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“The Right to Information, The Right to Live” “Step Out From the Old to the New”

IS 7323 (1994): Operation of reservoirs - Guidelines [WRD


10: Reservoirs and Lakes]

“!ान $ एक न' भारत का +नम-ण”


Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda
“Invent a New India Using Knowledge”

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है”

Bhartṛhari—Nītiśatakam
“Knowledge is such a treasure which cannot be stolen”
IS 7323 : 1994
( Reaffirmed 1999 )

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Indian Standard
OPERATIONOFRESERVOIRS -GUIDELINES
( First Revision )

UDC 627-S l-004

@ BIS 1994

BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS


MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG
NEW DELHI 110002

November 1994 Price Group 7


Reservoirs Sectional Committee, RVD 4

FOREWORD
This Indian Standard ( First Revision ) was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards, after the
draft finalized by the Reservoirs Sectional Committee had been approved by the River Valley
Division Council.
Water, a major natural resource, is used for multiple uses as irrigation, power generation,
navigation, etc, besides industrial and domestic needs. The main source of availability of water
is the surface run-off in the form of rivers. The flow in the river changes seasonally and from
year to year, due to temporal and spatial variation in precipitation. Thus, the water available
abundantly during monsoon season, becomes scarce durin.2 the non-monsoon season, when it is
most needed. The traditional method followed commonly for meeting the needs of water during the
scarce period is construction of storage reservoir on river course. The excess water during the
monsoon season is stored in such reservoirs for eventual use in lean period. Construction of
storages will also help in control of flood, as well as generation of electric power. To meet the
objective set forth in planning a reservoir or a group of reservoirs and to achieve maximum benefits
out of the storage created, it is imperative to evolve guidelines for operation of reservoirs. Without
proper regulation schedules, the reservoir may not meet the full objective for which it was planned
and may also pose danger to the structure itself.
Control of flood is better achieved if the reservoir level is kept low in the early stages of the
monsoon season. However, at a later stage, if the anticipated inflows do not result, the reservoir
may not get filled up adequately for meeting the various water demands. On the other hand, if
the reservoir is filled up to FRL in the early stages of monsoon, to avoid the risk of reservoir
remaining unfilled at later stage, there may be problem of accommodating high floods occurring
at later stage. In some cases while planning reservoirs, social and other considerations
occasionally result in adoption of a plan that may not be economically the best. Considering all
these issues, it is proposed to lay down general guidelines for regulation of reservoirs, though it
may not be possible to cover all types of cases.
This Indian Standard was first published in 1974. Since then considerable developments in the
techniques of reservoir operations have taken place. The concept of operation of reservoir
considering it as a single entity has given way to the concept of integrated operation of reservoirs.
Application of system engineering methods, such as mathematical optimisation and simulation
are now being increasingly used for defining, evaluation and selection of reservoir operation
policies. Considerable documentations on the subject of system analysis techniques in water
resources planning are also available. The present revision has been taken up to incorporate all
such latest techniques.
IS 7323: 1994

Indian Standard
OPERATIONOFRESERVOIRS -GUIDELINES
( First Revision )
1 SCOPE 2.6 Dry ( Bad ) Year
1.1 This standard provides some important A year during which the precipitation or stream
basic guidelines for the operation of reservoirs flow is less than that in the normal year.
in order to achieve maximum benefits consistent
with their physical characteristics and functions 2.7 Filling Period
for which they are planned and constructed.
The period during which inflow into the
1.2 These guidelines are broad generalisation reservoir is likely to be more than the water
only and are indicative in nature. For actual demand and the surplus flow is impounded to
operation of reservoir or a system of reservoirs, build up the storage.
individual regulation schedules are required to
be formulated, after considering all critical 2.8 Flood Control Storage
factors involved.
Storage space provided in the reservoir for
2 TERMINOLOGY storing flood water temporarily in order to
reduce peak discharge and to minimize flooding
2.0 For the purpose of this standard, the follow-
of downstream locations.
ing definitions shall apply.
2.1 Carry Over Storage 2.9 Full Reservoir Level ( FRL )

Storage left over in a reservoir at the end of the The highest reservoir level which can be
depletion period of a year, which is available maintained without spillway discharge or
for use in later years. This storage is also called without passing water through under sluices.
‘Over Year Storage’. This level is also called highest controlled
water level’.
2.2 Conservation Storage
2.10 Induced Surcharge Envelope Curve
Water impounded in a reservoir for conser-
vational uses such as irrigation, power This is a curve representing the maximum water
generation, industrial use, municipal supply, level that would be allowed in a reservoir, at
etc. different rates of spillway discharges, when
operating under the induced surcharge plan.
2.3 Dead Storage
This curve is drawn from a point, corresponding
Storage below the lowest outlet level of a to the maximum permissible flood control
reservoir, which is not susceptible to release by release at the FRL, to a point corresponding to
usual outlet means. the elevation when all spillway gates are fully
opened.
2.4 Depletion Period
The period during which available storage in 2.11 Induced Surcharge Storage
the reservoir is released or depleted for meeting
The storage between the full reservoir level
various water demands. This period lies outside
( FRL ) and the maximum water level ( MWL )
the filling period of a year.
of a reservoir, which may be induced by
2.5 Design Flood/Reservoir Design Flood regulating the outflow rates, after the reservoir
is filled up to the FRL.
The magnitude of flood adopted for design
purpose is called design flood. It may be the 2.12 Live Storage
probable maximum flood ( PMF ) or the
standard project flood ( SPF ) or a flood Storage capacity between the lowest outlet
corresponding to some desired frequency of level of reservoir or minimum drawdown level
occurrence, depending on the type of structure ( MDDL ) to the highest controlled water level
and the extent of calculated ri’sk the designer or full reservoir level ( FRL ). This storage is
is prepared to accept. also called ‘Live Capacity’.
IS 7323 : 1994

