when
permanent availability is not necessary. Such specified in the manufacturer's illustrated parts
cases shall be detailed in an exposition procedure. catalogue and/or the maintenance data.
3. An organization approved for base maintenance 5. Material both raw and consumable used in the
shall have sufficient aircraft access equipment course of maintenance when the organization
and inspection platforms/docking such that the is satisfied that the material meets the required
aircraft can be properly inspected. specification and has appropriate traceability. All
b. The organization shall ensure that all tools, material must be accompanied by documentation
equipment and particularly test equipment, as clearly relating to the particular material and
appropriate, are controlled and calibrated according containing a conformity to specification statement
to an officially recognized standard at a frequency to plus both the manufacturing and supplier source.
ensure serviceability and accuracy. Records of such 6. Components referred to in point 21A.307(c)
calibrations and traceability to the standard used of Annex I (Part-21) to Regulation (EU) No
shall be kept by the organization. (Figure 3-3) 748/2012.
b. Prior to installation of a component, the organization
shall ensure that the particular component is eligible
to be fitted when different modification and/or
airworthiness directive standards may be applicable.
c. The organization may fabricate a restricted range of
parts to be used in the course of undergoing work
within its own facilities provided procedures are
identified in the exposition.
d. Components which have reached their certified
life limit or contain a non-repairable defect shall be
classified as unsalvageable and shall not be permitted
to re-enter the component supply system unless
certified life limits have been extended or a repair
solution has been approved according to Annex I
(Part-21) to Regulation (EU) No 748/2012.
e. Components referred to in point 21A.307(c) of
Annex I (Part-21) to Regulation (EU) No 748/2012
shall only be installed if considered eligible for
installation by the aircraft owner in its own aircraft.
Figure 3-3. The necessary equipment and
tools must be permanently available.

3.8 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
MAINTENANCE DATA (145.A.45) maintenance task: they exclude the engineering
a. The organization shall hold and use applicable current design of repairs and modifications.
maintenance data in the performance of maintenance, e. The organization shall provide a common work
including modifications and repairs. ‘Applicable’ card or worksheet system to be used throughout
means relevant to any aircraft, component or process relevant parts of the organization. In addition, the
specified in the organization's approval class rating organization shall either transcribe accurately the
schedule and in any associated capability list. In the maintenance data contained in points (b) and (d)
case of maintenance data provided by an operator or onto such work cards or worksheets or make precise
customer, the organization shall hold such data when reference to the particular maintenance task or tasks
the work is in progress, with the exception of the need contained in such maintenance data. Work cards

APPROVED MAINTENANCE
to comply with point 145.A.55(c). and worksheets may be computer generated and held

ORGANIZATIONS
b. For the purposes of this Part, applicable maintenance on an electronic database subject to both adequate
data shall be any of the following: safeguards against unauthorized alteration and a
1. A ny appl icable requ i rement, procedu re, back-up electronic database which shall be updated
operational directive or information issued by within 24 hours of any entry made to the main
the authority responsible for the oversight of the electronic database. Complex maintenance tasks shall
aircraft or component; be transcribed onto the work cards or worksheets and
2. Any applicable airworthiness directive issued by subdivided into clear stages to ensure a record of the
the authority responsible for the oversight of the accomplishment of the complete maintenance task.
aircraft or component;
3. Instructions for continuing airworthiness, Where the organization provides a maintenance
issued by type certificate holders, supplementary service to an aircraft operator who requires their work
type certificate holders, any other organization card or worksheet system to be used then such work
required to publish such data by Annex I (Part- card or worksheet system may be used. In this case,
21) to Regulation (EU) No 748/2012 and in the organization shall establish a procedure to ensure
the case of aircraft or components from third correct completion of the aircraft operators' work
countries the airworthiness data mandated by cards or worksheets. (Figure 3-4)
the authority responsible for the oversight of the f. The organization shall ensure that all applicable
aircraft or component; maintenance data is readily available for use when
4. Any applicable standard, such as but not limited required by maintenance personnel.
to, maintenance standard practices recognised by
the Agency as a good standard for maintenance;
5. Any applicable data issued in accordance with
Available
point (d).
c. The organization shall establish procedures to ensure Job Cards Up To Date
that if found, any inaccurate, incomplete or ambiguous
procedure, practice, information or maintenance
instruction contained in the maintenance data used
by maintenance personnel is recorded and notified to Airworthiness
the author of the maintenance data. Directives Maintenance Data Accurate

d. The organization may only modify maintenance


instructions in accordance with a procedure specified
in the maintenance organization's exposition.
With respect to those changes, the organization Recorded
Standard
Practices
shall demonstrate that they result in equivalent or
improved maintenance standards and shall inform the Authoritites’
Documents
type-certificate holder of such changes. Maintenance
instructions for the purposes of this point means Figure 3-4. Types of maintenance documentation
instructions on how to carry out the particular comprising maintenance data.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 3.9


Eng. M. Rasool
g. The organization shall establish a procedure to ensure d. A certificate of release to service shall be issued at
that maintenance data it controls is kept up to date. In the completion of any maintenance on a component
the case of operator/customer controlled and provided whilst off the aircraft. The authorized release
maintenance data, the organization shall be able to certificate ‘EASA Form 1’ referred to in Appendix
show that either it has written confirmation from II of Annex I (Part-M) constitutes the component
the operator/customer that all such maintenance certificate of release to service except if otherwise
data is up to date or it has work orders specifying specif ied in point M.A.502(b) or M.A.502(e).
the amendment status of the maintenance data to be When an organization maintains a component for
used or it can show that it is on the operator/customer its own use, an EASA Form 1 may not be necessary
maintenance data amendment list. depending upon the organization's internal release
procedures defined in the exposition.
PRODUCTION PLANNING (145.A.47) e. By derogation to point (a), when the organization is
a. The organization shall have a system appropriate unable to complete all maintenance ordered, it may
to the amount and complexity of work to plan issue a certificate of release to service within the
the availability of all necessary personnel, tools, approved aircraft limitations. The organization shall
equipment, material, maintenance data and facilities enter such fact in the aircraft certificate of release to
in order to ensure the safe completion of the service before the issue of such certificate.
maintenance work. f. By derogation to points (a) and 145.A.42, when an
b. The planning of maintenance tasks, and the aircraft is grounded at a location other than the main
organising of shifts, shall take into account human line station or main maintenance base due to the
performance limitations. non-availability of a component with the appropriate
c. When it is required to hand over the continuation release certificate, it is permissible to temporarily fit a
or completion of maintenance tasks for reasons of a component without the appropriate release certificate
shift or personnel changeover, relevant information for a maximum of 30 f light hours or until the
shall be adequately communicated between outgoing aircraft first returns to the main line station or main
and incoming personnel. maintenance base, whichever is the sooner, subject to
the aircraft operator agreement and said component
CERTIFICATION OF MAINTENANCE having a suitable release certificate but otherwise
(145.A.50) in compliance with all applicable maintenance and
a. A certificate of release to service shall be issued by operational requirements. Such components shall be
appropriately authorized certifying staff on behalf removed by the above prescribed time limit unless an
of the organization when it has been verified that appropriate release certificate has been obtained in
all maintenance ordered has been properly carried the meantime under points (a) and 145.A.42.
out by the organization in accordance with the
procedures specified in point 145.A.70, taking into MAINTENANCE RECORDS
account the availability and use of the maintenance (145.A.55)
data specified in point 145.A.45 and that there are a. The organization sha l l record a l l deta i ls of
no non-compliances which are known to endanger maintenance work carried out. As a minimum, the
flight safety. organization shall retain records necessary to prove
b. A certificate of release to service shall be issued before that all requirements have been met for issuance
flight at the completion of any maintenance. of the certificate of release to service, including
c. New defects or incomplete maintenance work orders subcontractor's release documents.
identified during the above maintenance shall be b. The organization shall provide a copy of each certificate
brought to the attention of the aircraft operator for of release to service to the aircraft operator, together
the specific purpose of obtaining agreement to rectify with a copy of any specific repair/modification data
such defects or completing the missing elements of used for repairs/modifications carried out.
the maintenance work order. In the case where the c. The organization shall retain a copy of all detailed
aircraft operator declines to have such maintenance maintenance records and any associated maintenance
carried out under this point, point (e) is applicable. data for three years from the date the aircraft or

3.10 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
component to which the work relates was released that they contain all pertinent information about
from the organization. the condition and evaluation results known to the
1. The records under this point shall be stored in organization.
a manner that ensures protection from damage, d. Where the organization is contracted by a commercial
alteration and theft. operator to carry out maintenance, the organization
2. Computer backup discs, tapes etc. shall be stored shall also report to the operator any such condition
in a different location from that containing the affecting the operator's aircraft or component.
working discs, tapes etc., in an environment that e. The organization shall produce and submit such
ensures they remain in good condition. reports as soon as practicable but in any case within
3. Where an organization approved under this 72 hours of the organization identifying the condition

APPROVED MAINTENANCE
Annex (Part-145) terminates its operation, all to which the report relates.

ORGANIZATIONS
retained maintenance records covering the last
two years shall be distributed to the last owner or SAFETY AND QUALITY POLICY
customer of the respective aircraft or component (145.A.65)
or shall be stored as specified by the competent a. The organization shall establish a safety and quality
authority. (Figure 3-5) policy for the organization to be included in the
exposition under point 145.A.70.
b. The organization shall establish procedures agreed by
the competent authority taking into account human
factors and human performance to ensure good
maintenance practices and compliance with this Part
which shall include a clear work order or contract
such that aircraft and components may be released to
service in accordance with point 145.A.50.
Figure 3-5. Detailed maintenance records 1. The maintenance procedures under this point
are kept for at least two years. apply to points 145.A.25 to 145.A.95.
2. The maintenance procedures established or to
OCCURRENCE REPORTING be established by the organization under this
(145.A.60) point shall cover all aspects of carrying out the
a. The organization shall report to the competent maintenance activity, including the provision
authority, the state of registry and the organization and control of specialised services and lay down
responsible for the design of the aircraft or component the standards to which the organization intends
any condition of the aircraft or component identified to work.
by the organization that has resulted or may result 3. With regard to aircraft line and base maintenance,
in an unsafe condition that hazards seriously the the organization shall establish procedures to
flight safety. minimise the risk of multiple errors and capture
b. The organization shall establish an internal occurrence errors on critical systems, and to ensure that no
reporting system as detailed in the exposition to person is required to carry out and inspect in
enable the collection and evaluation of such reports, relation to a maintenance task involving some
including the assessment and extraction of those element of disassembly/reassembly of several
occurrences to be reported under point (a). This components of the same type fitted to more
procedure shall identify adverse trends, corrective than one system on the same aircraft during
actions taken or to be taken by the organization a particular maintenance check. However,
to address deficiencies and include evaluation of when only one person is available to carry
all known relevant information relating to such out these tasks then the organization's work
occurrences and a method to circulate the information card or worksheet shall include an additional
as necessary. stage for reinspection of the work by this
c. The organization shall make such reports in a form person after completion of all the same tasks.
and manner established by the Agency and ensure

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 3.11


Eng. M. Rasool
4. Maintenance procedures shall be established to competent authority on behalf of the organization;
ensure that damage is assessed and modifications 5. An organization chart showing associated chains
and repairs are carried out using data specified in of responsibility between the persons nominated
point M.A.304. under point 145.A.30(b);
c. The organization shall establish a quality system that 6. A list of certifying staff and support staff;
includes the following: 7. A general description of manpower resources;
1. Independent aud its in order to mon itor 8. A general description of the facilities located
compliance with required aircraft/aircraft at each address specified in the organization's
component standards and adequacy of the approval certificate;
procedures to ensure that such procedures invoke 9. A specification of the organization's scope of
good maintenance practices and airworthy work relevant to the extent of approval;
aircraft/aircraft components. In the smallest 10. The notification procedure of point 145.A.85 for
organizations the independent audit part of the organization changes;
quality system may be contracted to another 11. The maintenance organization exposition
organization approved under this Part or a person amendment procedure;
with appropriate technical knowledge and proven 12. The procedures and quality system established
satisfactory audit experience; and by the organization under points 145.A.25 to
2. A quality feedback reporting system to the person 145.A.90;
or group of persons specified in point 145.A.30(b) 13. A list of commercial operators, where applicable,
and ultimately to the accountable manager that to which the organization provides an aircraft
ensures proper and timely corrective action is maintenance service;
taken in response to reports resulting from the 14. A list of subcontracted organizations, where
independent audits established to meet point (1). applicable, as specified in point 145.A.75(b);
15. A list of line stations, where applicable, as
MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION specified in point 145.A.75(d);
EXPOSITION (MOE) (145.A.70) 16. A list of contracted organizations, where
a. Maintenance organization exposition’ means the applicable.
document or documents that contain the material b. The exposition shall be amended as necessary to
specifying the scope of work deemed to constitute remain an up to date description of the organization
approval and showing how the organization intends to The exposition and any subsequent amendment shall
comply with this Annex (Part-145). The organization be approved by the competent authority.
shall provide the competent authorit y with a c. Notwithstanding point (b) minor amendments to the
maintenance organization exposition, containing the exposition may be approved through an exposition
following information: procedure (hereinafter called indirect approval).
1. A statement signed by the accountable manager
confirming that the maintenance organization PRIVILEGES OF THE ORGANIZATION
exposition and any referenced associated manuals (145.A.75)
define the organization's compliance with this Annex In accordance with the exposition, the organization shall
(Part-145) and will be complied with at all times. be entitled to carry out the following tasks:
When the accountable manager is not the chief a. Maintain any aircraft and/or component for which it
executive officer of the organization then such chief is approved at the locations identified in the approval
executive officer shall countersign the statement; certificate and in the exposition;
2. The organization's safety and quality policy as b. Arrange for maintenance of any aircraft or component
specified by point 145.A.65; for which it is approved at another organization
3. The title(s) and name(s) of the persons nominated that is working under the quality system of the
under point 145.A.30(b); organization. This refers to work being carried out
4. The duties and responsibilities of the persons by an organization not itself appropriately approved
nominated under point 145.A.30(b), including to carry out such maintenance under this Part and is
matters on which they may deal directly with the limited to the work scope permitted under procedures

3.12 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
laid down in point 145.A.65(b). This work scope shall 1. The name of the organization;
not include a base maintenance check of an aircraft or 2. The main location of the organization;
a complete workshop maintenance check or overhaul 3. Additional locations of the organization;
of an engine or engine module; 4. The accountable manager;
c. Maintain any aircraft or any component for which it 5. Any of the persons nominated under point 145.A.30(b);
is approved at any location subject to the need for such 6. The facilities, equipment, tools, material, procedures,
maintenance arising either from the unserviceability work scope or certifying staff that could affect the
of the aircraft or from the necessity of supporting approval.
occasional line maintenance, subject to the conditions
specified in the exposition; CONTINUE VALIDITY (145.A.90)

APPROVED MAINTENANCE
d. Maintain any aircraft and/or component for which a. An approval shall be issued for an unlimited

ORGANIZATIONS
it is approved at a location identif ied as a line duration. It shall remain valid subject to:
maintenance location capable of supporting minor 1. The organization remaining in compliance with
maintenance and only if the organization exposition Annex II (Part-145), in accordance with the
both permits such activity and lists such locations; provisions related to the handling of findings as
e. Issue certificates of release to service in respect of specified under point 145.B.50; and
completion of maintenance in accordance with point 2. The competent authority being granted access
145.A.50. to the organization to determine continued
compliance with this Part; and
LIMITATION ON THE ORGANIZATION 3. The certificate not being surrendered or revoked.
(145.A.80) b. Upon surrender or revocation, the approval shall be
The organization shall only maintain an aircraft or returned to the competent authority.
component for which it is approved when all the
necessary facilities, equipment, tooling, material, FINDINGS (145.A.95)
maintenance data and certifying staff are available. a. A level 1 finding is any significant non-compliance
with Part-145 requirements which lowers the safety
CHANGES TO THE ORGANIZATION standard and hazards seriously the flight safety.
(145.A.85) b. A level 2 finding is any non-compliance with the
The organization shall notify the competent authority of Part-145 requirements which could lower the safety
any proposal to carry out any of the following changes standard and possibly hazard the flight safety.
before such changes take place to enable the competent c. After receipt of notification of findings according
authority to determine continued compliance with this to 145.B.50, the holder of the ma intenance
Part and to amend, if necessary, the approval certificate, organization approval shall def ine a corrective
except that in the case of proposed changes in personnel action plan and demonstrate corrective action to
not known to the management beforehand, these changes the satisfaction of the competent authority within
must be notified at the earliest opportunity: a period agreed with this authority.

PART-M - SUBPART-F - MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION

SCOPE (M.A.601) EXTENT OF APPROVAL (M.A.603)


This Subpart establishes the requirements to be met by (a) An organization involved in activities subject to
an organization to qualify for the issue or continuation this Subpart shall not exercise its activities unless
of an approval for the maintenance of aircraft and approved by the competent authority. Appendix
components not listed in point M.A.201(g). V to Annex I (Part-M) provides the template
certificate for this approval.
APPLICATION (M.A.602) (b) The maintenance organization's manual referred to
An application for issue or change of a maintenance in point M.A.604 shall specify the scope of work
organization approval shall be made on a form and in a deemed to constitute approval. Appendix IV to
manner established by the competent authority. Annex I (Part-M) defines all classes and ratings

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 3.13


Eng. M. Rasool
possible under Subpart-F of this Annex (Part-M). the manual at all times, and;
(c) An approved maintenance organization may fabricate, 2. The organization's scope of work, and;
in conformity with maintenance data, a restricted 3. The title(s) and name(s) of person(s) referred to in
range of parts for the use in the course of undergoing point M.A.606(b), and;
work within its own facilities, as identified in the 4. An organization chart showing associated chains
maintenance organization manual.(Figure 3-6) of responsibility between the person(s) referred to
in point M.A.606(b), and;
MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION 5. A list of certifying staff with their scope of
MANUAL (M.A.604) approval, and;
a. The maintenance organization shall provide a manual 6. A list of locations where maintenance is carried
containing at least the following information: out, together with a general descriptions of the
1. A statement signed by the accountable manager facilities, and;
to confirm that the organization will continuously 7. Procedures specifying how the maintenance
work in accordance with Annex I (Part-M) and organization ensures compliance with this Part, and;

Figure 3-6. Example maintenance organization approval certificate.

3.14 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
8. T he m a i nten a nc e or g a n i z at ion m a nu a l maintenance shall be demonstrated and recorded.
amendment procedure(s). f. Personnel who carry out specialized tasks such as
b. The maintenance organization manual and its welding, non-destructive testing/inspection other

FRAMEWORK
REGULATORY
amendments shall be approved by the competent than color contrast shall be qualified in accordance
authority. with an officially recognized standard.
c. Notwithstanding point (b) minor amendments to g. The maintenance organization shall have sufficient
the manual may be approved through a procedure certifying staff to issue M.A.612 and M.A.613
(hereinafter called indirect approval). cer tif icates of release to ser v ice for a ircra f t
and components. They shall comply with the
FACILITIES (M.A.605) requirements of Part-66.
The organization shall ensure that: h. By derogation from point (g), the organization may
a. Facilities are provided for all planned work, specialised use certifying staff qualified in accordance with the
workshops and bays are segregated as appropriate, following provisions when providing maintenance
to ensure protection from contamination and the support to operators involved in commercial
environment. operations, subject to appropriate procedures to be
b. Of f ice accom mod at ion is prov ided for t he approved as part of the organization's manual:
management of all planned work including in 1. For a repetitive pre-flight airworthiness directive
particular, the completion of maintenance records. which specifically states that the f light crew
c. Secure storage facilities are provided for components, may carry out such airworthiness directive,
equipment, tools and material. Storage conditions the organization may issue a limited certifying
shall ensure segregation of unserviceable components staff authorization to the aircraft commander
and material from all other components, material, on the basis of the f light crew license held,
equipment and tools. Storage conditions shall be in provided that the organization ensures that
accordance with the manufacturers' instructions and sufficient practical training has been carried out
access shall be restricted to authorized personnel. to ensure that such person can accomplish the
airworthiness directive to the required standard;
PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS 2. In the case of aircraft operating away from a
(M.A.606) supported location the organization may issue
a. The organization shall appoint an accountable a limited certifying staff authorization to the
manager, who has corporate authority for ensuring aircraft commander on the basis of the f light
that all maintenance required by the customer can crew license, provided that the organization
be financed and carried out to the standard required ensures that sufficient practical training has
by this Part. been carried out to ensure that such person can
b. person or group of persons shall be nominated with accomplish the task to the required standard.
the responsibility of ensuring that the organization
is always in compliance with this Subpart. Such CERTIFYING STAFF (M.A.607)
person(s) shall be ultimately responsible to the a. In addition to point M.A.606(g), certifying staff can
accountable manager. only exercise their privileges, if the organization has
c. All paragraph (b) persons shall be able to show ensured:
relevant knowledge, background and appropriate 1. That certifying staff can demonstrate that they
experience related to aircraft and/or component meet the requirements of point 66.A.20(b) of
maintenance. Annex III (Part-66), except when Annex III
d. The organization shall have appropriate staff for (Part-66) refers to Member State regulation, in
the normal expected contracted work. The use of which case they shall meet the requirement of
temporarily subcontracted staff is permitted in the such regulation, and;
case of higher than normally expected contracted 2. T hat cer t i f y i ng st a f f have a n adequ ate
work and only for personnel not issuing a certificate understanding of the relevant aircraft and/or
of release to service. aircraft component (s) to be maintained together
e. The qualif ication of all personnel involved in with the associated organization procedures.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 3.15


Eng. M. Rasool
b. In the following unforeseen cases, where an aircraft MAINTENANCE DATA (M.A.609)
is grounded at a location other than the main base The approved maintenance organization shall hold and
where no appropriate certifying staff is available, use applicable current maintenance data specified in
the maintenance organization contracted to provide M.A.401 in the performance of maintenance including
maintenance support may issue a one-off certification modif ications and repairs. In the case of customer
authorization: provided maintenance data, it is only necessary to have
1. To one of its employees holding type qualifications such data when the work is in progress.
on aircraft of similar technology, construction
and systems; or MAINTENANCE WORK ORDERS
2. To any person with not less than three years (M.A.610)
maintenance experience and holding a valid Before the commencement of maintenance a written
ICAO aircraft maintenance license rated for work order shall be agreed between the organization
the aircraft type requiring certification provided and the organization requesting maintenance to clearly
there is no organization appropriately approved establish the maintenance to be carried out.
under this Part at that location and the contracted
organization obtains and holds on file evidence of MAINTENANCE STANDARDS
the experience and the license of that person. (M.A.611)
All such cases must be reported to the competent All maintenance shall be carried out in accordance with
authority within seven days of the issuance of such the requirements of M.A. Subpart-D.
certification authorization. The approved maintenance
organization issuing the one-off certif ication COMPONENT CERTIFICATE OF
authorization shall ensure that any such maintenance RELEASE TO SERVICE (M.A.612)
that could affect flight safety is re-checked. a. At the completion of all required component
maintenance in accordance with this Subpart a
c. The approved maintenance organization shall record component certificate of release to service shall be
all details concerning certifying staff and maintain a issued according to M.A.802, EASA Form 1 shall
current list of all certifying staff together with their be issued except for those components fabricated in
scope of approval as part of the organization's manual accordance with M.A.603(b).
pursuant to point M.A.604(a)5. b. The component certif icate release to ser vice
document, EASA Form 1 may be generated from
COMPONENTS, EQUIPMENT AND a computer database.
TOOLS (M.A.608)
a. The organization shall: COMPONENT CERTIFICATE OF
1. Hold the equipment and tools specif ied in RELEASE TO SERVICE (M.A.613)
the maintenance data described in point a. At the completion of all required component
M.A.609 or verified equivalents as listed in the maintenance in accordance with this Subpart a
maintenance organization manual as necessary component certificate of release to service shall be
for day-to-day maintenance within the scope of issued in accordance with point M.A.802. EASA
the approval; and, Form 1 shall be issued except for those components
2. Demonstrate that it has access to all other maintained in accordance with points M.A.502(b),
equipment and tools used only on an occasional M.A.502(d) or M.A.502(e) and components
basis. fabricated in accordance with point M.A.603(c).
b. Tools and equipment shall be controlled and b. The component certif icate release to ser vice
calibrated to an off icially recognised standard. document, EASA Form 1 may be generated from a
Records of such calibrations and the standard used computer database.
shall be kept by the organization.
c. The organization sha l l inspect, classif y and
appropriately segregate all incoming components.

