Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 40

INFLUENCE OF JOB STRESS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF PRIVATE PRIMARY

SCHOOL TEACHERS IN MAKUENI COUNTY, KENYA

MUTHIANI CAROL MWENDE

MAPA/

A RESEARCH PROPOSAL SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE


REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
DEGREE IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF

MOUNT KENYA UNIVERSITY

JULY 2018

i
DECLARATION AND APPROVAL
Declaration by the Student

I declare that this proposal is my original work and has not been presented for a degree in any
other university for any other award

Sign……………………………………………….. Date…………………………………………

Muthiani Caroline Mwende

MAPA/2016/

Approval by the Supervisor

I confirm that the work reported in this research proposal was carried out by the candidate under
my supervision

Sign…………………………………………. Date…………………………………………..

Dr. Jackson Ndolo

Mount Kenya University

School of Business and Economics

Department of Management

ii
DEDICATION
This work is dedicated to my family especially my mother who encouraged throughout the
course especially in difficult moments, my father for his financial support and brothers and
sisters who were always there for me.

iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I acknowledge the support of my supervisor Dr. Jackson Ndolo for his insights and timely
feedback throughout the writing process. I also acknowledge the support of my friend Charles
Kyangu especially on online resources and the financial support from my father Mr. Muthiani.
Ultimately, I thank God for his wonderful strength and blessings throughout the writing of this
proposal.

iv
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.0 Conceptual Framework……………………………………………………………. 18

v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
DECLARATION AND APPROVAL ............................................................................................... ii
DEDICATION ................................................................................................................................ iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT................................................................................................................iv
LIST OF FIGURES ......................................................................................................................... v
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ......................................................................................................... viii
ABSTRACT .....................................................................................................................................ix
CHAPTER ONE .............................................................................................................................. 1
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 1
Introduction................................................................................................................................................... 1
Background of the Study .............................................................................................................................. 1
Statement of the Problem.............................................................................................................................. 3
Purpose of the study...................................................................................................................................... 4
1.4 Specific objectives .................................................................................................................................. 4
1.5 Study Questions ...................................................................................................................................... 4
1.6 Significance of the Study ........................................................................................................................ 5
1.7 Justification of the Study ........................................................................................................................ 5
1.8 Scope of the Study .................................................................................................................................. 6
1.9 Study limitations and delimitations ........................................................................................................ 6
1.9.1 Study limitations .............................................................................................................................. 6
1.11 Operational Definition of terms ............................................................................................................ 8
CHAPTER TWO ............................................................................................................................. 9
LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................................ 9
2.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 9
2.2 Theoretical Literature Review ................................................................................................................ 9
2.2.1 Effort-Reward Imbalance Theory (ERT) ......................................................................................... 9
2.2.3 The Expectancy Theory ................................................................................................................. 10
2.3 Empirical Literature .............................................................................................................................. 11
2.3.1 Influence of working conditions .................................................................................................... 11
2.3.1 Influence of Roles in Organization ................................................................................................ 12
2.3.3 Influence of Work Relationships ................................................................................................... 13
2.3.4 Influence of Organizational Structure............................................................................................ 14

vi
2.4 Literature Summary .............................................................................................................................. 16
2.4 Conceptual Framework ......................................................................................................................... 17
CHAPTER THREE ....................................................................................................................... 19
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................... 19
3.0 Introduction........................................................................................................................................... 19
3.1 Research Methodology ......................................................................................................................... 19
3.2 Research Design ................................................................................................................................... 19
3.3 Location of the Study............................................................................................................................ 20
3.4 Target Population.................................................................................................................................. 20
3.5 Sampling Techniques and Procedures .................................................................................................. 20
3.6 Sample Size .......................................................................................................................................... 20
3.7 Methods of Data Collection .................................................................................................................. 20
3.8 Testing Validity and Reliability of the Instrument ............................................................................... 21
3.8.1 Validity .......................................................................................................................................... 21
3.8.2 Reliability ...................................................................................................................................... 21
3.6 Data Collection Procedures .................................................................................................................. 22
3.10 Proposed Data Analysis Techniques................................................................................................... 22
3.11 Ethical Considerations ........................................................................................................................ 22
REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................. 24
APPENDICES ............................................................................................................................... 27
Appendix 1: Study Instrument .................................................................................................................... 27
Appendix II: Research Time Plan............................................................................................................... 30
Appendix III: Research Budget .................................................................................................................. 31

vii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ANOVA : Analysis of Variance

NACOSTI : National Commission for Science Technology and Innovation

SPSS : Statistical Package for Social Sciences

TSC : Teachers Service Commission

UNESCO : United Nations Educational Scientific Organization

viii
ABSTRACT
Teachers play a vital role to students in dissemination of knowledge to learners. However, when
teachers face challenges, it may be difficult to properly deliver to their expectation or the school
expectation due to the incapacitation. This study will be conducted in the light of one of the
difficulties faced which is work-related stress. The study will be informed by four main
objectives which include the influence of working conditions, institutional role, work relations
and organizational structure on their performance. The study will employ both quantitative and
qualitative methodologies and a descriptive survey research design. A sample of 110 teachers
and 38 head teachers of private primary schools which will be selected using stratified random
sampling because of its suitability in selecting a sample from a classified population. Data will
be collected using semi-structured questionnaires so as to collect both qualitative and
quantitative data. The collected data will be subject to qualitative and quantitative analysis
methods. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic analysis and presented in narrative
form. The quantitative data will be analysed using descriptive statistics of mean, mode and
standard deviation, and inferential statistics which involve regression; and the findings will be
presented in percentages, tables, graphs and pie charts. The computations will involve use of the
Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0. Ethical considerations will be
safeguarded by obtaining letter of approval from Mount Kenya University Ethical Review
Committee and a permit from the National Commission for Science Technology and Innovation
(NACOSTI). Anonymity together with confidentiality will be ensured throughout and after the
research process. The study is useful to both private and public primary school management
because it may be utilized to address job stressors of teachers that hinder their performance.

ix
CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Introduction
This chapter gives the study background, statement of the problem, the purpose of the study,
study objectives, research questions, the study significance and justification, limitations of the
study and delimitations, the justification of the study, the scope of the study, assumptions of the
study as well as the operational definition of key terms used in the study.