2.13 Maximum Water Level ( MWL ) be operated in an integrated manner for


optimum utilisation of the water resources
The level likely to be attained in a reservoir at of the river system.
the dam face, while negotiating the adopted
design flood. The level is also called ‘Highest 4 PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION OF
flood level’, <Spillway design flood level’ or RESERVOIRS
cMaximum water surface elevation’.
4.1 Following are some of the common princi-
2.14 Minimum Draw-Down Level ( MDDL ) ples of reservoir operation.
It is the lowest level up to which the reservoir 4.1.1 Siylgle Purpose Reservoirs
may be depleted for meeting various needs. Ln
power projects, releases are allowable up to a>Flood control - Operation of flood
reservoirs is primarily governed
control
by the
MDDL only instead of dead storage level, so
as to maintain the minimum head required for available flood storage capacity, discharge
power generation. capacity of outlets, their location and
nature of damage centres to be protected,
2.15 Normal ( Average ) Year flood characteristics, ability and accuracy
of flood/storm forecast and size of the
A year during which the precipitation or stream uncontrolled drainage area. A regulation
flow are within + 20 percent of the long period plan to cover all the complicated
average value. situations may be difficult to evolve, but
2.16 Reservoir Routing generally it should be possible according
to one of the following principles:
Flood routing is a process of determining
theoretically the outflow pattern from reservoirs, 1) EfSective use of availabIe flood control
for any given pattern of inflow, storage and storage - Operation under this
tail water condition. principle aims at reducing flood
damages of the locations to be
2.17 Rule Curve protected to the maximum extent
possible, by effective use of flood
Rule curve is the target level planned to be control storage capacity available at
achieved in a reservoir, under different the time of each flood event. Since
conditions of probabilities of intlows and/or the release under this plan would
demands, during various time period in a year. obviously be lower than those required
2.18 Wet ( Good ) Year for controlling the reservoir design
flood, there is distinct possibility of
A year during which the precipitation or stream having a portion of the flood control
flow is more than that in the normal year. space occupied during the occurrence
of a subsequent heavy flood. In order
3 CLASSIFICATION OF RESERVOIRS to reduce this element of risk, mainte-
For the purpose of regulation, reservoirs are nance of an adequate network of
flood forecasting stations both in the
classified into following types:
upstream and downstream areaa
a) Single Purpose Reservoirs would be absolutely necessary.
These reservoirs are developed to serve 2) Control qf reservoir design flood -
only one purpose, which may be flood According to this principle, releases
control or any of the conservation uses from flood control reservoirs operated
such as irrigation, power generation, on this concept are made on the same
navigation, industrial use, municipal hypothesis as adopted for controlling
water supply, etc. the reservoir design flood, that is the
full storage capacity would be utilized
b) Multi-purpose Reservoirs only when the flood develops into the
These reservoirs are developed to serve reservoir design flood. However, as
more than one purpose which may be a the design flood is usually an extreme
combination of any of the conservation event, regulation of minor and major
uses with or without flood control. floods, which occur more often is less
satisfactory when this method is
c) System of Reservoirs applied.
These consist of a group of single/ 3) Combination of principIes (1) and (2)-
multiple purpose reservoirs, which may In this method, a combination of the

2
IS 1323 :1994

principles (1) and (2) is followed. h:Wl, is generally referred to as spill


The principle ( 1 ) is followed for zone. This space is occupied mostly
the lower portion of the flood during high floods and the releases from
reserve to achieve the maximum this zone are trade-off between structural
benefits by controlling the earlier part safety and downstream flood damages.
of the flood. Thereafter releases are
made as scheduled for the reservoir b) Flood control zone - This is the storage
design flood as in principle ( 2 ). In space earmarked as temporary storage
most cases this plan will result in the for absorbing high flows for allevating
best overall regulation, as it combines downstream flood damages. This should
the good points of both the methods. be space emptied as soon as possible to
negotiate next flood event.
4) Flood control in emergencies -- It is
advisable to prepare an emergency c>Conservation zone - This storage space is
release schedule that uses information used for conservation of water for
immediately meeting various future demands. This
on reservoir data
available to operator. Such zone is generally between FRL and dead
the
schedule should be available with the storage level.
operator to enable him to comply 4 Buffer ZOHP-- This is the storage space
with necessary precautions under above dead storage level which is used to
extreme flood conditions. satisfy only very essential water needs in
case of extreme situation.
b) Conservation -- Reservoirs meant for
augmentation
period should
of supplies during
usually be operated to fill
lean e>Dend storage zone -- This is also called
inactive zone. This is the lowest zone
as early as possible during filling period, in which the storage is meant to absorb
while meeting the requirements. All some of the sediments entering into the
.water in excess of the requirements of reservoir. The storage in this zone is not
the filling period shall be impounded. No susceptible to release by the in-built
spilling of water over the spillway will outlet means.
normally be permitted until the FRL is
reached. Should any flood occur when 4.1.2.2 The general principles of operation of
the reservoir is at or near the FRL, reservoirs with these multiple storage spaces
release of flood v;aters should be affected, are described below:
so as not to exceed the discharge that
would have occurred had there been no a) Separate allocation of capacities -- When
reservoir. In case the year happens to be separate allocations of capacity have
dry, the draft for filling period should be been made for each of the conservational
curtailed by applying suitable factors. uses, in addition to that required for
flood control, operation for each of the
The depletion period should begin there- function shall follow the principles of
after. However, in case the reservoir is respective functions. The storage
planned with carry-over capacity, it is available for flood control could, how-
necessary to ensure that the regulation ever, be utilised for generation of
will provide the required carry-over secondary power to the extent possible.
capacity at the end of the depletion Allocation of specific storage space to
period. several purposes within the conservation
zone may sometimes be impossible or
4.1.2 Multi-purpose Reservoirs
very costly to provide water for the
4.1.2.1 Operation of a multi-purpose reservoir various purposes in the quantities needed
should be governed by the manner in which and at the time they are needed.
various uses of the reservoir have been
b) Joint use of storage space - In multi-
combined. While operating the reservoirs to
purpose reservoir where joint use of some
meet the demands of end users, the priorities
of the storage space or storage water has
for allocation may be used as a guideline. In
been envisaged, operation becomes
general five basic zones of reservoir space may
complicated due to competing and
be used in operating a reservoir for various
conflicting demands. While flood control
functions. Typical storage allocations for
requires low reservoir level, conservat.ion
varrous uses are indicated in Fig. I. The various
interests require as high a level as is
storage zones often identified are:
attainable. Thus, the objectives of these
a) Spill zone - Storage space above the functions are not compatible and a
flood control zone between FRL and compromise will have to be effected in

