Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 68

Engineering Encyclopedia

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional
Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services.
Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi
Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramco’s
employees. Any material contained in this document which is not already
in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or
disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without
the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi
Aramco.

Chapter : Process For additional information on this subject, contact


File Reference: CHE10108 R. A. Al-Husseini on 874-2792
Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

CONTENTS PAGES

HEAT TRANSFER MECHANISMS................................................................................1


Calculating Heat Loss in Uninsulated Equipment..........................................................2
Forced Convection/Wind ...............................................................................................3
Nomenclature .................................................................................................................4
Radiation ........................................................................................................................5
Calculating Heat Loss for Insulated Equipment and Specifying Required Insulation....7
Insulation Types ...........................................................................................................10
Thermal Conductivities of Insulations .........................................................................12
Insulation Equivalent Thickness - Inches - English .....................................................17
BASIC COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR ECONOMIC THICKNESS OF INSULATION18
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SHELL AND TUBE EXCHANGERS ..............19
General .........................................................................................................................19
Tube Size/Material Selection .......................................................................................21
Tubeside Fluid Selection ..............................................................................................25
Tube Layout/Pitch/Passes.............................................................................................26
Head/Shell Types .........................................................................................................26
Most common front-end head types (tubeside). ...........................................................27
COST/MAINTENANCE GUIDE FOR HEAD TYPE SELECTION..............................29
Baffle Cut/Type/Spacing..............................................................................................32
Baffle orientation and cut..........................................................................................32
Horizontal Chord:......................................................................................................32
Baffle Cut:.................................................................................................................32
Tube Vibration .............................................................................................................34
Calculating Tubeside Pressure Drop ............................................................................35

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

NOMENCLATURE ........................................................................................................37
Tubeside Friction Factors.............................................................................................41
EXCHANGER TUBE DATA .........................................................................................42
Gauge Equivalents........................................................................................................42
Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet ............................................................................46
Calculating Shellside Pressure Drop ............................................................................47
Shellside Friction Factors.............................................................................................49
Shellside Heat Transfer Curve......................................................................................50

KEY FORMULAS ..........................................................................................................53

WORK AID 1 - PROCEDURES FOR CALCULATING HEAT LOSS


FROM UNINSULATED EQUIPMENT .........................................................................56

WORK AID 2 - PROCEDURES FOR CALCULATING REQUIRED


INSULATION THICKNESS ..........................................................................................58

WORK AID 3 - PROCEDURES FOR CALCULATING TUBESIDE


CLEAN PRESSURE DROP............................................................................................59

WORK AID 4 - PROCEDURES FOR CALCULATING


SHELLSIDE PRESSURE DROP....................................................................................61

GLOSSARY ....................................................................................................................63

REFERENCES ................................................................................................................65

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

HEAT TRANSFER MECHANISMS

Heat is transferred from a source to a receiver by one or more of three distinct mechanisms of
heat transfer. These mechanisms are called conduction, convection, and radiation.

Conduction is the transfer of heat between adjacent molecules in a solid, gas, or liquid
material. Matter must be present for the transfer of heat by conduction. You experience
transfer of heat by conduction when you touch an object that is at a temperature different from
your body temperature. The skin temperature changes as a result of the conduction of heat to
or from the object, depending on the object's temperature. Of the three mechanisms of heat
transfer, conduction is the easiest to understand.

Convection is the transfer of heat through the physical movement of gaseous or liquid fluid.
As with conduction, matter must be present for convection heat transfer to take place.
Convection heat transfer does not take place in solids because their molecular structure is very
dense and the relative movement of molecules is very small relative to that in gases and
liquids. The transfer of heat by convection is most pronounced in the vapor phase. When a
land breeze in the summer blows hot air from the hotter parts of the country to the cooler
parts, heat is being transferred by convection. In the winter, when the heat supplied to warm a
room rises to the ceiling, leaving the floor level cool, the heat is transferred by convection. In
liquids and gases, heat can be simultaneously transferred via both convection and conduction.

Radiation is the emitted energy from the motion of particles rather than the transmission of
heat through matter. The transfer of heat by radiation is experienced when you feel the
warmth of the sun; heat reaches the earth from the sun by radiation. The transfer of heat by
radiation is identical to the transfer of energy by light and by radio waves. In a vacuum,
radiation heat waves move at the speed of light, approximately 186,000 miles/s.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 1


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Calculating Heat Loss in Uninsulated Equipment

Heat loss from an uninsulated vessel or pipe involves all three heat transfer mechanisms.
Heat is transferred from inside the vessel or pipe through the metal wall of the outside surface
to the external atmosphere via radiation, conduction, and convection. The air next to the
metal wall increases in temperature as a result of heat input from the pipe or vessel via
radiation and conduction. The heated air becomes less dense and rises from the hot wall,
allowing colder, denser air to come in contact with the pipe or vessel wall. This movement of
the air removes heat from the wall by convection. The temperature of the outer wall of the
vessel or pipe will stabilize at a value at which the amount of heat conducted through the wall
equals the amount of heat radiated and convected from the wall surface.

The method used to calculate heat losses from pipes and vessels (bare or insulated) will vary
depending on the accuracy needed for the final answer. Charts and simple formulas from
handbooks are available to give quick, approximate results when air temperature, pipe size,
pipe bulk fluid temperature, wind velocity, and insulation type and thickness are the only
pieces of input information used for the calculation. For a somewhat more rigorous approach,
formulas are available to calculate the radiant heat loss and convection heat loss from
equipment. The radiant and convection heat losses are then combined to give the overall heat
loss value. When designing a facility with equipment that will operate at temperatures
significantly above or below ambient temperature, engineers usually use computer programs
to calculate the equipment heat losses. The same programs will specify the required
insulation thickness based on a complex economic evaluation of the system. Because of
course time limitations, the example problem and exercise on this subject will be done using
the simple formulas.

Because the heat loss from equipment is only approximated by these simple formulas, some
simplifying assumptions for the process conditions can be made in most cases. Assume that
the pipe or vessel outside wall surface (next to the atmosphere) is at the same temperature as
the bulk fluid temperature in the pipe or vessel. Heat transfer calculations for shell and tube
exchangers, to be discussed later in this course, show that the resistance to heat flow by the
internal film and metal wall are usually low relative to the convection/radiation resistance or
the resistance from the insulation placed on the equipment. The outside metal temperature is
therefore much closer to the bulk fluid temperature than to the outside atmospheric
temperature in most cases. With this assumption (Æt = fluid temperature - air temperature),
the convection heat loss from equipment is represented in the following section.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 2


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Natural Convection/No Wind

hc = 0.50 ∆t
0.25
Horizontal pipes:
do

hc = 0.40 ∆ t
0.25
Long vertical pipes:
do

Vertical plates over 2 ft high: hc = 0.30 ∆t 0.25

Horizontal plates:

Facing downward: hc = 0.2 ∆t 0.25

Facing upward: hc = 0.38 ∆t 0.25

where: do = Outside diameter of tube or pipe, in.


hc = Heat transfer coefficient for natural convection heat transfer, Btu/hr ft2 °F.
Æt = Fluid Temperature - Air Temperature, °F.
A = Outside metal surface area, ft2

The convection heat loss is obtained by taking the value calculated for (hc) and multiplying it by
the outside metal surface area and the system Æt (bulk fluid temperature - atmospheric
temperature).

Q
= h c (t s − t a )
A
Forced Convection/Wind

Heat loss from equipment due to convection greatly increases with wind velocity as shown by
the following formula:

Qcv V + 68.9
= 0.296(ts − t a )
5/4
A 68.9

where:Qcv = Heat transferred by forced convection, Btu/hr


ts = Temperature of hot outer surface, °F.
ta = Temperature of ambient air, °F.
V = Air velocity, ft/min.
A = Outside area, ft2

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 3


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

NOMENCLATURE

(For Heat Loss Calculation)


do Outside diameter of tube or pipe (in.).
E Surface emittance (dimensionless).
hc Heat transfer coefficient for natural convection heat transfer (Btu/hr ft2
°F).
k Conductivity of insulation (Btu in./ft2 hr °F).
Q Heat transferred through insulation (Btu/hr).
Qcv Heat transferred by forced convection (Btu/hr).
Qc Heat transferred by natural convection (Btu/hr).
Qr Heat transferred by radiation (Btu/hr).
Qt Sum of Qcv and Qr.
r1 Inner radius of insulation (in.).
r2 Outer radius of insulation (in.).
Æt Fluid temperature - Air temperature, (°F).
t1 Temperature of inner surface of insulation (°F).
ts Temperature of hot outer surface (°F).
ta Temperature of ambient air (°F).
Ts Absolute temperature of hot surface (°R) (ts + 459.6°F).
Ta Absolute temperature of ambient air (°R) (ta + 459.6°F).
V Air velocity (ft/min).
A Outside area, ft2

Figure 1

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 4


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Radiation

Heat loss from bare equipment results from heat radiation in addition to the convection losses
previously discussed. Radiation losses are estimated by the following formula. For this
approximate calculation, assume that the emissivity (E) of the surface is 0.9, which is the
accepted value for oxidized steel surfaces.

 T 4  T 4
Qr  
= 0.174E   s  -  a  
A  100  100 

where: Qr = Heat transferred by radiation, Btu/hr.


E = Surface emittance, dimensionless.
Ts = Absolute temperature of hot surface, °R, ts + 459.6°F.
Ta = Absolute temperature of ambient air, °R, ta + 459.6°F.
A = Outside area, ft2

Equipment receives heat via radiation from the sun. On a sunny day, the net flow of heat via
radiation could well be a heat gain to the equipment and not a heat loss.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 5


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Example Problem 1

Calculate the heat loss from a horizontal 12.75-in.O. D. diameter pipe operating at a bulk fluid
temperature of 350°F in a climate with a seasonal minimum temperature of 40°F and an
average wind velocity of 5 mph. Also, calculate the convection heat loss assuming no wind.
Use the simplifying assumptions at the beginning of this section, Calculating Heat Loss in
Uninsulated Equipment.