3.16 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
MAINTENANCE RECORDS (M.A.614) d. Issue certificates of release to service on completion
a. The approved maintenance organization shall record of maintenance, in accordance with point M.A.612
all details of work carried out. Records necessary to or point M.A.613.

FRAMEWORK
REGULATORY
prove all requirements have been met for issuance of
the certificate of release to service including the sub- ORGANIZATIONAL REVIEW
contractor's release documents shall be retained. (M.A.616)
b. The approved maintenance organization shall provide To ensure that the approved maintenance organization
a copy of each certificate of release to service to the continues to meet the requirements of this Subpart, it
aircraft owner, together with a copy of any specific shall organize, on a regular basis, organizational reviews.
approved repair/modification data used for repairs/
modifications carried out. The approved maintenance CHANGES TO THE APPROVED
organization shall retain a copy of all maintenance MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION
records and any associated maintenance data for three (M.A.617)
years from the date the aircraft or aircraft component In order to enable the competent authority to determine
to which the work relates was released from the continued compliance with this Part, the approved
approved maintenance organization. maintenance organization shall notify it of any proposal
1. The records shall be stored in a manner that to carry out any of the following changes, before such
ensures protection from damage and theft. changes take place:
2. All computer hardware used to ensure backup 1. The name of the organization;
shall be stored in a different location from that 2. The location of the organization;
containing the working data in an environment 3. Additional locations of the organization;
that ensures they remain in good condition. 4. The accountable manager;
3. Where an approved maintenance organization 5. Any of the persons specified in point M.A.606(b);
terminates its operation, all retained maintenance 6. The facilities, equipment, tools, material, procedures,
records covering the last two years shall be work scope and certifying staff that could affect
distributed to the last owner or customer of the the approval. In the case of proposed changes
respective aircraft or component or shall be in personnel not k now n to the management
stored as specified by the competent authority. beforehand, these changes shall be notified at the
earliest opportunity.
PRIVILEGES OF THE ORGANIZATION
(M.A.615) In the case of proposed changes in personnel not known
The maintenance organization approved in accordance to the management beforehand, these changes shall be
with Section A, Subpart-F of this Annex (Part-M), may: notified at the earliest opportunity.
a. Maintain any aircraft and/or component for which it
is approved at the locations specified in the approval CONTINUED VALIDITY OF
certif icate and the maintenance organization APPROVAL (M.A.618)
manual; a. An approval shall be issued for an unlimited duration.
b. Arrange for the performance of specialized services It shall remain valid subject to:
under the control of the maintenance organization 1. The organization remaining in compliance with
at another organization appropriately qualified, this Part, in accordance with the provisions
subject to appropriate procedures being established related to the handling of findings as specified
as part of the Maintenance Organization Manual under point M.A.619, and;
approved by the competent authority directly; 2. The competent authority being granted access
c. Maintain any aircraft and/or component for which it to the organization to determine continued
is approved at any location subject to the need of such compliance with this Part, and; 3. the approval
maintenance arising either from the unserviceability not being surrendered or revoked;
of the aircraft or from the necessity of supporting b. Upon surrender or revocation, the approval certificate
occasional maintenance, subject to the conditions shall be returned to the competent authority.
specified in the Maintenance Organization Manual;

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 3.17


Eng. M. Rasool
Upon surrender or revocation, the approval certificate
shall be returned to the competent authority.

FINDINGS (M.A.619)
a. A level 1 finding is any significant non-compliance
with Part-M requirements which lowers the safety
standard and hazards seriously the flight safety.
b. A level 2 finding is any non-compliance with the
Part-M requirements which could lower the safety
standard and possibly hazard the flight safety.
c. After receipt of notification of findings according
to point M.B.605, the holder of the maintenance
organization approval shall def ine a corrective
action plan and demonstrate corrective action to
the satisfaction of the competent authority within a
period agreed with this authority.

3.18 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
QUESTIONS

Question: 3-1 Question: 3-5

FRAMEWORK
REGULATORY
No organization, in Europe, can deliver a return The __________________ __________________
to service certificate. if not approved under of a Part-145 maintenance organization must be
__________________. independent.

Question: 3-2 Question: 3-6


Maintenance records must be retained by an True or False… A Part-145 approved maintenance
approved maintenance organization for at least organization is authorized to subcontract work.
__________________.

Question: 3-3 Question: 3-7


A certificate of release to service (CRS) authorizes The name of the document that contains the material
the transfer of the aircraft (or aircraft parts) from the specifying the scope of work to be undertaken
__________________ to the operator. and that shows how the maintenance organization
intends to comply with Part-145 is called the
__________________.

Question: 3-4 Question: 3-8


The approved maintenance organization shall retain Tools and equipment shall be controlled and
a copy of all maintenance records and any associated __________________ to an officially recognized
maintenance data for _______________ years. standard.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 3.19


Eng. M. Rasool
ANSWERS

Answer: 3-1 Answer: 3-5


Part-145. quality assurance.

Answer: 3-2 Answer: 3-6


2 years. True.

Answer: 3-3 Answer: 3-7


maintenance organization. maintenance organization exposition.

Answer: 3-4 Answer: 3-8


three. calibrated.

3.20 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool

PART-66 SYLLABUS LEVELS


CERTIFICATION CATEGORY ¦ A B1 B2

Sub-Module 04
AIR OPERATIONS
Knowledge Requirements

AIR OPERATIONS
10.4 - Air Operations 1 1 1
General understanding of Air Operations.
Air Operators Certificates;
Operator's responsibilities, in particular regarding continuing airworthiness and maintenance;
Aircraft Maintenance Programme;
MEL/CDL;
Documents to be carried on board;
Aircraft placarding (markings).

Level 1
A familiarization with the principal elements of the subject.

Objectives:
(a) The applicant should be familiar with the basic elements of the
subject.
(b) The applicant should be able to give a simple description of the
whole subject, using common words and examples.
(c) The applicant should be able to use typical terms.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 4.1


Eng. M. Rasool
GENERAL UNDERSTANDING

Common technical requirements and administrative Subpart-J: Mass and Balance


procedures applicable to commercial transportation Subpart-K: Instruments and Equipment
by aircraft are given in Air Operations the subparts of Subpart-L: Communication and
which are given below: Navigation Equipment
Subpart-A: Applicability and Definitions Subpart-M: Aeroplane Maintenance
Subpart-B: General Subpart-N: Flight Crew
Subpart-C: Operator Certification and Supervision Subpart-O: Cabin Crew
Subpart-D: Operational Procedures Subpart-P: Manuals, Logs and Records
Subpart-E: All Weather Operations Subpart-Q: Flight/Duty Time Limitations and
Subpart-F: Performance General Rest Requirements
Subpart-G: Performance Class A Subpart-R: Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air
Subpart-H: Performance Class B Subpart-S: Security
Subpart-I: Performance Class C

AIR OPERATORS CERTIFICATES (AOC)

GENERAL RULES FOR AIR associated Part–145 maintenance organization, to


OPERATOR CERTIFICATION determine continued compliance with OPS 1.
(OPS 1.175) f. An AOC will be varied, suspended or revoked if the
Note 1: Appendix 1 to this paragraph specifies the Authority is no longer satisfied that the operator can
contents and conditions of the AOC. maintain safe operations.
g. The operator must satisfy the Authority that:
Note 2: Appendix 2 to this paragraph specifies the 1. Its organization and management are suitable
management and organization requirements. and properly matched to the scale and scope of
the operation; and
a. An operator shall not operate an aeroplane for the 2. Procedures for the supervision of operations
purpose of commercial air transportation other than have been defined.
in accordance with the terms and conditions of an h. The operator must have nominated an accountable
Air Operator Certificate (AOC). manager acceptable to the Authority who has
b. An applicant for an AOC, or variation of an corporate authority for ensuring that all operations
AOC, shall allow the Authority to examine all and maintenance activities can be financed and
safety aspects of the proposed operation. carried out to the standard required by the Authority.
c. An applicant for an AOC must: i. The operator must have nominated post holders,
1. Not hold an AOC issued by another Authority acceptable to the Authority, who are responsible for
unless specifically approved by the Authorities the management and supervision of the following
concerned; areas:
2. Have his principal place of business and, if 1. Flight operations;
any, his registered office located in the State 2. The maintenance system;
responsible for issuing the AOC; 3. Crew training; and
3. Satisfy the Authority that he is able to conduct 4. Ground operations.
safe operations. j. A person may hold more than one of the nominated
d. If an operator has aeroplanes registered in different posts if acceptable to the Authority but, for operators
Member States, appropriate arrangements shall be who employ 21 or more full time staff, a minimum
made to ensure appropriate safety oversight. of two persons are required to cover the four areas
e. An operator shall grant the Authority access to his of responsibility.
organization and aeroplanes and shall ensure that, k. For operators who employ 20 or less full time staff, one
with respect to maintenance, access is granted to any or more of the nominated posts may be filled by the

4.2 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
accountable manager if acceptable to the Authority. ISSUE, VARIATION AND CONTINUED
l. The operator must ensure that every f light is VALIDITY OF AN AOC (OPS 1.180)
conducted in accordance with the provisions of the a. An operator will not be granted an AOC, or a
Operations Manual. variation to an AOC, and that AOC will not remain
m. The operator must arrange appropriate ground valid unless:
handling facilities to ensure the safe handling of 1. Aeroplanes operated have a standard Certificate
its f lights. of Airworthiness issued in accordance with
n. The operator must ensure that its aeroplanes are Commission Regulation (EC) No 1702/2003 of
equipped and its crews are qualified, as required for 24 September 2003 laying down implementing
the area and type of operation. rules for the airworthiness and environmental
o. The operator must comply with the maintenance certification of aircraft and related products, parts
requirements, in accordance with Part-M, for all and appliances, as well as for the certification
aeroplanes operated under the terms of its AOC. of design and production organizations (1)
p. The operator must provide the Authority with a copy by a Member State. Standard Certificates of
of the Operations Manual, as specified in Subpart-P Airworthiness issued by a Member State other
and all amendments or revisions to it. than the State responsible for issuing the AOC,

AIR OPERATIONS
q. The operator must maintain operational support will be accepted without further showing when
facilities at the main operating base, appropriate for issued in accordance with Part 21;
the area and type of operation. 2. The maintenance system has been approved
by the Authority in accordance with Part-M,
CONTENTS AND CONDITIONS OF Subpart-G; and
THE AIR OPERATOR CERTIFICATE 3. He/she has satisf ied the Authority that he
(OPS 1.175 ADDENDUM) has the ability to:
An AOC specifies the: i. Establ ish a nd ma inta in a n adequate
a. Name and location (principal place of business) of organization;
the operator; ii. Establish and maintain a quality system in
b. Date of issue and period of validity; accordance with OPS 1.035;
c. Description of the type of operations authorized; iii. Comply with required training programmes;
d. Type(s) of aeroplane(s) authorized for use; iv. Comply with maintenance requirements,
e. Registration markings of the authorized aeroplane(s) consistent with the nature and extent of
except that operators may obtain approval for a the operations specif ied, including the
system to inform the Authority about the registration relevant items prescribed in OPS 1.175 (g)
markings for aeroplanes operated under its AOC; to (o); and
f. Authorized areas of operation; v. Comply with OPS 1.175.
g. Special limitations; and b. Notwithstanding the provisions of OPS 1.185 (f),
h. Special authorizations/approvals e.g.: the operator must notify the Authority as soon
—— CAT II/CAT III (including approved minima), as practicable of any changes to the information
—— (MNPS) Minimum nav igation per formance submitted in accordance with OPS 1.185 (a) below.
specifications, c. If the Authority is not satisfied that the requirements
—— (ETOPS) Extended range operation twin engined of subparagraph (a) above have been met, the
aeroplanes, Authority may require the conduct of one or more
—— (RNAV) Area navigation, demonstration f lights, operated as if they were
—— (RVSM) Reduced vertical separation minima, commercial air transport flights.
—— Transportation of dangerous goods,
—— Authorization to provide cabin crew initial safety
training and, if applicable, to issue the attestation
provided for in Subpart-O, for those operators who
provide such training directly or indirectly.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 4.3


Eng. M. Rasool
OPERATOR’S by the pilot or another qualified person but need
RESPONSIBILITIES not be carried out by an approved maintenance
organization or by Part-66 certifying staff.
LAWS, REGULATIONS AND g. Maintenance of la rge aircra f t, aircra f t used
PROCEDURES — OPERATOR’S for commercial air transport and components
RESPONSIBILITIES (OPS 1.020) thereof shall be carried out by a Part-145 approved
An operator must ensure that: maintenance organization.
1. All employees are made aware that they shall comply h. In the case of commercial air transport the operator
with the laws, regulations and procedures of those is responsible for the continuing airworthiness of
States in which operations are conducted and which the aircraft it operates and shall:
are pertinent to the performance of their duties; and 1. Be approved, as part of the air operator certificate
2. All crew members are familiar with the laws, issued by the competent authority, pursuant to
reg u lations and procedures per tinent to the M.A. Subpart-G for the aircraft it operates. and
performance of their duties. 2. Be approved in accordance with Part-145 or
contract such an organization. and
COMMON LANGUAGE (OPS 1.025) 3. Ensure that paragraph (a) is satisfied.
a. An operator must ensure that all crew members can j. The owner/operator is responsible for granting the
communicate in a common language. competent authority access to the organization/
b. An operator must ensure that all operations personnel aircraft to determine continued compliance with
are able to understand the language in which those this Part.
parts of the Operations Manual which pertain to
their duties and responsibilities are written. CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS
MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION
RESPONSIBILITIES (M.A.201) (SUBPART-G)
a. The owner is responsible for the continuing This Subpart defines organizations approved for the
airworthiness of an aircraft and shall ensure that no management of the Continuing Airworthiness of aircraft.
flight takes place unless: • This Subpart requires facilities, data and competent
1. The aircraft is maintained in an airworthy staff.
condition. and • It a lso desc r ibes t he ta sk s for wh ic h t hese
2. Any operational and emergency equipment organizations are approved for.
fitted is correctly installed and serviceable or • It gives the general rules for record keeping.
clearly identified as unserviceable. and For commercial air transport:
3. The airworthiness certificate remains valid. and • This Subpart introduces the requirements of
4. The maintenance of the aircraft is performed JAR-OPS Subpart-M - the approval is part of the
in accordance with the approved maintenance operator’s air operator certificate.
programme as specified in M.A.302. • Aircraft maintenance shall be performed by Part-
b. When the aircraft is leased, the responsibilities of 145 approved organizations.
the owner are transferred to the lessee if:
1. The lessee is stipulated on the registration For aircraft not used in commercial air transport, this
document, or Subpart introduces the main requirements of JAR-OPS
2. Deta i led in t he leasing cont rac t. W hen Subpart-M.
reference is made in this Part to the ‘owner’, the
term owner covers the owner or the lessee, as Any organization approved to this Subpart may also
applicable. have the privilege to carry out airworthiness reviews.
c. Any person or organization performing maintenance These periodic reviews are carried out to ensure the
shall be responsible for the tasks performed. aircraft’s continuing airworthiness has been properly
d. The pilot-in-command shall be responsible for carried out and that the aircraft can be considered as
the satisfactory accomplishment of the pref light airworthy at the time of the inspection. The content of
inspection. This inspection must be carried out these reviews is incorporated in this Subpart.

4.4 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
MAINTENANCE PROGRAM GENERAL PRESENTATION
(M.A.302) A transport aircraft operator is responsible for his
a. Every aircraft shall be maintained in accordance maintenance program and has to get it approved by his
with a maintenance program approved by the civil aviation authority. This program is derived from
competent authority which shall be periodically the maintenance program of the aircraft manufacturer
reviewed and amended accordingly. (MPD, Maintenance Planning Document).
b. The maintenance program and any subsequent
amendments shall be approved by the competent The MPD of the manufacturer is the synthesis of three
authority. different sources:
• T h e M R B ( M a i nt e n a n c e R e v i e w B o a r d),
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE principal process,
PROGRAM • The certification regulations of the aircraft type and
its operational demands,
Maintenance of a transport aircraft is performed under • The follow-up of the aircraft operation and the
the responsibility of the aircraft operator according to feed-back from experience which leads to additional
a program he/she has to elaborate and have it approved specific tasks to maintain the airworthiness of the

AIR OPERATIONS
by the civil aviation agency of his country. This rule aircraft. (Figure 4-1)
derives from agreements which guide international
commercia l av iation as recommended by ICAO The regulatory obligations are established to meet the
(International Civil Aviation Organization). level of safety asked for by ICAO to assure a world
safety standard.
To enable their customers to fulfill these obligations at
the best possible safety level, the aircraft manufacturers Each country publishes its airworthiness regulations but
prepare the maintenance programs that they propose the two most important ones are the CS (Certification
to their operators. The elaboration process follows a Specifications) issued by EASA (European Aviation
rigorous methodology improved by the experience Safet y Agenc y) and the FA R (Federa l Av iation
acquired in accordance with specific regulations which Regulations) issued by the FAA (Federal Aviation
are reinforced from the previous generation of aircraft Agency of the US). These airworthiness regulations
to the next one. are not only based on the aircraft design but also on
its operation and its maintenance during the ongoing
The first rule of aircraft maintenance was issued in 1930. commercial operation of the aircraft.
The instruments and equipment have to be inspected
at given intervals to assure their correct functioning at The requirements to be respected include the type
any time. The actual methodology is based on a logical certification elements of the aircraft, the instructions to
analysis by examining the consequences of functional maintain its airworthiness during its operation (CS  25
failures and by a task-based maintenance program. appendix H) and the requirements derived from the
operational rules (Air Operations, Part 145 and Part
These programs are developed by a steering committee at 147). The type certification requirements ensure that the
the level of the entire aeronautical industry and supported design is in line with the published safety standards. The
by specialized working groups. The participants are demonstration of conformity must be done before the
professionals from airlines, specialists from national civil aircraft type certificate will be issued.
aviation authorities, engineers from the design office of
the aircraft and equipment manufacturers and, finally, Five chapters are addressed:
maintenance program specialists. • The damage tolerance and the fatigue behavior of
the structure (CS 25.571),
For a modern aircraft like A340-500/600, A350, • The materials applied (CS 25.603),
A380 this means the work of seventy participants • The accessibility of the aircraft zones (CS 25.611),
during eighteen months and almost forty five thousand • The equipments, systems and their installation
man hours. (CS 25.1309),

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 4.5


Eng. M. Rasool
• The requirements to maintain the airworthiness of • Paragraph H 25.4: limitations of airworthiness,
the aircraft (CS 25.1529). safety elements, ALI (Airworthiness Limitation
Items) and CMR (Certif ication Maintenance
The requirements to maintain airworthiness (Appendix Requirements). The operational requirements
H of JAR ( Joint Aviation Rules) 25 are issued to address the fact that the inherent reliabilit y
ensure that the instructions and limits of aircraft characteristics of the aircraft are maintained during
maintenance are well established in relation with the the commercial utilization. They are issued by the
type certification work. They have to be prepared by the country in which the each aircraft is registered.
aircraft manufacturer before the first commercial delivery.
They comprise four sections:
They comprise two important paragraphs: • Air Operations 1, section 1, sub M (for maintenance),
• Paragraph H 25.3: (a) Aircraft maintenance manual, • Part 66, certification staff (maintenance),
(b) maintenance instructions, c) to (g) access • Part 145, approved maintenance organization,
panels, technical inspections, protection treatment, • Part 147, approved maintenance training
structural fixations, special tools, organization.

Figure 4-1. Inputs to the manufacturer’s maintenance planning document.

4.6 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
THE GENERAL MAINTENANCE REVIEW BOARD (MRB) PROCESS

The rules impose on the aircraft manufacturer the • Structure program established with Structural
elaboration of a maintenance program. The aircraft Significant Items analysis (SSI),
manufact urers have developed a method named • Zonal Inspection Program (ZIP) established with
MSG-3 (Maintenance Steering Group-3) to develop zonal analysis.
this program and the tasks for the corresponding
maintenance. To develop the f irst inspection and maintenance
program for a new aircraft t ype the industr y has
The MSG-3 is the latest evolution of a process started worked out the procedure of the Maintenance Review
in 1930 by the Transport Airline Inspection Service, Board (MRB) prescribed by the FAA in an Advisory
ancestor of the FAA, with its Aeronautical Bulletin Circular (AC 121-22).
7E section 5: “Instruments and accessories shall be
overhauled at suitable intervals.” This concept remained A three level organization has been put in place:
in force for forty years. • A s t e e r i n g c o m m it t e e ( I n d u s t r y S t e e r i n g
Committee), presided by the airlines

AIR OPERATIONS
In 1967, a United Airlines document put together • Common working groups manufacturer airlines
the industry reports resulting in the development Maintenance Working Group (MWG) presided
of an application of “Decision diagrams for logical by the manufacturer. They work in six sections:
analysis of maintenance programs”. In July 1969, the mechanics-hydraulics, environment and interior,
process MSG-1 was approved by the inter-airline B747 power plant-fuel, electrics-avionics, structure,
conference and was applied to develop the maintenance zonal inspection,
program of the B747. • A Superior Counsel (Maintenance Review Board)
in which only the certification authorities meet and
The MSG methodology evolves in three following steps: which approves the work done which is published as
• MSG-2 (A irline Manufacturer Maintenance Maintenance Review Board Report.
Program Planning Document) published on 25
March 1970 by the subcommittee R & M (Repair The certification authorities (EASA and FAA) participate
& Maintenance) of the Air Transport Association as well in ISC (Industry Steering Committee) and
(ATA) of the US and which was applied for the Maintenance Working Groups.
DC10 and the Lockheed 1011;
• EMSG (European Maintenance Steering Group) It has to be noted that this work is done in common
elaborated in 1972 and published in February 1973 among the three parties concerned by aircraft safety:
by the Association of European Airlines (AEA). authority, manufacturer and operators. The working
It was applied on A300B2 and B4, Concorde and groups apply the directives put together in a Policy
VFW 614; & Procedures Handbook (PPH) published for each
• Finally MSG-3 (Airline Manufacturer Maintenance aircraft type and regrouping the latest regulatory
Program Development Document) published on 30 informations coming from service experience.
September 1988 by a task force MSG-3 of the US
Air Transport Association (ATA). This document POWERPLANT AND SYSTEMS
was amended in 1988 (revision 1) and 1993 (revision PROGRAM
2). It is applicable for all the latest aircraft: A310, The evaluations according to the MSG-3 methodology
A300-600, A318-A319-A320-A321, A330-A340, are based on the functional failures and the reasons
B757-B767-B777. for these failures. Before the MSG-3 process can start
one has to identify the Maintenance Significant Items
The MSG-3 is divided into three specific sections: (MSI). That is performed by an analysis of the aircraft
• Systems and power plant program (SPP) established manufacturer which is based on the technical judgment
with MSI (Maintenance Significant Items), of its specialists.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 4.7


Eng. M. Rasool
The selection of MSI identifies the items which: The analysis starts by the identification of four items:
• Bear a safety risk (on ground or in flight). • The functions (characteristic points during normal
• Can remain undetected during operation. functioning);
• Ca n have a n impor ta nt impact on d ispatch • The functional failures (which functional failures
reliability or the economics of the aircraft. could occur);
• The effects of failures (which is the result of those
The MSI analysis report comprises the classical functional failures);
information of a technical document (list of pages and • The reasons (why could the functional failure occur).
publication date, list and reasons for the revisions of the These are listed in detail in a DATA SHEET B.
document, applicability – aircraft types concerned).
Each reason of malfunctioning is then evaluated
The MSI also describes the components of the system, fol low ing the logic ana lysis path of MSG-3. It
their reliability (MTBF – Mean Time Between Failures comprises two levels: first the examination of each
and MTBUR – Mean Time Between Unscheduled functional failure following four questions to determine
Removals), the redundancies of the system, and the the Failure Effect Category (FEC), then to take into
accumulated experience with other similar programs. consideration the failure causes to determine via five
questions which type of task has to be applied.
It follows the description of the item itself: architecture of
the system, its components, the examined functions, and Figure 4-2 shows the logic analysis path and the five
functional failures etc. which have to be analyzed. The categories by which they can be differentiated: Evident
totality of this data is regrouped in a DATA SHEET A. critical failure, evident operational failure, evident

Figure 4-2. MSG-3 logic to categorize functional failure effects.

