Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 70

FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

ABSTRACT
A wide variety of systems require reliable personal recognition schemes to either confirm
or determine the identity of an individual requesting their services. The purpose of such schemes
is to ensure that the rendered services are accessed only by a legitimate user, and not anyone
else. Examples of such applications include secure access to buildings, computer systems,
laptops, cellular phones and ATMs. In the absence of robust personal recognition schemes, these
systems are vulnerable to the wiles of an impostor. Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics,
refers to the automatic recognition of individuals based on their physiological and/or behavioral
characteristics. By using biometrics it is possible to confirm or establish an individual’s identity
based on “who she is”, rather than by “what she possesses” (e.g., an ID card) or “what she
remembers” (e.g., a password).

This paper is a study of a fingerprint recognition system based on minutiae based


fingerprint algorithms used in various techniques. This line of track mainly involves extraction of
minutiae points from the model fingerprint images and fingerprint matching based on the number
of minutiae pairings among two fingerprints. This paper also provides the design method of
fingerprint based student attendance with help of GSM. This system ignores the requirement for
stationary materials and personnel for keeping of records.

1
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION
The most common means of tracking student attendance in the classroom is by asking the
students to manually sign the attendance sheet, which is normally passed around the classroom
while the professor is conducting the lecture. The previous approach in which manually taking
and maintains the attendance records was very inconvenient task. After having these issues in
mind, we developed a automatic attendance system which automates the whole process of
taking attendance and maintaining it.

Fingerprint identification is one of the most well known and common biometric identification
system. Because of their uniqueness & consistency over time, fingerprints have been used for
identification over many years, more recently becoming automated due to advancement in computing
capabilities. So, here the fingerprint identification technique was used for maintaining the attendance
record. The record of the fingerprints of various students was maintained in a database.
Fingerprints are one of the main forms in biometric field which used to identify the
individual and their uniqueness. Fingerprint authentication is one of popular authentication
systems in the world. Due to their consistency and uniqueness it is used widely. There are several
sources available for the collection and their established use [1]. In the past, magnetic card
attendance system was widely used. But, this system has lot of bugs in it. The card may be lost or
damaged. This fingerprint attendance system is highly secure and cannot be forged easily. In
recent time, there has been high level of impersonation experienced on a daily basis in both
private and public sectors, the ghost worker syndrome which has become a menace across all
tiers of government, employers concerns over the levels of employee absence in their workforce
and the difficulty in managing student attendance during lecture periods. Fingerprints are a form
of biometric identification which is unique and does not change in one’s entire lifetime. This
paper presents the attendance management system using fingerprint technology in a university
environment. It consists of two processes namely; enrolment and authentication.

During enrolment, the fingerprint of the user is captured and its unique features extracted
and stored in a database along with the users identity as a template for the subject. The unique
features called minutiae points were extracted using the Crossing Number (CN) method which

2
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

extracts the ridge endings and bifurcations from the skeleton image by examining the local
neighborhoods of each ridge pixel using a 3 x 3 window. During authentication, the fingerprint
of the user is captured again and the extracted features compared with the template in the
database to determine a match before attendance is made.

Attendance management system is one of the most advanced applications in biometric


technology. It cannot be forged easily. With the integration and use of biometric technology
getting simpler, many institutions are using down the biometric road to verify the time and
attendance of their students and staffs. The system also contains a GMS Modem, which can be
used to send the attendance information of the students automatically to their parents. The
Embedded system using a small LCD user interface can be interfaced with the computer by
using serial communication interface. The previous papers done were only the fingerprint based
attendance system and a report generation. It does not have any SMS alert to the parents. This
paper is to send SMS alert to parents by means of GSM.

The Fingerprint authentication has many advantages such as very high accuracy, the
most economical biometric PC user authentication technique [2]. It is one of the safest biometric
authentication methods widely used. It is very easy to use. Small storage space required for the
biometric template, reducing the size of the database memory required and it is standardized.

3
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

PURPOSE OF PROJECT
 The purpose of this document is to offer a detailed explanation of attendance
management system by using fingerprint.
 In order to provide a complete and necessary descriptions of the requirements for the
attendance management system , this documents will completely explain all the
functional and non-functional requirements , design decisions, design constraints ,
architectural design and the detailed design needed to implement the system.
 Attendance management system with the purpose of developing the tradition of taking
attendance path to computerized.
 Other purpose is developing this type of software is to generate reports automatically
within a short times. Reports automatically generation may be done in the middle of the
session or at the last of session.
 This system which we are going to design also helpful in protect the proxy which is
almost occurs daily in the class attendance.