Background of the Study


Education purposed to equip learners with new skills and knowledge that guides them in being
innovative and resolving daily challenges. Consequently, the job market is augured in education
because it is dependent on human capital which effectively converts resources into high value
output necessary for a quality life (United Nations Educational Scientific Organization, 2010).
However, teachers who ought to disseminate this knowledge may face different challenges
which affect their performance and consequently the quality of education imparted to learners.
One of these challenges is work-related stress or job stress which comes as a result of the deficit
between workplace demands and those of the individual (Koros, Momanyi & Chakua, 2015).
Teachers who experience job stress are likely to lose interest and concentration in their work
leading to the subsequent decline of their performance and that of students.

Organizational performance can be measured in diverse ways such as looking at the achievement
of the organizational goals and targets, evaluation of the outcomes to customers and adherence
and conformity to that organizational values and ideals as noted by Martz (2008). Teacher
performance may be determined through the teacher effectiveness in relation to the student
performance, attendance, communication skills, coverage of the syllabus, decision making,
professionalism, interpersonal skills and management of the classroom as noted by the Teachers
Service Commission of Kenya [TSC] (2008).This determination of performance encompasses

1
the teacher policy, school policy, individual teacher behaviour and interaction with other
teachers.

A working environment requires to be kept in a good condition because it facilitates the delivery
of services. Omari and Okasheh (2017) conducted a study in Jordan while assessing how work
environment influences job performance of engineering workers only to find a positive
relationship. However, they focused more on physical factors of noise, office furniture,
ventilation and light. These conditions are more specific to companies and not to teachers. In
Nigeria, poor working conditions, poor relations and salary delays were found to be major causes
of stress among Nigerian teachers which affected their effectiveness (Ekundayo & Kolawole,
2013). The study however assessed effectiveness in terms of student performance as opposed to
the current which focuses on performance and used a scale to measure the general influence of
stress on performance. Locally, Nduku, Mwenda and Wachira (2015) found that, among other
factors, physical conditions were the major influence on performance of bank employees. The
experiences of bank employees may be different from those of teachers.

Individual’s role in any organization needs to well defined to take away any duty-related
confusion. Almanae (2015) observes this in his study to establish the effect of work stress on
performance in Libyan building companies. In fact, unclear roles were the third after lack of
cooperation (31 percent), work load (27 percent) and poor communications (27) percent.
However this study focused on workers in a building industry rather than teachers. Naidoo,
Botha, and Bisschoff (2013) do not directly identify role in organization in their study, rather,
control, among other causes is identified as a stressor to educators in South Africa. The study
however focuses on the causes of stress among teachers as opposed on the current which focuses
on the influence of stress. In Kenya, Koros, Momanyi and Chakua (2018) find the challenge of
excessive supervision as having negative influence on job satisfaction. However, the study is
specific to occupational stress and job satisfaction rather than performance.

The teaching profession involves interaction of individuals either performing similar or different
duties. Min and Yong (2014) established significant influence of employee relationship stress on
performance in a study conducted in China. The study, however, does not explain how
relationships influence performance. Nigerian bank employees were found to be affected, among
other factors, by co-workers’ relationship stress as reported by Ajayi (2018). The study however

2
utilized a different population of bankers whose experiences may be different to those of
teachers. In Kenya, Musyoka, Ogutu and Awino (2012) found a positive influence of employee
stress on performance of companies listed in the Nairobi Securities Exchange. The study focused
on physiological, psychological and behaviour stress which included different stress factors
rather than relationship stress alone. There is thus need for research on specific factors of stress.

Organizational structure facilitates the participation of all employees in the running of that very
organization, meaning any failure in part or in full of that structure means the organizational
failure. Organizational structure was found to have a positive relationship performance of
organization especially more on learning than innovation in a study carried out in Austria and
China by Hao, Kasper and Muehlbacher (2012). The study however looked at the relationship
rather than influence as the current study intends to do. Sibindi (2014) found a relationship
between organizational structure and performance of the National Railways of Zimbabwe.
Precisely, size, command chain, functional specialization and span of control directly affected
performance. The study’s focus was however on relationship between organizational structure
and performance rather than the influence. In Kenya, Kirui and Ongiti (2016) investigated the
influence of organizational structure on academic performance of county secondary schools
where they found a positive effect of organizational structure. Organizational structure was
measured under the constructs of centralization, hierarchy and authority, departmental decisions,
formalization of job specification, strictness and rules. The current study will focus on decision
making, job specification and rules. The current study also targets private primary school
teachers and not secondary school teachers.

Statement of the Problem


Teachers play an important role in the academic growth of students especially in the interaction
with their school work. However, teachers who face many challenges in their job are likely to
have a lower output compared to those who face less. Job stress is a likely scenario for any
employee especially when specific needs are not addressed in a proper way and in most cases it
affects their performance.

Different studies have been conducted to determine the influence of job stress on performance of
employees. Stress from working conditions has been found to influence performance of

3
employees although the studies focus on different populations and conditions like those of
physical conditions of dust, rain and the like (Omari & Okashe, 2017; Ekundayo & Kolawole,
2013; Nduku et al., 2015). Stress from employee roles in an organization is effectual on
performance although the studies focus on the causes of stress (Naidoo et al., 2013) and on
occupational stress (Koros et al., 2018). Relationships in the organizations significantly influence
performance, but studies do not explain in which ways they influence it, and most are conducted
on non-teacher populations (Min & Yong, 2014; Ajayi, 2018; Musyoka et al., 2012). Most
studies establish a positive correlation between organizational structure and performance (Hao et
al., 2012; Sibindi, 2014) and others have targeted secondary schools (Kirui & Ongiti, 2016). This
brings in the purpose of the current study to determine how job stress influences the performance
of private primary school teachers in Makueni County, Kenya.