4.8 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
economical failure, critical hidden failure, noncritical manufacturer and the certification authority;
hidden failure. The second analysis level determines which • The CMR** (CMR two stars): maintenance tasks
type of a maintenance task has to be assigned to this item with interval applications which the operators can
to take into consideration the causes of the failure. modify according to the procedures approved in
their countries.
Five types of tasks have been defined: • The CMR is published in an annex document added
• Lubrication-refill of fluid levels to the MRB report.
• Visual or operational verification
• Inspection or functional verification STRUCTURE PROGRAM
• Repair The aircraft structure is analyzed to determine the
• Replacement items which need special regard. There are two main
categories distinguished.
The analysis allows selecting the maintenance task
or several tasks as well as the inspection period for Structure Significant Items (SSI) are enter into the
the item considered. structure maintenance program. Part of this category are
those items which contribute significantly to loads applied

AIR OPERATIONS
The results of these analyses are regrouped in synthesis during flight, ground loads, pressurization, and trajectory
papers which have to be validated by the industry control and where a failure threatens the structural
steering committee (ISC) before they can be approved integrity and the safety of the aircraft. The other items to
by the MRB. To complete their elaboration the working survey are those considered in the zonal program.
groups have to detail sufficiently each task to enable the
writers of the maintenance documentation are able to The selection of SSI depends on two factors:
translate the maintenance procedure while respecting • The consequences of failures (critical locations): one
the intentions of the working group. Finally to benefit identifies the locations which contribute significantly
from the zonal insp ection program (ZIP, see further to withstand the loads and where the result for
down), the maintenance tasks which request a general damage tolerance and safe life have to be confirmed;
visual inspection (GVI) can be transferred into the ZIP • The failure probability, determined in accordance
when their inspection frequency is respected. This allows to the k nowledge of the obtained loads, the
avoiding unnecessary duplications. operational environment and the identif ication
of the destinations which contribute to damages
OBLIGATIONS FROM CERTIFICATION in line with three causes of damage (accidental
MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS (CMR) damage, deterioration due to the environment and
The aircraft type certification work identifies among fatigue damage).
others the maintenance tasks. In addition the civil
aviation authorities introduce specific requirements. In Typically, the areas exposed to these damages which
particular the manufacturer has to do a system safety enter into this category are: the assemblies and bigger
analysis (SSA) requested by Paragraph CS 25.1309. In subassemblies, the static joints which need lubrication,
some cases the maintenance tasks have to be prescribed the fatigue sensitive zones which take a concentration
to obtain the necessary reliability level. of loads, intersections, assemblies under stress or
alternating stress and compression, major metallic
This work is done by a specif ic committee: the items, openings in panels, doors and windows, etc.
Committee of coordination of certif ication and Additionally, there are zones of concern which are
maintenance which examines the requests derived from exposed to corrosion (such as toilets, galleys, belly
the certification or CMR (Certification Maintenance and corrosion affected zones under stress). A lso
Requirements) which holds the def initive list and those zones exposed to accidental exterior damage
orders it into two categories: or to maintenance errors have to be considered (door
• The CMR* (CMR one star): maintenance tasks thresholds, zones of maintenance activities or exposed
with application intervals which cannot be modified to leaks of corrosive f luid). Final categor y to be
by the operators without previous consent of the considered are the safe life items.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 4.9


Eng. M. Rasool
The MSG-3 analysis as applied to structure. As for normal aircraft operation conditions,
systems and power plant a logical analysis methodology • Corrosion level 2: corrosion appears in between
is applied on the SSI items. A logical decision process t wo inspections where the treatment exceeds
has been adapted to the SSI analysis which leads to: the allowable limits and results in a repair or a
• Differentiate between damage-tolerant and safe- structural reinforcement,
life items; • Corrosion level 3: corrosion discovered during
• Determine the feasibility and type of inspection an inspection which is considered to threaten the
techniques for damage-tolerant items and zones structural integrity and requires an immediate repair.
exposed to environmental or accidental damage.
The rules of MSG-3 rev. 2 of 1993 demand a program
The analysis leads to two possible results, return to to prevent and control corrosion (CPCP, Corrosion
the design office to reinforce the structural resistance, Prevention and Control Program) which has to be
or classif ication within one of the t wo structural established by the aircraft manufacturer to allow to
program listings: contain the corrosion at level 1.
• List of Airworthiness Limitation Items (ALI)
• Consolidated structural maintenance program. The manufacturer Airbus has applied this requirement
not only for new aircraft but also retroactively for the
Each analysis is supported by an individual file (SSI totality of its production range. The CPCP is therefore
Analysis). The structure program agreement proposed incorporated as an integral part of the structure
by the working group follows the same procedure as for maintenance program.
systems and power plant: presentation and discussion
within the Industry Steering Committee, submission The composites necessitate the consideration of specific
to Maintenance review Board leading to the structure considerations: other sources of degradation can damage
program approval to be integrated into the MRB Report. them, such as paint removers; in addition sudden
impacts can reduce severely the strength of a composite
ANALYSIS OF ACCIDENTAL DAMAGE without visible exterior damage.
The aircraft manufacturer Airbus follows the policy
not to create maintenance tasks covering accidental Airbus e.g. considers these aspects already at the level of
damage. These items are analyzed to evaluate their pre-design: The impacts which threaten the strength of a
eventual impact on fatigue or corrosion resistance. If composite part have to be visible from the outside; tests
the impact is significant. It is taken into consideration have demonstrated that the non-visible damages do not
in the correspondent SSI analysis and is translated, if have a critical importance for the strength of the structure.
necessary, into supplementary structure inspection tasks.
THE “ALI” (AIRWORTHINESS
DAMAGE ANALYSIS DUE TO THE LIMITATION ITEMS)
ENVIRONMENT All critical fatigue items have been put together, as well
Metallic structures are exposed to multiple variations those related to flight cycles and corrosion critical items.
of corrosion: stress corrosion, galvanic, intergranular, These tasks related to fatigue and damage tolerance are
microbiologic, fretting, etc in small or even vast areas. high-lighted very precisely. The threshold of their first
Each item is evaluated as a function of its location, the inspection and the repeat interval inspection cannot
type of corrosion enabling further deterioration, and be modif ies by the aircraft operators or their local
the results classified as a function of their severity to civil aviation authority without agreement from the
determine the necessary inspection intervals. manufacturer and his certification authority.

Three severity levels are internationally recognized: The document containing the ALI is a basic element of
• Corrosion level 1: corrosion appears in between the structure maintenance program;
two inspections and which can be treated within
the allowed tolerances, or corrosion exceeding The operators are obliged to produce a report for the
the allowable limits but does not occur under the manufacture at each detection of structural damage

4.10 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
of an item of being part of the chapter Airworthiness other maintenance activities: A check (e.g. 500 f light
Limitation. A form is included in the MRB report. hours), C check (e.g. 15 months) and multiples, five years
and ten years (structure checks).
ZONAL INSPECTION PROGRAM (ZIP)
The zona l inspection program (ZIP) covers the The shorter thresholds and repeat intervals aim at
requirements of the visible inspection of the whole those items exposed to accidental damage or having
aircraft, by succeeding zones covering systems, power consequences for the dispatch reliabilit y of the
plant and structure to assure their general good aircraft; they do not need much access to very specific
condition and to maintain safety. Each zone is clearly zones. The longer thresholds and intervals impose a
defined, with borders easily to identify and all access more detailed access level and aim at damage which
panels are opened for inspection. occurs during the utilization up to a point where they
are detectable by a general visual inspection. We have
The aircraft is split into eight major zones: shown previously that tasks can be transferred from
• Lower fuselage up to rear pressure bulkhead the maintenance programs of structure and systems
• Upper fuselage up to rear pressure bulkhead and power plant. When the selected tasks are of the
• Aft section and tail order of general visual inspections and when the

AIR OPERATIONS
• Engines, pylons and nacelles frequencies of the program are coherent then they
• Right wing are integrated into the ZIP. This procedure avoids
• Left wing duplications of tasks but responding exactly to the
• Landing gear and landing gear panels requirements of the maintenance program.
• Passenger and cargo doors
ANALYSIS OF ZIP TASKS
These major zones are split into smaller ones to ease As for the other chapters of the maintenance program
inspection. An agreement on numeration allows for a logical analysis methodology is applied to determine
a logical determination of symmetrical zones as well the intervals of the ZIP tasks.
as neighboring zones. The following figure gives an
example for the definition of the left-hand engines of Three parameters are considered:
an A320 (engine 1 and 2). There is only one type of • The density: When the installed items in a zone
task in the maintenance program ZIP; general visual are packed together the possibility to inspect each
inspection (GVI). Each zone is analyzed to identify part properly and as well the structure behind is
the type of deterioration or damage appearing during affected.
operation. In any case the content does not pertain • The ranking: the ranking of each component
to be exhaustive. It is assumed that the aircraft in terms of safet y and costs of functioning is
mechanic who performs the inspection must have a evaluated. The damage which a malfunctioning
good knowledge of the aircraft design and its systems could provoke on the elements adjacent of the zone
located within the zone he inspects. is as well considered.
• The environment: the exposure to heat, vibrations
The inspection tasks ZIP will check: or accidental damage is as well evaluated.
• The visible structure parts and look for their
deterioration such as accidental damage, corrosion, These three parameters are then combined according
fretting and interferences, leaks, fissure and general to a decision logic to determine the wanted inspection
condition of rivets and fixations, inter vals. These evaluations call for the personal
• The good condition of installation (and stabilization) judgment of the specialists, coming from the experience
of equipment, harnesses, conduits, ducts, pulleys, etc. with the inservice fleet before the decision is taken by
• The condition of cowls, hoods, and opened or using the results from logical analysis. This is how an
dismounted panels to create access to the zone. inspection program is obtained which is both practical
and realistic.
The threshold of the first inspection and the repeat intervals
utilize the same maintenance program definitions as the

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 4.11


Eng. M. Rasool
THE MRB REPORT (MAINTENANCE in no circumstances permit operation outside the
REVIEW BOARD) constraints of the MMEL.
This report provides to the operators the minimum and
initial maintenance program of the aircraft, with the CDL
tasks and application frequencies for systems, power The Configuration Deviation List (CDL) allows for
plant and structure. The objective of this document is continued operations with missing secondary airframe
to serve as a basis for each operator to elaborate his own and engine parts. Approval for operating with these
maintenance program which will be in turn approved parts missing is authorized by an amendment to the type
by the airworthiness authorities of his country. certificate which as a result requires an Aircraft Flight
Manual (AFM) supplement. Any part not included
The organization of the report reflects the organization in the CDL must be considered necessary for f light.
of the work of which it combines the results. Therefore, without a CDL, missing secondary airframe
• Introduction and engine parts would ground the airplane until repair
• General rules applicable at the total aircraft program or replacement of the part is accomplished. An approved
• Maintenance program systems and power plant CDL is evaluated based on Advisory Circular AC 25-7A
• Maintenance program structures during flight testing for aircraft certification and contains
• Zonal maintenance program the necessary takeoff performance decrement, the landing
• And a specific chapter: Specific American (US) performance decrement, and the en route performance
requirements decrement as appropriate for the airplane type.

MAINTENANCE PLANNING DOCUMENTS TO BE CARRIED


DOCUMENT (MPD) (OPS 1.125)
As indicated above the MRB report only contains the a. An operator shall ensure that the following documents
initial maintenance program of the aircraft, at the time or copies thereof are carried on each flight:
of its first commercial operation. The MPD is destined 1. The Certificate of Registration;
to follow that initial document to incorporate the 2. The Certificate of Airworthiness;
evolutions during the life of the aircraft which can thirty 3. The original or a copy of the Noise Certificate
or more years. These evolutions are taken from five (if applicable), including an English translation,
different sources: the airworthiness directives imposed where one has been provided by the Authority
by the certif ication authorities, the SIL (Ser vice responsible for issuing the noise certificate;
Information Letters) of the aircraft manufacturer, 4. The original or a copy of the Air Operator
the SB (Service Bulletins) for inspection, the SB for Certificate;
modif ication and the evolutions of safe-life. Their 5. The Aircraft Radio License; and
impact on the maintenance tasks and their periodicity 6. The original or a copy of the Third Party
are permanently incorporated into the MPD. Liability Insurance Certificate(s).
b. Each flight crew member shall, on each flight, carry
MINIMUM EQUIPMENT a valid flight crew license with appropriate rating(s)
LISTS & CDL (OPERATOR'S for the purpose of the flight.
RESPONSIBILITIES)
MANUALS TO BE CARRIED (OPS 1.130)
MEL An operator shall ensure that:
An operator shall establish, for each airplane, a 1. The current parts of the Operations Manual relevant
Minimum Equipment List (MEL) approved by to the duties of the crew are carried on each flight;
the Authorit y. This shall be based upon, but no 2. Those parts of the Operations Manual which
less restrictive than, the relevant Master Minimum are required for the conduct of a f light are easily
Equipment List (MMEL) (if this exists) accepted accessible to the crew on board the aeroplane; and
by the Authority. An operator shall not operate an 3. The current Aeroplane Flight Manual is carried in
airplane other than in accordance with the MEL unless the aeroplane unless the Authority has accepted that
permitted by the Authority. Any such permission will the Operations Manual prescribed in OPS 1.1045,

4.12 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
Appendix 1, Part B contains relevant information • Manufacturer's Serial Number.
for that aeroplane. • Any other information the Agency finds appropriate.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION AND Any natural or legal person that manufactures an


FORMS TO BE CARRIED (OPS 1.135) aircraft or engine under Subpart-G or Subpart-F shall
a. An operator shall ensure that, in addition to the identify that aircraft or engine by means of a fireproof
documents and manuals prescribed in OPS 1.125 plate that has the information specified in paragraph
and OPS 1.130, the following information and (a) marked on it by etching, stamping, engraving,
forms, relevant to the type and area of operation, are or other approved method of fireproof marking. The
carried on each flight: identification plate shall be secured in such a manner
1. Operational Flight Plan containing at least the that it is accessible and legible, and will not likely be
information required in OPS 1.1060; defaced or removed during normal service, or lost or
2. Aeroplane Technical Log containing at least destroyed in an accident.
the information required in Part-M, paragraph
M. A. 306 Operator’s technical log system; IDENTIFICATION OF PARTS AND
3. Details of the filed ATS flight plan; APPLIANCES (21A.804)

AIR OPERATIONS
4. Appropriate NOTAM/AIS briefing documentation; Each manufact urer of a pa r t or appliance sha l l
5. Appropriate meteorological information; permanently and legibly mark the part or appliance with:
6. Mass and balance documentation as specified • A name, trademark, or symbol identifying the
in Subpart J; manufacturer; and
7. Notification of special categories of passenger • The part number, as def ined in the applicable
such as security personnel, if not considered design data; and
as crew, handicapped persons, inadmissible • The letters EPA (European Part Approval) for
passengers, deportees and persons in custody; parts or appliances produced in accordance with
8. Notification of special loads including dangerous approved design data not belonging to the type-
goods including written information to the certificate holder of the related product, except for
commander as prescribed in OPS 1.1215 (c); ETSO articles.
9. Current maps and cha r ts and associated
documents as prescribed in OPS 1.290 (b)(7); Each person who manu fact u res an A PU under
10. Any other documentation which may be required Subpart-G or Subpart-F shall identify that APU by
by the States concerned with this flight, such as means of a fireproof plate that has the information
cargo manifest, passenger manifest etc; and specified in paragraph (a) marked on it by etching,
11. Forms to comply with the reporting requirements stamping, engraving, or other approved method of
of the Authority and the operator. fireproof marking. The identification plate shall be
b. The Authority may permit the information detailed secured in such a manner that it is accessible and legible,
in subparagraph (a) above, or parts thereof, to be and will not likely be defaced or removed during normal
presented in a form other than on printed paper. An service, or lost or destroyed in an accident.
acceptable standard of accessibility, usability and
reliability must be assured. MARKING OF BREAK-IN POINTS
An operator shall ensure that, if designated areas of the
IDENTIFICATION OF PARTS fuselage which are suitable for break-in by rescue crews
AND APPLIANCES in an emergency are marked on an airplane, such areas
shall be marked as shown in Figure 4-3. The color of
IDENTIFICATION OF PRODUCTS the markings shall be red or yellow, and if necessary
(21A.801) they shall be outlined in white to contrast with the
The identif ication of products shall include the background. If the corner markings are more than
following information: two meters apart, intermediate lines 9 cm × 3 cm shall
• Manufacturer's name. be inserted so that there is no more than two meters
• Product designation. between adjacent marks. (Figure 4-3)

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 4.13


Eng. M. Rasool

Figure 4-3. Specifications for marking break-in area on the outside of the aircraft for rescue crew identification.

EMERGENCY MARKINGS EMERGENCY EXIT MARKINGS


Emergency markings are required to give information (CS 26.110)
to passengers and crew. a. Each passenger emergency exit, its means of access,
and its means of opening is conspicuously marked.
The location of emergency exits, emergency lightning or b. The identit y and location of each passenger
floor proximity lightning, location of fire extinguishers, emergency exit is recognizable from a distance equal
f ire axes, are identif ied with red letters and signs. to the width of the cabin.
Emergency exit placards meet specific criteria as they c. Means are provided to assist the occupants in
have to be understood by all passengers (Clear, Simple locating the exits in conditions of dense smoke.
and Precise operating instructions). (Figure 4-4) d. The location of each passenger emergency exit is
indicated by a sign visible to occupants approaching
along the passenger aisles. There is:
1. A passenger emergency exit locator sign above
the aisle (or aisles) near each passenger emergency
exit, or at another overhead location if it is more
practical because of low headroom, except that
one sign may serve more than one exit if each
exit can be seen readily from the sign;
2. A passenger emergency exit marking sign next
to each passenger emergency exit, except that
one sign may serve two such exits if they can
both be seen readily from the sign; and
3. A sign on each bulkhead or divider that prevents
fore and aft vision along the passenger cabin to
Figure 4-4. Required emergency exit markings. indicate emergency exits beyond and obscured
by the bulkhead or divider, except that if this is
not possible, the sign may be placed at another
appropriate location.
Each sign listed in this sub-paragraph may use the word
‘exit’ in its legend in place of the term ‘emergency exit’
or a universal symbolic exit sign. The design of the exit
signs is chosen to provide a consistent set throughout
the cabin.

4.14 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
e. The location of the operating handle and instructions INTERIOR EMERGENCY LIGHTING
for opening exits from the inside of the aeroplane are AND EMERGENCY LIGHT
clearly shown in the following manner: OPERATION (CS 26.120)
1. Each passenger emergency exit has, on or near a. An emergency lighting system, independent of the
the exit, a marking that is readable from a main lighting system, is installed. However, sources
distance of 76 cm (30 inches); of general cabin illumination may be common to
2. Each passenger emergency exit operating both the emergency and the main lighting system if
handle and the cover removal instructions, if the the power supply to the emergency lighting system is
handle is covered, are: independent of the power supply to the main lighting
i. Self-illuminated with an initial brightness system. The emergency lighting system includes:
of at least 160 micro-lamberts (with the 1. Illuminated emergency exit mark ing and
illumination level not decreasing in service locat ing sig ns, sou rces of genera l cabin
to below 100 micro-lamberts); or illumination and interior lighting in emergency
ii. Conspicuously located and well illuminated exit areas.
by the emergency lighting even in conditions 2. The f loor proximity emergency escape path
of occupant crowding at the exit. ma rk ing prov ides emergenc y evacuation

AIR OPERATIONS
3. All Type II and larger passenger emergency exits guidance for passengers when all sources of
with a locking mechanism released by motion illumination more than 1.22 m (4 feet) above
of a handle, are marked by a red arrow with a the cabin aisle floor are totally obscured. In the
shaft at least 19 mm (0.75 inch) wide, adjacent dark of the night, the floor proximity emergency
to the handle, that indicates the full extent and escape path marking enables each passenger to;
direction of the unlocking motion required. The after leaving the passenger seat, visually identify
word OPEN is horizontally situated adjacent to the emergency escape path along the cabin aisle
the arrow head and is in red capital letters at least floor to the first exits or pair of exits forward and
25 mm (1 inch) high. The arrow and word OPEN aft of the seat.
are located on a background which provides b. Except for lights forming part of the emergency
adequate contrast. (Figure 4-4) lighting, subsystems that serve no more than one
f. Each emergency exit that is openable from the assist means are automatically activated when the
outside, and its means of opening is marked on assist means is deployed. Each light required for
the outside of the aeroplane. In addition, the interior and exterior emergency lighting:
following apply: 1. Is operable manually both from the flight crew
1. The outside ma rk ing for each passenger station and for aeroplanes on which a cabin
emergency exit in the side of the fuselage crew member is required, from a point in the
includes one 5 cm (2 inch) colored band passenger compartment that is readily accessible
outlining the exit. from a normal cabin crew seat;
2. Each outside marking including the band, has 2. Has a means to prevent inadvertent operation of
color contrast to be readily distinguishable from the manual controls;
the surrounding fuselage surface. (Figure 4-5) 3. When armed or turned on at either station, remains
lighted or becomes lighted upon interruption of
the aeroplane’s normal electric power;
4. Provides the required level of illumination
for at least 10 minutes at the critical ambient
conditions after emergency landing;
5. Has a cockpit control device that has an ‘on’,
‘off’, and ‘armed’ position.
c. Each sign required by Part 26.120 may use a
universal symbolic exit sign. The design of the signs
is chosen to provide a consistent set throughout
Figure 4-5. Required external emergency exit markings. the cabin.

4.15
Eng. M. Rasool

4.16 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
QUESTIONS

Question: 4-1 Question: 4-5


An _____________________ required if an operator The aircraft __________________ identifies the
wishes to engage in commercial air transportation. maintenance tasks.

Question: 4-2 Question: 4-6


Who is responsible for the continuing airworthiness Level 3 corrosion threatens structural integrity and

AIR OPERATIONS
of an aircraft? requires an __________________ repair.

Question: 4-3 Question: 4-7


The manufacturer’s maintenance planning What is an MEL?
document (MPD) aids operators in fulfilling their
obligation to create and follow their own approved
__________________.

Question: 4-4
A manufacturer’s MSG is a __________________
__________________ __________________.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 4.17


Eng. M. Rasool
ANSWERS

Answer: 4-1 Answer: 4-5


Air Operator Certificate (AOC). type certificate work.

Answer: 4-2 Answer: 4-6


owner. immediate.

Answer: 4-3 Answer: 4-7


maintenance program. Minimum equipment list. An operator shall not
operate an airplane other than in accordance with the
MEL.

Answer: 4-4
maintenance steering group.

4.18 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool

PART-66 SYLLABUS LEVELS


CERTIFICATION CATEGORY ¦ A B1 B2

Sub-Module 05
CERTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT, PARTS AND APPLIANCES
Knowledge Requirements

10.5 - Certification of Aircraft, Parts and Appliances


(a) General - 1 1

CERTIFICATION-AIRCRAFT,
PARTS AND APPLIANCES
General understanding of Part-21 and EASA certification specifications CS-23, 25, 27, 29.

(b) Documents - 2 2
Certificate of Airworthiness; restricted certificates of airworthiness and permit to fly;
Certificate of Registration;
Noise Certificate;
Weight Schedule;
Radio Station License and Approval.