Scope of the project or System


Student attendance management system by using fingerprint is developed or designed in order to
replace the manual paper work.
Because of computerized system, its have the lot of benefits that is:
 Free trouble to use.
 fast approach to enter attendance
 Efficient reports
 best user Interface
 highly reliable, approximate result from user
 It is also helpful for parents in knowing the status of their children.
 Specially, this attendance management system is designed to allow the head of proctors
to manage and control by taking the students fingerprint for collecting their daily
attendance.
 Basically project or system scope is a system on which we installed the software .

4
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

 In other words, we can say that it is developed as a desktop application and it will
perform all of the activities of attendance taking for a particular institute like university of
education.

5
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

BLOCK DIAGRAM

6
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Circuit diagram of power supply

7
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF MAIN PROJECT

8
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

WORKING
This project gives you a fingerprint based attendance system with 8051 microcontroller.
The SM630 fingerprint module is used for fingerprint matching. It can store a max of 768
fingerprints. The admin can add/delete records from the PC through the VB application. There is
an infrared LED and photo diode to sense the finger placed over the fingerprint module. All the
attendance details are stored over the PC. The admin can generate reports and also he can print
the reports.

1. Connect the hardware to the PC serial port


2. Switch on the power supply.
3. Open the software with the password “nokia”
4. Select the serial port number on the PC software and click Open
5. You can now ADD/Delete the finger prints from the PC.
6. After ADDing the fingerprint, create a New record with the ID shown on the LCD.
7. You can add records on clicking the “View Records” button
8. You can generate reports by clicking the “View Attendance Records”

9
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

PCB FABRICATION
PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically
connects electronic components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from
copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. PCBs can be single sided (one copper
layer), double sided (two copper layers) or multi-layer (outer and inner layers). Multi-layer PCBs
allow for much higher component density. Conductors on different layers are connected with
plated-through holes called vias. Advanced PCBs may contain components - capacitors, resistors
or active devices - embedded in the substrate.

FR-4 glass epoxy is the primary insulating substrate upon which the vast majority of rigid
PCBs are produced. A thin layer of copper foil is laminated to one or both sides of an FR-4
panel. Circuitry interconnections are etched into copper layers to produce printed circuit boards.
Complex circuits are produced in multiple layers.

Printed circuit boards are used in all but the simplest electronic products. Alternatives to
PCBs include wire wrap and point-to-point construction. PCBs require the additional design
effort to lay out the circuit, but manufacturing and assembly can be automated. Manufacturing
circuits with PCBs is cheaper and faster than with other wiring methods as components are
mounted and wired with one single part. Furthermore, operator wiring errors are eliminated.

When the board has only copper connections and no embedded components, it is more
correctly called a printed wiring board (PWB) or etched wiring board. Although more accurate,
the term printed wiring board has fallen into disuse. A PCB populated with electronic
components is called a printed circuit assembly (PCA), printed circuit board assembly or PCB
assembly (PCBA). The IPC preferred term for assembled boards is circuit card
assembly (CCA),[1] and for assembled backplanes it is backplane assemblies. The term PCB is
used informally both for bare and assembled boards.

10
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

So you’ve spent weeks designing some IoT gadget, the breadboard is packed with countless
jumper wires and you carefully test that it works, hoping that you don’t knock loose any
precarious connectors. Success! Now that you know your design works, you can put it to
use, but wouldn’t it be nice to get rid of all those jumper wires and just have a single self-
contained module on a circuit board?
The good news is that with a few ordinary household supplies (and ferric chloride) you can
make your own custom pcb. Having a pcb to work with instead of a breadboard not only
makes the design look cleaner, but it also makes troubleshooting far simpler than if you had to
dig through a Medusa-like maze of wires to test a voltage. While kits can be purchased to
accomplish the same task using UV transfer sheets and motorized agitators, these kits can cost
a significant chunk of change-- often several hundred dollars at the cheapest.
When we was in college and needed to fabricate PCBs, I didn’t have that kind of
money to spend, so I had to improvise. The following tutorial will demonstrate the process of
fabricating your own PCBs using the toner transfer technique. This technique has been around
for a long time, but there are a number of tips and tricks to this method that are key to making
it a success.