Convection

Natural Convection

 ∆ t  0.25  350 - 40  0.25


h c = 0.50 = 0.50  = 1.110 Btu / hr ft2 ° F
 do  12.75 
Qc
= (h c )(∆ t ) = (1.11)(350 - 40 ) = 344 Btu / hr ft 2 (No wind)
A

Forced Convection

Q cv
= 0.296(t s − t a )
5 4 V + 68.9
A 68.9

( ft / mile)(mph) 5280× 5
V= = ft / min = = 440 ft / min
( min / hr) 60
Qcv 440 + 68.9
= 0.296( 350 - 40)5 4 = 1046 Btu / hr ft2
A 68.9
Qr  T 4  T 4    350 + 460 4  40 + 460 4 
= 0.174E  s  −  a   = (0.174)(0.9)  −
A  100 100   100  100  
= (0.1566)(4305 - 625) = 576 Btu / hr ft2
Qt Q cv Qr
= + = 1046 + 576 = 1622 Btu / hr ft2
A A A

Qt  Qt     do 
=    π    = heat loss/ ft of pipe
L  A     12 

Qt  12.75 
= (1622)( 3.1417) = 5414.5 Btu / hr ft of pipe
L  12 

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 6


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

These calculations show that the effect of the wind velocity on convection heat losses is
significant. They also show that radiant heat loss from equipment operating at high
temperatures is a major part of the overall heat loss.

Calculating Heat Loss for Insulated Equipment and Specifying Required Insulation

The calculation of heat loss from insulated equipment is quite similar to the calculation of heat
loss for bare equipment. Natural convection heat loss will not be included in the discussion on
insulated equipment, because natural convection heat loss is small relative to forced convection
and radiation losses as shown by the discussion of heat loss from bare equipment. However, it
can no longer be assumed that the outer surface of the equipment (now the outside surface of
the insulation) is at the same temperature as the bulk fluid in the equipment. The temperature of
the outer surface of the equipment differs greatly from the temperature of the bulk fluid in the
equipment.

A second major change in the calculation procedure for heat loss from insulated equipment
versus bare equipment must be considered; the cross-sectional area changes significantly as a
function of diameter because of the insulation thickness (see Figure

2). The basic equation for heat loss through the insulating material on the equipment is as
follows:

Q t −t
= 1 rs2
A o  r 2 ln r 1 
 
 k 

where: Q = Heat transferred through insulation, Btu/hr.


k = Conductivity of insulation, Btu in./ft2 hr °F.
r1 = Inner radius of insulation, in.
r2 = Outer radius of insulation, in.
t1 = Temperature of inner surface of insulation, °F.
ts = Temperature of hot outer surface, °F.
Ao = Outside Area, ft2.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 7


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

EQUIVALENT THICKNESS OF CYLINDRICAL INSULATION

Equivalent Cylindrical Insulation


Thickness

Unit Area
Outer Radius

Q Q
When Q is to Be
Determined, Based
r2 on Outer Radius,
Calculations for
r1 Resistance Must
Be Based on
Equivalent Thickness
r
2
Equivalent Thickness = r ln
2 r
1

Source: Thermal Insulation Handbook by William C. Turner and John F. Malloy, page 9, © 1981 by Robert E.
Krieger Publishing Company, Inc.

Figure 2

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 8


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Values for all the terms in this equation are usually known except for the temperatures of the
insulation inner and outer surfaces (t1 and ts, respectively). As explained in the section "Heat
Loss - Uninsulated Equipment", ts will stabilize at a value at which the flow of heat to this
surface through the insulation equals the flow of heat from the surface via forced convection
and radiation. Sophisticated computer programs calculate the true inner and outer surface
temperatures for the insulation (t1, ts) through a cyclic trial-and-error calculation in determining
heat loss. The computer program takes into account the temperature changes across the laminar
flow film on the inside of the equipment. It also takes into account the equipment wall and the
temperature difference between ts and ta due to forced convection and radiation heat loss from
the surface of the insulation cover. For this module, because heat loss from insulated
equipment is only being estimated, the following simplifying assumptions will be made: the
temperature of the inner surface of the insulation is the same as the temperature of the bulk fluid
in the vessel, and the temperature of the surface of the metal jacketing covering the insulation is
the same as the ambient temperature. This approach is conservative because it will give heat
loss from an insulated piece of equipment modestly higher than reality. The following example
shows the effect of the assumptions on the true answer. The resistance factor for 1 in. of
insulation on a 2-in. pipe operating at 500°F in an ambient temperature of 0°F with a 20-mph
wind is 3.4.

r2 ln r2
r1
k

The resistance factor for the outside film (air film):

1
f

is 0.17. In this relatively extreme case, the outside film (ts - ta) contributes only 7% of the
resistance to the overall heat loss from the pipe. To determine the temperature of the metal
covering on the insulation, for example, to determine if the metal covering was safe for human
touch, includes the resistance factor for the outside film in the calculation. For this type of
calculation (not covered in this module) the heat loss equation for insulated equipment
becomes:

Q t 1 − ts
=
A  r 2 ln r 21 1 
r

 + f
 k 

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 9


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Insulation Types

Insulation of refining equipment can be subdivided into four major service categories:

• Hot insulation (initial surface temperature over 150°F).

• Cold insulation (metal surface temperature below atmospheric dew point more than 10%
of the time).

• Personal protection (for temperatures over 150°F).

• Acoustical insulation (not included in the following discussion).

The type of insulation varies with the type of equipment to be insulated. The temperature of
the material contained in the drum, tower, tank, or pipe also has an effect on the type of
insulation to be used. Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard AES-N-001 defines preferred
insulation types for different services. The following table reproduced from the standard
shows some of the insulation types used by Saudi Aramco for services at different
temperatures.

Insulation Material ASTM Specification* Temperature

Hot Insulation Upper Limit


Aluminum Silica C892 1260°C (2300°F)
Calcium Silicate
Mineral Fiber (blanket) C592 871°C (1600°F)
Mineral Fiber (block) C612 982°C (1800°F)
Mineral Fiber
(preformed pipe covering) C547 650°C (1200°F)
Mineral Fiber Cement C195 870°C (1600°F)
Mineral Fiber Cement C449 650°C (1200°F)
Cellular Glass C552 430°C (800°F)

Cold Insulation Lower Limit


Cellular Elastomer C534 -40°C (-40°F)
Cellular Urethane C591 -40°C (-40°F)
Cellular Glass C552 -268°C (-450°F)

* Equivalent materials which meet other recognized national standards and Section 5 of this Standard may be
acceptable even though they do not comply with the listed specification. Mechanical and thermal properties and
chemical analysis data shall be submitted to the Consulting Services Department for approval.

Figure 3 gives some thermal conductivity values (k) for one of the insulation types (mineral
fiber) included in the Saudi Aramco table of acceptable insulation types. Note that thermal
conductivities are given in various references as Btu in./hr ft2 °F or Btu ft/hr ft2 °F. If units

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 10


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

are not given, a good reference point to remember is that carbon steel is about 26 Btu ft/hr ft2
°F and 312 Btu in./hr ft2 °F.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 11


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Thermal Conductivities of Insulations

Btu in./ft2 hr °F

Identificatio Identificatio Identificatio Identificatio Identificatio Identificatio Identificatio


n n No. 51 n No. 52 n No 53 n No. 54 n No. 55 n No. 56
No. 50
Generic
Generic
Type:
Generic Generic
Type: Mineral
Mean Kaolin wool-spun Type: Type:
Generic Generic Generic
Temp. ceramic glass- Mineral Mineral
fiber in stainless fibers with fibers with Type: Type: Type:
stainless steel metal metal mesh metal facing Urethane Urethane Alumina
steel metal mesh facing Class II foam foam fibers
mesh Form: Class 1 Form: Form: Form: Form:
Form: Strips Various Form: Sheets Block, Pipe Block, Pipe Blanket and
and Shaped shapes Sheets Cov. Cov. Felts

°R °F Density Density Density Density Density Density Density


lb/ft3 lb/ft3 lb/ft3 lb/ft3 lb/ft3 lb/ft3 lb/ft3
6 to 8 10 to 14 6 (max. 12 (ave. Up to 1.5 Over 1.5 3 to 4
ave.) max.)
260 -200
360 -100
460 0 0.26 0.29 0.27
560 100 0.30 0.31 0.31 0.29
660 200 0.34 0.29 0.37
760 300 0.40 0.36 0.44
860 400 0.35 0.47 0.46 0.51 0.40
960 500 0.40 0.55 0.56 0.59 0.49
106 600 0.47 0.62 0.67 0.60
0
116 700 0.56 0.76 0.67 0.74
0
126 800 0.68 0.87 0.90
0
136 900 0.81 0.98 1.05
0
146 100 0.95 1.10 1.25
0 0
156 110 1.07 1.42
0 0
166 120 1.20 1.65
0 0

Note: Values are in Btu in./ft2 hr °F, not Btu ft/ft2 hr °F.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 12


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Source: Thermal Insulation Handbook by William C. Turner and John F. Malloy, page 254, © 1981 by
Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, Inc.

Figure 3

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 13


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Example Problem 2

Calculate the heat loss from a 10-in. pipe (10.75" OD) operating at 350°F with an ambient air
temperature of 80°F. The pipe is insulated with 2 in. of insulation (mineral wool-spun glass
I.D. No. 51 shown in Figure 3) that has a k value of 0.36 Btu in./ft2 hr °F at an average
temperature of 215°F.

Work Aid 2 provides procedures for completing this problem.

 350° F + 80° F 
Average temperature=  = 215° F
 2 
Q t −t (350 − 80) (270 )
= 1 rs = = = 41.66
A r ln 2 7.375 In
7.375 (7.375)(0.3163)
2
r1 5.375 0.36
k 0.36
Q  Q  (2)(r 2 )
=   ( π)  = heat loss/ ft of pipe
L  A  12 

= ( 41.66 )(3.1417)
Q 14.75 
 = 160.9 Btu / hr / ft of pipe length
L  12 

r1 = 5.375
r r1
2 r 2 = 7.375

Pipe
10.75"

Insulation
14.75"

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 14


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Example Problem 3

In this example problem, the amount of insulation required to reduce the heat loss from a pipe
to a certain value is calculated.