3
IS 9323 : 1994

FIG. 1 RESERVOIR
STORAGEALLOCATIONZONES

flood control operations by sacrificing reservoirs to achieve optimum utilisation of the


the requirements of these functions. In water resources available and to benefit best
some cases parts of the conservational out of the reservoir system.
storage space is utilized for flood modera-
tion, during the earlier stages of the 4.1.3.1 In the preparation of regulation plans
monsoon. This space has to be filled up for an integrated operation of system of
for conservation purposes towards the reservoirs, principles applicable to separate
end of monsoon progressively, as it might units are first applied to the individual reser-
not be possible to fill up this space voirs. Modifications of schedules so developed
during the post-monsoon periods, when should then be considered by working out
the flows are insufficient even to meet the several alternative plans. In these studies
current requirements. This will naturally optimisation and simulation techniques may be
involve some sacrifice of the flood control extensively used with the application of
interests towards the end of the mon- computers in water resources development. The
soon. principle features usually considered for inte-
4.1.2.3 The concept of joint use of storage grated operation of, reservoirs are given
space, with operational criteria to maximise below:
the complementary effects and to minimize the
competitive effects requires careful design. a>flood
Flood control regulation - The basin-wise
conditions are considered, rather
Such concepts, if designed properly, are easier than the condition of the individual sub-
to manage and will provide better service for basins. The occupancy of flood reserves
all requirements. With the advancement of in each of the reservoirs, distribution of
system analysis techniques, it is easy. now to releases among the reservoirs and bank-
carefully design the joint use in a multt-purpose full stages at critical locations should be
reservoir. considered simultaneously. For instance,
4.1.3 System of Reservoirs if a reduction in Joutflows is required, it
should be made from the reservoir
In case of system of reservoirs, it is necessary having the least capacity occupied
to adopt a strategy for integrated operation of or has the smaller flood run-off

4
IS 7323 : 1994

from its drainage area. If an increase in tions to be protected, operation under


release is possible, it should be made principle ( 1 ) of 4.1.1 ( a ) should
from the reservoir where the percentage consist of keeping the discharge at the
occupancy is the highest or relatively a damage centre within the highest
higher of flood run-off is occurring. permissible stage or to ensure only
a minimum contribution from the
Higher releases from reservoirs receiving controlled area when above this stage.
excessive flood run-off may be thus Operation under this principle aims
counter balanced, particularly in cases of at reducing the damaging flood stages
isolated storms, by reducing releases at the location to be protected to the
from reservoirs receiving relatively less maximum extent possible with the
run-off. flood control storage capacity
available at the time of each flood
b) Conservation regulation - The ctirrent
event. In order to accomplish this
water demands for various purposes, the result, it is essential to have an
available conservation storage in
accurate forecast of flood flows into
individual reservoirs and the distribution the reservoir and the local inflows
of releases among the reservoirs, should into the stream below it for a period
be considered to develop a co-ordinated of time sufficient to fill an empty
plan to produce the optimum benefits and reservoir. This is obviously an ideal
minimize water losses due to evaporation case. It is difficult to forecast reliably
and transmission. and precisely in quantitative terms the
rainfall. Thus, there is always the
5 PREPARATION OF RULE CURVES
risk of facing difficulty in regulation
of run-off from subsequent storms,
5.0 A rule curve is generally based on detailed
In order to reduce this element of
sequential analysis of various critical combina-
risk, maintenance of an adequate
tions of hydrological conditions and water
network of flood forecasting stations
demands. These should be prepared in
both in the upstream and downstream
accordance with the principles described in 4
area of the project becomes absolutely
and should indicate reservoir levels and releases
necessary. To account for the
during different times of the year, including
uncertainly in forecasting the flows,
operational policies. Rule curves once prepared
the forecasted flows may be multi-
should be constantly reviewed and, if necessary,
plied by a contingency factor for
modified so as to have the best operation of the
arriving at release decision. The
reservoirs.
contingency allowance should be
5.0.1 The operational decisions are based on greater than one for flood control
the current state of the system and time of the and less than oue in case of conser-
year, which account for the seasonal variation vation.
of the reservoir inflows. A simple rule curve ( 2 ) of 4.1.1 ( a ) - The
should base the release of the next time pericd
2) Principle
operation schedules based on principle
solely on the current storage level and the (2 ) of 4.1.1 ( a ) should consist of
current time period of the year. A more releases assumed for design flood
complex rule curve should consider storages in conditions, SO that design flood could
other reservoirs, specific downstream control be controlled without exceeding the
points and the forecasted inflows into the flood control capacity. The operation
reservoir. consists of discharging a fixed amount,
5.1 Single Purpose Reservoirs which may be subject to associated
flood, storage and outflow conditions,
a) Flood Control -- When the protected area such that all exeessive inflows are
lies immediately downstream of the stored as long as flooding continues
reservoir, the flood control schedules at specified locations.
would consist of releasing all inflows up
to the safe channel capacity. The princi-
3) Combination of Principles - When
both local and remote locations are
ples followed in all cases are the same
to be protected, schedules based on
as given in 4.1.1 (a) and are detailed
below: the combination of principles ( 1)
and ( 2 ) are usually more salis-
1) Principle (2) 0f4.1.1 (a) -When there factory. In this method, principle
is appreciable uncontrolled drainage ( 1 ) that is, ‘ideal operation’, may
area between the dam and the loca- be followed to control the earlier