Purpose of the study


The study seeks to determine the influence of job stress on the performance of private school
teachers in Makueni County.

1.4 Specific objectives


1 To establish the influence of working conditions related stress on the performance of private
primary school teachers in Makueni County.
2 To establish the influence of institutional roles related stress on the performance of private
primary school teachers in Makueni County.
3 To find out the influence of work relationships related stress on the performance of private
primary school teachers in Makueni County
4 To find out the influence of organizational structure related stress on the performance of
private primary school teachers in Makueni County

1.5 Study Questions


1. What is the influence of working conditions stress on the performance of private primary
school teachers in Makueni County?
2. What is the influence of organizational role-related stress on the performance of private
primary school teachers in Makueni County?

4
3. What is the influence of work relationships stress on the performance of private primary
schools in Makueni County?
4. What is the influence of organizational structure-related stress on the performance of primary
school teachers in Makueni County?

1.6 Significance of the Study


The study may be helpful, first of all, to the teachers in private schools. By understanding the
influence of stress, major stressors to the teachers are likely to be identified and probably ways
of reducing or creating resilience among the workers established. This may ensure that most
stress-related outcomes are well managed.

Thirdly, the findings of the study may be useful to employers in private organizations because
employees in private may face stress in their daily tasks. By utilizing the findings of this study, it
may be easier to initiate programs that support the wellbeing of employees in order to ensure
sustained positive performance.

The study also may be used to inform policy in the private sector. Most policies may not be
enacted without an evidence base that informs practice. By utilizing studies conducted on private
organizations, this study may inform new policies based on the employees experience to come
up with a policy that addresses their needs.

The study is also useful because it contributes to knowledge base. Once published, it may be
utilized to inform other studies on the state of affairs regarding employee wellness. Furthermore,
the suggestions of this research may be useful because further research can be conducted to
address emergent issues in employee performance.

1.7 Justification of the Study


This study is important because it delves into job stress; an aspect of performance presents itself
in all organizations. By understanding how job stress influences them, employees can be helped
in averting the destructive consequences of stress by laying down well spelt strategies for

5
managing it. With proper mechanisms in place, the negative impacts are likely to be averted and
with positive inputs, the organizational performance improved.

1.8 Scope of the Study


The study focuses on the influence of job stress on the performance of private primary school
teachers in Makueni County. Job stress will be measured on the basis of working conditions,
institutional roles, work relationships and organizational structure. Performance will be measured
by subject excellence and turnaround times. The study will be carried out on the month of
September and November in 2018.

1.9 Study limitations and delimitations

1.9.1 Study limitations


The study will be limited because it will be conducted in Makueni County which may be
different from other counties which very different geographically. This means that the
information collected from the respondents may not be comprehensive especially if it was
conducted across different counties in the country.

The time for the study may also be limited because it will be carried out at a particular time of
the year which may be affected by other factors such as climate, current school events and the
like. This is likely to affect the quality of data collected from the recipients.

While it is expected that the respondents will give honest information, some of them may opt to
give wrong information either in fear of victimization or due to gained hostility from previous
experiences. This is likely to affect the responses and thus giving wrong results. However the
researcher will seek their consent, assure them of anonymity and confidentiality throughout the
research exercise.

1.9.2 Study Delimitations

While the study will be conducted in Makueni County, it will review literature from other
counties in Kenya and even countries within and outside Africa.

6
The study will focus of aspects of job stress that may influence performance of private school
teachers in Makueni County which is distinct from other counties in many aspects.
Consequently, care will be taken in generalizing findings to the other counties because the
experiences may be diverse.

1.10 Assumptions of the study

The study assumes that working conditions in private primary schools cause stress to the teachers
which affects their performance

It assumes that institutional roles in private primary schools cause stress as teachers strive to
attend to them

It also assumes that work relationships in private primary schools bring about stress to teachers
thus affecting their performance

Finally, it assumes that the organizational structure of private primary schools brings about stress
on teachers which affects their performance.

Finally, it assumes that measures can be put in place to improve the performance of the county
workers.

7
1.11 Operational Definition of terms
Job stress will mean any work related distress that affects teachers in the various components of
their work in the school environment.

Organizational roles will refer to the regular duties and assignments of the employees that they
engage in at their work place.

Organizational structure will mean the processes that facilitate the management process of
schools and the general flow of information from the top management to the lower divisions.

Performance This will refer to the output of teachers from their assigned duties and consistency
in achieving the goals of their institutions.

Work relationships will refer to the interpersonal interactions of teachers as they attend to the
duties assigned by their institutions.

Working conditions will refer to the quality of the working space such as the hygiene, work
equipment and the adequacy of the facilities.

8
CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction
This chapter covers the empirical literature review, theoretical literature, conceptual framework
and the research gaps.

2.2 Theoretical Literature Review

2.2.1 Effort-Reward Imbalance Theory (ERT)


This theory was originated by Seigrist (2012) to incorporate external and internal work
characteristics of job strain which are related to work satisfaction. The theory states that when
there is an imbalance between the efforts or costs and low rewards or gains achieved in return,
there is a likelihood of elicitation of consistent negative emotions as well as constant stress
responses on those exposed. On the other hand, positive emotions evoked by social rewards are
likely to promote wellbeing, health as well as survival (Siegrist, 2012).

In this theory, high work efforts are based on high workloads, time pressure, many
responsibilities, overtime along with interruptions. Low rewards are aspects that are associated
with low salary, lack of morale and recognition from the management, scanty promotion aspects
and threats of job insecurity. Siegrist (2012) argues that the effort-reward imbalance has shown
to bring about emotional distress among employees, cardiovascular diseases, low job satisfaction
as well as turnover. According to Unterbink et al. (2007), effort-reward imbalance is likely to
lead to work-related stress as well as high turnover among teachers.