11
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

SUPPLIES NEEDED
 Kicad
 Laser printer (MUST be a laser printer, inkjet will not work)
 Magazines/ catalogs of any kind
 Plastic tubs (two will be fine)
 Small paintbrush or toothbrush
 Clothing iron
 Ferric Chloride
 Copper clad boards

The two items NOT likely to be found in your house are ferric chloride and copper clad
boards; ferric chloride and copper clad boards can usually be found together in places like
Fry’s Electronics, or even your local Radioshack, but we've linked to online suppliers. The
ferric chloride will go for about 16-20 dollars for a liter, but the good news is that you can
reuse it over and over again (which is nice because this isn’t the kind of chemical you can just
throw away).
Copper clad boards will usually be nearby and can be had for as little as a few dollars,
though it is important to make sure you get the plain copper boards as opposed to the pre-
exposed UV sensitive copper clad boards which are to fabricate boards using a different
method.
The magazines or catalogs you are looking for are the kind with semi-shiny paper- this will
make the transfer process much easier. Glossy paper or photo paper from an office supply
store will also work very well, but magazines are free and gloss paper can be pricey for a
package. The rest of the items needed are pretty self explanatory; you don’t have to use Kicad,
there are many other programs that will accomplish the exact same thing, but Kicad is free and
is pretty powerful as far as PCB software goes.

12
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

Safety note about ferric chloride: ferric chloride is a powerful acid that eats away at most
metals, some more violently than others (watch out for aluminum!) but does not eat away at
synthetics like plastic, ink, and nail polish. It is strongly recommended you wear eye
protection when working with this chemical and that you make sure to store it safely, as even
the fumes can corrode metal. Take a look at the bottle:

If the symbols on the bottom of this bottle are not explanatory enough- if you like having skin,
you will want to wear latex or nitrile gloves. In all likelihood you will not be getting any ferric
chloride on your hands at all, but it is important to take precautions. If you do get some on
your skin, wash immediately with soap and COLD water and you will be fine.

13
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

Step 1: Design Your Board

For this tutorial, I will be designing a simple breakout board for the RFM69HW 915MHz
transceiver; the module itself uses 2mm pin spacing, which is finer pitch than a standard
breadboard and makes prototyping more difficult. I will design a breakout board that uses
standard spacing so I can attach a header strip and insert it into any standard breadboard. The
method presented will work for both through-hole and surface-mount components, but for my
purposes this board will be designed as surface mount. In this case the components are not
small, but this process can be used on components as small as MSSOP, which is about as
small can be done by hand.

This tutorial is mainly focused on the process of fabricating the boards, so I won’t go into a
detailed how-to for Kicad, however there are a few things you will want to look out for. After
you open the program you may begin to place components in the same fashion as a spice
program, only in this case you are placing the footprints of the components; as you do this,
make sure the selected layer is “F.Cu” as indicated by the right table in the picture below.

14
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

Everything in red will be printed on the front of the board, and everything in yellow (vias) will
be on both sides, though in this case it is only the front that we care about. When you are
finished with the design, it is time to export it to a PDF. Click the “plot” tool and set the
output to PDF as shown. It is import to make sure you have the “mirrored” option selected,
otherwise when you fabricate the board it will end up backwards.

Step 2: Print your board


Now that the plot is exported, you can print the design. Tear off a page from the magazine and
insert it into the manual feed tray of the laser printer. It doesn’t matter that there is already
something printed on the page; the toner getting onto the page is all we care about. Make sure
that the printed design does not have any blotches or smears; if your design comes out
smudged like the picture below, insert another page and try again.

With your design printed, it is almost time to transfer it to the copper, but first we need
prepare the board. When you take it out of the package it may have a patina on it; buff this off
with steel wool or a scotch-brite pad. You want the board to be very shiny so that the toner
will adhere. After cleaning the board, use a fine piece of sandpaper to lightly rough up the
surface. This is not required, but the roughed up surface can help the toner adhere even better.

15
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

Step 3: Transfer the design

Now take your printed design and place it toner-side down on the copper. Turn on
your iron and wait for it to heat up, placing it on its highest heat setting and lowest steam
setting if available. When the iron is hot, place it on the paper and copper board, but don’t
move the iron around yet. Give it about 30 seconds and you can begin moving the iron around.
Continue ironing for about 2 minutes; this will have melted the toner and caused it to adhere
to the copper board. Now you have to get the paper removed (this is a very delicate step,
patience will be rewarded): take the board/paper and drop it in a tub of cold water.
The water will penetrate the paper, making it weak and allowing you to very carefully
peel/rub away the paper, leaving a clean copper board with a black toner imprint. If you have
toner peeling off at this point, it means that you did not get the board hot enough and will need
to try again, leving the iron on for longer. Alternatively, a friend of mine who owns an
electronics parts store in town came up with a novel idea for making the transfer if you have
access to a laminator machine: place the magazine paper and the copper board into the

16
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

laminator and let it pull the two through together. Run them through a couple times and you
will end up will a very good transfer after soaking the board.