5
IS 7323 : 1994

part of the flood to achieve the vational demands, operation should be done in
maximum damage reduction during two ways as discussed below:
moderate flood. After, the lower
a) Permanent allocation for flood space -
portion of the flood reservoir is filled,
Permanent allocation of space for flood
the regulation may be based on the
control at the top of conservation pool
principle ( 2 ) that is, *based on
may be kept in the regions where flood
control of design flood’, so as to
can occur at any time of the year. A
ensure greater control of major floods.
study based on historical or generated
In most cases such a combination of
flood would indicate the storage space
methods ( 1 ) and ( 2) would result
required during different periods.
in the best overall regulation as it
combines the good points of both the b) Seasonal allocation for JEood space -
methods. Seasonal allocation of flood control space
during flood season depends upon magni-
In all cases, procedure for releasing
tude of flood likely to occur. Thereafter,
the stored water after the flood has
this space should be utilised for storing
passed would also bc laid down in the
inflows for conservation uses. The
schedule, in order to vacate the
reservoir as quickly as possible for operation plan to this effect should be
prepared based on study of historic and/
routing subsequent floods. In this
or generated f!oods.
way, variation in releases mav be
made depending on the prevailing, c) Joht use of storage space -- For projects
as wel! as the anticipated conditions envisaging joint use of some of the
of storm/rainfall and run-off. space for flood control as well as conser-
vational needs, flood control operation
b) Conservation - The operational schedule should usually be carried out by using
of a conservation reservoir would usually part of the conservational storage, which
consist of two parts, one for filling period shall be progress:vely reduced as the
and the other fo: the depletion period. season advances. The regulation schedule
For each project it will be necessary to for the conservation phase should then
prepare rule curves separately for the consist of an additional rule curve,
filling period and for the depletion period. indicating levels which may not be
The rule curves for filling period may be exceeded at any particular time of the
developed from a study of the stream monsoon season, except for the purpose of
flow records over a long period. These storing flood water temporarily. Normal
will show the limits up to which reservoir filling and dry weather release curves for
levels are to be maintained during the conservation use should be drawn as
different times of the filling period for in the case of single purpose reservoir.
meeting the conservational commitments.
The most critical release schedule, which 5.3 System of Reservoirs
provides for only minimum required flow,
is specified by the rule curve, in order to 5.3.1 Regulation schedules for reservoirs
provide for acceptable storage or desired operated as part of system should be prepared
contingency allowances during that separately for each reservoir, based on an
critical period. When regulation is integrated plan of operation and considerations
guided by such curves, it’ would be discussed in 4.1.3. When determining rule
apparent when restrictions are to be curves among the various reservoirs in the
imposed on utilization. system, it should, howeirer, be noted that
critical conditions may not be attained in all
5.2 Multi-purpose Reservoirs projects in the system at the same time. In
addition, when considering two reservoirs in
5.2.1 When separate space allocations for series, the upstream reservoir release schedule
different uses, including flood control are made, will bias the development of a rule Furve at the
preparation of schedules will rarely pose any downstream one. For parallel reservoirs, the
special problems as the operation for specific best rule curve may require apportionment of
uses will usually be independent of each other releases from two or more reservoirs, based on
and will follow the schedules of single purpose available storage capacity or other relevant
opsration for respective functions. criteria.