Level 1 Level 2
A familiarization with the principal elements of the subject. A general knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject
and an ability to apply that knowledge.
Objectives:
(a) The applicant should be familiar with the basic elements of the Objectives:
subject. (a) The applicant should be able to understand the theoretical
(b) The applicant should be able to give a simple description of the fundamentals of the subject.
whole subject, using common words and examples. (b) The applicant should be able to give a general description of the
(c) The applicant should be able to use typical terms. subject using, as appropriate, typical examples.
(c) The applicant should be able to use mathematical formula in
conjunction with physical laws describing the subject.
(d) The applicant should be able to read and understand sketches,
drawings and schematics describing the subject.
(e) The applicant should be able to apply his knowledge in a practical
manner using detailed procedures.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 5.1


Eng. M. Rasool
CERTIFICATION SPECIFICATIONS (CS)

Certification Specifications (CS) are large documents b[m]) and the maximum weight of which does not
which def ine the requirements and capabilities of exceed 850 kg;
aircraft in each category. The content of a CS can be • Sailplanes and powered sailplanes: the number of
summed up as follows: occupants of which does not exceed two.
• Performances (e.g. climb gradients one engine
inoperative) and handling qualities (e.g. static and Those requirements in CS–22 which apply only to
dynamic stability, control force, etc.). powered sailplanes are marginally annotated with
• Structure (e.g. gusts envelope, maneuvers envelope, the letter P. Requirements not so marked apply both
fatigue requirements, etc.) to sailplanes and to powered sailplanes with engines
• Design and Construction (e.g. emergency evacuation stopped and engine or propeller retracted where
provisions; fire protection, etc.) appropriate. In these requirements the word ‘sailplane’
• Powerplant Installation (e.g. uncontained powerplant means both ‘sailplane’ and ‘powered sailplane’.
failure, fuel and oil system requirements, etc.)
• Systems and Equipment (e.g. systems safet y Unless specifically stated otherwise, the term ‘powered
analyses; requirements for electrical, hydraulic and sailplane’ includes those powered sailplanes which may
pneumatic systems; required equipment for flight be incapable of complying with CS 22.51 and/or CS
and navigation, etc.) 22.65(a) and which must consequently be prohibited
• Manuals and limitations (e.g. speed limitations, from taking off solely by means of their own power by
flight manual, continued airworthiness manual, a limitation in the Flight Manual. These are referred
etc.). to in the text as ‘Self-Sustaining Powered Sailplanes’.
For Self-Sustaining Powered Sailplanes the additional
The requirements usually prevent unsafe conditions requirements in Appendix I are applicable. (Figure 5-1)
(e.g. performance requirements with one engine
inoperative). However some have been written to
limit the consequences of such unsafe conditions (e.g.
emergency evacuation to allow passengers escaping
after a minor crash). Other requirements may be
performance oriented (e.g. CS-25.1309 that broadly
requires an inverse relationship between the probability
of a failure and its consequences) when others may
impose design constraints (e.g. CS-25.807 that defines
the required number and types of emergency exist
versus number of passengers). Figure 5-1. Sailplanes and powered sailplanes.

The following are examples of Certification Specification NORMAL, UTILITY AEROBATIC AND
categories. COMMUTER AIRPLANES (CS 23)
This Airworthiness code is applicable to –
SAILPLANES AND POWERED • Airplanes in the normal, utility and aerobatic
SAILPLANES (CS 22) categories that have a seating conf iguration,
This Airworthiness Code is applicable to sailplanes excluding the pilot seat(s), of nine or fewer and a
and powered sailplanes in the utility U and aerobatic maximum certificated take-off weight of 5670 kg
A categories: (12 500 lb) or less; and
• Sailplanes: the maximum weight of which does not • Propeller-driven twin-engine airplanes in the
exceed 750 kg; commuter category that have a seating configuration,
• Single engine (spark or compression ignition) excluding the pilot seat(s) of nineteen or fewer and
powered sailplanes: the design value W/b 2 (weight a maximum certificated take-off weight of 8618 kg
to span 2) of which is not greater than 3(W[kg], (19 000 lb) or less. (Figure 5-2)

5.2 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
SMALL ROTORCRAFT (CS 27.1)
This Airworthiness Code is applicable to small rotorcraft
with maximum weights of 3 175 kg (7 000 lbs) or less
and nine or less passenger seats.

Multi-engine rotorcraft may be type certificated as


Category A provided the requirements referenced in
Appendix C are met. (Figure 5-4)

Figure 5-2. Normal, utility aerobatic and commuter airplanes.

LARGE AIRPLANES (CS 25)


The Airworthiness code is applicable to airplanes
powered with turbine engines: (Figure 5-3)
• Without contingency thrust ratings, and
• For which it is assumed that thrust is not increased
following engine failure during take-off except as
specified in sub-paragraph (c).

CERTIFICATION-AIRCRAFT,
PARTS AND APPLIANCES
Figure 5-4. Small rotorcraft.

LARGE ROTORCRAFT (CS 29.1)


This Airworthiness Code is applicable to large rotorcraft.
(Figure 5-5)

Figure 5-3. Large aircraft.

In the absence of an appropriate investigation of operational


implications these requirements do not necessarily cover;
• Automatic landings.
Figure 5-5. Large rotorcraft.
• Approaches and landings with decision heights of
less than 60 m (200 ft).
• Operations on unprepared runway surfaces. Large rotorcraft must be certificated in accordance with
either the Category A or Category B requirements.
If the airplane is equipped with an engine control
system that automatically resets the power or thrust on A multi-engine rotorcraft may be type certificated as
the operating engine(s) when any engine fails during both Category A and Category B with appropriate and
take-off, additional requirements pertaining to airplane different operating limitations for each category.
performance and limitations and the functioning and • Rotorcraft with a maximum weight greater than 9072
reliability of the system, contained in Appendix I, must kg (20 000 pounds) and 10 or more passenger seats
be complied with. must be type certificated as Category A rotorcraft.
• Rotorcraft with a maximum weight greater than
9072 kg (20 000 pounds) and nine or less passenger
seats may be t y pe certif icated as Categor y B

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 5.3


Eng. M. Rasool
rotorcraft provided the Category A requirements of
Subparts C, D, E, and F are met.
• Rotorcraft with a maximum weight of 9072 kg (20
000 pounds) or less but with 10 or more passenger
seats may be t y pe certif icated as Categor y B
rotorcraft provided the Category A requirements of
CS 29.67(a)(2), 29.87, 29.1517, and of Subparts C,
D, E, and F are met.
• Rotorcraft with a maximum weight of 9072 kg (20
000 pounds) or less and nine or less passenger seats Figure 5-6. CS VLA airplane.
may be type certificated as Category B rotorcraft.

CS-VLA VERY LIGHT AIRPLANES Certificated Take-off Weight of not more than 750
This airworthiness code is applicable to airplanes kg and a stalling speed in the landing configuration
with a single engine (spark or compression ignition) of not more than 83 km/h (45 knots)(CAS), to be
having not more than two seats, with a Maximum approved for day-VFR only. (Figure 5-6)

PRODUCTION ORGANIZATION APPROVAL

APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS His or her responsibility within the organization shall


(21A.145) consist of ensuring that all production is performed to the
The production organization shall demonstrate, on required standards and that the production organization is
the basis of the information submitted in accordance continuously in compliance with the data and procedures
with 21A.143 that: identified in the exposition referred to in 21A.143.
a. With regard to general approval requirements, • A person or group of persons have been nominated
facilities, working conditions, equipment and tools, by the production organization to ensure that the
processes and associated materials, number and organization is in compliance with the requirements
competence of staff, and general organization are of this Part, and are identified, together with the
adequate to discharge obligations under 21A.165. extent of their authority. Such person(s) shall
b. With regard to all necessary airworthiness, noise, act under the direct authority of the accountable
fuel venting and exhaust emissions data: manager referred to in subparagraph.
• The production organization is in receipt of such • The persons nominated shall be able to show
data from the Agency, and from the holder of, the appropriate k nowledge, background and
or applicant for, the type-certificate, restricted experience to discharge their responsibilities.
type-certificate or design approval, to determine • Staff at all levels have been given appropriate
conformity with the applicable design data. authority to be able to discharge their allocated
• The production organization has established a responsibilities and that there is full and effective
procedure to ensure that airworthiness, noise, coordination within the production organization
fuel venting and exhaust emissions data are in respect of airworthiness, noise, fuel venting and
correctly incorporated in its production data. exhaust emission data matters.
• Such data are kept up to date and made available d. With regard to certifying staff, authorized by the
to all personnel who need access to such data to production organization to sign the documents issued
perform their duties. under 21A.163 under the scope or terms of approval:
c. With regard to management and staff: • The knowledge, background (including other
• A ma n a g er h a s b e en nom i n ate d by t he functions in the organization), and experience of
production organization, and is accountable to the certifying staff are appropriate to discharge
the Competent Authority. their allocated responsibilities.

5.4 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
• The production organization maintains a record • Other products, parts or appliances are complete
of all certifying staff which shall include details and conform to the approved design data
of the scope of their authorization. and are in condition for safe operation before
• Certifying staff are provided with evidence of issuing EASA Form 1 to certify airworthiness,
the scope of their authorization. and additionally in case of engines, determine
according to data provided by the engine type-
PRIVILEGES (21A.163) certificate holder that each completed engine
Pursuant to the terms of approval issued under 21A.135, is in compliance with the applicable emissions
the holder of a production organization approval may: requirements as defined in 21A.18 (b), current at
a. Perform production activities under this Part. the date of manufacture of the engine, to certify
b. In the case of complete aircraft and upon presentation emissions compliance, or
of a Statement of Conformity (EASA Form 52) under • Other products, parts or appliances conform to
21A.174, obtain an aircraft certificate of airworthiness the applicable data before issuing EASA Form
and a noise certificate without further showing. 1 as a conformity certificate.
c. In the case of other products, parts or appliances
issue authorized release certificates (EASA Form 1) DURATION AND CONTINUED
under 21A.307 without further showing. VALIDITY (21A.159)
d. Maintain a new aircraft that it has produced and a. A production organization approval shall be issued
issue a certificate of release to service (EASA Form for an unlimited duration. It shall remain valid unless:

CERTIFICATION-AIRCRAFT,
PARTS AND APPLIANCES
53) in respect of that maintenance. • The production organization fails to demonstrate
compliance with the applicable requirements of
OBLIGATIONS OF THE HOLDER this Subpart; or
(21A.165) • The Competent Authority is prevented by the
The holder of a production organization approval shall: holder or any of its partners or subcontractors to
a. Ensure that the production organization exposition perform the investigations in accordance with
furnished in accordance with 21A.143 and the 21A.157; or
documents to which it refers, are used as basic • T he r e i s e v id e nc e t h at t he pro duc t ion
working documents within the organization. organization cannot maintain satisfactor y
b. M a i nt a i n t h e p r o d u c t ion o r g a n i z a t ion i n control of the manufacture of products, parts or
conformity with the data and procedures approved appliances under the approval; or
for the production organization approval. • The production organization no longer meets
c. Determine that: the requirements of 21A.133; or
• Each completed aircraft conforms to the type • The certificate has been surrendered or revoked
design and is in condition for safe operation under 21B.245.
prior to submitting Statements of Conformity b. Upon surrender or revocation, the certificate shall be
to the Competent Authority, or returned to the Competent Authority.

DESIGN ORGANIZATION APPROVAL

PART 21 – SUBPART-J APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS


T his Subpa r t establ ishes the procedu re for the (21A.245)
approval of design organizations and rules governing The design organization shall demonstrate, on the
the rights and obligations of applicants for, and basis of the information submitted in accordance with
holders of, such approvals. 21A.243 that, in addition to complying with 21A.239:
a. The staff in all technical departments are of
sufficient numbers and experience and have been
given appropriate authority to be able to discharge

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 5.5


Eng. M. Rasool
their allocated responsibilities and that these, of this document is approved under the authority
together with the accommodation, facilities and of DOA nr. [EASA]. J. [xyz].
equipment are adequate to enable the staff to achieve • To approve documentary changes to the aircraft
the airworthiness, noise, fuel venting and exhaust flight manual, and issue such changes containing
emissions objectives for the product. the following statement: ‘Revision nr. xx to
b. There is full and efficient coordination between AFM ref. yyy, is approved under the authority
departments and within departments in respect of of DOA nr.[EASA].J.[xyz].
airworthiness and environmental protection matters. • To approve the design of major repairs to
products for which it holds the type-certificate
PRIVILEGES (21A.263) or the supplemental type-certificate.
a. The holder of a design organization approval shall be
entitled to perform design activities under this Part DURATION AND CONTINUED
and within its scope of approval. VALIDITY (21A.259)
b. Subject to 21A.257(b), compliance documents a. A design organization approval shall be issued for
submitted by the applicant for the purpose of obtaining: an unlimited duration. It shall remain valid unless:
• A type-certificate or approval of a major change • The design organization fails to demonstrate
to a type design; or compliance with the applicable requirements of
• A supplemental type-certificate; or this Subpart; or
• An ETSO (European Technical Standard • The Agency is prevented by the holder or any
Orders) authorization under 21A.602 (b) (1); of its partners or subcontractors to perform the
• A major repair design approval; shall be accepted investigations in accordance with 21A.257; or
by the Agency without further verification. • There is evidence that the design assurance
c. The holder of a design organization approval shall be system cannot maintain satisfactory control and
entitled, within its terms of approval and under the supervision of the design of products or changes
relevant procedures of the design assurance system: thereof under the approval; or
• To classify changes to type design and repairs as • The certificate has been surrendered or revoked
‘major’ or ‘minor’. under the applicable administrative procedures
• To approve minor changes to type design and established by the Agency.
minor repairs. b. Upon surrender or revocation, the certificate shall be
• To issue information or instructions containing returned to the Agency.
the following statement: ‘The technical content

DOCUMENTS

A Cer t i f icate of A i r wor t h iness (Cof A), or a n be changed. The certificate reflects a determination made
airworthiness certificate, is issued for an aircraft by by the regulating body that the aircraft is manufactured
the national aviation authority in the state in which according to an approved design, and that the design
the aircraft is registered. The airworthiness certificate ensures compliance with airworthiness requirements.
attests that the aircraft is airworthy insofar as the aircraft The regulating body compares design documents and
conforms to its type design. Each airworthiness certificate processes to determine if the design meets requirements
is issued in one of a number of different categories. established for the type of equipment. Once issued, the
aircraft "type" meets appropriate requirements. The
TYPE CERTIFICATES determination process includes a step called "First Article
SCOPE Inspection", for it and for each of its subassemblies. This
A type certificate is issued to signify the airworthiness of is a quality control assessment whereas those prior to it
an aircraft manufacturing design. The certificate is issued are part of quality assurance.
by a regulating body, and once issued, the design cannot

5.6 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
With respect to "cannot be changed": When a technician An "Airworthiness Certif icate" is issued for each
wants to change something it has two options. One is aircraft that is properly registered if it conforms
to request a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC), to its type design. The airworthiness certif icate is
the other is to create an entirely different design. The valid and the aircraft may be operated as long as it is
choice is determined by considering whether or not the maintained in accordance with the rules issued by the
change constitutes a new design (ie. introduces risk regulatory authority.
not considered in the first design). If the manufacturer
believes the change doesn't introduce new risk the VALIDITY
manufacturer typically requests an STC. This is less The type certificate holder keeps the type certificate
expensive. If the regulatory authority agrees with the v a l id by cont inuously fol low ing a i r wor t h iness
rationale for choosing STC, the STC is granted. directives, issuing service bulletins and as well as
providing spares and technical support to keep the
The t y pe cer tif icate (TC) impl ies that a ircra f t aircraft current with the prevailing rules, even after
manufactured according to the approved design can the production of the type has stopped. This is what
be issued an Airworthiness Certificate. Examples of is meant by supporting the type and in this manner
regulatory authorities are the Civil Aviation Authority many out-of-production aircraft continue useful lives.
(CAA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) STCs are also bound by the same rules. When the
and the (European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). holder decides to stop supporting the aircraft type, the
To meet those requirements the aircraft and each sub- type certificate is returned to the regulators and the

CERTIFICATION-AIRCRAFT,
PARTS AND APPLIANCES
assembly must also be approved. When aircraft are remaining aircraft fleet permanently grounded. In this
produced to meet a given TC, each one need not be manner the whole Concorde fleet was finally grounded
tested as rigorously but the confidence demonstrated by when Airbus SAS surrendered its type certificate.
the TC is conferred, when the aircraft has been assigned
an Airworthiness Certificate. (Figure 5-7) SUPPLEMENTAL TYPE
CERTIFICATES
A supplemental type certificate (STC) is issued following
a modification. The STC defines the product design
change, states how the modification affects the existing
type design, and lists serial number affectivity. It also
identifies the certification basis listing specific regulatory
compliance for the design change. Information contained
in the certification basis is helpful for those applicants
proposing subsequent product modif ications and
evaluating certification basis compatibility with other
STC modifications. (Figure 5-8)

Initially, the applicant f irm submits documents to


their local aviation regulating body, detailing how
the proposed design, i.e., the 'Type', would fulfill the
airworthiness requirements. After investigations by the
regulator, the final approval of such documents (after the
required comments and amendments in order to fulfill
the laws), becomes the basis of the certification. The
firm follows it and draws a proposed timetable of actions
required for certification tests. With the application, the
regulations to be applied will usually be frozen for this
application for a given amount of time in order to avoid a
situation where the applicant would have to change the
Figure 5-7. Example of a type certificate. design as a result of changed regulation.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 5.7


Eng. M. Rasool
In parallel with aircraft testing, the applicant firm also
draws up maintenance program to support continuous
airworthiness after approval of the design. The program
is drawn with inputs from tests results and also from
initial customers' engineering departments. The
proposed maintenance program is submitted to the
regulators for comment and approval.

After successful completion of ground and flight tests,


along with an approved maintenance program, the
prototype is approved, and the firm is granted the type
certificate for the prototype (as understood that it should
include all furnished equipment for its intended role). The
legal term for the firm is now the "type certificate holder".
Subsequently the prototype now serves as a template for
aircraft production. Hence the aircraft rolling out of the
factory should be identical to the prototype, and each
given a serial number (a "series aircraft").

CERTIFICATES OF AIRWORTHINESS
Airworthiness certificates shall be classified as follows:
(Figure 5-9)
a. Certif icates of airworthiness shall be issued to
aircraft which conform to a type certificate that has
Figure 5-8. Example of a supplemental type certificate. been issued in accordance with this Part.
b. Restricted certificates of airworthiness shall be
An initial design sample known as a prototype is built. issued to aircraft:
This refers to either the aircraft, the engines or the • Which conform to a restricted type certificate
propeller, depending on the basis of the certification. For that has been issued in accordance with this
the purpose of illustration, the discussion shall be limited Part; or
to the aircraft. Normally a few prototypes are built, each • Which have been shown to the Agency to
subject to different tests. The prototypes are first used for comply with specific certification specifications
ground and system tests. One of the prototypes (known ensuring adequate safety.
as the "static airframe") is subject to destructive testing, c. Permits to fly shall be issued to aircraft that do not
i.e., the prototype is subject to stress beyond normal and meet, or have not been shown to meet, applicable
abnormal operations until destruction. The test-results certification specifications but are capable of safe
are compared with initial submitted calculations to flight under defined conditions.
establish the ultimate structural strength. d. Each application for a certificate of airworthiness
or restricted certif icate of airworthiness shall
Other prototypes will undergo other systems tests include:
until the satisfaction of the regulators. With all ground • The class of airworthiness certificate applied for;
tests completed, prototypes are made ready for f light • With regard to new aircraft:
tests. The f light tests are f lown by specially approved àà A statement of conformity:
flight test pilots who will fly the prototypes to establish • Issued under 21A.163(b), or
the ultimate flight limits which should be within the • Issued under 21A.130 and validated by the
airworthiness rules. If a long range airliner is tested, the Competent Authority, or,
flight tests may cover the whole world. • for an imported aircraft, a statement signed
by the exporting authority that the aircraft
conforms to a design approved by the Agency

5.8 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool

Figure 5-9. Example of airworthiness certificate.

àà A weight and balance report with a loading An airworthiness certif icate shall be issued for an
schedule. unlimited duration. It shall remain valid subject to:
àà The f light manual, when required by the • Compliance with the applicable type-design and

CERTIFICATION-AIRCRAFT,
PARTS AND APPLIANCES
applicable air worthiness code for the continuing airworthiness requirements; and
particular aircraft. • The aircraft remaining on the same register; and
e. With regard to used aircraft: • The type-certificate or restricted type-certificate
• O r i g i n at i n g f r om a Me mb e r S t at e , a n under which it is issued not being previously
air worthiness review certif icate issued in invalidated under 21A.51.
accordance with Part-M. • The certificate not being surrendered or revoked
• Originating from a non-Member State: under 21B.330.
àà A statement by the competent authority
of the State where the aircraft is, or was, RESTRICTED CERTIFICATES OF
registered, ref lecting the airworthiness AIRWORTHINESS
status of the aircraft on its register at time a. The competent authority of the Member State
of transfer. of registry shall issue a restricted certif icate of
àà A weight and balance report with a loading airworthiness for: (Figure 5-10)
schedule. • Ne w a i rc r a f t , up on pre s ent at ion of t he
àà The f light manual when such material is documentation required by 21A.174(b)(2)
required by the applicable airworthiness demonstrating that the aircraft conforms to
code for the particular aircraft. a design approved by the Agency under a
àà Historical records to establish the production, restricted type-certif icate or in accordance
modification, and maintenance standard with specific certification specifications, and
of the aircraft, including all limitations is in condition for safe operation.
associated with a restricted certificate of • Used a i rc r a f t , upon presentat ion of t he
airworthiness under 21A.184(c). documentation required by 21A.174(b)(3)
àà A recommendation for the issuance of a demonstrating:
certificate of airworthiness or restricted àà The aircraft conforms to a design approved
c e r t i f ic ate of a i r wor t h i ne s s a nd a n by the Agency under a restricted t ype
airworthiness review certificate following certificate or in accordance with specific
an airworthiness review in accordance with certification specifications, and
Part-M. àà The applicable airworthiness directives have
been complied with, and

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 5.9


Eng. M. Rasool

Figure 5-10. Example of restricted airworthiness certificate.

Figure 5-11. Examples of permits to fly.