Step 4: Etch the copper

This is where the fun starts: go outside or into another well-ventilated area and pour
the ferric chloride into a plastic tub. The hotter the ferric chloride is, the faster the reaction
will go, so if it is a hot day, leave the bottle out in the sun before you start making the board
and by the time you get to this step it will have gotten hot. To make handling the board easier
and safer, I usually drill a hole and insert a wire to use as a handle, but this is not required.
Before you drop the board into the acid, take note of its orientation; if you have a double sided
board and are not using the back, place the board in with the back side facing down.
Whichever side faces down will be eaten away faster and you want to make sure you have no

17
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

copper left on the back. After dropping the board in, gently brush the circuit side of the board;
this will help the copper etch more quickly and evenly.
The process will take quite some time: you most likely won’t even see any copper start
disappearing for about 8 minutes. Gradually the acid will have eaten away at the copper from
the outside-in, and you can begin to see progress. If your board is large, it will take longer, but
normally by around 20 minutes, the board will have etched all the way to the center and you
have to remove the board and drop it in a tube of water and soap, neutralizing the acid. Here
you can see my blue tub of water and soap ready to receive the etched board:

After cleaning the board, you should end up with a clean board with only the black toner on
the protected copper as shown below.

Use the steel wool again to scrape away the toner, exposing the copper traces.

18
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

After trimming any excess parts of the board, you should be left with a fresh PCB ready to be
soldered. Double check all the traces to make sure that none have been broken in the process.
If you are making a through-hole PCB, use a very small drill bit to drill out your vias.
Congratulations, you’re ready to solder parts to your board!

This method will help you print PCBs on a budget, or if you need them in a hurry;
however an engineering student would also do well to know that these days there are a few
places around online that are willing to make PCBs in as few as a 5 unit order.
OSHPark and Tinyos Shop are based in China and will fabricate PCBs for you for as little as
20 dollars depending on the size of your board. They are a great resource if you want to make
many boards, or want a silkscreen printed. You will still need to design your board on Kicad,
but you can send the files to either of these two companies and within two weeks you should
receive the boards, ready to solder. The disadvantage to this is that if you made a mistake in
your design, you have five bad boards and you have to wait another two weeks to get new
ones. With this in mind it is a good idea to print a prototype board using the above method; if
it works as expected, you can order the PCBs with peace of mind.

19
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION
FINGERPRINT MODULE SM630
Integrated fingerprint module, compact, low cost and special for fingerprint door lock,
fingerprint safe box application
SM630 background highlight optical fingerprint verification module. It consists of optical
fingerprint sensor, high performance DSP processor and Flash. It boasts of functions such as
fingerprint Login, fingerprint deletion, fingerprint verification, fingerprint upload, fingerprint
download, etc

20
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

Features of SM630
● Self-proprietary Intellectual Property
Optical fingerprint collection device, module hardware and fingerprint algorithm
are all self developed by Miaxis.
● High Adaptation to Fingerprints
When reading fingerprint images, it has self-adaptive parameter adjustment
mechanism, which improves imaging quality for both dry and wet fingers. It can
be applied to wider public.
● Low Cost
Module adopts Miaxis’ optical fingerprint collection device, which dramatically
lowers the overall cost.
● Algorithm with Excellent Performance
SM630 module algorithm is specially designed according to the image generation
theory of the optical fingerprint collection device. It has excellent correction &
tolerance to deformed and poor-quality fingerprint.
● Easy to Use and Expand
User does not have to have professional know-how in fingerprint verification.
User can easily develop powerful fingerprint verification application systems
based on the rich collection of controlling command provided by SM630 module.
All the commands are simple, practical and easy for development.
● Low Power Consumption
Operation current <80mA, specially good for battery power occasions.

● Integrated Design
Fingerprint processing components and fingerprint collection components are
integrated in the same module. The size is small. And there are only 4 cables
connecting with HOST, much easier for installation and use.
● Perfect Technical Support
Miaxis is the leading company in the fingerprint verification industry. It has an
excellent customer service team ready to offer powerful technical support in user
development.