This theory is relevant in this study because it talks of external and internal work characteristics
that bring about low productivity, burnout, early retirement and turnover. The negative outcomes
are reflections of job stress among employees which necessitate the efforts of organizations to
address job related stress in order to improve worker efficiency. Consequently, teachers’ work-
related stress is addressed by this theory.

9
2.2.3 The Expectancy Theory
This theory by Victor Vroom (1964) deals with motivation along with management. According
to Parijat and Bagga (2014) the theory assumes that the results of behaviour come from choices
drawn from diverse alternatives. Vroom purported that the relationship between a person’s work
behaviour and their goals was not a simplistic factor, but it is based on personal factors like
personality, knowledge, skills, experience together with abilities. From this observation, Vroom
offered that employees have diverse goals and can be encouraged if they believe that there is a
positive connection between efforts and their performance; that positive performance outcomes
is a desirable reward; that reward gratifies an necessary need; and that the desire to content the
need is robust enough to make a given effort worthwhile (Lunenberg, 2011).

According to Lunenberg (2011) work motivation is dependent on the perceived relationship


between performance and its outcomes, and that individuals alter their behaviour according to
estimation of the expected results. A person’s motivation, therefore, comes from the confidence
that they are likely to acquire their desire in the form of reward. It thus creates a positive
potential within employees through motivation. Three key aspects are evident in this theory:
there exists a positive association between an employee’s efforts and their performance;
favourable work output brings a desirable reward; and the reward gratifies an important need.

Three key components explain the expectancy theory: expectancy, instrumentality and valence.
Parijat and Bagga (2014) explain that expectancy is the belief that improved efforts produce
better performance. Instrumentality is the cognition that if an employee performs well then a
valued result will come about. Valence denotes the beliefs about the desirability of outcomes.
There are thus differences in the level of value associated with different outcomes the view on
bonuses, recognition, promotion, and the like (Redmon, 2016). This theory addresses the
variable on performance by linking it to outcomes. Subsequently, employees are likely to alter
their behaviour according to reduction of stressors in the workplace. If most employee stressors
are addressed, their performance is likely go up as a result of buffering their motivation.

10
2.3 Empirical Literature

2.3.1 Influence of working conditions


Any working environment should be kept in good conditions that dispel the possibility of harm
to the physical and psychological health of employees. Kumar (2017) investigated the factors
that influence the job satisfaction of police officers in India. The study used a survey design and
purposive sampling of 100 police stations in which 500 respondents were selected and data
collected through interviews and observations. Among other factors, the findings showed a
substantial influence of work conditions on the job satisfaction of the police with a factor score
of .791 which was considered satisfactory. The study utilized a different population from that of
teachers and may not be applied to the current study.

Mafini and Pooe (2013) studied the relationship between employee satisfaction and
organizational performance of public organizations in South Africa, precisely the members of
government department. A survey design and a questionnaire were used to collect data from the
272 participants who were conveniently recruited. The research had a response rate of 54.4
percent. The findings showed a positive correlation between factors of teamwork, ability
utilization, creativity, autonomy and working conditions, where teamwork had the top correlation
and working conditions the lowest. Despite the findings, the convenient sampling used in the
study is known to have a weakness of poor representativeness as observed by Mugenda and
Mugenda (2008).

Ndiphethe, Dorasamy and Wallis (2014) carried out a study on the factors associated with job
satisfaction among Royal Swaziland Police Service. The study used a descriptive survey design
where a sample of 345 police officers was purposively selected. Data was collected using
questionnaires along with focus group discussions. The results indicated that work environment,
support and resources influenced performance. Poor structures for assisting police officers
experiencing burnout translated to poor performance. The study was conducted on a non-
teaching population and it used purposive sampling method and measurement which is
judgmental and limits generalization of findings.

Mwirigi, Moguche and Kirimi (2017) carried out a study on the effect of work environment on
the organizational performance of the Kenya Police Service in Laikipia County. A descriptive

11
survey research design was utilized and sampling done through census where 86 participants
were selected. The findings showed that a large number of employees had poor housing, that
their training was catered for by their employers and that personal needs of police officers were
catered for as well. The study has important findings but it focuses on a population of police
officers whose experiences maybe different from those of teachers.

2.3.1 Influence of Roles in Organization


The duties and responsibilities that individuals are assigned in their organization are likely to
influence their performance depending on their skills. Curran & Protas (2017) determine the
relationship between role stressors of ambiguity, conflict and overload; work engagement and
organizational behaviours. The study utilized a correlational design and data collected from 349
randomly sampled workers through an online survey with a response rate of 24 percent. The
findings showed that role ambiguity had the greatest negative influence on organizational
engagement compared to role overload and role conflict. The study is important because it
explains how roles affect performance but the response rate is lower than 50 percent as
postulated by Mugenda and Mugenda (2008).

Akgunduz (2017) conducted a study on the influence of self-esteem and role stress on job
performance in hotel businesses in Turkey. The study used descriptive survey design and random
sampling in which a population of 280 hotel employees. The findings showed a negative
correlation between role ambiguity as well as role conflict on job performance while self-esteem
and role overload positively correlated with performance. Highest stress was experienced from
role ambiguity compared to role stress and role conflict. Despite these significant findings, the
study was conducted on hotel employees whose experiences may be different from those of
private school teachers. Similar findings are found in a previous exploratory study by Abbas,
Roger &Asadullah (2015) conducted in Pakistan to determine the impact of role stress on faculty
stress and burnout, where role ambiguity was the highest cause of stress and burnout. The study
however focused more on burnout rather than performance.