5.10 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
àà The aircraft has been inspected in accordance must be registered with a national aviation authority and
with the appropriate provisions of Part-M; they must carry proof of this registration in the form of
àà W hen the competent authorit y of the a legal document called a Certificate of Registration at
Member State of registry is satisfied that all times when in operation. Most countries also require
the aircraft conforms to the approved design the aircraft registration to be imprinted on a permanent
and is in condition for safe operation. This fireproof plate mounted on the fuselage for the purposes
may include inspections by the competent of post-fire/post-crash aircraft accident investigation.
authority of the Member State of registry.
b. For an aircraft that cannot comply with the essential The first use of aircraft registrations was based on the
requirements referred to in the basic Regulation and radio call signs allocated at the London International
which is not eligible for a restricted type-certificate, Radiotelegraphic Conference in 1913. This was modified
the Agency shall, as necessary to take account of by agreement by the International Bureau at Berne and
deviations from these essential requirements: published on April 23, 1913. Although initial allocations
• Issue and check compliance with specif ic were not specifically for aircraft but for any radio user, the
certification specifications ensuring adequate International Air Navigation Convention held in Paris in
safety with regard to the intended use, and 1919 made allocations specifically for aircraft registrations,
• Specify limitations for use of this aircraft. based on the 1913 call sign list. The agreement stipulated
c. Limitations for use will be associated with restricted that the nationality marks were to be followed by a hyphen
certif icates of airworthiness including airspace then a group of four letters that must include a vowel (and

CERTIFICATION-AIRCRAFT,
PARTS AND APPLIANCES
restrictions as necessary to take account of deviations for the convention Y was considered to be a vowel).
from essential requirements for airworthiness laid
down in the basic Regulation. At the International Radiotelegraph Convention at
Washington in 1927, the list of markings was revised
PERMITS TO FLY and adopted from 1928; these allocations are the basis of
The competent authority of the Member State of the currently used registrations. The markings have been
registry shall issue a permit to f ly after the Agency amended and added to over the years, and the allocations
has found that the aircraft and appropriate associated and standard are managed by the International Civil
restrictions compensating for departure from the essential Aviation Organization (ICAO).
requirements permit the aircraft to perform safely a basic
flight. For that purpose, the Agency may make or require Article 20 of the Chicago Convention on International
the applicant to make appropriate inspections or tests Civil Aviation (signed in 1944) requires that all
necessary to ensure safety. (Figure 5-11) signatory countries register aircraft over a certain weight
with a national aviation authority. Upon registration,
AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION the aircraft receives its unique "registration", which
An aircraft registration is a unique alphanumeric string must be displayed prominently on the aircraft.
that identifies a civil aircraft, in similar fashion to a
license plate on an automobile. In accordance with the Annex 7 to the Convention on International Civil
Convention on International Civil Aviation all aircraft Aviation describes the def initions, location, and

Figure 5-12. Example of national aircraft registration prefixes; SX for Greece, UP for Kazakhstan, N for United States.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 5.11


Eng. M. Rasool
measurement of nationality and registration marks. There are three measures:
The aircraft registration is made up of a prefix selected • Approach measurement.
from the country's call sign prefix allocated by the • Takeoff measurement.
Internationa l Telecommunication Union (IT U ) • Lateral reference point measurement.
(making the registration a quick way of determining the
country of origin) and the registration suffix. Depending The maximum mass at which the noise compliance has
on the country of registration, this suffix is a numeric or been demonstrated must be stated on the noise certificate.
alphanumeric code, and consists of one to five digits or
characters respectively. WEIGHT SCHEDULE
a. An operator shall ensure that during any phase of
The ICAO provides a supplement to Annex 7 which operation, the loading, mass and centre of gravity of
provides an updated list of approved Nationality and the airplane complies with the limitations specified
Common Marks used by various countries. (Figure 5-12) in the approved Airplane Flight Manual, or the
Operations Manual if more restrictive.
NOISE CERTIFICATION b. An operator must establish the mass and the center
The ICAO has stipulated that all aircrafts must comply of gravity of any airplane by actual weighing prior to
with certain noise requirements. Aircrafts must respect initial entry into service and thereafter at intervals
a noise threshold def ined and if not they could be of 4 years if individual airplane masses are used and
forbidden to f ly over certain areas. In the past some 9 years if f leet masses are used. The accumulated
aircrafts equipped with old jet engines had to retro- effects of modifications and repairs on the mass
fitted with noise reduction devices (Hush kits). and balance must be accounted for and properly
documented. Furthermore, airplanes must be
The EASA has formalized noise requirements in reweighed if the effect of modifications on the mass
Certification Specifications for Aircraft Noise - CS-36. and balance is not accurately known.
These requirements make references to the ICAO c. An operator must determine the mass of a l l
Env ironmenta l Technica l Manua l on the Use of operating items and crew members included in the
Procedures in the Noise Certification of Aircraft, CAEP airplane dry operating mass by weighing or by using
Steering Group Approved Revision 7. standard masses. The influence of their position on
the airplane center of gravity must be determined.
For new aircraft, the noise certif ication is carried d. An operator must establish the mass of the traffic
out during the t y pe certif ication process. Noise load, including any ballast, by actual weighing or
measurement must be taken from various points and determine the mass of the traffic load in accordance
locations prescribed by the regulation. (Figure 5-13) with standard passenger and baggage masses as
specified in OPS 1.620.

Figure 5-13. Ground noise measurement locations, example of a noise certificate.

5.12 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
e. An operator must determine the mass of the fuel an Airplane;
load by using the actual density or, if not known, • New airplanes are normally weighed at the
the density calculated in accordance with a method factor y and are eligible to be placed into
specified in the Operations Manual. operation without reweighing if the mass
and balance records have been adjusted for
MASS AND BALANCE alterations or modifications to the airplane.
DOCUMENTATION (AIR OPERATIONS Airplanes transferred from one operator with
1.625) an approved mass control program to another
a. An operator shall establish mass and balance operator with an approved program need not be
documentation prior to each flight specifying the weighed prior to use by the receiving operator
load and its distribution. The mass and balance unless more than 4 years have elapsed since the
documentation must enable the commander to last weighing.
determine that the load and its distribution is such • The individual mass and center of gravity (CG)
that the mass and balance limits of the airplane position of each airplane shall be re-established
are not exceeded. The person preparing the mass periodically. The maximum interval between
and balance documentation must be named on the two weighings must be defined by the operator
document. The person supervising the loading of and must meet the requirements of OPS 1.605
the airplane must confirm by signature that the load (b). In addition, the mass and the CG of each
and its distribution are in accordance with the mass airplane shall be re-established either by:

CERTIFICATION-AIRCRAFT,
PARTS AND APPLIANCES
and balance documentation. This document must àà Weighing; or
be acceptable to the commander, his/her acceptance àà Calculation, if the operator is able to provide
being indicated by countersignature or equivalent. the necessary justif ication to prove the
b. An operator must specify procedures for last minute validity of the method of calculation chosen,
changes to the load. whenever the cumulative changes to the
c. Subject to the approval of the Authority, an operator dry operating mass exceed ± 0.5 % of the
may use an alternative to the procedures required by maximum landing mass of the cumulative
paragraphs (a) and (b) above. change in CG position exceeds 0.5% of the
d. Determination of the Dry Operating Mass of mean aerodynamic chord.

Figure 5-14. Example of Radiotelephony Operator’s License.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 5.13


Eng. M. Rasool
RADIO STATION LICENSE AND
Mass and balance documentation must contain the APPROVAL
following information: The requirement to have radio licenses originate
• The airplane registration and type; from the International Telecommunication Union
• The flight identification number and date; (ITU), an international organization responsible to
• The identity of the Commander; manage the allocation of radio frequencies. They are
• The identity of the person who prepared the document; also responsible to regulate the use of transmitting
• The dry operating mass and the corresponding CG equipment with a view to ensure they operate within
of the airplane; acceptable tolerances. (Figure 5-14)
• The mass of the fuel at takeoff and the mass of trip fuel;
• The mass of consumables other than fuel; The Convention on International Civil Aviation
• The components of the load including passengers, requires (Article 30) that the transmitting equipment
baggage, freight and ballast; be installed and operated in an aircraft in accordance
• Take-off Mass, Landing Mass and Zero Fuel Mass; with a radio license and that (Article 29) the radio
• The load distribution; license be carried on board the aircraft.
• The applicable airplane CG positions; and
• The limiting mass and CG values. The ICAO documents do not provide a detailed listing
of equipment to be mentioned on a radio license.
However, all transmitting radio equipment (VHF,
HF, ELT, radar, etc.) installed on an aircraft should be
covered in the radio license.

APPROVAL
Approval will be in accordance with the national
authorities regulations of the country of the applicant.

5.14 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
QUESTIONS

Question: 5-1 Question: 5-5


An engine-driven fixed-wing aircraft heavier than An aircraft is a unique
air that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction alphanumeric string that identifies a civil aircraft.
of the air against its wings is the definition of an
?

Question: 5-2 Question: 5-6


of Part 21 establishes the The three measurements taken during noise
procedure for issuing type-certificates for products certification of an aircraft are  ,
and restricted type-certificates for aircraft, and  , and
establishes the rights and obligations of the applicants measurements.

CERTIFICATION-AIRCRAFT,
PARTS AND APPLIANCES
for, and holders of, those certificates.

Question: 5-3 Question: 5-7


The holder of a production organization approval was The international organization responsible for
required to submit an to the managing the allocation of radio frequencies is
Agency to gain such approval and to use as a basic the __________________ __________________
working document within the organization. __________________.

Question: 5-4
shall be issued to aircraft
that do not meet, or have not been shown to meet,
applicable certification specifications but are capable of
safe flight under defined conditions.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 5.15


Eng. M. Rasool
ANSWERS

Answer: 5-1 Answer: 5-5


airplane. registration.

Answer: 5-2 Answer: 5-6


Subpart-B. approach.
takeoff.
lateral reference point.

Answer: 5-3 Answer: 5-7


exposition. International Telecommunications Union.

Answer: 5-4
Permits to fly.

5.16 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool

PART-66 SYLLABUS LEVELS


CERTIFICATION CATEGORY ¦ A B1 B2

Sub-Module 06
CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS
Knowledge Requirements

10.6 - Continuing Airworthiness 2 2 2


Detailed understanding of Part-21 provisions related to continuing airworthiness.
Detailed understanding of Part-M.

Level 2

AIRWORTHINESS
A general knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject

CONTINUING
and an ability to apply that knowledge.

Objectives:
(a) The applicant should be able to understand the theoretical
fundamentals of the subject.
(b) The applicant should be able to give a general description of the
subject using, as appropriate, typical examples.
(c) The applicant should be able to use mathematical formula in
conjunction with physical laws describing the subject.
(d) The applicant should be able to read and understand sketches,
drawings and schematics describing the subject.
(e) The applicant should be able to apply his knowledge in a practical
manner using detailed procedures.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 6.1


Eng. M. Rasool
PART 21 GENERAL PROVISIONS

SCOPE defect or other occurrence of which it is


General provisions governing the rights and obligations aware related to a product, part, or appliance
of the applicant for, and holder of, any certificate issued covered by the t ype-certif icate, restricted
or to be issued in accordance. type-certificate, supplemental type-certificate,
ETSO authorization, major repair design
UNDERTAKING approval or any other relevant approval deemed
The actions and obligations required to be undertaken by to have been issued under this Regulation, and
the holder of, or applicant for, a certificate for a product, which has resulted in or may result in an unsafe
part or appliance under this Section may be undertaken condition.
on its behalf by any other natural or legal person, • These reports shall be made in a form and
provided the holder of, or applicant for, that certificate manner established by the Agency, as soon as
can show that it has made an agreement with the other practical and in any case dispatched not later
person such as to ensure that the holder's obligations are than 72 hours after the identification of the
and will be properly discharged. possible unsafe condition, unless exceptional
circumstances prevent this.
FAILURES, MALFUNCTIONS AND c. Investigation of Reported Occurrences.
DEFECTS • When an occurrence reported under paragraph
a. System for Collection, Investigation and Analysis (b), or under 21A.129(f)(2) or 21A.165(f) (2)
of Data. results from a deficiency in the design, or a
• The holder of a type-certif icate, restricted manufacturing deficiency, the holder of the
type-certificate, supplemental type-certificate, type-certif icate, restricted type-certif icate,
European Technical Standard Order (ETSO) supplemental type-certif icate, major repair
authorization, major repair design approval or design approval, ETSO authorization, or
any other relevant approval deemed to have been any other relevant approval deemed to have
issued under this Regulation shall have a system been issued under this Regulation, or the
for collecting, investigating and analyzing manufacturer as appropriate, shall investigate
reports of and information related to failures, the reason for the deficiency and report to the
malfunctions, defects or other occurrences Agency the results of its investigation and any
which cause or might cause adverse effects on action it is taking or proposes to take to correct
the continuing airworthiness of the product, that deficiency.
part or appliance covered by the type-certificate, • If the Agency finds that an action is required
restricted t y pe-cer tif icate, supplementa l to correct the def iciency, the holder of the
type-certificate, ETSO authorization, major type-certif icate, restricted type-certif icate,
repair design approval or any other relevant supplemental type-certif icate, major repair
approval deemed to have been issued under this design approval, ETSO authorization, or
Regulation. Information about this system shall any other relevant approval deemed to have
be made available to all known operators of the been issued under this Regulation, or the
product, part or appliance and, on request, to manufacturer as appropriate, shall submit the
any person authorized under other associated relevant data to the Agency.
implementing Regulations.
b. Reporting to the Agency. AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES
• The holder of a type-certif icate, restricted a. An airworthiness directive means a document issued
type-certificate, supplemental type-certificate, or adopted by the Agency which mandates actions to
ETSO authorization, major repair design be performed on an aircraft to restore an acceptable
approval or any other relevant approval deemed level of safety, when evidence shows that the safety
to have been issued under this Regulation shall level of this aircraft may otherwise be compromised.
report to the Agency any failure, malfunction,

6.2 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
b. The Agency shall issue an airworthiness directive required inspections, or both, and submit details
when: of these proposals to the Agency for approval.
• An unsafe condition has been determined by • Following the approval by the Agency of the
the Agency to exist in an aircraft, as a result of a proposals referred to under subparagraph (1),
deficiency in the aircraft, or an engine, propeller, make available to all known operators or owners
part or appliance installed on this aircraft; and of the product, part or appliance and, on request,
• That condition is likely to exist or develop in to any person required to comply with the
other aircraft. airworthiness directive, appropriate descriptive
c. When an airworthiness directive has to be issued by data and accomplishment instructions.
the agency to correct the unsafe condition referred d. An airworthiness directive shall contain at least the
to in paragraph B or to require the performance following information:
of an inspection, the holder of the type-certificate, • An identification of the unsafe condition;
restricted type-certif icate, supplemental type- • An identification of the affected aircraft;
certificate, major repair design approval, ETSO • The action(s) required;
authorization or any other relevant approval deemed • The compliance time for the required action(s);
to have been issued under this Regulation, shall: • The date of entry into force.
• Propose the appropriate corrective action or

PART-M

The purpose of the Part-M is to define the role of the 2. Any operational and emergency equipment
competent authority which shall be for the: fitted is correctly installed and serviceable or
• Oversight of the continuing air worthiness of clearly identified as unserviceable, and;

AIRWORTHINESS
CONTINUING
individual aircraft and the issue of airworthiness 3. The airworthiness certificate remains valid, and;
review certificates; 4. The maintenance of the aircraft is performed
• Oversight of a maintenance organization as specified in accordance with the approved maintenance
in M.A. Subpart-F; program as specified in M.A.302.
• Oversight of a continuing airworthiness management b. When the aircraft is leased, the responsibilities of
organization as specified in M.A. Subpart-G; the owner are transferred to the lessee if:
• Approval of maintenance programs. 1. The lessee is stipulated on the registration
document, or;
GENERAL – SUBPART-A 2. Deta i led in t he leasing cont rac t. W hen
SCOPE (MA 101) reference is made in this Part to the ‘owner’, the
This Section establishes the measures to be taken to term owner covers the owner or the lessee, as
ensure that airworthiness is maintained, including applicable.
maintenance. It also specif ies the conditions to be c. Any person or organization performing maintenance
met by the persons or organizations involved in such shall be responsible for the tasks performed.
continuing airworthiness management. d. The pilot-in-command or, in the case of commercial
air transport, the operator shall be responsible for
ACCOUNTABILITY – SUBPART-B the satisfactory accomplishment of the pre-f light
RESPONSIBILITIES (MA 201) inspection. This inspection must be carried out
a. The owner is responsible for the continuing by the pilot or another qualified person but need
airworthiness of an aircraft and shall ensure that no not be carried out by an approved maintenance
flight takes place unless: organization or by Part-66 certifying staff.
1. The aircraft is maintained in an airworthy e. In order to satisfy the responsibilities of paragraph (a),
condition, and;

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 6.3


Eng. M. Rasool
f. T he ow ner of a n a i rc ra f t may cont rac t t he 1. Be appropr iately approved , pu r sua nt to
tasks associated with continuing airworthiness M.A. Subpart-G, for the management of the
to a cont inu ing a i r wor t h iness ma nagement continuing airworthiness of the aircraft it
organization approved in accordance with Section operates or contract such an organization; and
A, Subpart-G of this Annex (Part-M). In this 2. Be appropriately approved in accordance with
case, the continuing airworthiness management M.A. Subpart-F or Part-145, or contract such
organization assumes responsibility for the proper organizations; and
accomplishment of these tasks. 3. Ensure that paragraph (a) is satisfied.
g. An owner who decides to manage the continuing l. The owner/operator is responsible for granting the
a ir wor t hiness of t he a ircra f t under its ow n competent authority access to the organization/
responsibility, without a contract in accordance with aircraft to determine continued compliance with
Appendix I, may nevertheless make a limited contract this Part.
with a continuing air worthiness management
organization approved in accordance with Section OCCURENCE REPORTING (MA 202)
A, Subpart-G of this Annex (Part-M), for the a. A ny p er son or org a n i z at ion re sp onsible i n
development of the maintenance program and its accordance with point M.A.201 shall report to
approval in accordance with point M.A.302. In that the competent authority designated by the State
case, the limited contract transfers the responsibility of Registry, the organization responsible for the
for the development and approval of the maintenance type design or supplemental type design and, if
program to the contracted continuing airworthiness applicable, the Member State of operator, any
management organization. identified condition of an aircraft or component
h. In the case of large aircraft, in order to satisfy the which endangers flight safety.
responsibilities of paragraph (a) the owner of an b. Reports shall be made in a manner established by the
aircraft shall ensure that the tasks associated with Agency and contain all pertinent information about
continuing airworthiness are performed by an the condition known to the person or organization.
approved continuing airworthiness management c. Where the person or organization maintaining the
organization. A written contract shall be made aircraft is contracted by an owner or an operator
in accordance with Appendix I. In this case, the to carr y out maintenance, the person or the
continuing airworthiness management organization organization maintaining the aircraft shall also
assumes responsibility for the proper accomplishment report to the owner, the operator or the continuing
of these tasks. airworthiness management organization any such
i. Maintenance of la rge aircra f t, aircra f t used condition affecting the owner's or the operator's
for commercial air transport and components aircraft or component.
thereof shall be carried out by a Part-145 approved d. Reports shall be made as soon as practicable,
maintenance organization. but in any case within 72 hours of the person or
j. In the case of commercial air transport the operator organization identifying the condition to which the
is responsible for the continuing airworthiness of report relates.
the aircraft it operates and shall:
1. Be approved, as pa r t of the a ir operator CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS -
certificate issued by the competent authority, SUBPART-C
pursuant to M.A. Subpart-G for the aircraft it CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS TASKS
operates; and (MA 301)
2. Be approved in accordance with Part-145 or T he a ircra f t cont inu ing a ir wor t h iness a nd t he
contract such an organization; and ser viceabilit y of both operational and emergency
3. Ensure that paragraph (a) is satisfied. equipment shall be ensured by:
k. When an operator is requested by a Member State a. The accomplishment of pre-flight inspections;
to hold a certificate for commercial operations, b. The rectif ication in accordance with the data
other than for commercial air transport, it shall:’ specified in point M.A.304 and/or point M.A.401,
as applicable, of any defect and damage affecting

6.4 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
safe operation, taking into account, for all large the oversight of the Member State of Registry,
aircraft or aircraft used for commercial air transport, unless an agreement exists in accordance
the minimum equipment list and configuration with point M.1, paragraph 4(ii) or 4(iii), as
deviation list as applicable to the aircraft type’; applicable, transferring the responsibility for the
c. The accompl ishment of a l l ma intenance, in approval of the aircraft maintenance program
accordance with the M.A.302 approved aircraft to the competent authority responsible for
maintenance program; the continuing airworthiness management
d. For all large aircraft or aircraft used for commercial organization.
air transport the analysis of the effectiveness of the d. The aircraft maintenance program must establish
M.A.302 approved maintenance program; compliance with:
e. The accomplishment of any applicable: 1. Instructions issued by the competent authority;
1. Airworthiness directive, 2. Instructions for continuing air worthiness
2. Operational directive with a continuing issued by the holders of the type certificate,
airworthiness impact, restricted type certificate, supplemental type-
3. Continued airworthiness requirement certificate, major repair design approval, ETSO
established by the Agency, authorization or any other relevant approval
4. Measures mandated by the competent authority issued under Regulation (EC) No 1702/2003
in immediate reaction to a safety problem; and its Annex (Part-21);
f. The accomplishment of modifications and repairs in 3. Additional or alternative instructions proposed
accordance with M.A.304; by the owner or the continuing airworthiness
g. Fo r n on-m a n d ato r y m o d i f ic at ion s a n d /o r management organization once approved in
inspections, for all large aircraft or aircraft used for accordance with point M.A.302, except for
commercial air transport the establishment of an intervals of safety related tasks referred in
embodiment policy; 8. maintenance check flights paragraph (e), which may be escalated, subject
when necessary. to sufficient reviews carried out in accordance

AIRWORTHINESS
CONTINUING
with paragraph (g) and only when subject
MAINTENANCE PROGRAM (MA 302) to direct approval in accordance with point
a. Maintenance of each aircraft shall be organized in M.A.302(b).
accordance with an aircraft maintenance program. e. The aircraft maintenance program shall contain
b. T he a ircra f t ma intenance prog ra m and any details, including frequency, of all maintenance to
subsequent amendments shall be approved by the be carried out, including any specific tasks linked to
competent authority. the type and the specificity of operations.
c. When the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft is f. For large aircraft, when the maintenance program
managed by a continuing airworthiness management is based on maintenance steering group logic or
organization approved in accordance with Section on condition monitoring, the aircraft maintenance
A, Subpart-G of this Annex (Part-M), the aircraft program shall include a reliability program.
maintenance program and its amendments may be g. The aircraft maintenance program shall be subject
approved through an indirect approval procedure. to periodic reviews and amended accordingly
1. In that case, the indirect approval procedure when necessa r y. These rev iews sha l l ensure
sh a l l b e e s t a bl i she d by t he c ont i nu i n g that the program continues to be valid in light
a ir wor thiness management organization of the operating experience and instructions
as part of the Continuing A ir worthiness from the competent authorit y whilst tak ing
Management Exposition and shall be approved into account new and/or modified maintenance
by the competent authority responsible for instructions promulgated by the type certificate
that continuing airworthiness management and supplementary type certif icate holders and
organization. any other organization that publishes such data in
2. The continuing airworthiness management accordance with Annex (Part-21) to Regulation
organization shall not use the indirect approval (EC) No 1702/2003.
procedure when this organization is not under

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 6.5


Eng. M. Rasool
AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES (MA 303) module or service life limited component log card:
Any applicable airworthiness directive must be carried 1. Identification of the component; and
out within the requirements of that airworthiness 2. The type, serial number and registration, as
directive, unless otherwise specified by the Agency. appropriate, of the aircraft, engine, propeller,
engine module or service life-limited component
DATA FOR MODIFICATIONS AND to which the particular component has been
REPAIRS (MA 304) fitted, along with the reference to the installation
Damage shall be assessed and modifications and repairs and removal of the component; and
carried out using data approved by the Agency or by an 3. The date together w ith the component ’s
approved Part-21 design organization, as appropriate. accumulated total f light time and/or f light
cycles and/or landings and/or calendar time, as
AIRCRAFT CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS appropriate; and
RECORD SYSTEM (MA 305) 4. The current paragraph (d) information applicable
a. At the completion of any maintenance, the certificate to the component.
of release to service required by point M.A.801 f. The person responsible for the management of
or point 145.A.50 shall be entered in the aircraft continuing airworthiness tasks pursuant to M.A.
continuing airworthiness records. Each entry shall Subpart-B, shall control the records as detailed
be made as soon as practicable but in no case more in this paragraph and present the records to the
than 30 days after the day of the maintenance action. competent authority upon request.
b. The aircraft continuing airworthiness records shall g. A l l ent r ies made in the a ircra f t continu ing
consist of: airworthiness records shall be clear and accurate.
1. An aircraft logbook, engine logbook(s) or engine W hen it is necessar y to correct an entr y, the
module log cards, propeller logbook(s) and log correction shall be made in a manner that clearly
cards for any service life limited component as shows the original entry.
appropriate, and;
2. When required in point M.A.306 for commercial OWNER AND/OR THE OPERATOR
air transport or by the Member State for OBLIGATIONS (MA 306)
commercial operations other than commercial An owner or operator shall ensure that a system has
air transport, the operator’s technical log. been established to keep the following records for the
c. The aircraft type and registration mark, the date, periods specified:
together with total flight time and/or flight cycles 1. All detailed maintenance records in respect of the
and/or landings, as appropriate, shall be entered in aircraft and any service life-limited component
the aircraft logbooks. fitted thereto, until such time as the information
d. The aircraft continuing airworthiness records shall contained therein is superseded by new information
contain the current: equivalent in scope and detail but not less than 36
1. Status of airworthiness directives and measures months after the aircraft or component has been
mandated by the competent authorit y in released to service; and
immediate reaction to a safety problem; 2. The total time in service (hours, calendar time,
2. Status of modifications and repairs; cycles and landings) of the aircraft and all service
3. Status of compliance with maintenance program; life-limited components, at least 12 months after
4. Status of service life limited components; the aircraft or component has been permanently
5. Mass and balance report; withdrawn from service; and
6. List of deferred maintenance. 3. The time in service (hours, calendar time, cycles
e. In addition to the authorized release document, and landings) as appropriate, since last scheduled
EA SA Form 1 or equ iva lent, t he fol low ing maintenance of the component subjected to a service
information relevant to any component installed life limit, at least until the component scheduled
(engine, propeller, engine module or ser v ice maintenance has been superseded by another
life-limited component) shall be entered in the scheduled maintenance of equivalent work scope
appropriate engine or propeller logbook, engine and detail; and