21
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

Technical Specifications of SM630


Operating Voltage:
4.3V~6V
Rating Voltage:
6.5V(exceeding this value will cause permanent damage to the module)

Operating Current:

<80mA(Input voltage 5V)

Fingerprint Template:

768 templates

Search Time:

<1.5s(200 fingerprint, average value in test)

Power-on Time:

<200ms(Time lapse between module power-on to module ready to receive


instructions)

Tolerated Angle Offset:

±45°

User Flash Memory:

64KByte
Interface Protocol:
Standard serial interface (TTL level)
Communication Baud Rate:
57600bps
Operating Environment:
Temperature: -10℃~+40℃
Relative humidity: 40%RH~85%RH(no dew)

22
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

AT89C52 MICROCONTROLLER
The AT89C52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 8K bytes of
Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured
using Atmel’s high density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry
standard 80C51 and 80C52 instruction set and pinout. The on-chip Flash allows the program
memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer.
By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C52 is a
powerful microcomputer which provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many
embedded control applications.

The AT89C52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of
RAM, 32 I/O lines, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a
full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89C52 is
designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software
selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM,
timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power Down Mode
saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next
hardware reset.

23
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

Pin Description:
Pin No Function Name
1 External count input to Timer/Counter 2, clock-out T2 P1.0
Timer/Counter 2 capture/reload trigger and direction
2 T2 EX P1.1
control
3 P1.2
4 P1.3
5 P1.4
8 bit input/output port (P1) pins
6 P1.5
7 P1.6
8 P1.7
9 Reset pin; Active high Reset
Input (receiver) for serial
10 RxD P3.0
communication
Output (transmitter) for serial
11 TxD P3.1
communication
12 External interrupt 1 Int0 8 bit input/output P3.2
13 External interrupt 2 Int1 port (P3) pins P3.3
14 Timer1 external input T0 P3.4
15 Timer2 external input T1 P3.5
16 Write to external data memory Write P3.6
17 Read from external data memory Read P3.7
18 Crystal 2
Quartz crystal oscillator (up to 24 MHz)
19 Crystal 1
20 Ground (0V) Ground
21 P2.0/ A8
22 P2.1/ A9
23 8 bit input/output port (P2) pins P2.2/ A10
24 / P2.3/ A11
25 High-order address bits when interfacing with external memory P2.4/ A12
26 P2.5/ A13
27 P2.6/ A14
28 P2.7/ A15
29 Program store enable; Read from external program memory PSEN
Address Latch Enable ALE
30
Program pulse input during Flash programming Prog
External Access Enable; Vcc for internal program executions EA
31
Programming enable voltage; 12V (during Flash programming) Vpp
32 P0.7/ AD7
33 P0.6/ AD6
34 8 bit input/output port (P0) pins P0.5/ AD5
35 P0.4/ AD4
36 Low-order address bits when interfacing with external memory P0.3/ AD3
37 P0.2/ AD2
38 P0.1/ AD1
39 P0.0/ AD0
40 Supply voltage; 5V (up to 6.6V) Vcc

24
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

MAX232

The MAX232 IC is used to convert the TTL/CMOS logic levels to RS232 logic levels during
serial communication of microcontrollers with PC. The controller operates at TTL logic level (0-
5V) whereas the serial communication in PC works on RS232 standards (-25 V to + 25V). This
makes it difficult to establish a direct link between them to communicate with each other.

The intermediate link is provided through MAX232. It is a dual driver/receiver that includes a
capacitive voltage generator to supply RS232 voltage levels from a single 5V supply. Each
receiver converts RS232 inputs to 5V TTL/CMOS levels. These receivers (R1 & R2) can accept
±30V inputs. The drivers (T1 & T2), also called transmitters, convert the TTL/CMOS input level
into RS232 level.

The transmitters take input from controller’s serial transmission pin and send the output to
RS232’s receiver. The receivers, on the other hand, take input from transmission pin of RS232
serial port and give serial output to microcontroller’s receiver pin. MAX232 needs four external
capacitors whose value ranges from 1µF to 22µF.

Microcontroller MAX232 RS232


Tx T1/2 In T1/2 Out Rx
Rx R1/2 Out R1/2 In Tx

Several devices collect data from sensors and need to send it to another unit, like a computer, for
further processing. Data transfer/communication is generally done in two ways: parallel and
serial. In the parallel mode, data transfer is fast and uses more number of lines. This mode is
good for short range data transfer.
Serial communication on the other hand, uses only one or two data lines to transfer data and is
generally used for long distance communication. In serial communication the data is sent as one
bit at a time. This article describes the interfacing of 8051 microcontroller (AT89C51) with a
computer via serial port, RS232. Serial communication is commonly used in applications such as
industrial automation systems, scientific analysis and certain consumer products.