Olesegun, Oluwasayo & Olawoyim (2014) conducted a study to determine the effects of job
stress on performance of employees in Nigerian tertiary hospitals. The study utilized a
descriptive method in which data was collected using questionnaires and interviews and analysed
using descriptive statistics. The findings indicated that work overload, career development,

12
family/work conflicts had the highest disruptive effect on performance with physical, emotional
and psychological effects on the workers. The study however utilized descriptive statistics only
and did not determine the relationship between the variables and was conducted on a non-teacher
population.

Amir & Kihoro (2014) carried out a study on 188 social workers selected through simple random
sampling to determine the work stress and coping strategies among social workers in Northern
Uganda. The research used a descriptive cross-sectional survey design and a perceived stress
scale and a questionnaire used to collect the data. High stress levels at 91 percent were found and
factors like finances, work demand, safety concerns, family as well as violence from rebels were
found to be significant causes of stress. The study however did not focus on performance as the
current study but ways of reducing stress.

Mahiri & Orwa (2015) conducted a study on occupational stress and employee performance of
Kenya National Highways Authority (KeNHA). The study utilized a descriptive research design
and proportionate stratified sampling used to select 200 employees and data collected using a
questionnaire. The data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics and the findings
showed a significant positive relationship between occupational stress and performance of
employees. While the study did not directly focus on role stress in organizations, relationship
with supervisors and colleagues affected the productivity of employees. The study’s population
experience may be different from that of teachers because of the nature of their work.

2.3.3 Influence of Work Relationships


Relationships are a core aspect of employees in every organization because their roles are
interconnected. Chaudhry, Sohail & Riaz (2013) conducted a study to establish the impact of
employee relationships on their performance in the hospitality industry of Pakistan. The study
utilized a descriptive survey design where 241 employees from 28 hotels were selected for the
study. Data was collected using a questionnaire and analysed using multiple regression as well as
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The findings showed that with the mediating factor of
motivation, employee relationships have a significant effect on performance. The study was
however carried out on a population of hoteliers whose experiences are different from those of
teachers.

13
Rahman & Taniya (2015) carried out a research on the effect of employee relationship
management on employee performance in private commercial banks of Bangladesh. The study
used a descriptive survey design and a random sampling of the study population where 85
participants were selected. Regression analysis as well as Pearson correlation was used to
analyse the data. The findings showed that human resource practices, leadership style, shared
goals and values had the highest influence on performance compared to trust and corporate
communication. This study however will focus on a teacher population whose environment and
experiences may be different from those of the banking industry.

Kirimi, Gikunda, Obara & Kibett (2013) conducted a study on the effect of selected motivational
factors on the performance of secondary school agriculture teaches in Imenti District of Kenya.
The study utilized a descriptive research design and random sampling where 59 teachers and 59
head teachers were selected for the study. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics and
Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The findings showed a negative correlation between
teaching load and performance and a negative correlation between interpersonal relations and
performance. This study focused on motivation rather than work relations of teachers and it was
conducted in a different county from the one proposed for the study.

In another local study, Ngari & Agusioma (2013) carried out a study on the influence of
employee relations on organizational perofmance of private universities in Kenya. The study
utilized a descriptive research design and stratified random sampling to select a sample of 80
respondents and data collected using questionnaires. The findings showed that industrial
relations, employment practices and employee communications influence the performance of
organizations. The study however focused on university staff as opposed to the current study
which focuses on private primary school teachers.

2.3.4 Influence of Organizational Structure


Organizational structure is composed of aspects like decision making, delegation, office politics
consultations and finances among others. The structure facilitates the flow of information as well
as resources within the organization (Saha & Kumar, 2017). Jayaranthna & Weerakkody (2016)
conducted a study on the impact of decision making and reward management on job performance
as mediated by job satisfaction in private banks in Sri Lanka. The study utilized a cross-sectional
quantitative research design and a random sampling to select 311 participants. The findings

14
indicated that there is a significant influence of decision making and reward management on
performance of bank employees. The study however utilized quantitative data as opposed to the
current study which uses both quantitative and qualitative data.

Saha & Kumar (2017) conducted an empirical study on the influence of participation in decision
making on job satisfaction, group learning and group commitment of the public sector in India.
The study used a quantitative research design and convenience sampling to select a sample of
550 participants using a standardized test questionnaire. The response rate of the study was 72.19
percent after rejecting the incomplete questionnaires. The findings showed that participation in
decision making impacted positively and significantly on job satisfaction and group
commitment. The study however used convenient sampling which limits generalizability of
findings. Furthermore, the quantitative data may not give comprehensive results on the employee
experiences compared to the current study which utilizes quantitative and qualitative data.

Khamisa, Oldenburg, Peltzer & Ilic (2015) conducted a study in South Africa on the effect of
work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses. The study utilized a
Cross-Sectional research design and sampling was done through random sampling where 895
nurses participated in the Study. The data was analysed using multiple linear regressions to
determine the relationship between variables. The findings indicated that staff issues such as
decision making, office politics and delegation caused burnout which accounted for the mental
health of the nurses. The study however utilized a healthcare population and quantitative data as
opposed to the current which focuses on teacher population and utilizes both qualitative and
quantitative data.

Kirui & Ongiti (2015) carried out a study on the effects of organizational structure on the
performance of county secondary schools in Bomet County of Kenya. The study utilized an
exploratory research design and purposive sampling where a sample of 56 teachers was selected.
The data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and analysed qualitatively and
quantitatively. The findings showed that organizational structure affects the performance of
teachers. Precisely, the factors of hierarchy and authority, centralization, departmental decisions,
formalization of job specification, and strictness and rules affected how teachers performed. The
study however utilized an exploratory research design as compared to the descriptive design of

15
the current study; and the research population was of secondary school teachers as opposed to
the current private primary school teachers.

Wainaina, Iravo & Waititu (2014) conducted a different study on the effect of employee
participation in decision making on the organizational commitment amongst academic staff in
private and public universities in Kenya. The study utilized a descriptive research design and
stratified sampling where a sample of 347 academic staff. Data was collected using
questionnaires and analysed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings indicated that
employee participation in decision making has a significant influence on commitment of
university staff in Kenya. The study population was however comprised of higher education staff
rather than primary school teachers of the current study.