For a 10-in. pipe (10.75" diameter) operating at 350°F with an ambient temperature of 80°F
calculate how much insulation would be required to keep the heat loss from this pipe below
30 Btu/hr ft2 of insulation surface, assuming the insulation I.D. No. 51 used in Example
Problem 2. Figure 4 provides insulation thickness as a function of pipe size and the term:

r2
r 2 1n
r1

t1 - t s (350 − 80)
Q/A= = 30 = r
 r 
r 2 1n r2  r 21n r2 
 1  1
 k   0.36 
   

r
r 2 1n 2 = 3.24 = Equivalent Thickness
r1

On Figure 4: in the 10-in. pipe column, find the two numbers which surround 3.24. Refer to
the top of the table for the recommended insulation thickness.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 15


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

The insulation thickness corresponding to the 3.24 value falls between 2-1/2 in. and 3 in. of
insulation for a 10-in. pipe. Therefore, 3-in.-thick insulation is the answer. Note that if the
value for :

r2 ln r2
r1

had been very close to 3.05 (the table value for 2-1/2-in. thick insulation) using 2-1/2 in. of
insulation could be considered because this calculation method is conservative as a result of
earlier assumptions.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 16


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Insulation Equivalent Thickness - Inches - English

PIPE NOMINAL INSULATION THICKNESS - INCHES


NPS Diam." 1/2 1 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 4 1/2 5 5 1/2 6 6 1/2 7 7 1/2 8 8 1/2 9 9 1/2 10
1/4 0.540 0.81 1.98 3.32 4.84 6.45 8.13 9.05 11.70 13.70 15.55 17.66 19.69 21.80 23.92 26.11 28.28 30.52 32.82 35.07 37.38
3/8 0.675 0.76 1.84 3.12 4.53 6.04 7.64 9.32 11.06 12.87 14.74 16.64 18.57 20.65 22.60 24.69 26.76 28.90 31.00 33.15 33.33
1/2 0.840 0.72 1.73 2.92 4.23 5.66 7.18 8.74 10.39 12.10 13.82 15.69 17.53 19.38 21.30 23.28 25.26 27.29 29.29 31.35 33.02
3/4 1.030 0.69 1.63 2.73 3.96 5.29 6.73 8.21 9.73 11.36 12.98 14.64 16.44 18.19 20.02 21.91 23.78 25.63 27.62 29.57 31.57
1 1.315 0.66 1.52 2.57 3.72 4.96 6.29 7.65 9.12 10.62 12.16 13.79 15.44 17.11 18.76 20.56 22.33 24.08 25.98 27.83 29.73
1 1/4 1.660 0.63 1.45 2.40 3.45 4.63 5.86 7.14 8.50 9.91 11.37 12.85 14.41 15.90 17.54 19.24 20.93 22.58 24.28 26.03 27.83
1 1/2 1.900 0.62 1.40 2.30 3.33 4.45 5.65 6.85 8.17 9.54 10.89 12.38 13.83 15.35 16.85 18.42 20.05 21.74 23.38 25.08 26.83
2 2.375 0.59 1.33 2.21 3.16 4.17 5.28 6.47 7.62 8.88 10.21 11.50 12.93 14.39 15.80 17.24 18.83 20.34 21.90 23.51 25.03
2 1/2 2.875 0.58 1.27 2.09 2.99 3.95 4.98 6.07 7.23 8.42 9.66 10.96 12.20 13.57 14.93 16.35 17.74 19.18 20.66 22.20 23.16
3 3.500 0.56 1.24 2.02 2.85 3.78 4.75 5.78 6.84 7.94 9.11 10.30 11.54 12.79 14.09 15.36 16.77 18.14 19.46 20.93 22.33
3 1/2 4.000 0.53 1.22 1.96 2.76 3.64 4.60 5.56 6.60 7.67 8.75 9.90 11.12 12.32 13.50 14.82 16.10 17.43 18.70 20.15 21.48
4 4.500 0.53 1.19 1.91 2.71 3.56 4.46 5.41 6.38 7.42 8.47 9.61 10.73 11.90 13.04 14.53 15.58 16.77 18.11 19.39 20.70
4 1/2 5.000 0.54 1.18 1.88 2.66 3.45 4.35 5.28 6.24 7.21 8.25 9.28 10.37 11.52 12.73 13.90 15.12 16.28 17.60 18.84 20.13
5 5.563 0.54 1.17 1.84 2.58 3.38 4.28 5.15 6.03 6.99 8.01 9.03 10.10 11.14 12.32 13.47 14.55 15.79 16.96 18.30 19.43
6 6.625 0.53 1.13 1.78 2.50 3.25 4.10 4.91 5.78 6.72 7.65 8.64 9.59 10.70 11.65 12.76 13.91 15.00 16.12 17.30 18.50
7 7.625 0.53 1.12 1.75 2.44 3.22 3.95 4.75 5.62 6.48 7.40 8.29 9.22 10.31 11.24 12.33 13.35 14.41 15.50 16.64 17.82
8 8.625 0.53 1.11 1.74 2.40 3.13 3.88 4.61 5.49 6.26 7.17 8.05 8.97 9.95 10.86 11.93 12.93 13.97 15.04 16.02 17.17
9 9.625 0.53 1.10 1.70 2.38 3.07 3.75 4.57 5.29 6.15 6.97 7.84 8.76 9.62 10.63 11.66 12.56 13.58 14.50 15.60 16.59
10 10.750 0.52 1.09 1.69 2.34 3.05 3.66 4.50 5.22 6.09 6.81 7.69 8.61 9.22 10.35 11.28 12.25 13.13 14.18 15.12 16.24
12 12.750 0.52 1.08 1.68 2.33 3.00 3.63 4.32 5.06 5.85 6.57 7.50 8.26 8.98 9.99 10.78 11.75 12.60 13.49 14.56 15.50
14 14.000 0.52 1.07 1.65 2.26 2.90 3.56 4.26 4.97 5.71 6.47 7.25 8.05 8.86 9.70 10.30 11.43 12.25 13.22 14.19 15.07
16 16.000 0.52 1.06 1.63 2.23 2.85 3.50 4.17 4.86 5.57 6.31 7.06 7.83 8.62 9.42 10.23 11.09 12.05 12.81 13.65 14.59
18 18.000 0.51 1.05 1.62 2.21 2.82 3.45 4.10 4.78 5.47 6.19 6.91 7.66 8.42 9.21 9.90 10.81 11.55 12.48 13.32 14.19
20 20.000 0.51 1.05 1.61 2.19 2.80 3.41 4.05 4.71 5.44 6.08 6.80 7.52 8.16 9.02 9.80 10.58 11.47 12.20 13.06 13.86
24 24.000 0.51 1.04 1.59 2.16 2.74 3.35 3.96 4.60 5.25 5.92 6.58 7.30 7.99 8.73 9.56 10.22 11.07 11.74 12.47 13.29
28 28.000 0.51 1.03 1.58 2.14 2.71 3.30 3.91 4.52 5.15 5.80 6.46 7.12 7.82 8.51 9.25 9.94 10.80 11.32 12.22 12.93
32 32.000 0.51 1.03 1.57 2.12 2.68 3.27 3.85 4.46 5.07 5.71 6.34 7.01 7.66 8.35 9.17 9.73 10.54 11.15 11.98 12.62
36 36.000 0.51 1.03 1.56 2.11 2.66 3.24 3.81 4.41 5.02 5.63 6.25 6.90 7.53 8.11 8.92 9.56 10.34 10.94 11.83 12.37
40 40.000 0.51 1.02 1.55 2.10 2.65 3.21 3.79 4.37 4.97 5.58 6.20 6.82 7.46 8.10 8.80 9.42 10.26 10.78 11.80 12.16
48 48.000 0.49 1.02 1.55 2.08 2.62 3.18 3.74 4.31 4.89 5.48 6.08 6.69 7.30 7.92 8.51 9.20 9.75 10.54 11.06 11.84

Note: Tabular values are those of the L = r 2 ln r 2 for the Nominal Insulation Thicknesses
r1
Equivalent Thickness given in inches.

r1 = Inside radius of insulation in inches r2 = Outside radius of insulation in inches r2 - r1


= Actual thickness (l) in inches

L = Equivalent thickness in inches

Source: Thermal Insulation Handbook by William C. Turner and John F. Malloy, page 477, © 1981 by Robert
E. Krieger Publishing Company.