In embedded systems, it is often required to communicate with other peripherals


like GSM, GPS and even PC. Various protocols like I2C, SPI, BLUETOOTH, WI-FI etc. are

25
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

used for this purpose. Serial communication using RS232 protocol is the most common and
widely used protocol in embedded systems. In this section, we will explain basics of serial
communication and how to communicate with PC using RS232 protocol. LPC2148 controller
from Philips of ARM7 family is used in this section.

Communication between two entities is important for the information flow to take place. In
general the information transport system can be parallel in which the complete byte of data is
sent at a time, with each bit having a separate dedicated line or it can be serial where only one
communication line is available which is shared by all the bits sequentially. The pros and cons of
these two systems are equivalent and selection between the two depends on the application.

Data can be exchanged using parallel or serial techniques. Setup for parallel data transfer is not
cost effective but is a very fast method of communication. Serial communication is cost effective
because it requires only a single line of connection but on the other hand is a slow process in
comparison to parallel communication. This article explains serial communication of 8051
microcontroller (AT89C52) with PC. The data is transmitted from the controller using RS232
standard and displayed on the PC using Hyper Terminal.

26
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

LM358 Dual low power operational amplifier


Utilizing the circuit designs perfected for recently introduced Quad Operational Amplifiers, these
dual operational amplifiers feature 1) low power drain, 2) a common mode input voltage range
extending to ground/VEE, 3) single supply or split supply operation and 4) pinouts compatible
with the popular MC1558 dual operational amplifier. The LM158 series is equivalent to one–half
of an LM124.

These amplifiers have several distinct advantages over standard operational amplifier types in
single supply applications. They can operate at supply voltages as low as 3.0 V or as high as 32
V, with quiescent currents about one–fifth of those associated with the MC1741 (on a per
amplifier basis). The common mode input range includes the negative supply, thereby
eliminating the necessity for external biasing components in many applications. The output
voltage range also includes the negative power supply voltage.

 Short Circuit Protected Outputs


 True Differential Input Stage
 Single Supply Operation: 3.0 V to 32 V
 Low Input Bias Currents
 Internally Compensated
 Common Mode Range Extends to Negative Supply
 Single and Split Supply Operation
 Similar Performance to the Popular MC1558
 ESD Clamps on the Inputs Increase Ruggedness of the Device without Affecting
Operation

27
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

GSM MODEM
GSM/GPRS module is used to establish communication between a computer and a GSM-
GPRS system. Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) is an architecture used for
mobile communication in most of the countries. Global Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is an
extension of GSM that enables higher data transmission rate. GSM/GPRS module consists of a
GSM/GPRS modem assembled together with power supply circuit and communication
interfaces (like RS-232, USB, etc) for computer. The MODEM is the soul of such modules.

Wireless MODEMs
Wireless MODEMs are the MODEM devices that generate, transmit or decode data from a
cellular network, for establishing communication between the cellular network and the computer.
These are manufactured for specific cellular network (GSM/UMTS/CDMA) or specific cellular
data standard (GSM/UMTS/GPRS/EDGE/HSDPA) or technology (GPS/SIM). Wireless
MODEMs like other MODEM devices use serial communication to interface with and
need Hayes compatible AT commands for communication with the computer (any
microprocessor or microcontroller system).

28
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

GSM/GPRS MODEM
GSM/GPRS MODEM is a class of wireless MODEM devices that are designed for
communication of a computer with the GSM and GPRS network. It requires a SIM (Subscriber
Identity Module) card just like mobile phones to activate communication with the network.
Also they have IMEI(International Mobile Equipment Identity) number similar to mobile
phones for their identification. A GSM/GPRS MODEM can perform the following operations:

1. Receive, send or delete SMS messages in a SIM.


2. Read, add, search phonebook entries of the SIM.
3. Make, Receive, or reject a voice call.

The MODEM needs AT commands, for interacting with processor or controller, which are
communicated through serial communication. These commands are sent by the
controller/processor. The MODEM sends back a result after it receives a command. Different AT
commands supported by the MODEM can be sent by the processor/controller/computer to
interact with the GSM and GPRS cellular network.

29
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

GSM/GPRS Module

A GSM/GPRS module assembles a GSM/GPRS modem with standard communication


interfaces like RS-232 (Serial Port), USB etc., so that it can be easily interfaced with a computer
or a microprocessor / microcontroller based system. The power supply circuit is also built in the
module that can be activated by using a suitable adaptor.