6.6 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
4. The current status of compliance with maintenance b. For the purposes of this Part, applicable maintenance
program such that compliance with the approved data is:
aircraft maintenance program can be established, 1. A ny appl icable requ i rement, procedu re,
at least until the aircraft or component scheduled standard or information issued by the competent
maintenance has been superseded by other scheduled authority or the Agency,
maintenance of equivalent work scope and detail; and 2. Any applicable airworthiness directive,
5. The current status of airworthiness directives 3. A ppl ic a ble i n s t r uc t ion s for c ont i nu i n g
applicable to the aircraft and components, at least airworthiness, issued by type certificate holders,
12 months after the aircraft or component has been supplementary type certificate holders and any
permanently withdrawn from service; and other organization that publishes such data in
6. Details of current modif ications and repairs to accordance with Part 21.
the aircraft, engine(s), propeller(s) and any other 4. Any applicable data issued in accordance with
component vital to flight safety, at least 12 months 145.A.45(d).
after they have been permanently withdrawn from c. The person or organization maintaining an aircraft
service. shall ensure that all applicable maintenance data is
current and readily available for use when required.
OPERATOR TECHNICAL LOG SYSTEM The person or organization shall establish a work
(MA 306) card or worksheet system to be used and shall either
a. In the case of commercial air transport, in addition transcribe accurately the maintenance data onto
to the requirements of M.A.305, an operator shall such work cards or worksheets or make precise
use an aircraft technical log system containing the reference to the particular maintenance task or tasks
following information for each aircraft: contained in such maintenance data.
1. Information about each f light, necessary to
ensure continued flight safety, and; PERFORMANCE OF MAINTENANCE
2. The current aircraft certificate of release to (MA 402)

AIRWORTHINESS
CONTINUING
service, and; a. All maintenance shall be performed by qualified
3. The current maintenance statement giving the personnel, following the methods, techniques,
aircraft maintenance status of what scheduled standards and instructions specified in the M.A.401
and out of phase maintenance is next due except maintenance data. Furthermore, an independent
that the competent authority may agree to the inspection shall be carried out after any flight safety
maintenance statement being kept elsewhere, sensitive maintenance task unless otherwise specified
and; by Part-145 or agreed by the competent authority.
4. All outstanding deferred defects rectifications b. All maintenance shall be performed using the tools,
that affect the operation of the aircraft, and; equipment and material specified in the M.A.401
5. A ny necessa r y g u idance inst r uct ions on maintenance data unless otherwise specified by
maintenance support arrangements. Part-145. Where necessary, tools and equipment
b. T he a i rc r a f t te c h n ic a l log s y stem a nd a ny shall be controlled and calibrated to an officially
subsequent amendment shall be approved by the recognized standard.
competent authority. c. The area in which maintenance is carried out
c. An operator shall ensure that the aircraft technical log shall be well organized and clean in respect of
is retained for 36 months after the date of the last entry. dirt and contamination.
d. All maintenance shall be performed within any
MAINTENANCE STANDARDS – environmental limitations specified in the M.A.401
SUBPART-D maintenance data.
MAINTENANCE DATA (MA 401) e. In case of inclement weather or lengthy maintenance,
a. The person or organization maintaining an aircraft proper facilities shall be used.
shall have access to and use only applicable current f. After completion of all maintenance a general
maintenance data in the performance of maintenance verif ication must be carried out to ensure the
including modifications and repairs. aircraft or component is clear of all tools, equipment

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 6.7


Eng. M. Rasool
and any other extraneous parts and material, and d. Material being either raw material or consumable
that all access panels removed have been refitted. material shall only be used on an aircraft or
a component when the aircraft or component
AIRCRAFT DEFECTS (MA 403) manufacturer states so in relevant maintenance
a. Any aircraft defect that hazards seriously the flight data or as specified in Part-145. Such material shall
safety shall be rectified before further flight. only be used when the material meets the required
b. Only the authorized certifying staff, according to specification and has appropriate traceability. All
points M.A.801(b)1, M.A.801(b)2, M.A.801(c), material must be accompanied by documentation
M.A.801(d) or Annex II (Part-145) can decide, clearly relating to the particular material and
using M.A.401 maintenance data, whether an containing a conformity to specification statement
aircraft defect hazards seriously the flight safety and plus both the manufacturing and supplier source.
therefore decide when and which rectification action
shall be taken before further flight and which defect COMPONENTS MAINTENANCE (M 502)
rectification can be deferred. However, this does not a. The maintenance of components shall be performed
apply when: by maintenance organizations appropriately approved
1. The approved minimum equipment list as in accordance with Section A, Subpart-F of this
mandated by the competent authority is used by Annex (Part-M) or with Annex II (Part- 145).
the pilot; or, b. By derogation from paragraph (a), maintenance of a
2. Aircraft defects are defined as being acceptable component in accordance with aircraft maintenance
by the competent authority. data or, if agreed by the competent authority, in
c. Any aircraft defect that would not hazard seriously the accordance with component maintenance data,
flight safety shall be rectified as soon as practicable, may be performed by an A rated organization
after the date the aircraft defect was first identified and approved in accordance with Section A, Subpart-F
within any limits specified in the maintenance data. of this Annex (Part-M) or with Annex II (Part-
d. Any defect not rectif ied before f light shall be 145) as well as by certifying staff referred to in
recorded in the M.A.305 aircraft maintenance point M.A.801 (b) 2 only whilst such components
record system or M.A.306 operator's technical log are f itted to the aircraft. Nevertheless, such
system as applicable. organization or certifying staff may temporarily
remove this component for maintenance, in order
COMPONENTS – SUBPART-E to improve access to the component, except when
INSTALLATION (MA 501) such removal generates the need for additional
a. No component may be fitted unless it is in a satisfactory maintenance not eligible for the provisions of this
condition, has been appropriately released to service paragraph. Component maintenance performed
on an EASA Form 1(see annex 1) or equivalent and in accordance with this paragraph is not eligible
is marked in accordance with Part 21 Subpart-Q , for the issuance of an EASA Form 1 and shall
unless otherwise specified in Annex (Part-21) to be subject to the aircraft release requirements
Regulation (EC) No 1702/2003, Annex II (Part-145) provided for in point M.A.801.
or Subpart-F, Section A of Annex I to this Regulation. c. By derogation from paragraph (a), maintenance of
b. Prior to installation of a component on an aircraft an engine/Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) component
the person or approved maintenance organization in accordance with engine/APU maintenance
shall ensure that the particular component is data or, if agreed by the competent authority, in
eligible to be fitted when different modification and/ accordance with component maintenance data, may
or airworthiness directive configurations may be be performed by a B rated organization approved
applicable. in accordance with Section A, Subpart-F of this
c. Standard parts shall only be fitted to an aircraft or Annex (Part-M) or with Annex II (Part-145) only
a component when the maintenance data specifies whilst such components are fitted to the engine/
the particular standard part. Standard parts shall APU. Nevertheless, such B rated organization
only be fitted when accompanied by evidence of may temporarily remove this component for
conformity traceable to the applicable standard. maintenance, in order to improve access to the

6.8 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
component, except when such removal generates the 5. Involvement in an incident or accident likely to
need for additional maintenance not eligible for the affect its serviceability.
provisions of this paragraph. b. Unser viceable components shall be identif ied
d. By derogation from paragraph (a) and point and stored in a secure location under the control
M.A.801(b)2, maintenance of a component while of an approved maintenance organization until
installed or temporarily removed from an ELA1 a decision is made on the future status of such
aircraft not used in commercial air transport component. Nevertheless, for aircraft not used in
and performed in accordance with component commercial air transport other than large aircraft,
maintenance data, may be performed by certifying the person or organization that declared the
staff referred to in point M.A.801(b)2, except for: component unserviceable may transfer its custody,
1. Overhaul of components other than engines and after identifying it as unserviceable, to the aircraft
propellers, and; owner provided that such transfer is reflected in the
2. Overhaul of engines and propellers for aircraft aircraft logbook or engine logbook or component
other than CS-VLA, CS-22 and LSA. logbook.
c. Components which have reached their certified
Component maintenance performed in accordance life limit or contain a non-repairable defect shall
with paragraph (d) is not eligible for the issuance be classif ied as unsalvageable and shall not be
of an EASA Form 1 (annex 1) and shall be subject permitted to re-enter the component supply
to the aircraft release requirements provided for in system, unless certif ied life limits have been
point M.A.801. extended or a repair solution has been approved
according to M.A.304.
CAUTION d. Any person or organization accountable under
Installed service life limited components shall not Par t-M sha l l, in the case of a paragraph (c)
exceed the approved service life limit as specified in unsalvageable components:
the approved maintenance program and airworthiness 1. Retain such component in the paragraph (b)

AIRWORTHINESS
CONTINUING
directives, except as provided for in point M.A.504(c). location, or;
2. Arrange for the component to be mutilated
The approved service life is expressed in calendar time, in a manner that ensures that it is beyond
flight hours, landings or cycles, as appropriate. economic salvage or repair before relinquishing
responsibility for such component.
At the end the approved service life, the component e. Not w ithstand ing pa rag raph (d) a person or
must be removed from the aircraft for maintenance, organization accountable under Part-M may
or for disposal in the case of components with a transfer responsibility of components classified as
certified life limit. unsalvageable to an organization for training or
research without mutilation.
CONTROL OF UNSERVICEABLE
COMPONENTS (MA 504) MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION –
a. A component shall be considered unserviceable in SUBPART-F
any one of the following circumstances: This Subpart establishes the requirements to be met by
1. Expiry of the service life limit as defined in the an organization to qualify for the issue or continuation
maintenance program; of an approval for the maintenance of aircraft and
2. N o n - c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e a p p l i c a b l e components not listed in M.A.201 (g).
airworthiness directives and other continued
airworthiness requirement mandated by the An application for issue or variation of a maintenance
Agency; organization approval shall be made on a form and in a
3. Absence of the necessar y information to manner established by the competent authority.
determine the airworthiness status or eligibility
for installation;
4. Evidence of defects or malfunctions;

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 6.9


Eng. M. Rasool

Figure 6-1. Authorized release certificate also known as a certificate of release to service or CRS.

CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS Appendix VII to this Annex for which point 1


MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION - applies; or
SUBPART-G 3. By the Pilot-owner in compliance with point
This Subpart establishes the requirements to be met by M.A.803;
an organization to qualify for the issue or continuation c. By derogation from point M.A.801(b)2 for ELA1
of an approval for the management of aircraft continuing aircraft not used in commercial air transport, aircraft
airworthiness. complex maintenance tasks listed in Appendix VII
may be released by certifying staff referred to in
CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE TO point M.A.801(b)2;
SERVICE (CRS) – SUBPART-H d. By derogation from point M.A.801(b), in the case of
AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE TO unforeseen situations, when an aircraft is grounded
SERVICE (MA 801) at a location where no approved maintenance
a. Except for aircraft released to service by a maintenance organization appropriately approved under this
organization approved in accordance with Annex II Annex or Annex II (Part-145) and no appropriate
(Part-145), the certificate of release to service shall be certif ying staff are available, the owner may
issued according to this Subpart; (Figure 6-1) authorize any person, with not less than three years
b. No aircraft can be released to service unless a certificate of appropriate maintenance experience and holding
of release to service is issued at the completion of any the proper qualifications, to maintain according to
maintenance, when satisfied that all maintenance the standards set out in Subpart-D of this Annex
required has been properly carried out, by: and release the aircraft. The owner shall in that case:
1. Appropriate certif y ing staff on behalf of 1. Obtain and keep in the aircraft records details of
the maintenance organization approved in all the work carried out and of the qualifications
accordance with Section A, Subpart-F of this held by that person issuing the certification; and
Annex (Part-M); or 2. Ensure that any such maintenance is rechecked
2. Cer t if y ing sta f f in compl iance w it h t he and released by an appropriately authorized
requirements laid down in Annex III (Part-66), person referred to in point M.A.801(b) or an
except for complex maintenance tasks listed in organization approved in accordance with

6.10 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
Section A, Subpart-F of this Annex (Part-M), COMPONENT CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE
or with Annex II (Part-145) at the earliest TO SERVICE (MA 802)
opportunity but within a period not exceeding a. A certificate of release to service shall be issued at
seven days; and the completion of any maintenance on an aircraft
3. Notify the organization responsible for the component whilst off the aircraft.
continuing airworthiness management of the b. The authorized release certificate identified as EASA
aircraft when contracted in accordance with Form 1 for the Member States constitutes the aircraft
point M.A.201(e), or the competent authority component certificate of release to service.
in the absence of such a contract, within
seven days of the issuance of such certification PILOT-OWNER AUTHORIZATION (MA 803)
authorization; a. The pilot-owner is the person who owns or jointly
e. In the case of a release to service in accordance owns the aircraft being maintained and holds a valid
with point M.A.801(b)2 or point M.A.801(c), the pilot license with the appropriate type or class rating.
certifying staff may be assisted in the execution b. For any privately operated aircraft of simple design
of the maintenance tasks by one or more persons with a maximum take-off mass of less than 2730
subject to his/her direct and continuous control; kg, glider and balloon, the pilot-owner may issue
f. A certificate of release to service shall contain as the certificate of release to service after limited pilot
a minimum: owner maintenance listed in Appendix VIII.
1. Basic details of the maintenance carried out; and c. Limited pilot owner maintenance shall be defined in
2. The date such maintenance was completed; and the MA302 aircraft maintenance program.
3. The identity of the organization and/or person d. The certif icate of release to ser v ice must be
issuing the release to service, including: entered in the logbooks and contain basic details
i. The approval reference of the maintenance of the maintenance carried out, the date such
organization approved in accordance maintenance was completed and the indentity and
with Section A, Subpart-F of this Annex pilot license number of the pilot-owner issuing

AIRWORTHINESS
CONTINUING
(Part-M) and the certifying staff issuing such a certificate.
such a certificate; or
ii. In t he case of point M. A .8 01(b)2 or AIRWORTHINESS REVIEW
M.A.801(c) certificate of release to service, CERTIFICATE – SUBPART-I
the identit y and if appl icable l icense AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS REVIEW
number of the certifying staff issuing such (MA 901)
a certificate; To ensure the validity of the aircraft airworthiness
4. The limitations to airworthiness or operations, certificate, an airworthiness review of the aircraft and
if any. its continuing airworthiness records shall be carried
g. B y d e r o g a t i o n f r o m p a r a g r a p h ( b) a n d out periodically.
not withstanding the provisions of paragraph a. An airworthiness review certificate is issued in
(h), when the maintenance prescribed cannot be accordance with Appendix III (EASA Form 15a or
completed, a certificate of release to service may 15b) on completion of a satisfactory airworthiness
be issued within the approved aircraft limitations. review. The airworthiness review certificate is valid
Such fact together with any applicable limitations of one year; (Figure 6-2)
the airworthiness or the operations shall be entered b. An aircraft in a controlled environment is an aircraft:
in the aircraft certificate of release to service before i. Continuously managed during the previous 12
its issue as part of the information required in months by a unique continuing airworthiness
paragraph (f) 4; m a n a g eme nt or g a n i z at ion ap prov e d i n
h. A certificate of release to service shall not be issued accordance with Section A, Subpart-G, of this
in the case of any known non-compliance which Annex (Part-M), and
endangers flight safety. ii. Which has been maintained for the previous 12
months by maintenance organizations approved
in accordance with Section A, Subpart-F of

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 6.11


Eng. M. Rasool
this Annex (Part-M), or with
Annex II (Part 145). This includes
maintenance tasks referred to in
point M.A.803 (b) carried out and
released to service in accordance
with point M.A.801 (b)2 or point
M.A.801(b)3;
c. For all aircraft used in commercial air
transport, and aircraft above 2 730
kg MTOM, except balloons, that
are in a controlled environment, the
organization referred to in (b) managing
the continuing airworthiness of the
aircraft may, if appropriately approved,
a nd subjec t to compl ia nce w it h
paragraph (k):
1. Issue an air worthiness review
certif icate in accordance with
point M.A.710, and;
2. For the air wor thiness rev iew
certif icates it has issued, when
the aircraft has remained within
a cont rol led env ironment,
extend twice the validity of the
airworthiness review certificate
for a period of one year each time;
d. For all aircraft used in commercial air
transport and aircraft above 2 730 kg
MTOM, except balloons, that (i) are
not in a controlled environment, or
(ii) which continuing airworthiness is
managed by a continuing airworthiness Figure 6-2. An airworthiness review certificate.
management organization that does
not hold the privilege to carry out or operator may, if appropriately approved and
airworthiness reviews, the airworthiness review subject to paragraph (k):
cer tif icate sha l l be issued by the competent 1. Issue the airworthiness review certificate in
authority upon satisfactory assessment based on a accordance with point M.A.710, and;
recommendation made by a continuing airworthiness 2. For airworthiness review certif icates it has
management organization appropriately approved in issued, when the aircraft has remained within a
accordance with Section A, Subpart-G of this Annex controlled environment under its management,
(Part-M) sent together with the application from extend twice the validity of the airworthiness
the owner or operator. This recommendation shall review certificate for a period of one year each
be based on an airworthiness review carried out in time;
accordance with point M.A.710; f. By derogation from points M.A.901(c)2 and
e. For aircraft not used in commercial air transport M.A.901(e)2, for aircraft that are in a controlled
of 2 730 kg MTOM and below, and balloons, any environment, the organization referred to in (b)
continuing airworthiness management organization managing the continuing airworthiness of the
approved in accordance with Section A, Subpart-G aircraft, subject to compliance with paragraph (k),
of this Annex (Part-M) and appointed by the owner may extend twice for a period of one year each time

6.12 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
the validity of an airworthiness review certificate k. An airworthiness review certificate cannot be issued
that has been issued by the competent authority or nor extended if there is evidence or reason to believe
by another continuing airworthiness management that the aircraft is not airworthy.
organization approved in accordance with Section
A, Subpart-G of this Annex (Part-M); VALIDITY OF THE AIRWORTHINESS
g. By derogat ion f rom points M. A .901(e) a nd REVIEW CERTIFICATE (MA 902)
M.A.901(i)2, for ELA1 aircraft not used in commercial a. An air worthiness review certif icate becomes
air transport and not affected by point M.A.201(i), invalid if:
the airworthiness review certificate may also be 1. Suspended or revoked; or
issued by the competent authority upon satisfactory 2. The airworthiness certificate is suspended or
assessment, based on a recommendation made by revoked; or
certifying staff formally approved by the competent 3. The aircraft is not on the aircraft register of a
authority and complying with provisions of Annex III Member State; or
(Part-66) as well as requirements laid down in point 4. T h e t y p e c e r t i f i c a t e u n d e r w h i c h t h e
M.A.707(a)2(a), sent together with the application airworthiness certificate was issued is suspended
from the owner or operator. This recommendation or revoked.
shall be based on an airworthiness review carried out b. An aircraft must not f ly if the air worthiness
in accordance with point M.A.710 and shall not be certificate is invalid or if:
issued for more than two consecutive years; 1. The continuing airworthiness of the aircraft
h. Whenever circumstances reveal the existence of or any component fitted to the aircraft does
a potential safety threat, the competent authority not meet the requirements of this Part, or;
shall carry out the airworthiness review and issue 2. The aircraft does not remain in conformity with
the airworthiness review certificate itself; the type design approved by the Agency; or
i. In addition to paragraph (h), the competent 3. The aircraft has been operated beyond the
authority may also carry out the airworthiness limitations of the approved f light manual

AIRWORTHINESS
CONTINUING
review and issue the airworthiness review certificate or the air wor thiness cer tif icate, w ithout
itself in the following cases: appropriate action being taken; or
1. For aircraft not involved in commercial air 4. The aircraft has been involved in an accident
transport when the aircraft is managed by or incident that affects the airworthiness of the
a continuing a ir wor thiness management aircraft, without subsequent appropriate action
organization approved in accordance with to restore airworthiness; or
Section A, Subpart-G of this Annex (Part-M) 5. A modification or repair has not been approved
located in a third country; in accordance with Part-21.
2. For all balloons and any other aircraft of 2 730 c. Upon surrender or revocation, the airworthiness
kg MTOM and below, if it is requested by the review certificate shall be returned to the competent
owner; authority.
j. When the competent authority carries out the
airworthiness review and/or issues the airworthiness FINDINGS (MA 905)
review certificate itself, the owner or operator shall a. A level 1 finding is any significant non-compliance
provide the competent authority with: with Part-M requirements which lowers the safety
1. The documentation required by the competent standard and hazards seriously the flight safety.
authority; and b. A level 2 finding is any non-compliance with the
2. Suitable accommodation at the appropriate Part-M requirements which could lower the safety
location for its personnel; and standard and possibly hazard the flight safety.
3. When necessary, the support of personnel c. After receipt of notification of findings according to
appropriately qualif ied in accordance with M.B.303, the person or organization accountable
Annex III (Part-66) or equivalent personnel according to M.A.201 shall def ine a corrective
requirements laid down in point 145.A.30(j) (1) action plan and demonstrate corrective action
and (2) of Annex II (Part 145); to the satisfaction of the competent authority

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 6.13


Eng. M. Rasool
w it h in a per iod ag reed w it h t h is aut hor it y 2. The organization approval certificate including
including appropriate corrective action to prevent any changes.
reoccurrence of the finding and its root cause. 3. A copy of the audit program listing the dates
when audits are due and when audits were
PROCEDURE FOR COMPETENT carried out.
AUTHORITIES - SECTION-B 4. The competent authority continued oversight
This Section establishes the administrative requirements records including all audit records.
to be followed by the competent authorities in charge 5. Copies of all relevant correspondence.
of the application and the enforcement of Section A of 6. Details of any exemption and enforcement
this Part. actions.
7. Any report from other competent authorities
COMPETENT AUTHORITY (MB 102) relating to the oversight of the organization.
a. General: A Member State shall designate a competent 8. Orga n iz at ion e x posit ion or ma nua l a nd
authority with allocated responsibilities for the issuance, amendments.
continuation, change, suspension or revocation 9. Copy of any other document directly approved
of certificates and for the oversight of continuing by the competent authority.
airworthiness. This competent authority shall establish c. The retention period for the paragraph (b) records
documented procedures and an organizational structure. shall be at least four years.
b. Resources: The number of staff shall be appropriate d. The minimum records for the oversight of each
to carry out the requirements as detailed in this aircraft shall include, at least, a copy of:
Section B. 1. Aircraft certificate of airworthiness.
c. Qualification and Training: All staff involved in 2. Airworthiness review certificates.
Part-M activities shall be appropriately qualified 3. S e c t i o n A S u b p a r t - G o r g a n i z a t i o n
and have appropriate knowledge, experience, initial recommendations.
training and continuation training to perform their 4. Reports from the airworthiness reviews carried
allocated tasks. out directly by the Member State.
d. Procedures: The competent authority shall establish 5. All relevant correspondence relating to the
procedures detailing how compliance with this Part aircraft.
is accomplished. The procedures shall be reviewed 6. Details of any exemption and enforcement
and amended to ensure continued compliance. action(s).
7. A ny document d irect ly approved by t he
RECORD-KEEPING (MB 104) competent authority as referred to in M.B.
a. The competent authorities shall establish a system Subpart-B.
of record-keeping that allows adequate traceability e. The records specified in paragraph (d) shall be
of the process to issue, continue, change, suspend retained until two years after the aircraft has been
or revoke each certificate. permanently withdrawn from service.
b. The records for the oversight of Part-M approved f. All records specified in M.B.104 shall be made
organizations shall include as a minimum: available upon request by another Member State
1. The application for an organization approval. or the Agency.