2.4 Literature Summary


The empirical literature has found that most have shown a significant influence of working
conditions on the performance of employees. Most of the studies however are conducted on non-
teaching population. Furthermore, some focus on housing structures which are not covered in the
current study and others use designs and sampling methods that limit generalization of findings
especially convenient and purposive sampling. Literature on organizational role stress shows a
high influence of role ambiguity, role overload and role conflict on the performance employees.
However, literature focusing on teachers is limited and the available focuses on banks, hospitals
and engineering companies.

Work relationships significantly affect performance but studies addressing the independent
variable do not directly address the independent variable as the current study. Some focus on
work relationship management and others motivational factors which include the independent
variable. This is the same as the influence of organizational structures where most studies focus
on the influence of decision making, work-related stress and burnout and employee participation.
As for the dependent variable, some studies focus on job satisfaction and organizational
commitment rather than performance. Furthermore, some studies utilize quantitative data as
opposed to the current study which will utilize both quantitative and qualitative data.

16
2.4 Conceptual Framework
Maxwell (2005) defines a conceptual framework as a system of concepts, assumptions, beliefs
and theories which supports and informs a research, and forms part of the design. In figure 2.0,
below job stress is hypothesized to influence the performance of teachers. The independent
variable of the study is performance which is indicated by the absenteeism, turnaround times,
resignations and student performance. On the other hand, independent variable is job stress
which is indicated by working conditions stress, organizational role stress, work relationships
stress and organizational structure stress. These are expected to directly influence the
performance of private primary school teachers.

17
Independent variable Dependent variable

Working Conditions Stress

 Enough classrooms
 Ventilation of the classrooms
 Enough safety gear

Organizational Role Stress


Teacher Performance
 Role overload
 Role ambiguity  Absenteeism
 Role conflict  Turnaround times
 Resignations
 Student performance

F Work relationships Stress

 Teacher-to-teacher relations
 Teacher and pupil relations
 Teachers and parent relations

Organizational Structure Stress

 Decision making processes


 Rules and regulations
 Formalization and job
specialization

Figure 2.0: Conceptual Framework:

Source: Researcher (2018)

18
CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction
This chapter covers the research design, the study population, sampling techniques, sample size,
data collection methods, study instrument, validity and reliability of the instrument, data analysis
and techniques and ethical considerations.

3.1 Research Methodology


A research methodology is defined by Kothari (2004) as a systematic way of solving a given
research problem through both research methods and the logic behind the methods used in a
specific context. This study will use a mixed methodology that will incorporate the aspects of
qualitative and quantitative methods. The mixed methods have been selected because they enable
the researcher to collect data and the same time captures other aspects that may not be captured if
a single methodology is utilized.

3.2 Research Design


According to Kothari (2004), a research design is the arrangement of conditions for collecting
and analysing of data in a way that purposes to put together relevance to the research aim with
economy in procedure. It is thus the conceptual structure in which research is carried out;
consisting of the blue print for collecting, measuring and analysing data. This study will utilize a
descriptive survey design which involves the empirical enquiry on the present condition of
phenomena by utilizing multiple sources of evidence so as to make valid general conclusion
(Mugenda & Mugenda, 2003; Kothari, 2004). This method has been selected because it enables a
researcher to collect responses from large population samples in faster and efficient way. It is
therefore suited in giving systematic factual information that can be utilized to make a specific
decision, identification of current practices, conditions, opinions and relationships across
different variables. This design will therefore make it easy for the researcher to collect first-hand
information from the study participants.

19
3.3 Location of the Study
The study will be conducted in Makueni County of Kenya which covers six sub-counties of
Makueni, Kaiti, Mbooni, Kilome, Kibwezi East and Kibwezi West.

3.4 Target Population


Mugenda and Mugenda (2003) define a target population as the total objects or elements that
exhibit the relevant information to a given study and from which the sample of the study is
drawn purposely for collection of research data. The study targets 760 primary school teachers
and 38 head teachers across 38 private primary schools in Makueni County (Kenya Private
Schools Associaiton, 2018). The population has been selected because they key determinants of
school performance.

3.5 Sampling Techniques and Procedures


The study will utilize stratified random sampling to select teachers and head teachers from the
private primary schools. Stratified random sampling is suitable for cases with heterogeneous
target population and where the characteristic of interest is size and not variability (Kothari,
2004). The method has been selected because it allows greater generalization of findings to the
larger population.

3.6 Sample Size


Kothari (2004) defines a sample size as the number items selected from the universe to make a
sample that is optimal to the level of fulfilling the needs of efficiency, representativeness,
reliability as well as flexibility. Makueni County has 38 private primary schools, 38 head
teachers and 760 teachers. Out of the total population, a 10 percent sample of the total population
of teachers will be selected (76) and half the population of head teachers (19) which will make a
sample size of 95 participants.

3.7 Methods of Data Collection


The study will utilize semi-structured questionnaire to collect data from the study participants. A
semi-structured questionnaire combines the elements of a structured and unstructured
questionnaire so that it can capitalize on the data quality collected in the study (Mugenda &
20
Mugenda, 2003). Due to their nature, qualitative and quantitative aspects of data are fused into
the instrument. Quantitative data will be collected using closed ended questions while qualitative
data will be collected through open ended questions. The semi-structured questionnaire has been
adapted because it can be applied to large samples with dependable and reliable data and at the
same time it saves time.

3.8 Testing Validity and Reliability of the Instrument

3.8.1 Validity
Kothari (2004) explains that validity is a vital criterion of a research instrument that shows the
level to which that instrument measures what it is supposed to measure. The study will use face,
content and construct validity. The face validity will be ensured through ensured through
creation of a tool that augurs with the study topic and also through expert opinion to obtain
suggestions for modification. Content validity, which is concerned with sample population
representativeness, will be ensured through extensive literature review of related items. Factor
analysis will be used to ensure that construct validity of the instrument through consulting of
prior theoretical expectations as offered by Kerlinger and Lee (2000).