30
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

Mobile Station (Cell phones and SIM)


A mobile phone and Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) together form a mobile station. It is the
user equipment that communicates with the mobile network. A mobile phone comprises of
Mobile Termination, Terminal Equipment and Terminal Adapter.

Mobile Termination is interfaced with the GSM mobile network and is controlled by a
baseband processor. It handles access to SIM, speech encoding and decoding, signaling and other
network related tasks. The Terminal Equipment is an application processor that deals with
handling operations related to keypad, screen, phone memory and other hardware and software
services embedded into the handset. The Terminal Adapterestablishes communication between
the Terminal Equipment and the Mobile Termination using AT commands. The communication
with the network in a GSM/GPRS mobile is carried out by the baseband processor.

Difference between GSM mobile and GSM/GPRS module


A GSM mobile is a complete system in itself with embedded processors that are dedicated to
provide an interface between the user and the mobile network. The AT commands are served
between the processors of the mobile termination and the terminal equipment. The mobile
handset can also be equipped with a USB interface to connect with a computer, but it may or
may not support AT commands from the computer or an external processor/controller.

31
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

The GSM/GPRS module, on the other hand, always needs a computer or external
processor/controller to receive AT commands from. GSM/GPRS module itself does not provide
any interface between the user and the network, but the computer to which module is connected
is the interface between user and network.

An advantage that GSM/GPRS modules offer is that they support concatenated SMS which may
not be supported in some GSM mobile handsets. Also some mobile handsets can’t receive MMS
when connected to a computer.

Applications of GSM/GPRS module


The GSM/GPRS module demonstrates the use of AT commands. They can feature all the
functionalities of a mobile phone through computer like making and receiving calls, SMS, MMS
etc. These are mainly employed for computer based SMS and MMS services.

AT Commands
AT commands are used to control MODEMs. AT is the abbreviation for Attention. These
commands come from Hayes commands that were used by the Hayes smart modems. The Hayes
commands started with AT to indicate the attention from the MODEM. The dial up and wireless
MODEMs (devices that involve machine to machine communication) need AT commands to
interact with a computer. These include the Hayes command set as a subset, along with other
extended AT commands.

AT commands with a GSM/GPRS MODEM or mobile phone can be used to access following
information and services:
1. Information and configuration pertaining to mobile device or MODEM and SIM card.
2. SMS services.
3. MMS services.
4. Fax services.
5. Data and Voice link over mobile network.

32
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

The Hayes subset commands are called the basic commands and the commands specific to a
GSM network are called extended AT commands.

Command, Information response and Result Codes:


The AT commands are sent by the computer to the MODEM/ mobile phone. The MODEM sends
back an Information Response i.e. the information requested by or pertaining to the action
initiated by the AT command. This is followed by a Result Code. The result code tells about the
successful execution of that command.

Execution of AT Commands

There are also unsolicited Result Codes that are returned automatically by the MODEM to notify
the occurrence of an event. For example the reception of a SMS will force MODEM to return an
unsolicited result code.

Interfacing MODEM/Mobile phone with Windows platform

33
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

The Windows (XP and lower versions) comes with an application called HyperTerminal for
data communication through serial port of the computer. The interfacing of the GSM/GPRS
module with the serial port of the computer involves following steps:

1) Connect RS-232 port of GSM module with the serial port of the computer. Insert a SIM card
in the module.
2) Open HyperTerminal from Start -> All Programs -> Accessories -> Communications -
> HyperTerminal.
3) Enter a name for the connection and press OK.
4) Now select the communication port (COM) at which GSM module is connected.
5) Create a new connection set on HyperTerminal. Set parameters, like baud rate as 9600,
handshaking mode as none, parity bit as none, stop bit as 1 and data bit as 8.

34
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

TRANSFORMER
A transformer is an apparatus for converting electrical power in an ac system at one
voltage or current into electrical power at some other voltage or current without the use of
rotating parts. Transformers have been an essential component in electrical as well as electronic
circuits. Apart from stepping up or stepping down the voltages, they are used for providing
isolation, for impedance mismatch and so on. Development of new technologies has reduced the
usage of transformers, but still they are quite vital in many applications.
Transformers are of many types and are used as per specific requirements. In addition to the
transformers used in power systems, in power transmission and distribution, a large number of
special transformers are in use in applications like electronic supplies, furnaces, traction, audio
applications, RF and microwave circuits, etc. Subsequent sections will present details about the
transformers.