Figure 4

For screening-type engineering activities in connection with estimating heat loss and
projecting equipment insulation thickness, "runaround" charts are available. A sample chart
(Figure 5) is reproduced below and includes input variables such as cost of heat, temperature
difference, cost of insulation, thermal conductivity of insulation, and pipe size. The
economical insulation thickness is estimated directly without calculations.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 17


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

BASIC COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR ECONOMIC THICKNESS OF INSULATION

10 REM Program to find economic thickness of thermal insulation


20 INPUT "Ambient" temperature... deg F...:";TA
30 INPUT "Fluid temperature...deg...: ";TF
40 INPUT "Outer Dia. of pip...inches.....:";OD
50 INPUT "Emissivity of cladding.....:";E
60 INPUT "Therm. cond. of insulation..BTU-in/sq ft-hr-deg F..:;TC
70 INPUT "Wind velocity...mi/hr...:";WN:V=WN*5280/60
80 INPUT "Cost of fuel...$/Million BTU....:";CF
90 INPUT "Cost of insulation for 2 inch layer $/sq ft...:";COI
100 INPUT "Cost of cladding.....$/sq ft....:";COA
101 REM THK=Thickness of insulation in inches, OD2 =OD with insul.
102 REM T2=Surface temperature
110 THK=0:PI=3.1415927:OD2=OD:T2=TF
120 GOSUB 480
121 REM HLB=Heat loss bare
130 HLB=QCV+QQR:HL1=HLB
140 HL1=QCV+QR
141 REM OD1=OD with insul step 1, OD2=OD with insul step 2
150 OD1=OD2:THK=THK+(1/2):OD2=OD+(2*THK):T2=TA
160 T2=T2+1
170 GOSUB 460
180 IF DIF=0 GOTO 300
190 IF DIF>0 GOTO 210
200 T2=T2–1
210 T2=T2+0.1
220 GOSUB 460
230 IF DIF=0 GOTO 300
240 IF DIF>0 GOTO 210
250 T2=T2–0.1
260 T2=T2+0.01
270 GOSUB 460
280 IF DIF-0 GOTO 300
290 IF DIF>0 GOTO 260
300 QA=(QCD+QCV+QR)/2
301 REM YES =incremental BTU loss/100 ft for 360 day year
310 YES=(HL1–QA)*100*360*24
311 REM MS=$/year
320 MS=(YES/1E6))*CF

Figure 5

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 18


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SHELL AND TUBE EXCHANGERS

General

The first part of this section on shell and tube exchangers introduces TEMA (Tubular
Exchanger Manufacturers Association, Inc.) codes and the TEMA Manual. Later portions of
this section will deal more extensively with the different TEMA codes with respect to
different parts of the shell and tube exchanger.

The TEMA Manual contains over 200 pages of detailed information about shell and tube
exchangers, physical configuration, recommended design practices, physical properties of
fluids, calculation procedures for preventing flow-induced tube vibration, and procedures for
thermally sizing the exchanger. Figure 6 shows the most common type of exchanger: single
shell pass, multiple tube pass, with a floating head. Figure 7 shows the TEMA designations
for the different exchanger configurations available.

13

5
16
1 14
15
4
21 8
6 17
7

3
20
2
20
18 19
5

1. Shell 8. Floating Head Flange 15. Transverse Baffles or Support


Plates
2. Shell Cover 9. Channel Partition 16. Impingement Baffle
3. Shell Channel 10. Stationary Tubesheet 17. Vent Connection
4. Shell Cover End Flange 11. Channel 18. Drain Connection
5. Shell Nozzle 12. Channel Cover 19. Test Connection
6. Floating Tubesheet 13. Channel Nozzle 20. Support Saddles
7. Floating Head 14. Tie Rods and Spacers 21. Lifting Rings

Figure 6

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 19


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

TEMA HEAT EXCHANGER NOMENCLATURE


TEMA Heat Exchanger Nomenclature

Front End Shell Rear End


Stationary Head Types Head Types
Types

L
E
A

Single-Pass

B
Two-Pass
N

G
P

Split Flow

H S
Removable Bundle
C
Split Ring

Double Split Flow

T
Pull-Through
J

Fixed Tubesheet

Divided Flow U

U-Tube Bundle

D
K
W

High Pressure Kettle

© 1988 by Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association.


Figure 7

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 20


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

The table of contents for the TEMA book (Figure 8) has been reproduced on the following
two pages for review. It shows the type of information available for use in designing shell
and tube exchangers.

Tube Size/Material Selection

The bare tube diameter and wall thickness (gauge) table (Figure 9), also from the TEMA
Manual, shows the large tube type selection available for the design of an exchanger.
However, a refinery will standardize on as few tube types as possible for maintenance
reasons. The Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard AES-E-001 (Items 4.1 and 7) states that
the preferred tube is either 10 ft or 20 ft long and 3/4 in. in diameter for shell and tube
exchangers. The number of tubes per shell has also been standardized, as explained in AES-
E-001, Item 7. This allows maximum interchangeability of exchanger bundles between
services and minimizes the number of spare bundles warehoused by the maintenance
department. (See Appendix A of ADP-E-007 for more standardization information relative to
tube wall thickness, and so on.)

Generally, the industry standard is on 20-ft-long, 1-in. or 3/4-in. O.D. tubes. The 3/4-in. tubes
are usually used in preference to the 1-in. tubes because this increases the surface area (tube
surface) in a given shell diameter. Use of 1-in. tubes is usually restricted to services with high
fouling factors and or pressure drop limitations.

Tube material selection is influenced by the corrosive nature and the temperature of the fluids.
A tube wall thickness (B.W.G. or Birmingham Wire Gauge) must be adequate to withstand
the corrosive attack of the fluids for the desired life of the exchanger bundle and retain
sufficient wall thickness at the end of the cycle to withstand the fluid pressures. Economic
evaluations done for new designs will standardize the desired exchanger bundle life. For
highly corrosive services, the exchanger life usually at least matches the unit run length as set
by variables such as catalyst life. Tube material selection, on occasion, is set by the
temperature of the fluids. For high-temperature fluids, even though the fluid may be
noncorrosive, an alloy material is required because the allowable stress for carbon steel tubes
is too low at the operating temperature to permit reasonable tubewall thickness to hold the
fluid pressure. For low-temperature fluids, an alloy is often required even for noncorrosive
fluids due to brittle fracture limitations for carbon steel tubes.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 21


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Symbol &
Section Paragraph
MEMBERSHIP LIST ..........................................................................................iii
TECHNICAL COMMITTEE .................................................................................iv
PREFACE ..........................................................................................................v
NOTES TO USERS ..........................................................................................viii
1 N NOMENCLATURE
1 Size Numbering and Type Designation--Recommended Practice ....................................1
2 Nomenclature of Heat Exchanger Components ...........................................................3
2 F FABRICATION TOLERANCES
1 External Dimensions, Nozzle and Support Locations ..................................................6
2 Recommended Fabrication Tolerances ......................................................................7
3 Tubesheets, Partitions, Covers, and Flanges .............................................................8
3 G GENERAL FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE INFORMATION
1 Shop Operation .................................................................................................10
2 Inspection .........................................................................................................10
3 Nameplates .......................................................................................................10
4 Drawings and ASME Code Data Reports ................................................................10
5 Guarantee .........................................................................................................11
6 Preparation of Heat Exchangers for Shipments .........................................................12
7 General Construction Features of TEMA Standard Heat Exchangers.............................12
4 E INSTALLATION, OPERATION, AND MAINTENANCE
1 Performance of Heat Exchangers ...........................................................................14
2 Installation of Heat Exchangers .............................................................................14
3 Operation of Heat Exchangers ...............................................................................15
4 Maintenance of Heat Exchangers ...........................................................................16
5 RCB MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS RCB HEAT EXCHANGERS
1 Scope and General Requirements ...........................................................................20
2 Tubes .............................................................................................................23
3 Shells and Shell Covers .....................................................................................26
4 Baffles and Support Plates ...................................................................................27
5 Floating End Construction ...................................................................................33
6 Gaskets ............................................................................................................36
7 Tubesheets .......................................................................................................38
8 Flexible Shell Elements ......................................................................................61
9 Channels, Covers, and Bonnets ............................................................................72
10 Nozzles ...........................................................................................................75
11 End Flanges and Bolting .....................................................................................77
6 V FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION
1 Scope and General .............................................................................................79
2 Vibration Damage Patterns .................................................................................79
3 Failure Regions .................................................................................................79
© 1981 by Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association.

Figure 8

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 22


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Symbol &
Section Paragraph
6 V FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION (Cont'd)
4 Dimensionless Numbers .....................................................................................80
5 Natural Frequency .............................................................................................81
6 Axial Tube Stress .............................................................................................88
7 Effective Tube Mass ...........................................................................................88
8 Damping ..........................................................................................................91
9 Shell Side Velocity Distribution ...........................................................................91
10 Estimate of Critical Flow Velocity .......................................................................94
11 Acoustic Vibration .............................................................................................96
12 Design Considerations .......................................................................................101
13 Selected References ...........................................................................................102
7 T THERMAL RELATIONS
1 Scope and Basic Relations .................................................................................103
2 Fouling ..........................................................................................................105
3 Fluid Temperature Relations ..............................................................................106
4 Mean Metal Temperatures of Shell and Tubes ........................................................107
8 P PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS
1 Fluid Density ..................................................................................................128
2 Specific Heat ...................................................................................................128
3 Heat Content of Petroleum Fractions ..................................................................129
4 Thermal Conductivity ......................................................................................129
5 Viscosity .......................................................................................................129
6 Critical Properties ............................................................................................130
7 Properties of Gas and Vapor Mixtures ..................................................................130
8 Selected References ...........................................................................................130
9 D GENERAL INFORMATION
(See detailed Table of Contents)
10 RGP RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE
G-7 General Construction Features of TEMA Standard Heat Exchangers...........................198
RCB-1 Scope and General Requirements .........................................................................198
RCB-2 Plugging Tubes in Tube Bundles ........................................................................198
RCB-3 Shells and Shell Covers .....................................................................................199
RCB-4 Baffles and Support Plates ..................................................................................199
RCB-6 Gaskets ...........................................................................................................205
RCB-7 Tubesheets .....................................................................................................205
RCB-9 Channels, Covers, and Bonnets ...........................................................................207
RCB-10 Nozzles ..........................................................................................................207
RCB-11 End Flanges and Bolting ....................................................................................208
T-2 Fouling ..........................................................................................................208
INDEX ............................................................................................................216
© 1981 by Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association.

Figure 8 (Cont'd)

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 23


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

BARE TUBE DIAMETERS AND GAUGES


O.D. Copper and Copper Alloys Carbon Steel, Aluminum Other Alloys
Inches and Aluminum Alloys
B.W.G. B.W.G. B.W.G.
1/4 27 - 27
24 - 24
22 - 22
3/8 22 - 22
20 - 20
18 - 18
1/2 20 - 20
18 - 18
5/8 20 18 20
18 16 18
16 14 16
3/4 20 16 18
18 14 16
16 12 14
7/8 18 14 16
16 12 14
14 10 12
12 - -
1 18 14 16
16 12 14
14 - 12
1-1/4 16 14 14
14 12 12
1-1/2 16 14 14
14 12 12
2 14 14 14
12 12 12

Notes:
1. Wall thickness tolerance shall be specified as either minimum or average.
2. Characteristics of tubing are shown in Table D-7.