3.8.2 Reliability
Reliability is defined as that capacity of a study instrument to give consistent results (Mugenda
& Mugenda, 2003). The index alpha is the most important index of internal consistency because
it consists of the mean of variable correlations, and it does not depend on their arrangement.
Reliability is ensured through the use of different items of measure, testing diverse respondent
samples and using uniform regular testing procedures. Subsequently, a pilot study will be
conducted on 20 respondents selected from the target population in determining the reliability of
the data collection instrument. Furthermore, the index alpha will be computed for all the items
forming the research variables and thus the overall reliability of the questionnaire determined.
Items with a score of 0.7 on Cronbach’s alpha will be retained since they will be considered
reliable for collection of data.

21
3.6 Data Collection Procedures
Data collection is described as the process of gathering along with measuring information
regarding targeted variables through an established systematic way that facilitates the researcher
to answer relevant questions and evaluating the outcomes (Kothari, 2004). The researcher will
collect the data through hired assistants who will be trained on the same. The data collection
exercise will be conducted through distribution of the instrument to the respondents. Before
administration, the respondents will have the purpose of the study explained then they will be left
to fill the questionnaire in a period of one week when it will be collected for data analysis.

3.10 Proposed Data Analysis Techniques


The collected data will be both qualitative and quantitative and will thus be subject to similar
methods of analysis. The qualitative data will be coded and classified, and then thematic analysis
carried out to determine the inferred meaning. The findings will be presented in narrative form.
Quantitative data will be analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive
statistics will include means, mode, median and standard deviation. Inferential statistics will
involve regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The computations will be done
using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0. The data will be presented
using tables, percentages, graphs and pie charts. The descriptive and inferential statistics have
been selected because it is easy to summarize findings and at the same time make interpretation
easier.

3.11 Ethical Considerations


The researcher will ensure ethical considerations throughout the research, first by acknowledging
any materials used in the research. She will also obtain an authorization letter from the
postgraduate office so as to get clearance from the Mount Kenya Ethical Review Committee. She
will also obtain a permit from the National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation
(NACOSTI) before proceeding to the actual research. The researcher will ensure informed
consent of the participants by explaining the purpose of the study, the harms they may
experience and the benefits of the study. She will encourage them to participate in the study and
assure them of anonymity and confidentiality during and after the study. The information

22
collected from the study will be kept under lock and key and after the process of data analysis
and reporting, it will be destroyed.

23
REFERENCES
Nduku, S.S., Mwenda, L. & Wachira, A. (2015). Effects of working conditions on performance
of employees on Kenya Commercial Bank head office. International Journal of Current
Research, 7(3), 14174-14180.
Wainaina, L., Iravo, M. & Waititu, A. (2014). Effect of employee participation in decision
making on the organizational commitment amongst academic staff in the private and
public universities in Kenya. International Journal of Advanced Research in
Management and Social Sciences, 3(12), 131-143.
Ekundayo, H.T. & Kolawole, A.O. (2013). Stress among secondary school teachers in Ekiti
State, Nigeria. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 3(2), 311-316.
Al-Omari, K. & Okasheh, H. (2017). The influence of work environment on Job performance: A
case of engineering company in Jordan. International Journal of Applied Engineering
Research,12(24), 15544-15550.
Koros, E.J., Momanyi, J.M. & Chakua, C. K. (2018). The impact of occupational stress on job
satisfaction among Kenyan primary school teachers. International Journal of Scientific
Research and Management, 6(1),51-56.
Chaudhry, M.S., Sohail, F. & Riaz, N. (2013). Impact of employee relation on employee
performance in hospitality industry of Pakistan. Academy of Business and Scientific
Research, 1(1), 60-72.
Jayarathna, Y. S. & Weerokkody, W.A (2016). Impact of decision making, reward management
on job performance: mediation of job satisfaction: A case of a private banks in Sri Lanka.
European journal of Business and Management, 8(32), 65-75.
Saha, S. and Kumar, S.P. (2017). Influence of participation in decision making on job
satisfaction, group learning, and group commitment: Empirical study of public sector
undertakings in India. Asian Academy of Management Journal, 22(1), 79–101.
Naidoo, K., Botha, C.J. & Bisschoff, C.A. (2013). Causes of stress in public schools and its ipact
on work performance of educators. Journal of Social Sciences, 34(2), 177-190.

Almanae, M. (2017). Work stress and its effect on performance. American Journal of Business,
Economics and Management, 3(4), 185-192.

Min, L. & Yong, S. (2014). Coworker’s relation influence on individual job performance: A
contextuanzing research. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical research, 6(5), 1986-
1993.

Musyoka, M., Ogutu, M. & Awino, Z.B. (2012). Employee stress and performance of companies
listed in the Nairobi Securities Exchange. DBA Africa Management Review, 3(1), 115-
129.

24
Ajayi, S. (2018). Effect of stress on employee performance and job satisfaction: A case study of
Nigerian Banking Industry. Social Science Research Network. Retrieved from
<http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.316062>

Hao, Q., Kasper, H. & Muehlbacher, J. (2012). How does organizational structure influence
performance through learning and innovation in Austria and China. Chinese Management
Studies, 6(1) 36-52.

Sibindi, N. (2016). Relationship between organizational structure and performance: A case of the
National Railways of Zimbabwe. International Journal of Commerce, Business and
Management, 3(2), 346-354.

Ngari, J.M. & Agusioma N.L. (2013). Influence of employee relations on organziation
performance of private universities in Kenya. International Journal of Innovative
Research and Studies, 2(8) 183-210.