In multi-purpose reservoirs, which have flood Because of the complex interdependence of


control as main purpose besides other conser- system operating rules, it is usually necessary to

6
IS 7323 : 1994

simulate the system operation to determine a generate clump energy instead of


workable regulating schedule. After initial possible future spills.
curves are estimated, these independent
estimates should then be simulated with a bypo- 3) The hedging rule - It accepts current
thetical operation of the system, to ensure that shortage to avoid large shortages in
system targets are satisfied, project objectives future and is to be adopted when cost
are maximised and an equitable distribution of functions for shortages are non-
water within the system is maintained. Thus an linear.
iterative procedure would be required for
establishing operation rules that attain these 5.4 System Engineering Techniques
goals. The following points are generally kept System engineering may be defined as the art
in view, while developing rule curves for a and science of selecting from a large number of
system of reservoirs. feasible alternatives, involving substantial
a) Balancing of reservoir - As the balancing engineering content, that particular set of
of reserv%i;s is an important considera- actions which will best accomplish the overall
tions, the concept of ‘index levels’ may objectives of the decision makers, within the
be employed, as an aid to making release constraints of law, morality, economics,
decisions to keep the reservoir system in resources, and loss governing the physical life
a balanced state. The reservoir storage and other natural sciences. Since system
allocation may be subdivided into flood engineering techniques have the potential of
control, conservation, and one or more significantly improving the water resources
buffer zones. The top of each of these planning and management process, use of these
zones has a corresponding reservoir level, techniques is increasing rapidly. A variety of
which is assigned an integer or index these techniques, computational algorithms
level. When the index levels in all the and increased computer capabilities together
reservoirs coincide, the system is in with the knowledge of hydrology, hydraulics,
balance. In reservoirs operation, if the economics and environmental engineering
current index levels are unbalanced, the could be used for evaluating the performance of
releases for the subsequent interval are a water resource system and problems asso-
adjusted as far as possible to restore ciated with operation of reservoirs. Various
equilibrium. The index levels are also system engineering techniques are available for
useful in the regulation of parallel solving problems associated with reservoir
reservoirs with the equivalent reservoir operation. Among these simulation and opti-
concept. misation are the most commonly used
techniques.
b) Apportioning of storage and releases -
For an explicit reservoir operation rule 54.1 Simulation
that specifies releases of each reservoir
as a function of storage volumes, time 5.4.1.1 Simulation is perhaps the most widely
period and inflows, there are three basic used method for evaluating alternatives due to
characteristic components for an opera- its mathematical simplicity and versatility.
tion policy. These involve apportioning Simulation is a surrogate for asking ‘what if’
of storage and release of water among and thereby providing a rapid means for evalua-
purposes, among time periods and among ting the anticipated performance of the system.
reservoirs. The governing rules for The advent of high speed computers has enabled
apportionment are generally as follows: development of detailed simulation programmes
1) The space rule - The release among to describe the operation of a water resource
parallel reservoirs be planned in such system, Simulation methods do not identify the
a way that the ratio of space available optimal design and operating policy but they
in each reservoir to that in all are excellent means of evaluating the expected
reservoirs equals, as far as possible, performance resulting from any design and
the ratio of predicted inflow into each operating policy.
reservoir in the remaining period of
drawdown refill cycle to that in all 5.4.1.2 Simulation may be deterministic or
reservoirs. Hence, the probability of stochastic. If the system is subject to random
some reservoirs being spilled while input events, or generate them internally, the
others being empty are minimised. model is said IO be stochastic. If no random
components are involved, the model is said to
2) The puck rule -- It is a flexible rule be deterministic. The stochastic simulation is a
that specifies useful releases in excess powerful tool for reservoir operation studies.
of current demand, perhaps to For example, in reservoir operation studies,

7
IS 7323: 1994

the reservoir may be empty, half filled or full ming have been most commonly used for
in the beginning, the stream flow and rainfall solving reservoir operation problems.
are random and so are the demands and, there-
fore, stochastic simulation is better suited for a) Linear programming - Linear nrogram-
reservoir operation problems. ming ( LP ) is concerned with- sGving
special type of problems where all the
5.4.1.3 Simulation is time sequenced or event constraints and objective function to be
sequenced. In a simulation model a fixed time optimised are linear. Since most of the
interval is selected and it examines the state of constraints involved in solving reservoir
the system ( flows, storage volumes, demands, operation problems are non-linear, consi-
etc, ) at successive time intervals. The incre- derable care should be taken for
ment should be small enough so that no signi- linearisation of these functions. Lineari-
ficant information is lost. But the smaller the sation of a non-linear function over a
time increment, larger will be the computation wide range with a single constant may
time; on the other hand if the time increment result in a significant error. Therefore,
large, the chance of missing an event of interest adequate number of adjustments ( itera-
increases, Thus a judicious choice of time tions ) should be made to ensure that the
increment is necessary in time sequenced linearised coefficients are adjusted until
models. they are essentially equal to the
derivatives of the non-linear functions
5.4.1.4 A number of general purpose simulation they represent at the point of optimality.
programmes arc available now a days, which
may be used to analyse virtually any contigura- b) Dvuamic programming - Dynamic pro-
gramming technique has been widely
tion and purpose for evaluating various accepted for formulation of reservoir
strategies for the operation of a reservoir or operation policies mainly because of its
system of reservoirs. Most of the reservoir ability to accommodate non-linear
simulation programmes have been developed functions. This technique is based on
in other countries where geographical, econo- multi-stage decision process. For example,
mic and social condittons considerably differ in a reservoir operation problem, the
from those eocountered in India. Hence direct reservoir storage at any time is a typical
adoption of these models without a critical choice of state variable, the release from
assessment of the hypotheses or simplifying the reservoir may be the decision variable
assumption is to be discouraged. These may, and the time is a natural choice of
however, be advantageously used with suitable control variable. Therefore, knowing the
modifications to suit local conditions. benefit or cost function the recursive
equation may be established.
5.4.2 Optimisation
Discrete differential dynamic program-
Optimisation is the science of choosing the best
ming ( DDDP ) has been found more
solution based on mathematical logic for finding
,the best operation policies ( decision sets ) suitable for reservoir operation problem
because it is an iterative procedure in
without having to evaluate all possible alterna-
tives. Optimisation implies use of an optimisa- which the recursive equation of dynamic
tion model in conjunction with an appropriate programming is solved within a restricted
set of quantified values of the state
optimisation algorithm.
variables. The initial solution of the
5.4.2.1 The choice of objective function is a problem is assumed known. To obtain
very important decision in an optimisation good convergence, the increment to the
formulation which is governed by the nature of state variable should be chosen so that
problem and the computational facilities entire feasible region could be inspected,
available. For example, the objective for flood if required. Several iterations with a
control operation may. be to minimise the flood small increment may be allowed at
damage or to minimtse the flows which are the end of each computation cycle to
greater than the safe carrying capacity of the improve the value of objective function.
channel. Similarly for conservation operation
the objective function may be to minimise the 5.5 Spillway Gate Regulation Schedules
deviations from the demands or to maximise
the reservoir attainable water level for maximi- In the operation of gated spillways the reservoir
sation of firm power. is sometimes maintained at itsFRL until all
gates are opened, after which outflow would be
5.4.2.2 Out of the various optimisation techni- uncontrolled as long as the inflow flood exceeds
ques, linear programming and dynamic program- the capacity of the spillway at FRL. Under this