© 1981 by Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association.

Figure 9

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 24


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Tubeside Fluid Selection

The tubeside fluid is selected by evaluating the nature of both fluids to be handled in the
exchanger. The following list in order of importance provides a general guide for tubeside
fluid selection that should be tempered by refinery experience for the location.

• Usually, cooling water is placed on the tubeside because it must exceed a minimum
velocity to prevent fouling of the exchanger.

• The more corrosive of the two fluids is usually placed in the tubes, thereby increasing
exchanger life. Replacing a portion of the tubes at the end of each life cycle is much more
practical than replacing the shell. Also, a fluid containing solids is fed to the tubeside,
since solid deposits would blank off a part of the exchanger on the shellside.

• The fluid with greater fouling potential is on the tubeside, because it is much easier to
mechanically clean the tubeside of the exchanger.

• The less viscous of the two fluids is usually placed in the tube, because the larger open
area of the shellside can better accommodate the more viscous fluid.

• The higher pressure fluid is usually placed in the tube, because the small-diameter tubes,
with respect to metal stress, can more economically contain the fluid pressure than the
large-diameter shell.

• The hotter fluid is usually placed in the tubes for mechanical expansion considerations.
The simpler, more uniform tubeside construction can better accommodate thermal
expansion.

• The smaller volume fluid is usually placed in the tubes, because this arrangement results
in a better overall accommodation of pressure drop limitations for the fluids. The
shellside of the exchanger has a much larger open-flow area.

• Lastly, there are special cases where the guidelines are reversed because one of the design
variables - pressure, temperature, fluid quality, and so on - is extreme. Each special case
must be analyzed individually.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 25


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Tube Layout/Pitch/Passes

The minimum number of tube passes is selected to maintain a minimum velocity that is high
enough to prevent fluid flow in the laminar or transition flow regions and to prevent solids
from depositing. In the laminar and transition flow regions, the film coefficient drastically
decreases and calculation becomes very unpredictable. Film coefficient calculations are
usually more reliable when the fluid flow is maintained in the turbulent flow region. The
maximum number of tube passes is limited by the maximum allowable fouled pressure drop
for the exchanger. Mechanical manufacturing constraints also limit the number of tube passes
but make it desirable to always have two but usually not more than eight tube passes in a
shell. This will vary with exchanger shell sizes. Saudi Aramco ADP-E-00l, Appendix A,
states that exchangers preferably should have two or four tube passes with the tubesheets
grooved for both alignments.

Exchanger tube pitch can be either square or triangular. The position of the pitch can also be
rotated relative to the direction of the flow on the shellside (referred to as rotated pitch).
Rotating the pitch increases the flow turbulence on the shellside and therefore increases the
shellside film coefficient. However, it also increases the shellside pressure drop. Triangular
pitch is generally preferred to square pitch in industry because it increases the number of
tubes in a given shell diameter. When using triangular pitch instead of square pitch, however,
one finds that the shellside pressure drop is higher for a given amount of tube surface and
given baffle pitch. Triangular pitch should also not be used when it is anticipated that the
shellside must be mechanically cleaned. Only with square pitch is there a continuous
mechanical lane through the entire tube bundle to allow mechanical cleaning. Saudi Aramco
ADP-E-001, Appendix A, states that exchangers preferably should have 1-in.-square rotated
pitch.

The tube pitch opening (calculated tube-center-to-tube-center) typically 1.25 times the outside
diameter of the tube. Manufacturing mechanical constraints usually set the minimum tube
pitch because the room between the tubes at the tube/tubesheet joint decreases proportionately
to decreases in tube pitch. TEMA gives specifications for the minimum allowable tube pitch.
Industry typically uses tube pitches of 1.25. The larger pitch in this range is adequate to
accommodate mechanical cleaning (minimum 1/4" line for cleaning for shells over 12"). See
TEMA page 24 for layout angle.

Head/Shell Types

Figure 7, introduced earlier in this module, shows that there are four types of front-end head
and eight types of rear-end head. The front- and rear-end head selection is made on the basis
of cost, maintenance, and fluid leakage. These factors vary for different fluids processed in
shell and tube exchangers and are summarized in the following sections. The A, E, T, and so
on, at the start of each summary refer to the head end, shell, rear end type designation A, E, T,
and so on, in Figure 7.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 26


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Most common front-end head types (tubeside).

A:

• Removable channel with removable cover plate.

• Usable with fixed or removable tube bundles.

• Tube cleaning easier since no piping disassembly required.

• Flanged channel end is costly and prone to leakage.

• Most commonly used.

B:

• Removable channel with integral cover.

• Usable with fixed or removable tube bundles.

• Used for low fouling tubeside service or where chemical cleaning is specified.
Mechanical cleaning requires piping disassembly.

• Less costly and less prone to leakage than type A.

C:

• Channel integral with tubesheet and with removable cover.

• Two types: removable bundle and fixed bundle.

Most common rear-end head types (shellside).

S:

• Floating tubesheet sandwiched between split ring and tubesheet cover.

• Tubesheet assembly moves within shell cover to absorb expansion of the tubes.

• Requires removing rear shell cover and floating tubesheet cover for bundle removal, but
results in a smaller diameter shell for the same heat transfer surface.

• Usually first choice for removable bundles if mechanical cleaning of shellside will be
infrequent.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 27


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

T:

• Pull-through floating head.

• Floating tubesheet cover bolted directly to floating tubesheet.

• Requires no rear-head disassembly for bundle removal.

• Results in larger diameter shell than type S for same heat transfer surface.

• Preferred where frequent mechanical cleaning of shellside is anticipated.

U:

• U-tube bundle.

• No floating head. Tube bundle consists of U-tubes.

• Not recommended where mechanical cleaning of tubeside is anticipated.

• Good for high pressure, clean services or those for which chemical cleaning of tubeside is
specified.

Fixed Tubesheet - consider only when shellside fouling factor ² 0.002 and shellside can be
chemically cleaned.

• Because of thermal stresses, this type of exchanger is generally unacceptable if the


average shell temperature and average tube temperature differ by more than 50°F.

U-tube - least expensive type for tubeside high design pressure services. It is normally used
when tubeside fouling factor ² 0.002. (Except for water.)

Split Ring Floating Head - normally specified unless very frequent mechanical cleaning is
required.

Pull-Through Floating Head - most expensive type of S and T unit; thermally inefficient
because of shell bypassing. Use it when both sides must be mechanically cleaned.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 28


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

COST/MAINTENANCE GUIDE FOR HEAD TYPE SELECTION

Floating Head Floating Head


Floating Head Split Backing Pull-Through
Type of Design U Tube Fixed Outside Packed Ring Bundle
Tubesheet

Provision for individual tube expansion floating head floating head floating head
differential expansion free to expand join in shell

Removable bundle yes no yes yes yes

Replacement bundle yes not practical yes yes yes


possible

Individual tubes only those in yes yes yes yes


replaceable outside row

Tube interiors cleanable difficult to do yes, yes, yes, yes,


mechanically mechanically mechanically or mechanically or mechanically or
can do or chemically chemically chemically chemically
chemically

Tube exteriors with chemically only chemically chemically only chemically only chemically only
triangular pitch only
cleanable

Tube exteriors with yes, chemically yes, yes, yes,


square pitch cleanable mechanically or only mechanically or mechanically or mechanically or
chemically chemically chemically chemically

Number of tube passes any practical normally no normally no normally no normally no


even number limitations limitations limitations limitations
possible

Internal gaskets yes yes yes no no


eliminated

With permission from the Gas Processors Suppliers Association. Source: Engineering Data Book.

Figure 10

Rear-end head types L, M and N are similar in construction to heads A, B and C, respectively,
but are used in connection with fixed tubesheet construction. The remaining front- and rear-
end head types are for services that have special requirements such as very high pressure
containment, no leakage between tubesides/shellsides allowed, (Figure 7).

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 29


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

The six TEMA shell types to choose from are summarized as follows:

E:

• One-pass shell.

• Most common type used.

F:

• Two-pass shell with longitudinal baffle.

• Used to improve cross flow correction factor.

• Equivalent to two shells in series.

• Maximum shellside pressure drop of 10 psi.

• Maximum shellside temperature range of 350°F.

G/H:

• Split flow arrangements.

• Use internal baffles to split the shellside flow.

• Used to minimize pressure drop.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 30


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

J:

• Divided flow.

• Also used to minimize pressure drop.

• No internal baffle.

K:

• Kettle type.

• Used for vaporizing services (reboilers, steam generators, and refrigeration services).

X:

• Cross flow.

• No baffles.

• Low pressure drop.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 31


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

The Saudi Aramco standard is a shell and tube exchanger type as described in ADP-E-001,
Pg. 113. ("The Saudi Aramco Standard Exchanger is a multi-tube pass, horizontal, removable
bundle, shell and tube exchanger with one pass shell. The tube bundle has a floating head
with a split ring closure and has segmental type baffles.") Whenever possible, comply with
the standard configurations for new exchangers given in ADP-E-001, Appendix A, to
minimize the number of spare bundles that have to be warehoused by the maintenance
department.

Baffle Cut/Type/Spacing

The previously discussed Figure 6 shows an isometric cutaway view of a shell and tube
exchanger. The exchanger has segmental baffles with a horizontal baffle cut (chord) allowing
the shellside fluid to flow vertically across the tube bundle. The segmental baffle shown in
Figure 11 is the most common type. A brief description of baffle chord (cut) positions and
baffle types follows:

Baffle orientation and cut.

Vertical Chord - most common cut position:

• Condensers, vaporizers, and fluid containing suspended solids.

• Side-to-side flow.

Horizontal Chord:

• Sediment-free fluids being cooled through high temperature range (200 to 300°F) in one
shell.

• Over-under (vertical) flow.

Baffle Cut:

• The percent of the baffle diameter which is cut away to permit flow.