6.14 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
QUESTIONS

Question: 6-1 Question: 6-5


The holder of a type certificate shall have a system for components shall be identified
collecting, investigating and analyzing reports of and and stored in a secure location under the control of an
information related to failures, malfunctions, defects or approved maintenance organization until a decision is
other occurrences which cause or might cause adverse made on the future status of such component.
effects on .

Question: 6-2 Question: 6-6


Any person or organization performing maintenance An airworthy review certificate is valid for
shall be for the tasks year.
performed.

AIRWORTHINESS
CONTINUING
Question: 6-3 Question: 6-7
An aircraft maintenance program must establish The competent authorities shall establish a system
compliance with instructions issued by the of that allows adequate
competent authority and traceability of the process to issue, continue, change,
issued by the holders of the suspend or revoke each certificate.
type certificate.

Question: 6-4
An operator shall ensure that the aircraft technical log
is retained for months after
the date of the last entry.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 6.15


Eng. M. Rasool
ANSWERS

Answer: 6-1 Answer: 6-5


continuing airworthiness. Unserviceable.

Answer: 6-2 Answer: 6-6


responsible. one.

Answer: 6-3 Answer: 6-7


instructions for continuing airworthiness. record-keeping

Answer: 6-4
36.

6.16 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool

PART-66 SYLLABUS LEVELS


CERTIFICATION CATEGORY ¦ A B1 B2

Sub-Module 07
APPLICABLE NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
Knowledge Requirements

10.7 - Applicable National and International Requirements


(a) Maintenance Programs, Maintenance checks and inspections; 1 2 2
Airworthiness Directives;
Service Bulletins, manufacturers service information;
Modifications and repairs;
Maintenance documentation: maintenance manuals, structural repair manual,
illustrated parts catalogue, etc.;
Only for A to B2 licenses:
Master Minimum Equipment Lists, Minimum Equipment List, Dispatch Deviation Lists;

(b) Continuing airworthiness; - 1 1

NATIONAL/INTERNATIONAL
Minimum equipment requirements - Test flights;

REQUIREMENTS
Only for B1 and B2 licenses:
ETOPS, maintenance and dispatch requirements;
All Weather Operations, Category 2/3 operations.

Level 1 Level 2
A familiarization with the principal elements of the subject. A general knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject
and an ability to apply that knowledge.
Objectives:
(a) The applicant should be familiar with the basic elements of the Objectives:
subject. (a) The applicant should be able to understand the theoretical
(b) The applicant should be able to give a simple description of the fundamentals of the subject.
whole subject, using common words and examples. (b) The applicant should be able to give a general description of the
(c) The applicant should be able to use typical terms. subject using, as appropriate, typical examples.
(c) The applicant should be able to use mathematical formula in
conjunction with physical laws describing the subject.
(d) The applicant should be able to read and understand sketches,
drawings and schematics describing the subject.
(e) The applicant should be able to apply his knowledge in a practical
manner using detailed procedures.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 7.1


Eng. M. Rasool
INTRODUCTION

In some areas the rules published by national civil "C" CHECK


aviation authorities can replace or supplement the This is performed approximately every 20-24 months or a
international rules published by ICAO. In this case, the specific amount of actual flight hours (FH) as defined by
document should be supplemented with the rules of the the manufacturer. This maintenance check is much more
civil aviation authority of the country concerned. Only extensive than a B Check, requiring a large majority of
the ICAO corresponding rules, if not superseded by the aircraft's components to be inspected. This check puts
EU requirements, shall be treated in this document. If the aircraft out of service and until it is completed, the
a detailed description of an EASA rule is contained in aircraft must not leave the maintenance site. It also requires
existing documents, only reference to these documents more space than A and B Checks—usually a hangar at
is made. a maintenance base. The time needed to complete such a
check is generally 1-2 weeks and the effort involved can
MAINTENANCE CHECKS AND require up to 6 000 man-hours. The schedule of occurrence
INSPECTIONS has many factors and components as has been described,
and thus varies by aircraft category and type. (Figure 7-1)
GENERAL
Aircraft maintenance checks are periodic inspections that
have to be done on all commercial/civil aircraft after a certain
amount of time or usage. Commercial operators of large or
turbine-powered aircraft follow a continuous inspection
program approved by the airworthiness authorities.
Each operator prepares a Continuous Airworthiness
Maintenance Program (CAMP) under its Operations
Specifications. The CAMP includes both routine and
detailed inspections. Airlines and airworthiness authorities
casually refer to the detailed inspections as "checks",
commonly one of the following: A check, B check, C
check, or D check. A and B checks are lighter checks, while Figure 7-1. "C" Check inspection.
C and D are considered heavier checks.

"A" CHECK
This is performed approximately every 500-800 flight "D" CHECK
hours or 200-400 cycles. It needs about 20-50 man- This is by far the most comprehensive and demanding check
hours and is usually performed overnight at an airport for an airplane. It is also known as a Heavy Maintenance
gate or hangar. The actual occurrence of this check varies Visit (HMV). This check occurs approximately every
by aircraft type, the cycle count (takeoff and landing is 5 years. It is a check that, more or less, takes the entire
considered an aircraft "cycle"), or the number of hours airplane apart for inspection and overhaul. Also, if
flown since the last check. The occurrence can be delayed required, the paint may need to be completely removed
by the airline if certain predetermined conditions are met. for further inspection on the fuselage metal skin. Such a
check can usually demand up to 50 000 man-hours and it
"B" CHECK can generally take up to 2 months to complete, depending
This is performed approximately every 4-6 months. It on the aircraft and the number of technicians involved. It
needs about 150 man-hours and is usually performed also requires the most space of all maintenance checks,
within 1 - 3 days at an airport hangar. A similar occurrence and as such must be performed at a suitable maintenance
schedule applies to the B check as to the A check. B checks base. Given the elevated requirements of this check and the
may be incorporated into successive A checks, i.e.: A-1 tremendous effort involved in it, it is also by far the most
through A-10 complete all the B check items. expensive maintenance check of all, with total costs for a
single visit ending up well within the million-dollar range.

7.2 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
Because of the nature and the cost of such a check, most AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES
airlines (especially those with a large fleet) have to plan
D Checks for their aircraft years in advance. Often, older An airworthiness directive (commonly abbreviated
aircraft being phased out of a particular airline's f leet as AD) is a notification to owners and operators of
are either stored or scrapped upon reaching their next D certified aircraft that a known safety deficiency with a
Check, due to the high costs involved in it in comparison particular model of aircraft, engine, avionics or other
to the aircraft's value. On average, a commercial aircraft system exists and must be corrected. If a certified
undergoes 2-3 D Checks before it is retired. (Figure 7-2) aircraft has outstanding air worthiness directives
that have not been complied with, the aircraft is not
considered airworthy. Thus, it is mandatory for an
aircraft operator to comply with an AD. Figure 7-3
illustrates an EASA Airworthiness Directive.

PURPOSE
ADs usually result from service difficulty reporting
by operators or from the results of aircraft accident
investigations. They are issued either by the national
civil aviation authorit y of the countr y of aircraft
manufacture or of aircraft registration. When ADs are
issued by the country of registration they are almost
always coordinated with the civil aviation authority of
Figure 7-2. "D" Check inspection. the country of manufacture to ensure that conflicting
ADs are not issued.

NATIONAL/INTERNATIONAL
REQUIREMENTS

Figure 7-3. EASA airworthiness directive (AD) example.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 7.3


Eng. M. Rasool
In detail, the purpose of an AD is to notify aircraft • Modifications, which affect performance, improve
owners: reliability, increase safety of operation, provide
• That the aircraft may have an unsafe condition, or improved economy or facilitate maintenance or
• That the aircraft may not be in conformity with operation.
its basis of certification or of other conditions that • Substitution of one part with another superseding
affect the aircraft's airworthiness, or part only when it is not completely interchangeable
• That there are mandatory actions that must be both functionally and physically, or when the change
carried out to ensure continued safe operation, or is considered to be sufficiently urgent or critical that
• That, in some urgent cases, the aircraft must not special scheduling or record of accomplishment will
be flown until a corrective action plan is designed be required.
and carried out. • Substitution of one embedded software program by
another which change equipment function and the
ADs are mandatory in most jurisdictions and often part number of the programmed memory device,
contain dates or aircraft f ly ing hours by which requiring a record of accomplishment.
compliance must be completed. ADs may be divided • Special inspections/checks required to maintain
into two categories: the aircraft, engine, or accessories in safe operating
• Those of an emergency nature requiring immediate condition.
compliance prior to further flight, and • One time inspections/checks to detect a f law or
• Those of a less urgent nature requiring compliance manufacturing error.
within a specified period of time. • Special inspections/checks required to be performed
until a corrective action can be taken. (e.g., an
ISSUANCE inspection to detect cracks in a radius until the radius
ADs are issued by most civil aviation regulator y can be ground out.) The modification information
authorities: may be issued as a revision to the same Service
• European Aviation Safety Agency Bulletin that transmits the inspection instructions.
• Directorate General of Civil Aviation (India) • Special functional checks of an urgent nature
• Federal Aviation Administration (USA) required to detect an incipient failure, such as
• Transport Canada pressure checks, functional checks, etc.
• Civil Aviation Safety Authority (Australia) • Reduction of existing life limits or establishment of
first time life limits for components.
SERVICE BULLETINS • Conversions from one engine model to another.
• Changes affecting the interchangeabilit y or
ATA SPEC 2200 intermix of parts.
With increasing in-ser v ice experience, the t y pe
certificate holder may find ways to improve the original A Service Bulletin shall be practical from the operator's
design resulting in either lower maintenance costs or standpoint, i.e., it shall not require new parts when
increased performance. These improvements (normally old parts may be repaired or reworked, but it shall,
involving some alterations) are suggested through wherever practicable, include instructions and lists of
service bulletins to their customers as optional (and may new parts to allow the operator to select either method.
be extra cost) items. The customers may exercise their Service Bulletins shall be written for applicability to
discretion whether or not to incorporate the bulletins. In-Service units or equipment.
Sometimes SBs can become mandated by relevant ADs.
A Service Bulletin once issued shall not be canceled. In
SCOPE case the original intent of the Service Bulletin becomes
Separate Service Bulletins shall be issued to cover invalidated, a revision to the original Service Bulletin,
each subject and shall describe changes that fall into or a new Service Bulletin, shall be issued for the purpose
the following categories: of restoring the units already modified to the original
• Modifications to the aircraft, engine or accessory or preferred configuration. If a new Service Bulletin
including embedded software. is issued that supersedes the original Service Bulletin,

7.4 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
then a revision to the invalidated Service Bulletin STANDARD SB
shall also be issued in order to stop progression of its Standard Service Bulletins shall be issued where the use
accomplishment. of Alert Service Bulletins is not required.

Even though there are many other publications and ENGINE CONVERSION SB
correspondence available to the airframe, engine Conversion Service Bulletins will be issued to provide
and component manufacturers, they shall not be operators with information necessary to convert engine
used to transmit actions which require a record of models from one designation level to another.
accomplishment.
SERVICE BULLETIN CONTENTS
These other publications may be used to provide GENERAL
information such as the following: Service Bulletins shall contain a title. It shall contain the
• To d isc uss f ield problems a nd to h igh l ight chapter name keyword, and a brief statement of the work
information already or scheduled to be incorporated involved. This information shall be in the sequence stated,
in existing documentation. such as "Air Conditioning - Out-Flow Valve - Install New
• To not i f y op e r ator s of i nte rc h a n g e a ble or Relay in Differential Control.", or for Engine Conversion
future spare part numbers of equipment which Service Bulletin "Turbojet Engine Service Bulletin No.
have no effect on aircraft safety, performance, 4716, Conversion Model 3250-15 to Model 3250- 17R."
maintainability and reliability.
• To provide preliminary information of a forthcoming The body of the Service Bulletin may be preceded by a
Service Bulletin. summary. The summary shall contain an overview of the
• To notify operators of available or forthcoming information contained in the Service Bulletin. The body
vendor modifications. of Service Bulletins shall be prepared in the following
• To notify operators of changes in material finishes, sections: Planning Information, Material Information,
protective coatings, etc. Accomplishment Instructions and optional Appendices.

Service Bulletins must not be used to cover routine PLANNING INFORMATION


recommended inspections/checks, standard repairs, or This section shall contain the information required

NATIONAL/INTERNATIONAL
revisions to maintenance practices or shop procedures. to permit the operator to determine if the Service

REQUIREMENTS
These shall be covered as revisions to the manufacturer’s Bulletin should be applied to his equipment and to
Aircraft Maintenance Manual, Structural Repair Manual, plan its accomplishment.
or Component Maintenance Manual as appropriate.
It includes the following:
TYPES OF SERVICE • SB Effectivity - specifies the equipment to which
BULLETINS the Service Bulletin is applicable. A Service Bulletin
Number shall apply to one model or type only.
ALERT SB • Concurrent Requirements, when applicable, state
Alert Service Bulletins shall be issued on all matters if other Service Bulletins or portions thereof, have
requiring the urgent attention of the operator and shall to be accomplished in conjunction with, prior to, or
be limited generally to items affecting safety. Matters subsequent to accomplishment of the subject Service
of extreme urgency with compliance recommendations Bulletin.
shall be transmitted by suitable media, such as telegraph, • Reason - under this heading, sufficient facts shall be
cable, and facsimile or in some cases, by telephone. provided to assist the operator in determining the
These shall be identified as Alert Service Bulletins and Service Bulletin's applicability to, or effect on, his
shall contain a Service Bulletin Number. operation.
• Description - provides a brief but complete statement
A complete Alert Service Bulletin shall be prepared outlining what the Service Bulletin does.
and distributed promptly to conf irm and elaborate
upon such messages.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 7.5


Eng. M. Rasool

Figure 7-4. Typical service bulletin.

• Compliance Recommendation - This section shall • Weight and Balance - Weight and balance data shall
contain the manufacturer's recommendations for be furnished.
accomplishment of the actions specif ied in the • Electrical Load Data - Provide a statement as to
Service Bulletin. the effect of the Service Bulletin on the aircraft
electrical loads.
The SB shall include one of these four compliance • Software Accomplishment Summary - If the Service
recommendation categories in the service bulletin: Bulletin involves any change to software, include
• Service Bulletin must be accomplished. the Accomplishment Summary information in
• Service Bulletin recommended to be accomplished accordance with RTCA Document DO-178.
to prevent significant operational disruptions. • O ther Publications Affected - List the chapter/
• Service Bulletin to introduce improvements. section locations within affected manuals and
• Service Bulletin for convenience or option. catalogs, and Service Bulletins which will require
revision as a consequence of a Service Bulletin or
Figure 7-4 shows excerpts from a typical Service Bulletin. Service Bulletin revision.
• Interchangeability or Intermixability of Parts
When governmental approval of a change is required, àà When parts are interchangeable, the Service
approval shall be obtained prior to release of the Bulletin shall include a section that identifies
Service Bulletin. the possibilit y of full substitution of pre-
modified and post-modified components.
The planning information section should also include:
• Manpower - Provide an estimate of the man-hours
required by the operators to perform the Service
Bulletin.

7.6 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
MATERIAL INFORMATION be stored in different locations to the working disc, tapes
Material information is also given in the body of the etc. to ensure at least one good copy will survive should
Service Bulletin. It typically includes the following: there be theft or flood etc.
• Materia l Price and Availabilit y - prov ides a
complete list of parts kits available and the list price, To perform the maintenance, the operator must
price duration, price break quantity, and delivery posses and make permanently available the aircraft
information for kits. manufacturer’s approved maintenance data. This takes
• Industry Support Information - items that are to be many forms such as maintenance manuals, structural
provided at "no-charge" or at a reduced price should repair manuals, illustrated parts manuals, wiring
be identified. diagrams, SB’s and more.
• Material Necessary for Each Aircraft/Engine/
Component - Items for which standard or military MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LISTS
equivalents may be used shall be identified.
• Re-identified Parts - Specify any parts that can be MMEL/MEL
reworked or re-identified and made interchangeable. An operator shall establish, for each airplane, a Minimum
• Tooling Price and Availability - when special Equipment List (MEL) approved by the Authority. This
equipment, such as tools, jigs, f ixtures, or test shall be based upon, but no less restrictive than, the
e qu ipment a re re qu i re d to accompl ish t he relevant Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL)
modification and it is available, the estimated price (if this exists) accepted by the Authority. An operator
and delivery schedule shall be provided, including shall not operate an airplane other than in accordance
the manufacturer's name if other than the issuer of with the MEL unless permitted by the Authority.
the Service Bulletin. Any such permission will in no circumstances permit
• Accomplishment Instructions operation outside the constraints of the MMEL.
• A section on the Service Bulletin shall contain step-
by-step instructions for accomplishing the work. DDL DISPATCH DEVIATION LIST
(OR CDL)
SERVICE LETTER (SL) The DDL is also called by some aircraft manufacturer a
CDL (Configuration Deviation List). The Configuration

NATIONAL/INTERNATIONAL
The Service Letter (SL) is the document used to notify Deviation List (CDL) allows for continued operations

REQUIREMENTS
the Airlines of the types of information that are not with missing secondary airframe and engine parts.
included in Service Bulletins. Approval for operating with these parts missing is
authorized by an amendment to the type certificate
MODIFICATIONS AND which as a result requires a Aircraft Flight Manual
REPAIRS (AFM) supplement. Any part not included in the CDL
must be considered necessary for f light. Therefore,
Damage shall be assessed and modifications and repairs without a CDL, missing secondar y airframe and
carried out using data approved by the Agency or by an engine parts would ground the airplane until repair or
approved Part-21 design organization, as appropriate. replacement of the part is accomplished.

MAINTENANCE An approved CDL is evaluated based on Advisory


DOCUMENTATION Circular AC 25-7A during f light testing for aircraft
certif ication and contains the necessar y takeoff
All maintenance work done must be documented performance decrement, the landing performance
and copies retained of all CRS's issued. Detailed decrement, and the en route performance decrement as
maintenance record copies must be retained for 2 years appropriate for the airplane type.
from date of release of aircraft or component. Originals
shall go with aircraft/component. Records shall be
retained in a safe environment with regard fire, flood
and theft. Computer back-up discs and tapes etc. shall

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 7.7


Eng. M. Rasool
MINIMUM EQUIPMENT An ETOPS Maintenance task could be an ETOPS
REQUIREMENTS - TEST FLIGHTS specific task or/and a maintenance task affecting an
A permit to fly is generally issued when a certificate of ETOPS significant system. An ETOPS specific task
airworthiness is temporarily invalid, for example as the could be either an existing task with a different interval
result of a damage, or when a certificate of airworthiness for ETOPS, a task unique to ETOPS operations, or a
cannot be issued for instance when the aircraft does not task mandated by the CMP further to the in-service
comply with the essential requirements for airworthiness experience review (note that in the case ETOPS
or when compliance with those requirements has not yet is considered as baseline in the development of a
been shown, but the aircraft is nevertheless capable maintenance program, no "ETOPS specific" task may
of performing a safe flight. Test flights are includes in be identified in the MRB).
this category. EASA permits test flights knowing that
minimum equipment requirements for safe f light are The maintenance program should include tasks to
met on the aircraft in question. An application for a maintain the integrity of cargo compartment and
permit to fly must be submitted. pressurization features, including baggage hold liners,
door seals and drain valve condition. Processes should
ETOPS be implemented to monitor the effectiveness of the
Within ICAO ETOPS (Extended Twin Operations) maintenance program in this regard.
has been superseded by EDTO (Extended diversion
time operations) since 2012 by ICAO provisions of State PRE-DEPARTURE SERVICE CHECK
Letter SP 59/4.1-11/8 of June 2011. Refer to ICAO An ETOPS service check should be developed to verify
Annex 6.1 amendment 36. the status of the airplane and the ETOPS significant
systems. This check should be accomplished by an
Definition: authorized and trained person prior to an ETOPS flight.
Extended Diversion Time Operations (EDTO) - Any Such a person may be a member of the flight crew.
operation by an airplane with two or more turbine
engines where the diversion time to an enroute alternate RELIABILITY PROGRAM
aerodrome is greater than the threshold time established The reliabilit y program of an ETOPS operated
by the State of the Operator (typically 60 minutes). aircraft should be designed with early identification
and prevention of failures or malfunctions of ETOPS
However the ETOPS rules (AMC 20.6) still apply signif icant systems as the primary goal. Therefore
within the EASA Member States until 2016 and the reliability program should include assessment
an operator shall not conduct operations beyond the of ETOPS Significant Systems performance during
threshold distance determined in accordance with scheduled inspection/testing, to detect system failure
OPS 1.245 unless approved to do so by the Authority trends in order to implement appropriate corrective
(ETOPS approval). action such as scheduled task adjustment.