8
fS 7323 : 1994

plan of operation when the reservoir is at FRL 5.6 Ungated Spillway


or near it, the spillway releases may be larger
than the inflows, since the dampening effect of There is no possibility of any regulation in
within the reservoir reach is reservoirs having ungated spillways except some
valley storage
practically non-existent and the flood waves adjustments that can be brought out by the
originating from the upstream areas travelling outlets operations.
faster may synchronize with those from the
6 REAL TIME OPERATION OF RESERVOIRS
local areas around the reservoir to produce
higher peak discharges. 6.1 The operation of reservoirs based on fixed
operation rules, which are developed taking
In order to mitigate damage that may occur into account the demands and historic/synthe-
under this mode of operation, reservoirs, when tic time series data, often poses difficulties in
full or nearly full, should be so operated that making appropriate reservoir release decisions
( a ) peak outflow rates during damaging floods due to the uncertainty in the probability of
do not exceed inflow rates of the corresponding occurrence of the flood event exactly similar to
floods that would have occurred at the reservoir the past event, though the demands could be
site before construction of the dam and ( b > fairly stable. Operation of reservoirs, therefore,
the rate of increase in outflow does not consti- becomes an operation in real time in which
tute a major hazard to downstream interests. water control decisions have to be taken at
The above objectives may be accomplished by each instant of time.
one or both of the following procedures:
6.2 Tn real time reservoir operation control
a) When the anticipated inflow is likely to decisions are made quickly, for a finite future
raise the reservoir level above FRL, the condition of the system at that instant of time
opening of spillway gates will be initiated and the forecast of the likely inputs over this
before the reservoir attains this level and time horizon depending on the purpose of the
t,he outflow will be gradual and limited to reservoir operation that is flood control, con-
acceptable rate of increase. This method servation, irrigation and/or power releases.
of operation achieves the objectives but
with some risk of not attaining the FRL 6.3 Use of systems engineering techniques using
subsequently. computer technology should be employed and a
computer model be developed for real time
b) In the other method, the induced sur- operation. Some of the important aspects of
charge storage space above the FRL will real time reservoir operation are listed below:
be utilized to effect partial control over a) Collection of catchment hydrological
outflow rates after the reservoir has data and water demand data and transmis-
attained the FRL. This is done by raising sion of the data to the operation mana-
all gates initially by small increments ger at the control station through suitable
thus forcing all inflows in excess of the logistics such as hydroiogical sensors,
spillway capacity at the selected gate data loggers and telemetry network;
opening into surcharge storage which will
of course be evacuated as rapidly as the b) Availability of a computer system at the
prevailing conditions warrant. upon control station;
completion of drawdown to the FRL, the c>A real time data base management
regular schedule for release of stored system; and
water should be followed. A computer model having capability of
4
NOTE - In projects where water level is not flow forecast, control decisions forecast
permitted to rise above FRL, the method ( a ) is the with flexibility for modified data entry
only one applicable. and updating, preferably in an interactive
mode, in shortest possible execution time.
Development of spillway gate regulation
schedules for reservoirs both with and without 7 DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
induced surcharge storage space are given in
7.1 An adequate plan for collection and
Annex A.
analysis of hydrological data should be develo-
ped and adopted in order to ensure efficient
It is of utmost importance that the schedules so operation of reservoirs, particularly during the
developed are used to route the spillway design monsoon period.
flood for determining the adequacy of the MWL
which may often be based on old operation 7.2 A suitable network of rainfall and river
plans. gauging stations should be established according