• Typical cut of 25% (40% for double segmental baffles).

Some of these types of shell baffles are pictured in Figure 11.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 32


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

TYPES OF SHELL BAFFLES

FIGURE 11

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 33


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

The baffle spacing (baffle pitch) or the distance between adjacent baffle plates can be adjusted
to accommodate shellside pressure drop requirements within certain constraints. If the baffles
are placed too far apart, the tubes are not sufficiently supported and the shellside fluid tends to
run along the tubes, not across the tubes. This decreases the shellside heat transfer coefficient.
Baffle pitch limitations based on tube support and shellside heat transfer considerations are as
follows:

• Minimum allowable baffle spacing (pitch) is 20% of the shell I.D. or 2 in., whichever is
greater.

• Maximum allowable baffle pitch:

- For no change of phase = shell I.D.


- For change of phase:

Tube Size Steel Copper Alloys


3/4 in. 30 in. 26 in.
1 in. 37 in. 32 in.
1 1/2 in. 50 in. 43.5 in.

Refer to Appendix A of Saudi Aramco ADP-E-001 for standardization information relative to


baffle pitch and cut, using the standard pitch/cut whenever possible.

Baffle type (segmental or double segmental), baffle cut (vertical, horizontal, or open flow
area) and baffle spacing are usually selected, within limits, to accommodate the shellside
allowable pressure drop. Lowering the shellside fluid flow velocity to accommodate a low
allowable pressure drop, however, will lower the shellside heat transfer coefficient. This is
because fluid turbulence decreases as the fluid velocity drops and the resulting laminar flow
layer next to the tube increasingly impedes heat transfer from the shellside fluid to the fluid in
the tube. This decrease in turbulence is accentuated by the fact that at larger baffle pitches
and larger baffle cuts (more open area) a larger amount of the shellside fluid flow path is
parallel with the tube rather than across the tubes, resulting in not only the desired lower
pressure drop but also a lower heat transfer coefficient.

Tube Vibration

One limitation mentioned for maximum allowable baffle pitch was tube support. If a tube is
inadequately supported, the turbulence from the fluid flow across the tubes will make the tube
vibrate, which work hardens the tube metal and eventually results in tube wall failure. This
module will not explore the calculation procedure for determining whether vibration is a
problem with a given exchanger. However, the TEMA Manual has a 25-page section devoted
to the topic. All new exchangers should be checked for potential vibration problems before
manufacture, and all existing exchangers should be checked when they are relocated to a new
service.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 34


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Calculating Tubeside Pressure Drop

Numerous formulas and nomograms in textbooks can be used to determine exchanger


pressure drop. For the following example and for other exercises in this module, formulas
from Saudi Aramco Design Practices will be used. Being familiar with the Saudi Aramco
formula nomenclature will aid in the transition from course work to refinery operations work.
For the tubeside calculation formulas, refer to Saudi Aramco Design Practices ADP-E-001,
Pg. 34. The required figures for this calculation are Figures 12 to 16.

The pressure drop for a fluid flow through a shell and tube exchanger, tubeside, can be
calculated by the following formulas:

Pressure drop on tubeside, ÆPT

Friction Loss for Fluid Flow through Tubes, ÆPt

(f t )(Gt 2 )(L)(n )(No ) Re t =


Di G t
∆Pt = µ
5.22 × 1010 (Di )(s)(phit )
Gt = wt / at
 π Di 2   nt 
at = 
 4  n 

where: Di = Inside diameter of tube, ft.


ft = Friction factor on tubeside, ft2/in.2.
Gt = Mass velocity of fluid on tubeside, lb/hr ft2.
L = Length of one tube, ft.
n = Number of tube passes.
nt = Number of tubes
s = Specific gravity (sp. gr.), dimensionless.
No = Number of shells in series on tubeside.
Ret = Tubeside Reynolds number
µ = Bulk viscosity, lb/hr ft (2.42 x cp)
µw = Wall viscosity, lb/hr ft
wt = Mass rate, lb/hr
x
 µ 
 
phit =  µ w  where x = 0.25 for Ret < 2100; x = 0.14 for Ret > 2100

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 35


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

The caloric temperature and heat transfer coefficients are used to calculate average wall temperature.

ft can be obtained from Figure 13.

Return losses (flow of fluid from one pass to the next pass), Æpr,

 4n
( )
∆Pr =   1.34 × 10−13 Gt 2 (No )
s

Total pressure loss on tubeside, ÆPT = ÆPt + ÆPr

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 36


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

NOMENCLATURE
(For Heat Exchangers)

Ai Inside tube surface area, ft2.


Ao Total outside surface area of bare tubes, ft2.
as Free cross-sectional area for flow across tube bundle, ft2.
at Internal cross-sectional area of tubes per pass, ft2.
Bp Baffle spacing, in. (baffle pitch).
Be Baffle spacing at ends, in.
C¢ Clearance between adjacent tubes, in., = P - do
Cp Specific heat, Btu/lb °F.
Des Equivalent diameter, shell and tube exchanger, on shellside, ft.
des Equivalent diameter, shell and tube exchanger, on shellside, in.
Di Inside diameter of tube, ft.
di Inside diameter of tube, in.
Dm Logarithmic mean diameter of tube, ft.
dm Logarithmic mean diameter of tube, in.
Do Outside diameter of tube, ft.
do Outside diameter of tube, in.
Ds Inside diameter of shell, ft.
ds Inside diameter of shell, in.
Fc Caloric fraction.
fs Friction factor on shellside, ft2/in.2.
ft Friction factor on tubeside, ft2/in.2.
FT Correction factor for LMTD for there not being true countercurrent flow in
shell
and tube heat exchanger.
g Acceleration of gravity, 4.18 x 108 ft/hr2.
g¢ Acceleration of gravity, ft/s2.
Gs Mass velocity of fluid on shellside, lb/hr ft2.
G¢s Mass velocity of water on shellside, lb/hr ft2.
Gt Mass velocity of fluid on tubeside, lb/hr ft2.
hi Heat transfer coefficient of fluid inside tubes, Btu/hr ft2 °F.
ho Heat transfer coefficient of fluid outside tubes, Btu/hr ft2 °F.
jH Heat transfer factor.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 37


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Figure 12

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 38


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

(For Heat Exchangers)

k Thermal conductivity of fluid, Btu/hr ft2 °F/ft.


km Thermal conductivity of tube metal, Btu/hr ft2 °F/ft.
Kc Caloric factor.
L Length of one tube, ft.
Le Effective length of one tube, ft.
M (T1 - T2) / (t2 - t1).
n Number of tube passes.
nt Number of tubes.
nb Number of baffles.
No Number of shells in series.
Res Reynold's number on shellside of shell and tube exchanger.
Ret Reynold's number on tubeside of shell and tube exchanger.
P Tube pitch, in.
ÆPr Return pressure drop for fluid flow from one tube pass to the next one, psi.
ÆPs Total pressure drop for one shellside, psi.
ÆPt Friction pressure drop for fluid flow through tubes, psi.
ÆPT Total pressure drop on tubeside, psi.
Q Heat transferred, Btu/hr.
R Overall resistance to heat flow, hr ft2 °F/Btu.
Ret, s Tubeside, shellside Reynold's number.
rdi Fouling resistance to heat flow on tubeside, hr ft2 °F/Btu.
rdo Fouling resistance to heat flow on shellside, hr ft2 °F/Btu.
ri Resistance to heat flow on the inside of the tube, hr ft2 °F/Btu.
rm Resistance to heat flow of tubewall, hr ft2 °F/Btu.
ro Resistance to heat flow on the outside of the tube, hr ft2 °F/Btu.
s Specific gravity (sp. gr.), dimensionless.
t Thickness of tubewall, ft.
T1 Inlet temperature of fluid on shellside, °F.
t1 Inlet temperature of fluid on tubeside, °F.
T2 Outlet temperature of fluid on shellside, °F.
t2 Outlet temperature of fluid on tubeside, °F.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 39


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

(For Heat Exchangers)

GTTD Temperature difference of fluid at one end of heat exchanger (larger value), °F.
LTTD Temperature difference of fluid at one end of heat exchanger (smaller value), °F.
Tc Caloric temperature, shellside, °F.
tc Caloric temperature, tubeside, °F.
Ætc Cold terminal difference, °F.
Æte Effective temperature difference, °F.
Æth Hot terminal difference, °F.
Ætm Logarithmic mean temperature difference, (LMTD), °F.
tw Tube wall temperature, °F.
Uc Clean overall heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hr ft2 °F.
Uo Overall heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hr ft2 °F.
Vs Linear velocity of fluid on shellside, ft/s.
Vt Linear velocity of fluid on tubeside, ft/s.
Ws Flow rate of fluid on shellside, lb/hr.
Wt Flow rate of fluid on tubeside, lb/hr.
Z (t2 - t1) / (T1 - t1).
mu or µ Viscosity at average fluid temperature, lb/hr ft (mu = 2.42 mu¢).
mu¢ or µ¢ Viscosity at average fluid temperature, centipoise.
muw or µw Viscosity at tubewall temperature, lb/hr ft.
r Fluid density, lb/ft3.

x
 µ 
phit phit =  µw  (tubeside), where x = 0.25 for Ret < 2100

x = 0.14 for Ret > 2100


0.14
 µ 
 µw 
phis (shellside)

TEMA Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association.

Figure 12 (cont'd)

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 40


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Tubeside Friction Factors

Figure 13

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 41


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

EXCHANGER TUBE DATA

X Sect
do = l = Wall di = Internal External
Surface
O.D. of Thickness, I.D. of Area, Per ft Length,
Tubing, in. in. Tubing, in.2 ft2
in.

3/4 0.109 0.532 0.223 0.1963


3/4 0.083 (1) 0.584 0.268 0.1963
3/4 0.065 (2) 0.620 0.302 0.1963
3/4 0.049 0.652 0.334 0.1963
1 0.134 0.732 0.421 0.2618
1 0.109 (1) 0.782 0.480 0.2618
1 0.083 (2) 0.834 0.546 0.2618
1 0.065 0.870 0.594 0.2618
1 1/2 0.134 1.232 1.192 0.3927
1 1/2 0.109 1.282 1.291 0.3927
1 1/2 0.083 1.334 1.397 0.3927

Notes:

(1) Preferred wall thickness for carbon steel tubes.