Kirimi, F.K., Gikunda, R. M., Obara, J. & Kibet, J. (2013). Influence of selected motivational
factors on the performance of secondary school agriculture teachers in Imenti South
District, Kenya. International Journal of Education and Research,1(6),1-16.

Mwirigi, F., Moguche, A., & Kirimi, E. (2017). influence of working environment on
organizational performance in the Kenya police service. European Journal of Economic
and Financial Research, 2(3), 191-205.

Mahiri, E. & Orwa, B.H. (2016). Occupational stress and employee performance: A case study
of Kenya National Highways Authority. International Journal of Education and
Research, 4(1), 211-218.

Mafini, C. & Pooe, D.R.I. (2013). The relationship between employee satisfaction and
organizational performance: Evidence from a South African government department.
South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 39 (1), 1090-1099.

Kumar, T. V. (2017). Factors impacting job satisfaction among police personnel in India: A
multidimensional analysis. International Criminal Justice Review, 27(2), 126-148.

Ndiphethe,O.M., Dorasamy, N. & Wallis, M. (2014). Job satisfaction in the Royal Swaziland
Police Service. A case study of Manzini and Hhohho Regions. Problems and
Perspectives in Management, 12(3), 16-25.

Curran, T.M. & Prottas, D.J. (2017). Role stressors, engagement and work behaviours: a study of
higher education professional staff. Journal of Higher Education Policy and
Management, 39(6), 642-657.

Akgunduz, Y. (2015). The influence of self-esteem and role stress on job performance in hotel
businesses. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(6),
1082-1099.

25
Abbas, S. G., Roger, A., & Asadullah, M. A. (2012, June). Impact of organizational role
stressors on faculty stress & burnout (an exploratory analysis of a public sector university
of Pakistan). In 4ème Colloque International (ISEOR-AOM) (pp. 18-p).

Amir, K. & Kihoro, M.F. (2014). Work stress and coping strategies among social workers: A
case of Northern Uganda. Intenational Journal of Liberal Arts and Social Science, 2(8),
33-38.

Olesegun, A.J., Oluwasayo, A. J. & Olawoyim, O. (2014). An overview of the effects of job
stress on employees’ performance in Nigeria Tertiary hospitals. Economica, 60(4), 139-
154.

26
APPENDICES

Appendix 1: Study Instrument


Introduction

My name is Caroline Muthiani, a student from Mount Kenya University currently taking my
masters degree in public administration. As part of the requirements for course completion, I am
conducting a research on the influence of job stress on the performance of private primary school
teachers. You have been selected as one of my respondents. Your honest responses are important
in this questionnaire because they assist me in achieving the purpose of this study. I wish to
assure that the information shared here will not be divulged or used against you by any means.
Please respond to them as directed in every section.

Section A: Demographic Data

Please answer the following information as directed.

1. Your age __________


2. Marital Status: Single ( ) Married ( )
3. How long have you been employed as a teacher? _________ years

Section B: Influence of Working Conditions

4. Please indicate your level of agreement with the following statements working conditions
Where (1 = strongly disagree; 2 = disagree; 3 = neutral; 4 = agree; 5 = strongly disagree)
Item 1 2 3 4 5
I feel disoriented by the few classrooms in my school
The ventilation of the classrooms makes it difficult to
teach
I lack protective gear when handling teaching tasks
According to you, do you think the stress from working conditions affects your
performance? Yes ( ) No ( )
Kindly explain your answer
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
__________________
Section C: Influence of Roles in Institutions
5. Please indicate your level of agreement with the following statements on your role in
your institution where (1 = strongly disagree; 2 = disagree; 3 = neutral; 4 = agree; 5 =
strongly disagree)
Item 1 2 3 4 5
I have many responsibilities in school that stress

27
me
I feel the way roles are distributed burdens me
The low collaboration with other teachers is
stressful
According to you, do you think that stress from your role in the institution affects your
performance? Yes ( ) No ( )
Briefly explain your answer
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
__________________
Section D: Influence of work relations
6. Please indicate your level of agreement with the following statements on the influence of
work relations stress on performance (1 = strongly disagree; 2 = disagree; 3 = neutral; 4 =
agree; 5 = strongly disagree)
Item 1 2 3 4 5
I get stressed by the relations with other
teachers
Handling students in class stresses me
Parents’ demands from me stress me
In your own thinking do work relations stress affect your performance? Yes ( ) No (
)
Kindly explain your answer above
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_____________
Section E: Influence of Organizational structure stress on performance
7. Please indicate your level of agreement with the following statements on the influence of
organizational structure stress on performance where (1 = strongly disagree; 2 = disagree;
3 = neutral; 4 = agree; 5 = strongly disagree)
Item 1 2 3 4 5
I get stressed by the way decisions are made in my
school
I get stressed by the many restrictive rules in my
school
I get stressed for teaching outside my specialization
According to you, do you think that organization structure stress affects your
performance?
Yes ( ) No ( )
Please explain your answer
________________________________________________________________________

28
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
__________________
Section F: Suggestions for dealing with stress
8. From the stress that you undergo, what are some of the suggestions for reducing stress for
better performance?
Working conditions related stress
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
____________
Role in institutions stress
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
____________
Work relations
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
____________
Organizational structure
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
__________________
Thank you for your participation

29
Appendix II: Research Time Plan
Activity August 2018 September October 2018 November 2018
2018
Ethical Review
and Permit
Application

Permit from
Sub-County
offices

Pilot Study

Data Collection
Exercise

Data analysis

Project Writing

Project
Submission

30
Appendix III: Research Budget
S/No Item Quantity Unit Cost Amount (Kshs)
(Kshs)
1 Travelling 2 weeks 3,000/= 42,000/=
2 Daily Internet bundles 3 months 500/= 4,500/=
3 Field assistants 2 research 2,000/= 56,000/=
assistants
4 Printing and binding costs 10 sets 6,000/= 60,000/=
5 Communications 500/= per day 500/= 7,000/=
Total 169,500

31