9
IS 7323 : 1994

to relevant Indian Standards in the project area and processing time of vast data from various
at the investigation stage. This would provide sources. The data transmission media such as
sufficient basic data to evolve a reliable telephones, flood priority telegrams, telemetry,
programme of flood forecasting for use in the VHF wireless. meteor-burst communication
reservoir operation. system, general purpose communication satel-
lites, etc, should he used for communication of
The instrumentation for the purpose should data. All these types of transmission media
include hydrological sensors with capability of may be used either singularly or in combination.
in-situ recording and compatibility with tele- Planning and design of a particular system
metery network for real time operation of should consider each of these alternatives prior
reservoirs. to selecting the one or combination of these
that best meets the overall requirement of the
7.3 The number and distribution of ordinary reliable data system, particularly in the storm
and self-recording raingauge station should be period.
decided based on the storm characteristics and
topography of the region and the requirements 7.8 The hydro-meteorological data collected
of flood forecasting. during storm periods should be analyzed by
suitably trained personnel. Use of computer at
7.4 An adequate number of river gauging the analyzing centre may be useful in providing
stations should be set at key locations accor- accurate information on prevailing and antici-
ding to relevant Indian Standards to provide pated flood stage/flows at all the locations of
satisfactory information on current river interest. Forecast of inflow into the reservoir
stages/flows upstream and an index to the total and the regulation plans during storm period
inflow to the reservoir. In case of flood control should be developed usually every six hours or
reservoirs, a suflicient number of river gauging as required using the advancements in techni-
stations should be set up below the dam to ques. Based on the results of this analysis, the
provide data at the locations to be protected. operations should be determined by the
All stream gauging stations should also be engineer-in-charge of the reservoir system
equipped with instruments for measuring operation taking into consideration the opera-
rainfall. tion schedule. In case of real-time data
collection, computers are essential for data
7.5 Manual and/or automatic reservoir gauges handbng, manipulation and analysing project
should be installed for obtaining current reser- regulation schemes.
voir levels. Reservoir levels should be recorded
at regular intervals, say every 24 hours or as 7.9 During non-monsoon period, reservoir
required. During flood times, reservoir gauges operation usually consists of release of water
should be observed at closer intervals, say once from conservation storage for various uses,
in 3 hours or even more frequently. considering actual requirements and storage
conditions. As such, it requires less attention.
7.6 A close co-operation should be maintained This period, therefore, should be devoted to
with the nearest office of the Indian Meteoro- investigating possible technical improvements
logical Department to obtain the data on in the hydro-meteorological data collection
current weather situation and its expected and transmission network, application of
development. In case of major projects it would modern technical know-how such as system
be necessary to have a separate meteorological engineering techniques, development of com-
unit which will collect the necessary data and puter models and training of personnel to
interpret them to the engineer-in-charge of facilitate reliable and optimum system regula-
operations. tion in addition to the normal works pertaining
to reservoir regulation.
7.7 The mode and frequency of communication
of basic data recorded by reporting stations 7.10 Capacity surveys should be done to
should be decided based on the requirements compute the actual storage capacities at various
of such data at the given time. During flood levels at regular intervals depending on the rate
periods, reports at shorter interval ( usually 6 of sedimentation. The higher the rate of
hourly or less ) are required. Manually based sedimentation, the greater will be the frequency
and/or semi-automatic data handling systems of survey. Capacity survey of reservoirs may be
are generally adequate for the single project carried out once in 3 to 5 years or when the
system or relatively small multi-project systems. loss of capacity is5 percent, whichever isearlier.
Installation of automatic data handling system
in addit.ion to manual or semi-automatic system 7.11 In order to facilitate and to keep up-to-
may be necessary for reducing the transmission date information for the operation of reservoirs,

10
IS 7323 : 1994

a proper record of all the data pertaining to plays. Various proformae for data compilation
reservoir operation should be maintained. FOI as per the requirements of system operation
large reservoir systems a suitable computerized may be designed. Three sample proformae for
data base management system is essential for compiling information are given in this standard.
storage and retrieval of data/information. Data Proforma 1 deals with collection of rainfall and
received from the data collection network stream flow data. Proforma 3 deals with the
should be stored in the data base. The data computations of forecasting inflows based on
base should also include flow forecast and rainfall-runoff correlation and unit hydrograph.
project operation data and should be designed Proforma 3 contains data relating to daily
for providing both graphical and tabular dis- reservoir operations.

ANNEX A
(Clause 5.5 )
DEVELOPMENT OF SPILLWAY GATE REGULATION SCHEDULES
A-l GENERAL with various assumed values of inflows and
amounts of storage available as below:
A-l.1 In many earlier projects where the FRL
and MWL are the same and even in projects -) Calculate
‘L a constant Ts ( in days ), that
with provision for induced surcharge operation, is the time required for the discharge to
it may .be imperative to utilize a portion of the recede to 112.1 of its initial value, by
storage space below the FRL in order to meet reading from the assumed recession curve.
the requirements of 5.5 under operating b) Compute Sk/Q, values for the project,
conditions. The volume of inflow, however, by multiplying TS with the S.L/Q, values
must be predicted before releases can be deter- derived by assuming Ts = 1. The S,/Q,
mined. Although forecasting of runoff from values correspnnding to TS = 1 for a set
reports of rainfall and river stages/discharges of Q,/QZ ratios are given be!ow:
provides a sound basis for operation, schedules
for use in spi!lway design and by operational Q,/Qz S-k/Q, ( for Ts = 1 )
staff under emergency conditions require a 1.2 1 363
more conservative approach. During very 1.6 10 023
severe floods communications may fail and the 2.0 23 657
only information available at the dam may be 2.5 45 006
reservoir water levels and the rate of rise. The 3.5 96 163
minimum volume of inflow to be expected 10’0 548 856
during flood at any instant may be predicted by Where Sa is the amount of storage
assuming that the inflow has crested for required in cubic metres to impound a
computing the volume under the recession flood inflow of Q, ( in cumecs ) with Q,
curve of the hydrograph. The assumed recession ( in cumecs ) as the constant release from
curve should, however, be steeper than the the reservoir.
normal observed recession for conservative
results and may usually be patterned after the c>For an assumed
example 3 000
range of inflows Q, ( for
m3/s to spillway design
spillway design flood recession. Once the
flood peak ) compute a set of Qa for
minimum volume expected with a given inflow
the entire set of Q,/Q, ratios by dividing
is known, the outflow required to limit storage
to the capacity available may be readily Q,byQ,/Q,.
determined. d) Lastly co mpute a set of Sa values for
each selected value of Q1 by multiplying
A-2 PROCEDURE the project S.%/QZ values by Q,.