(2) Preferred wall thickness for copper alloy tubes.

Gauge Equivalents

Inches B.W.G.

0.165 8
0.148 9
0.134 10
0.120 11
0.109 12
0.095 13
0.083 14
0.072 15
0.065 16
0.058 17
0.049 18

Figure 15

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 42


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Example Problem 4

In this example problem, the tube side pressure drop for a shell and tube exchanger will be
calculated. Assume the tube side of the exchanger defined in Figure 17 is an existing
exchanger to simulate a common type of problem a plant engineer will encounter in the field.
When an existing exchanger is suspected of causing a pressure drop problem as often occurs,
the plant engineer must calculate the pressure drop. From computer printout, the wall
viscosity mw is 0.0802 cp.

First, calculate the tubeside mass velocity.

(Gt) lb/hr ft2 of tube cross-sectional area:

 πd i2   n t 
a = ×
Gt = Wt t  ( 4)(144)  n 
at

145,812 lb/hr of fluid is fed to a two-tube pass exchanger with 298 tubes with 3/4 O.D., 0.109-
thick wall, 20-ft length (see Figure 17). The internal area for one tube is 0.223 in.2 (see Figure
15).

145,812 = 631,924 lb/hr ft2


Gt =
298 x 0.223
2 144

Next, calculate the Reynold's number Ret so that friction factor (ft) can be obtained and the
proper formula for the term phit can be selected.

µ = (0.1036 + 0.0764) (2.42) = 0.2178 lb/hr ft (see Figure 17)


2
Di = 0.532 in. (see Figure 15)

Ret = Di Gt =
(0.532
12
)(631,924) = 128,600
µ 0.2178

As shown, a value for m was estimated from the inlet and outlet viscosities given on the heat
exchanger data sheet (Figure 17). If heat transfer calculations are done on this exchanger, then
the value used for m can be reevaluated at the tubeside caloric temperature. Such an evaluation
would produce a more accurate value for m, to detemine whether it has any practical effect on
the conclusions drawn from the field calculations (see Figure 13).

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 43


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Example Problem 4 (Cont'd)

From Figure 13, ft = 0.00014 and:

0.14 0.14
µ
phit = = (2.42) (0.0894) = 1.0153 (see discussion below)
µw (2.42) (0.0802)

For (phit), the term (m/mw)0.14 was selected versus the alternative choice of (m/mw)0.25
since Ret is greater than 2100. Values for m and mw were obtained from the computer
printout associated with the heat exchanger design for this example problem to illustrate the
point that phit is usually close to one. A value for mw usually is not available to the engineer
unless heat transfer calculations are also done on the exchanger.

The specific gravity of tube fluid at the bulk fluid average temeprature was calculated as
follows, based on densities from Figure 17:

 33.1+ 29. 9   1  = 0. 505


s (sp. gr ) =
 2   62. 4 

2
∆Pt =
(f t )(Gt ) (L )(n )
5 .22 × 1010 (Di )(s )(phit )

=
(0. 00014 )(631, 924 )2 ( 20)(2 ) = 1. 885
5. 22 × 1010 
0.532 
12 
(0. 505 )(1. 0153 )

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 44


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Example Problem 4 (Cont'd)

Next, calculate the tube side pressure drop in the tube returns. Adding the tube return
pressure drop to the previously calculated tube side pressure drop for the straight run part of
the tube side flow gives the total tube side pressure drop.

 4n 
DPr =  s  1.34 x 10-13(G1)2

[(1.34)(10-13)(G1)2] = 0.0535, for Gt = 631,924 lb/hr ft2

( 4)(2)
DPr = (0.505) (0.0535) = 0.85 psi

DPT = DPt + DPr = 1.885 + 0.85 = 2.73 psi

Example Problem Answer = 2.7 psi

The total pressure drop just calculated is the clean pressure drop. (In designing a new
exchanger, allow for variations in the manufacture of the exchanger tube side components and
fouling by the tube side fluid by multiplying the calculated clean pressure drop by a fouling
factor. This factor could be as high as 1.5 for a fouling fluid or as low as 1.2 for nonfouling
fluids.) In addition, a pressure loss allowance for exchanger inlet and outlet nozzles must be
included in a circuit pressure drop analysis.

The pressure drop factor will be proportional to the fouling factor used for heat transfer.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 45


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet

Figure 17

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 46


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Calculating Shellside Pressure Drop

As was explained during the discussion on tubeside pressure drop, numerous textbook
formulas and nomograms can be used to determine tubeside pressure drop. This also applies
to the exchanger shellside pressure drop. Formulas come from the Saudi Aramco Design
Practices, ADP-E-001, Pg. 34, Figures 12, 17, 18, and 19.

The pressure drop for a fluid flow through a shell and tube exchanger shellside can be
calculated by the following formulas:

∆Ps =
(fs )(Gs ) (Ds)(n b + 1)(No )
2

 µ  0.14
5.22 × 10 (Des)(s)
10
µ 
w

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 47


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

where: Des = Equivalent diameter, shell and tube exchanger, on shellside, ft. (Figure 19)
Ds = Inside diameter of shell, ft.
fs = Friction factor on shellside, ft2/in.2.
Gs = Mass velocity of fluid on shellside, lb/hr ft2.
nb = Number of baffles.
ÆPs = Total pressure drop for one shellside, psi.
s = Specific gravity (sp. gr.), dimensionless.
µ = Viscosity at average fluid temperature, lb/hr ft (u = 2.42 x Cp).
µw = Viscosity at tubewall temperature, lb/hr ft.
No = Number of shells in series on shellside.

fs can be obtained from Figure 18.


 Ws 
Gs =
 as 
DesGs L e − 2Be / 12
+ 1
Re = µ B p / 12
nb =
 c'   dsBp 
nb = np - 1
 p   144 
as =
c' Flow Area Free
P Total Area c' = P - do
=

where: nb = Number of baffles.


np = Number of shell passes.
Le = Effective length of one tube, ft.
do = Outside diameter of tube, in.
ds = Inside diameter of shell, in.
c' = Clearance between adjacent tubes, in. (Figure 19).
BP = Baffle pitch (spacing), in.
Be = Baffle spacing spacing at end, in.
P = Tube pitch, in.
as = Shell cross flow area, ft2.
Ws = Mass rate, lb/hr

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 48


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Shellside Friction Factors

See Page 48A

Figure 18

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 49


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Shellside Heat Transfer Curve

Figure 19

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 50


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Example Problem 5

In this example problem, the shell side pressure drop for a shell and tube exchanger will be
calculated. The example uses the exchanger used for the tube side example defined in Figure
17. The computer printout gives an average viscosity at the wall temperature of 0.08722 cp.

First, obtain C' and des from Figure 19. Values for C' and des will be used to calculate Gs.
From Figures 17 and 19, this exchanger has 0.75-in. O.D. tubes on a 1-in. pitch (square);
therefore, C' = 0.250 in. and des = 0.95. Also from Figure 17, ds = 22 in., baffle spacing (Bp)
= 5.25 in., Ws = 92,482 lb/hr, and L = 20 ft.

as = (ds) (C') ((144)B (P)) = (22)(144)


p (0.25) (5.25)
(1)
= 0.20 ft
2

92,482 = 462,410 lb/hr ft2


Gs = Ws =
as 0.20
d
Des = es = 0.95 = 0.0792 ft
12 12

As in the discussion of pressure drop on tubeside, use an estimated value for m which is the
average of the exchanger inlet and outlet viscocities (see discussion in tubeside pressure drop
calculation).

µ = (0.0613 + 0.0972) (2.42) = 0.1918 lb/hr ft (see Figure 17)


2
Res = (Des) (Gs) = (0.0792) (462,410) = 190,943
µ 0.1918

For a baffle cut of 17.38% per Figure 17, fs = 0.0022, from Figure 18.

From the computer printout for this exchanger, m w at the average wall temperature is
(0.08722) (2.42) (see discussion in tubeside pressure drop calculation).

µ 0.14
0.1918 0.14
= = 0.99
µw (0.08722) (2.42)

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 51


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Example Problem 5 (Cont'd)

From Figure 17, shellside inlet and outlet fluid densities are 26.5 and 32.1 lb/ft3.

26.5 + 32.1
s(sp.gr.) = = 0.47
(2)(62.4)
L − 2Be / 12 19.67 - 2(10.6 / 12)
nb = e +1 = +1= 41.9
Bp / 12 5.25 / 12

The calculated value of nb for an existing exchanger like the one for this example problem
may not always be a whole number. Computer-generated exchanger designs often increase
the baffle pitch at the inlet and outlet nozzles on either end of the exchanger, resulting in two
baffle pitches for the exchanger.

(f s )(Gs ) (Ds )(n b + 1)


2
∆P s =
 µ 
5.22 × 1010(Des )(s)
µ w

( 0.0022)(462,410)2  12
22 
 (42 + 1)
∆P s = = 19.3
5.22 × 1010 (0.0792)(0.47)(0.99)

Note that the shellside pressure drop reported in the computer printout (Figure 17) is 4.97 psi.
The hand-calculation method is quick, but uses an empirical method for Des. Although it is
conservative, the computer should be used when pressure drop is critical, such as for
exchanger troubleshooting.