MAINTENANCE PROGRAM The reliability program should be event-orientated


The maintenance program of an aircraft for which and incorporate:
ETOPS operationa l approva l is sought, shou ld
contain the standards, guidance and instructions • Reporting procedures in accordance with section 2:
necessary to support the intended operation. The Occurrence reporting
specific ETOPS maintenance tasks identified by the • Operator’s assessment of propulsion systems reliability
(S)TC holder in the Configuration, Maintenance and • APU in-flight start program
Procedures document (CMP) or equivalent should be • Oil Consumption Program
included in the maintenance program and identified • Engine Condition Monitoring Program
as ETOPS tasks. • Verification Program

7.8 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
COMPETENCE OF CONTINUING àà CAMO additional procedures for ETOPS
AIRWORTHINESS AND MAINTENANCE àà Interface procedures between Part-145
PERSONNEL (CAMO) organization and CAMO
The CAMO (Continuing Airworthiness Maintenance
Organization) organization should ensure that the ALL WEATHER OPERATIONS
personnel involved in the continuing airworthiness (CAT 2 AND 3 OPERATIONS)
management of the aircraft have knowledge of the
ETOPS procedures of the operator. Definitions:
• Categor y II - Landing following a precision
The CAMO should ensure that maintenance personnel approach using an Instrument Landing System or
that are involved in ETOPS maintenance tasks: Microwave System with a decision height of below
200 feet but not less than 100 feet. Runway visual
• Have completed an ETOPS training program range: not less than 300 meters.
ref lecting the relevant ETOPS procedures of the • Category IIIA - Landing following a precision
operator, and, approach using an Instrument Landing System or
• Have satisfactorily performed ETOPS tasks under Microwave System with a decision height of below 100
supervision, within the framework of the Part-145 feet. Runway visual range: not less than 200 meters.
approved procedures for Personnel Authorization. • Category IIIB - Landing following a precision
approach using an Instrument Landing System or
TRAINING PROGRAM Microwave System with a decision height of below
For personnel involved in the continuing airworthiness 50 feet. Runway visual range: less than 200 meters
and maintenance of the ETOPS Fleet the operator’s but not less than 75 meters.
ETOPS training program should provide initial and
recurrent training for as follows: AIR OPERATIONS SUBPART-E
Air Operations Subpart-E 1.440 determines the
• Introduction to ETOPS Regulations requirements set for Categor y II, IIIA and IIIB
àà Contents of AMC 20-6 operations, and low visibility takeoffs.
àà ETOPS Type Design Approval – brief synopsis

NATIONAL/INTERNATIONAL
• ETOPS Operations Approval LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS —

REQUIREMENTS
àà Maximum approved diversion times and time GENERAL OPERATING RULES
limited systems capability (OPS 1.440)
àà Operator’s Approved Diversion Time An operator shall not conduct Category II or III
àà ETOPS Area and Routes operations unless:
àà ETOPS MEL
àà ETOPS Continuing Airworthiness • Each a i r pla ne concer ned is cer t i f icated for
Considerations operations with decision heights below 200 ft, or
àà ETOPS Significant Systems no decision height, and equipped in accordance
àà CMP & ETOPS aircraft maintenance program with CS-AWO on all-weather operations or an
àà ETOPS pre-departure service check equivalent accepted by the Authority;
àà ETOPS reliability program procedures • A suitable system for recording approach and/or
• Engine/APU oil consumption monitoring automatic landing success and failure is established
• Engine/APU Oil analysis and maintained to monitor the overall safety of
• Engine conditioning monitoring the operation;
• APU in-flight start program • The operations are approved by the Authority;
• Verification program after maintenance • The flight crew consists of at least 2 pilots; and
• Failures, malfunctions and defect reporting • Decision height is determined by means of a
• Propulsion System Monitoring/Reporting radio altimeter.
• ETOPS significant systems reliability
àà Parts and configuration control program

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 7.9


Eng. M. Rasool
An operator shall not conduct low visibility takeoffs in the operator’s technical dispatch procedures and
less than 150 m RVR (Category A, B and C airplanes) maintenance schedule(s) must take into account the
or 200 m RVR (Category D airplanes) unless approved requirements of CAT II/III operations.
by the Authority.
An operator may apply for approval of their proposed
MAINTENANCE maintenance schedule in advance of a formal application
being submitted for CAT II/III approval. When submitting
GENERAL the proposed maintenance schedule for approval, the
T he a ir operator’s ma intena nce cont rol sy stem operator should indicate that Cat II/III operation is
must address all applicable equipment listed in the intended. The responsible TCCA inspector will review
component concordance tables which includes the the maintenance schedule development to become familiar
quantity required, the minimum required and all with it and to provide guidance to the operator.
applicable aircraft maintenance tests as applicable in
the AFM and/or Maintenance Manual. MAINTENANCE CONTROL MANUAL
The Maintenance Control Manual must address at
While there may be differences in the operational least the following:
capability, avionics equipment capability level and • Maintenance, calibration and verif ication of
required maintenance, between aircraft certified for the accuracy of the aircraft systems related to
CAT II operation and those certified for CAT III, this CAT II or III operation, in accordance with the
section does not distinguish between those differences; t ype certif icate holder’s ICAs, any applicable
i.e., the details provided in the operator’s maintenance supplemental ICAs and requirements included in
control system will be predicated on the level of the approved maintenance schedule;
operation for which the program is developed. • Technical dispatch procedures for CAT II or III
operations that includes;
EQUIPMENT APPROVAL àà Rating of the aircraft from CAT II or III status
The configuration or specifications of the equipment because the integrity of one or more of the
installed for CAT II or III operation must be certified. systems required for such operation is in doubt;
For CAT I certif ied aircraft, additional avionics àà Rating of the aircraft because of a defect, inspection
equipment and/or modification to or substitution of or calendar criteria, if applicable; and
installed equipment may be necessary in an upgrading àà Returning the aircraft to CAT II or III status
program leading to CAT II or III certification. This may following required maintenance;
be accomplished by an OEM modification or by STC • Initial and update training for all personnel that
as part of a modification. The instructions for continued have tasks related to CAT II/III maintenance
airworthiness (ICA) for the aircraft must include schedule including log book entries, placarding and
supplemental ICAs which address these modifications. returning to service criteria; and
• Reliabilit y monitoring program that includes
A newer aircraft may be type certificated for CAT II/ procedures for reporting findings.
III when delivered to an operator and consequently will
already have applicable ICA that address CAT II/III
maintenance requirements.

MAINTENANCE CONTROL SYSTEM


The following general requirements relate to the
development of an operator’s maintenance control
system in support of CAT II/III operations.

To ensure the high level of performance and reliability


required for aircraft automatic flight control and related
systems for CAT II/III certification and operation,

7.10 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
QUESTIONS

Question: 7-1 Question: 7-5


are periodic inspections that ETOPS regulations concern twin-engine aircraft being
have to be done on all commercial/civil aircraft after a able to be more than minutes
certain amount of time or usage. from any diversion airport.

Question: 7-2 Question: 7-6


It is for an aircraft operator to A Categroy II or, Cat 2, landing decision
comply with an Airworthiness Directive. height is below 200 feet but not less than
feet.

Question: 7-3
Aircraft customers (operators) may exercise

NATIONAL/INTERNATIONAL
their discretion whether or not to incorporate

REQUIREMENTS
.

Question: 7-4
The ability to operate is
constantly in question and can be withdrawn at any
time.

Module 10 - Aviation Legislation 7.11


Eng. M. Rasool
ANSWERS

Answer: 7-1 Answer: 7-5


Maintenance checks. 60.

Answer: 7-2 Answer: 7-6


mandatory. 100.

Answer: 7-3
service bulletins.

Answer: 7-4
"ETOPS".

7.12 Module 10 - Aviation Legislation


Eng. M. Rasool
ACRONYM INDEX (ACRONYMS USED IN THIS MANUAL)

ACI Airports Council International


AD Airworthiness Directive
AEA Association of European Airlines
AFM Aircraft Flight Manual
AIS Airmen Information Service
ALI Airworthiness Limitation Item
ANS Air Navigation Services
AOC Air Operator Certificate
APU Auxiliary Power Unit
ATA Air Transport Association
ATM Air Traffic Management
BITE Built In Test Equipment
CAMO Continuous Airworthiness Maintenance Organization
CAMP Continuous Airworthiness Maintenance Program
CAS Calibrated Airspeed
CJEU Court of Justice of the European Union
CMC Central Maintenance Computer
CMP Configuration, Maintenance, and Procedures
CMR Certification Maintenance Requirement
CDL Configuration Deviation List
CPCP Corrosion Prevention and Control Program
CofA Certificate of Airworthiness
CRS Certificate of Release to Service
CS Certification Specification
EASA European Aviation Safety Agency
EC European Commission
EPA European Parts Approval
ETDO Extended Diversion Time Operation
ETOPS Extended Twin Operations
ETSO European Technical Standard Order
EU European Union
FAA Federal Aviation Administration
FAR Federal Aviation Regulation
FEC Failure Effect Category
FH Flight Hours
FL Flight Level
GVI General Visual Inspection
HMV Heavy Maintenance Visit
IAOPA International Council Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association
IATA International Air Transportation Association
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
IFALPA International Federation of Airline Pilots Association
IFR Instrument Flight Rules
IMA Integrated Modular Avionics
IMO International Maritime Organization
ISG Industry Steering Committee

Module 10 - Acronym Index A.1


Eng. M. Rasool
ACRONYM INDEX (ACRONYMS USED IN THIS MANUAL)

ITU International Telecommunication Union


JAA Joint Aviation Authority
JAR Joint Aviation Requirements
MEL Minimum Equipment List
MMEL Master Minimum Equipment List
MNPS Minimum Navigation Performance Specification
MOE Maintenance Organization Exposition
MPD Maintenance Planning Document
MRB Maintenance Review Board
MRO Maintenance, Repair, Overhaul
MSG Maintenance Steering Group
MSI Maintenance Significant Item
MTBF Mean Time Between Failures
MTBUR Mean Time Between Unscheduled Removals
MTOE Maintenance Training Organization Exposition
MTOP Maximum Takeoff Power
MWG Maintenance Working Group
NAA National Aviation Authority
NOTAM Notice to Airmen
OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer
PICAO Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization
PPH Policy and Procedures Handbook
R&M Repair and Maintenance
RNAV Area Navigation
RTCA Radio Technical Commission For Aeronautics
RVSM Reduced Vertical Separation Minima
SB Service Bulletin
SIL Service Information Letter
SL Service Letter
SSI Structural Significant Item
STC Supplemental Type Certificate
TC Type Certificate
UN United Nations
VFR Visual Flight Rules
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
ZIP Zonal Inspection Program

A.2 Module 10 - Acronym Index


Eng. M. Rasool
GLOSSARY

Subpart-A: Applicability and Definitions


Subpart-B: General
Subpart-C: Operator Certification and Supervision
Subpart-D: Operational Procedures
Subpart-E: All Weather Operations
Subpart-F: Performance General
Subpart-G: Performance Class A
Subpart-H: Performance Class B
Subpart-I: Performance Class C
Subpart-J: Mass and Balance
Subpart-K: Instruments and Equipment
Subpart-L: Communication and Navigation Equipment
Subpart-M: Aeroplane Maintenance
Subpart-N: Flight Crew
Subpart-O: Cabin Crew
Subpart-P: Manuals, Logs and Records
Subpart-Q: Flight/Duty Time Limitations and Rest Requirements
Subpart-R: Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air
Subpart-S: Security

Extended Diversion Time Operations (EDTO)


Any operation by an airplane with two or more turbine engines where the diversion time to an en-route alternate
aerodrome is greater than the threshold time established by the State of the Operator.

Category II - Landing following a precision approach using an Instrument Landing System or Microwave System
with a decision height of below 200 feet but not less than 100 feet. Runway visual range: not less than 300 meters.

Category IIIA - Landing following a precision approach using an Instrument Landing System or Microwave System
with a decision height of below 100 feet. Runway visual range: not less than 200 meters.

Category IIIB - Landing following a precision approach using an Instrument Landing System or Microwave System
with a decision height of below 50 feet. Runway visual range: less than 200 meters but not less than 75 meters.

Module 10 - Glossary G.1


Eng. M. Rasool

G.2 Module 10 - Glossary


Eng. M. Rasool
INDEX

A C
Acceptance of components (145.A.42)............................ 3.8 Caution............................................................................ 6.9
Accountability – Subpart-B ........................................... 6.3 "C" Check ...................................................................... 7.2
"A" Check ....................................................................... 7.2 CDL................................................................................ 4.12
Additional Information And Forms To Be Certificate of Release to Service (CRS) – Subpart-H..... 6.10
  Carried (OPS 1.135)................................................... 4.13 Certificates of Airworthiness.......................................... 5.8
Aircraft Airworthiness Review (MA 901)..................... 6.11 Certification of Maintenance (145.A.50)........................ 3.10
Aircraft Certificate Of Release To Service (MA 801).... 6.10 Certification Specifications (CS).................................... 5.2
Aircraft Continuing Airworthiness Record Certifying Staff and Category B1 and B2
  System (MA 305) ...................................................... 6.6   Support Staff (145.A.35)............................................. 3.6
Aircraft Defects (MA 403)............................................. 6.8 Certifying Staff (M.A.607)............................................ 3.15
Aircraft Groups (66.A.5)................................................ 2.3 Changes to the Approved Maintenance
Aircraft Maintenance Program...................................... 4.5   Organization (M.A.617)............................................. 3.17
Aircraft Registration....................................................... 5.11 Changes to the Organization (145.A.85)........................ 3.13
Air Operators Certificates (AOC).................................. 4.2 Common Language (OPS 1.025)................................... 4.4
Air Transport EASA Operations................................... 1.11 Competence Of Continuing Airworthiness and
Airworthiness Directives ............................................... 6.2 Maintenance Personnel (CAMO).................................. 7.9
Airworthiness Directives................................................ 7.3 Competent Authority (66.B.10)...................................... 2.12
Airworthiness Directives (MA 303) .............................. 6.6 Competent Authority (MB 102) .................................... 6.14
Airworthiness Review Certificate – Subpart-I............... 6.11 Component Certificate of Release to Service
Alert SB.......................................................................... 7.5  (M.A.612)................................................................... 3.16
All Weather Operations (CAT 2 and 3 Operations)...... 7.9 Component Certificate Of Release To Service
Alternate Experience...................................................... 2.9  (M.A.613)................................................................... 3.16
Analysis of Accidental Damage...................................... 4.10 Component Certificate Of Release To Service
Analysis of Zip Tasks...................................................... 4.11   (MA 802) ................................................................... 6.11
Annex 1 - Personnel Licensing....................................... 1.4 Components, Equipment and Tools (M.A.608)............ 3.16
Annex 6 - Operation Of Aircraft................................... 1.4 Components Maintenance (M 502) ............................... 6.8
Annex 8 - Airworthiness Of Aircraft............................. 1.4 Components – Subpart-E............................................... 6.8
Annex 10 - Aeronautical Telecommunications............... 1.4 Contents and Conditions of the Air Operator
Application (66.A.10)..................................................... 2.3   Certificate (OPS 1.175 Addendum)............................ 4.3
Application (145.A.15).................................................... 3.3 Continued Validity of Approval (M.A.618)................... 3.17
Application (M.A.602)................................................... 3.13 Continued Validity of the Aircraft Maintenance
Approval.......................................................................... 5.14   License (66.A.40)........................................................ 2.9
Approval Requirements (21A.145)................................. 5.4 Continue Validity (145.A.90).......................................... 3.13
Approval Requirements (21A.245)................................. 5.5 Continuing Airworthiness Management
ATA Spec 2200.............................................................. 7.4   Organization - Subpart-G.......................................... 6.10
Continuing Airworthiness Management
B   Organization (Subpart-G).......................................... 4.4
Continuing Airworthiness - Subpart-C ........................ 6.4
Basic Experience Requirements (66.A.30)..................... 2.8 Continuing Airworthiness Tasks (MA 301) ................. 6.4
Basic Knowledge Requirements...................................... 2.11 Control of Unserviceable Components (MA 504)......... 6.9
Basic Knowledge Requirements (66.A.25)..................... 2.7 Conversion Provisions (66.A.70).................................... 2.10
"B" Check ....................................................................... 7.2 CS-VLA Very Light Airplanes...................................... 5.4
Bilateral Cooperation...................................................... 1.11
Board Of Appeals........................................................... 1.7

Module 10 - Index I.1


Eng. M. Rasool
INDEX

D G
Damage Analysis due to the Environment..................... 4.10 General Presentation....................................................... 4.5
Data For Modif ications And Repairs (MA 304) .... 6.6 General Rules For Air Operator
"D" Check ...................................................................... 7.2   Certification (OPS 1.175)........................................... 4.2
DDL Dispatch Deviation List (OR CDL)..................... 7.7 General – Subpart-A ...................................................... 6.3
Definitions (145.A.5)...................................................... 3.2 General Understanding................................................... 4.2
Definitions for Exercising Privileges.............................. 2.6
Design Organization Approval....................................... 5.5 I
Developing Nation Assistance ...................................... 1.11
Documents...................................................................... 5.6 ICAO Composition And Concerns................................ 1.3
Documents To Be Carried (OPS 1.125)......................... 4.12 ICAO Goals And Objectives.......................................... 1.3
Duration And Continued Validity (21A.159)................ 5.5 Identification of Parts and Appliances............................ 4.13
Duration and Continued Validity (21A.259).................. 5.6 Identification of Parts anD Appliances (21A.804)......... 4.13
Identification of Products (21A.801).............................. 4.13
E Independence And Supervision...................................... 1.6
Information in Part-66 Appendices................................ 2.15
EASA Internal Structure And Operation...................... 1.7 Installation (MA 501)..................................................... 6.8
EASA Relations With The Other Aviation Authorities. 1.11 Interior Emergency Lighting and Emergency
EASA Responsibilities................................................... 1.6   Light Operation (CS 26.120)...................................... 4.15
Eligibility (66.A.15)........................................................ 2.5 International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)....... 1.2
Emergency Exit Markings (CS 26.110).......................... 4.14 International Recruitment.............................................. 1.6
Emergency Markings...................................................... 4.14 Issuance........................................................................... 7.4
Endorsement with Aircraft Ratings (66.A.45)............... 2.9 Issue, Variation and Continued Validity of an
Engine Conversion SB.................................................... 7.5   AOC (OPS 1.180)....................................................... 4.3
Equipment Approval....................................................... 7.10
Equipment, Tools and Material (145.A.40).................... 3.8 L
ETOPS........................................................................... 7.8
Air Operations Subpart-E.............................................. 7.9 Large Airplanes (CS 25)................................................. 5.3
Evidence of Qualification (66.A.55)............................... 2.10 Large Rotorcraft (CS 29.1)............................................. 5.3
Executive Director.......................................................... 1.7 Laws, Regulations and Procedures — Operator’s
Exemptions (66.B.30)..................................................... 2.12   Responsibilities (OPS 1.020)...................................... 4.4
Extent of Approval (M.A.603)....................................... 3.13 License Categories (66.A.3)............................................ 2.3
License Extension........................................................... 2.8
F Limitation on the Organization (145.A.80)................... 3.13
Limitations (66.A.50)..................................................... 2.10
Facilities (M.A.605)....................................................... 3.15 Low Visibility Operations — General
Facility Requirements (145.A.25)................................... 3.3   Operating Rules (OPS 1.440)..................................... 7.9
Failures, Malfunctions And Defects .............................. 6.2
Fifth Freedom Agreement.............................................. 1.3 M
Financial Requirements.................................................. 1.8
Findings (145.A.95)........................................................ 3.13 Maintenance................................................................... 7.10
Findings (M.A.619)........................................................ 3.18 Maintenance Checks and Inspections............................ 7.2
Findings (MA 905) ....................................................... 6.13 Maintenance Control Manual........................................ 7.10
Maintenance Control System......................................... 7.10
Maintenance Data (145.A.45)......................................... 3.9

I.2 Module 10 - Index


Eng. M. Rasool
INDEX

Maintenance Data (MA 401)......................................... 6.7 Occurrence Reporting (145.A.60).................................. 3.11


Maintenance Data (M.A.609)........................................ 3.16 Operator’s Responsibilities.............................................. 4.4
Maintenance Documentation......................................... 7.7 Operator Technical Log System (MA 306) ................... 6.7
Maintenance Organization Exposition Organizational Review (M.A.616)................................. 3.17
  (MOE) (145.A.70)...................................................... 3.12 Owner and/or The Operator Obligations (MA 306)...... 6.6
Maintenance Organization Manual (M.A.604)............. 3.14
Maintenance Organization – Subpart-F......................... 6.9 P
Maintenance Planning Document (MPD)..................... 4.12
Maintenance Program.................................................... 7.8 Part 21 General Provisions............................................. 6.2
Maintenance Program (M.A.302).................................. 4.5 Part 21 – Subpart-J......................................................... 5.5
Maintenance Program (MA 302) .................................. 6.5 Part-66............................................................................ 2.3
Maintenance Records (145.A.55).................................... 3.10 Part-66.B Procedures For Competent Authorities ........ 2.11
Maintenance Records (M.A.614)................................... 3.17 Part 145........................................................................... 3.2
Maintenance Standards (M.A.611)................................ 3.16 Part 145 – Maintenance Organization Requirements.... 3.2
Maintenance Standards – Subpart-D............................. 6.7 Part-M............................................................................ 6.3
Maintenance Work Orders (M.A.610)........................... 3.16 Part-M - Subpart-F - Maintenance Organization......... 3.13
Management Board........................................................ 1.7 Performance of Maintenance (MA 402) ....................... 6.7
Manuals To Be Carried (OPS 1.130).............................. 4.12 Permits to Fly.................................................................. 5.11
Marking of Break-In Points............................................ 4.13 Personnel Requirements (145.A.30)............................... 3.3
Mass and Balance Documentation (Air Operations 1.625) Personnel Requirements (M.A.606)............................... 3.15
5.13 Pilot Owner Authorization (MA 803) .......................... 6.11
Material Information...................................................... 7.7 Planning Information..................................................... 7.5
MEL............................................................................... 4.12 Powerplant and Systems Program.................................. 4.7
Member State Obligation............................................... 1.9 Pre-Departure Service Check......................................... 7.8
Minimum Equipment Lists............................................ 7.7 Privileges (21A.163)........................................................ 5.5
Minimum Equipment Lists & CDL Privileges (21A.263)....................................................... 5.6
  (Operator's Responsibilities)....................................... 4.12 Privileges (66.A.20) ....................................................... 2.5
Minimum Equipment Requirements - Test Flights....... 7.8 Privileges of the Organization (145.A.75)...................... 3.12
MMEL/MEL................................................................ 7.7 Privileges of the Organization (M.A.615)...................... 3.17
Modifications And Repairs............................................. 7.7 Procedure for Competent Authorities -
Multilateral Cooperation................................................ 1.11  Section-B .................................................................... 6.14
Mutual Exchange Of Information (66.B.25)................. 2.12 Procedure for the Change of an Aircraft
  Maintenance License to Include an Additional
N   Basic Category or Subcategory (66.B.110).................. 2.13
Procedure for the Change of an Aircraft
New License.................................................................... 2.8   Maintenance License to Include an Aircraft
Noise Certification.......................................................... 5.12   Rating or to Remove Limitations (66.B.115)............. 2.13
Normal, Utility Aerobatic and Commuter Procedure for the Conversion of Licenses
  Airplanes (CS 23)....................................................... 5.2   Including Group Ratings (66.B.125).......................... 2.14
Procedure for the Direct Approval of Aircraft
O   Type Training (66.B.130)............................................ 2.15
Procedure for the Issue of an Aircraft
Obligations from Certification Maintenance   Maintenance License by The Competent
  Requirements (CMR)................................................. 4.9   Authority (66.B.100)................................................... 2.12
Obligations Of The Holder (21A.165)............................ 5.5 Procedure for the Issue of an Aircraft Maintenance
Occurence Reporting (MA 202) ................................... 6.4   License via a Maintenance Organization Approved in

Module 10 - Index I.3


Eng. M. Rasool
INDEX

  Accordance with Annex (Part-145) (66.B.105)........... 2.13 Technical Annexes.......................................................... 1.4


Procedure for the Renewal of an Aircraft Maintenance Terms of Approval (145.A.20)........................................ 3.3
  License Validity (66.B.120)......................................... 2.13 The “ALI” (Airworthiness Limitation Items)................. 4.10
Production Organization Approval................................ 5.4 The Chicago Convention................................................ 1.2
Production planning (145.A.47)..................................... 3.10 The General Maintenance Review
Purpose .......................................................................... 7.3   Board (MRB) Process................................................. 4.7
The MRB Report (Maintenance Review Board)............ 4.12
R The Role Of Members States.......................................... 1.9
The Role Of The European Commission (EC).............. 1.4
Radio Station License and Approval.............................. 5.14 Training Program .......................................................... 7.9
Record Keeping (66.B.20).............................................. 2.12 Type Certificates............................................................. 5.6
Record Keeping (MB 104) ............................................. 6.14 Types of Service Bulletins............................................... 7.5
Regulation (EC) 216/2008............................................. 1.9
Regulation (EC) 748/2012............................................. 1.9 U
Regulation (EC) 1321/2014............................................ 1.10
Reliability Program......................................................... 7.8 Undertaking ................................................................... 6.2
Requirements for Exercising Privileges.......................... 2.6
Responsibilities (M.A.201)............................................. 4.4 V
Responsibilities (MA 201) ............................................. 6.3
Restricted Certificates of Airworthiness........................ 5.9 Validity............................................................................ 5.7
Role of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). 1.5 Validity of the Airworthiness Review
Rules And Authority...................................................... 1.9   Certificate (MA 902) ................................................. 6.13

S W
Safety and Quality Policy (145.A.65)............................. 3.11 Weight Schedule............................................................. 5.12
Sailplanes And Powered Sailplanes (CS 22)................... 5.2 Working Methods........................................................... 1.7
Scope (66.A.1)................................................................. 2.3
Scope (66.B.1)................................................................. 2.11 Z
Scope (145.A.10)............................................................. 3.3
Scope (MA 101) ............................................................. 6.3 Zonal Inspection Program (ZIP).................................... 4.11
Scope (M.A.601)............................................................ 3.13
Second Freedom Agreement........................................... 1.2
Service BUlletin Contents.............................................. 7.5
Service Bulletins............................................................. 7.4
Service Letter (SL).......................................................... 7.7
Sharing Of Roles............................................................ 1.9
Small Rotorcraft (CS 27.1).............................................. 5.3
Staff and Language......................................................... 1.7
Standard SB.................................................................... 7.5
Structure Program.......................................................... 4.9
Studies And Research..................................................... 1.7
Supplemental Type Certificates...................................... 5.7

I.4 Module 10 - Index