A-2.1 A complete schedule of releases in the A convenient computational form is given


form of a chart may be developed that will in Table I.
allow the outflow to be regulated on the basis A family of curves S4 versus Q2’ such as in
of the current inflow and storage space Fig. 2 may be then plotted for each assumed
available by making a series of computations values of inflow Qr

11
IS 7323 : 1994

Table 1 Computation for Spillway Gate Regulation Schedule


[ Clause A-2.1 ( d ) ]

Project Ql = 6 000 ma/s


WQr Q1
Qt = 3 Y ms’s
= 1_ sA=CO1(2)XCO1(3) (2) X 3)
co1 ( 1 ) Qt = c7F;T SA = CO1 CO1 (

(2) (3) (4) (5) (6)


NOTE _ Columns will extend with various values of Q, considered.

LULL
A’NO
MA!h”M
/- RESERVOIR LEVEL I I I I

FREE OVERFLOW

VX” i INFLOW IQ,)

RELEASE (Ql) -

FIG. 2 SPILLWAYGATE REGULATIONSCHEDULEWITHOUT INDUCED SURCHARGE

For reservoirs having no induced surcharge shown in Fig. 3. Thus the point b corresponding
storage provision, SA values can be transformed to the schedule with induced storage will be
into reservoir elevations by subtracting SA obtained by raising point a of the dotted curves
values from the storage capacity at FRL and ( without induced storage ) by an amount cd,
reading corresponding elevation values from the amount of surcharge storage at the given
the elevation-capacity curves. outflow.
In case of reservoir with induced surcharge These curves are useful in deciding the
provision, the points located as above may be required releases for reservoir regulation based
raised vertically by the amount of surcharge on the inflow and available storage space at
storage permissible at the particular outflow as any instant.

12
IS 7323 : 1994

I I I
INDUCED SURCHARGE I

FREE OVERFLOW

bd

CONTROL RELEASE

SPILLWAY CREST

RELEASE Qz

FIG. 3 SPILLWAY GATE REGULATION SCHEDULE WITH INDUCED SURCHARGE

Proforma 1 - Rainfall and Streamflow Data


( Clause 7.11 )
Name and Location of
Raingauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .
River gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .
R. L. of Zero of gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Observed Rainfall in mm Catchment Gauge in Discharge Remarks


Date Time in
Hours Rainfall Metres Estimated/Observed
~~y-G.~-G;7 m3/s

13
IS 7323 : 1994

Proforma 2 - Forecast Computation Sheet


(Clause 7. I 1 )
( Using ‘Rainfall, Ruroff co-axial relations and unit hydrographs )

Stream Runoff Computations Discharge in ma/s


and r----- __-_ _Y_-*_- ---------3
Station Date 6 7 8 9 10 I1 12
~_-____---__-___*--- ------7
SAM 8PM 8AM 8PM 8AM 8PM SAM 8PM 8AM 8PM 8AM 8PM 8AM 8Ph4

Station Antecedent precipitation Hydrograph


A on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .cm ( Prev. Period )
river X
Total duration . . .. . . . . . . . . .h 12-h unit
hydrograph
Total rain.. . . . . . . . . . . .. . cm Direct
Total runoff ..,.. . . . . . . cm Runoff

Prev. runoff. . . . .. . . .. . .cm Total llow


Runoff increment . . . . . .cm

Local Antecedent precipitation Hydrograph


area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cm ( Prev. Period )
between Total duration. . . . . . . . . . h 12-h unit
station hydrograph
A and B Total rain . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .cm Direct
Total runoK.... .. . . . . . .cm Rutloff

Prcv. runoi~ . . . . . . . . . . . . cm Total flow


Runoff increment......cm

--- ___~ _.__~~ ~ ..____-

Station Routing Routed flow


B on from Station A
river X Local flow

Total flow

Adjusted food
____
. . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .
( Basin ) Computed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .For storm beginning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Computed by . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .
( Month ) ( Date ) (Year ) ( Hour ) ( Month ) ( Date ) Checked by . . .. . . . . . Time . . .. . . . . .

14
tS 7323 : 1994

Proforma 3 - Daily Reservoir Operation Data


( czause 7. I 1 )
Date Time Pool With- Spillway Estimated Dam Site Weather Remarks
in h Eleva- drawals Dis- Inflow ---___-_ _--h------ .-7
tion in ma/s chargel) Precipita- Temperature Wind
Metres tion, mm c--h--T r--A-7
above Max Min Speed Direction
MSL km/h
-- 1 2 3. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

l)Sluices, crest bays and power house separately.

15
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Amendments Issued Since Publication

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