The hand-calculation method has no allowance for leakage around the exchanger baffles,
causing overprediction of pressure drop on exchangers with small baffle pitches. The hand
calculation method will predict pressure drop closer to computer models at larger baffle pitches.
For instance, if the baffle pitch is increased from 5.25 in. to 10 in., the computer-predicted
pressure drop is 1.9 psi. The hand-calculation method predicts 2.6 psi.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 52


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

KEY FORMULAS

Natural convection heat losses from bare equipment:

hc = 0.50 ∆t
0.25
Horizontal pipes:
do

hc = 0.40 ∆t
0.25
Long vertical pipes:
do

Vertical plates over 2 ft high: hc = 0.30 ∆t 0.25

Horizontal plates facing down: hc = 0.2 ∆t 0.25

Horizontal plates facing upward: hc = 0.38 ∆t 0.25


Qc
= h c ∆t
Ao

where: do = Outside diameter of tube or pipe, in.


hc = Heat transfer coefficient for natural convection heat transfer, Btu/hr ft2 °F.
Æt = Fluid Temperature - Air Temperature.
Qc = Heat transferred by natural conversion, BTU/hr.
Ao = Outside area, ft2.

Forced convection heat losses from bare equipment:

Qcv 5 4 V + 68.9
= 0.296(ts − t a )
A 68.9
where: Qcv = Heat transferred by forced convection, Btu/hr.
ts = Temperature of hot outer surface, °F.
ta = Temperature of ambient air, °F.
V = Air velocity, ft/min.
A = Outside area, ft2.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 53


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Radiation heat losses from bare equipment:

Qr  T  4  T  4 
= 0.174E   s  −  a  
A   100  100  

where: Qr = Heat transferred by radiation, Btu/hr.


E = Surface emittance, dimensionless.
Ts = Absolute temperature of hot surface, °R, ts + 459.6°F.
Ta = Absolute temperature of ambient air, °R, ta + 459.6°F.
A = Outside area, ft2.

Heat loss from insulated equipment:

Q t1 − t s Not suitable for use when personal protection must be


=
A r r2  considered in the calculation. For simplification, ts is
 2 ln r1  assumed to equal atmospheric temperature.
 
 k 
 

where: Q = Heat transferred through insulation, Btu/hr ft2.


k = Conductivity of insulation, Btu in./ft2 hr °F.
r1 = Inner radius of insulation, in.
r2 = Outer radius of insulation, in.
t1 = Temperature of inner surface of insulation, °F.
ts = Temperature of hot outer surface, °F.
A = Outside area, ft2.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 54


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Insulation thickness required to meet personal protection requirements (not part of this course):

Q t1 − t s
= r2
A 
r ln
 Values for1 found in insulation handbooks
 2 r  f
1 +1
 f
 k 
 

where: Q = Heat transferred through insulation, Btu/hr ft2.


f = Air film coefficient, Btu/hr ft2.
k = Conductivity of insulation, Btu in./ft2 hr °F.
r1 = Inner radius of insulation, in.
r2 = Outer radius of insulation, in.
t1 = Temperature of inner surface of insulation, °F.
ts = Temperature of hot outer surface, °F.
A = Outside area, ft2 .
Tubeside pressure drop:

(f t )(G t )2 (L )(n )(N o )


DP t = (tube loss)
5.22 × 1010 (D i )(s)(phit )
 4n 
∆Pr = 1.34 × 10–13(G2t )(No ) (tube turn loss)
 s 

Shellside pressure drop:

∆Ps =
(f s )(Gs )2 (Ds )(n b + 1)(No )
 µ  0.14
(5.22 )(10) (Des )(s) 
10
 µw 

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 55


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

WORK AID 1 - PROCEDURES FOR CALCULATING HEAT LOSS FROM


UNINSULATED EQUIPMENT

This work aid is designed to assist the participant in Exercise 1 - Calculate Heat Loss from
Uninsulated Equipment.

To calculate heat loss from a bare pipe, use the formula:

Qt do
Pipe heat loss/ ft of pipe = π
A 12

Qt Qcv Q r.
= +
where: A A A

Qc Qcv
Loss from natural convection A will be smaller than forced convection, so A is used
Qc
instead of A .

Qcv
Step 1: Calculate A , Btu/hr:
Qcv 5/4 V + 68.9
= 0.296(ts − t a )
A 68.9

where: V = Air velocity, ft/min.


ts = Temperature of hot outer surface, °F.
ta = Temperature of ambient air, °F.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 56


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Qr
Step 2: Calculate A , Btu/hr:
Qr  T  4  T  4 
= 0.174E   s  −  a  
A   100  100 

where: Ts = Absolute temperature of hot surface, °R, ts + 459.6°F.


Ta = Absolute temperature of ambient air, °R, ta + 459.6°F.
E = Surface emittance, dimensionless.
Step 3: Calculate the total heat loss, Qt:
Qt Qcv Q r
= +
A A A
Step 4: Calculate the heat loss/ft of pipe:
Qt Qt d o
= π
L A 12
where: do = The pipe outside diameter, in.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 57


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

WORK AID 2 - PROCEDURES FOR CALCULATING REQUIRED INSULATION


THICKNESS

This work aid is designed to assist the participant in Exercise 2 - Calculate the Required
Thickness of Insulation.

To calculate the insulation thickness required, use the formula:

Q t1 − t s
=
A  r ln r 2 
 2 r 
 1
 k 
 

where: Q = Heat loss, Btu/hr.


t1 = Temperature of inner surface of insulation, °F.
ts = Temperature of hot outer surface, °F.
k = Conductivity of insulation, Btu in./ft2 hr °F.
r1 = Inner radius of insulation, in.
r2 = Outer radius of insulation, in.
A = Outside area, ft2.
r
Step 1: Solve for r2 lnr2
1

Step 2: Use Figure 4 to determine equivalent thickness in inches.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 58


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

WORK AID 3 - PROCEDURES FOR CALCULATING TUBESIDE CLEAN


PRESSURE DROP

This work aid is designed to assist the participant in Exercise 3- Calculate Tubeside Clean
Pressure Drop.

To calculate the tubeside clean pressure drop, use the formula:


ÆPT = ÆPt + Æpr

To calculate ÆPt, use the formula:

(f t )(G2t )(n)(L)(number of shells)


∆PT =
(5.22 × 1010 )(Di )(s)(phit )
To calculate ÆPr, use the formula:

 4n 
∆Pr = 1.34 × 10–13(G2t ) (number of shells in series)
 s 
Step 1: Calculate Gt, using the formula:

Gt = W t
at

where: Wt = Tubeside rate, lb/hr.


at = Internal cross-sectional area of tubes/pass, ft2.
Step 2: Calculate the tubeside Reynold's number:

Ret = Di Gt
µ

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 59


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Step 3: Use Figure 13 to determine ft.

Step 4: Determine phit:

µ 0.14
phit =
µw

µ 0.25
For Ret less than 2100: phit =
µw

µ 0.14
For Ret greater than 2100: phit =
µw

Step 5: Calculate the average tubeside sp. gr.

Step 6: Return losses (flow of fluid from one pass to the next pass), ÆPr,

 4n 
∆Pr = 1.34 × 10–13(G2t )
 s 

Step 7: Substitute values into the appropriate equations.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 60


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

WORK AID 4 - PROCEDURES FOR CALCULATING SHELLSIDE PRESSURE


DROP

This work aid is designed to assist the participant in Exercise 4- Calculate Shellside Clean
Pressure Drop.

To calculate the shellside pressure drop, use the formula:

∆Ps =
(f s )(Gs ) (Ds )(nb + 1)(number of shells)
2

 µ  0.14
5.22 × 1010(Des )(s)
µ 
w

Step 1: Using Figure 19, determine C¢ and des.

Step 2: Calculate as:

Bp
as = ds C′
144 P

Step 3: Calculate Gs:

Gs = W s
as

Step 4: Calculate Des:

Des = des
12

Step 5: Calculate average viscosity, µ:

µ in + µ out
2

Step 6: Calculate Res:

Des Gs
Res = µ

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 61


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Step 7: Use Figure 18 to determine fs.

µ 0.14
Step 8:
µw

Step 9: Calculate average specific gravity.

Step 10: Number of baffles, nb is given as 8.

Step 11: Substitute values into ÆPs formula.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 62


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

GLOSSARY

baffle pitch The distance between adjacent baffles.

bundle The tubes in a shell and tube exchanger are held together to form
a bundle of tubes, which is slid into the shell of the exchanger as
a single unit.

caloric temperature Temperature in an exchanger used as the basis for fluid


properties. It reflects the fact that the overall coefficient in the
exchanger does not stay consistent over the length of the
exchanger.

clean pressure drop The exchanger pressure drop when the exchanger is first put into
service, with no fouling deposits.

cocurrent flow Both fluids are flowing in the same direction.

condensing When a vapor is cooled and reaches the dew point, part of it
becomes liquid. This is condensing.

countercurrent flow Fluids are flowing in opposite directions.

effective temperature The driving force behind the transfer of heat between the
difference shellsides and tubesides of the exchanger. The value for ETD is
the log mean temperature difference corrected for the exchanger
flow arrangement.

liquid subcooling Cooling a liquid to temperatures below the bubble point


temperature.

LMTD Logarithmic-mean temperature difference.

segmental cut The part of the bundle circular cross section not covered by a
baffle.

temperature cross The temperature at which the outlet temperature of the fluid
over being cooled falls below the outlet temperature of the fluid being
heated.

vapor desuperheating Removing heat until a vapor reaches the dew point.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 63


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

work hardening The change in molecular structure of a metal, making the metal
very brittle and easily fractured, caused by excessive flexing of
the metal.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 64


Engineering Encyclopedia Process
Heat Transfer Fundamentals

REFERENCES

1. Chemical Engineer's Handbook, 6th Edition, R. H. Perry and D. Green (Physical


properties, general information, calc equations).

2. Data Book on Hydrocarbons, J. B. Maxwell (Hydrocarbon physical properties).

3. Engineering Data Book, Gas Processors Suppliers Association, 10th Edition, 1987.

4. Process Heat Transfer, D. Q. Kern, 1950.

5. Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA) (Properties, heat


exchanger information).

6. Thermal Insulation Handbook, W. C. Turner and J. F. Malloy, 1981.

7. AES-E-001, Basic Design Criteria for Unfired Heat Transfer Equipment.

8. ADP-E-001, Exchangers.

9. AES-N-001, Basic Criteria, External Insulation.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 65