What is a TRANSFORMER ?
A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy at one voltage from
one circuit to other at a different voltage merely by magnetic coupling; the transfer of energy
doesn’t involve any kind of motion.
Transformers are analogous to gear box (used to convert torque and hence speed). Transformers
step up or step down the voltage and therefore vary the current. As the product of speed and
torque remains constant, product of voltage and current also remains constant.
Transformers utilises the principle of electromagnetism given by Faraday’s law. A conductor
carrying changing current carrying sets up a changing magnetic field around it. When a second
conductor is placed in this varying magnetic field, voltage will be induced into it. Get a clearer
picture about transformers through exclusive images detailing about its internal structure and
windings at the transformer insight page.

35
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

When an AC voltage is applied to one (primary) coil, the varying magnetic field is set up
around the coil. By virtue of mutual induction, it creates an AC voltage in the other (secondary)
coil. A transformer can also be used with pulsating dc, but a pure dc voltage cannot be used,
since only a varying voltage creates the varying magnetic field which is the basis of the mutual
induction process.
An ideal transformer has infinite winding reactance, zero winding resistance, zero leakage
inductance and zero winding capacitances. Voltage ratio is equal to the turns ratio under all
loading conditions.

Transformer is an electrical device used to step up and down the AC voltages. There are
two types of transformers: Step up and step down transformer. Step up transformer increases the
magnitude of voltage while step down transformer decrease the magnitude of voltage.
Depending on the ratio of the number of turns in the primary & secondary winding a transformer
is characterized as step up or step down. Click to learn more about transformer.
The metal body is known as transformer’s core. It is specially designed to reduce eddy current
and hysteresis losses.
The outer winding shown in the above image is the secondary winding. It is covered with an
insulating paper. The output is taken from this winding.

36
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

16 X 2 LCD MODULE
LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen is an electronic display module and find a wide
range of applications. A 16x2 LCD display is very basic module and is very commonly used in
various devices and circuits. These modules are preferred over seven segments and other multi
segment LEDs. The reasons being: LCDs are economical; easily programmable; have no
limitation of displaying special & even custom characters (unlike in seven
segments), animations and so on.
A 16x2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2 such lines. In this
LCD each character is displayed in 5x7 pixel matrix. This LCD has two registers, namely,
Command and Data.
The command register stores the command instructions given to the LCD. A command is
an instruction given to LCD to do a predefined task like initializing it, clearing its screen, setting
the cursor position, controlling display etc. The data register stores the data to be displayed on
the LCD. The data is the ASCII value of the character to be displayed on the LCD. Click to learn
more about internal structure of a LCD.

37
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

Pin Description: 16x2 LCD Module

Pin
Function Name
No
1 Ground (0V) Ground
2 Supply voltage; 5V (4.7V – 5.3V) Vcc
3 Contrast adjustment; through a variable resistor VEE
4 Selects command register when low; and data register when high Register Select
5 Low to write to the register; High to read from the register Read/write
6 Sends data to data pins when a high to low pulse is given Enable
7 DB0
8 DB1
9 DB2
10 DB3
8-bit data pins
11 DB4
12 DB5
13 DB6
14 DB7
15 Backlight VCC (5V) Led+
16 Backlight Ground (0V) Led-

LCD, an acronym for Liquid Crystal Display revolutionized the modern display technology with
its compactness and versatility. Today it is seen embedded in various electronic gadgets and
devices like T.V., Computers, Laptops, Watches, etc. A Liquid crystal coating is the heart of the
display which is sandwiched between two polarized glasses.

LCD’s are available in various shapes and sizes depending on the configurations. A 16x2
LCD shown in the image below can display 32 characters with 16 characters in each row. It is
capable to display any character with ASCII values ranging from 0 to 255.
In the backside of LCD, a PCB is attached which contains the required circuitry to
process the signals. The key component of the circuitry is a controller and memory in the form
of COB IC.
It is very important to keep a track of the working of almost all the automated and semi-
automated devices, be it a washing machine, an autonomous robot or anything else. This is
achieved by displaying their status on a small display module. LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)

38
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

screen is such a display module and a 16x2 LCD module is very commonly used. These modules
are replacing seven segments and other multi segment LEDs for these purposes. The reasons
being: LCDs are economical, easily programmable, have no limitation of displaying special &
even custom characters (unlike in seven segments), animations and so on. LCD can be easily
interfaced with a microcontroller to display a message or status of a device. This topic explains
the basics of a 16x2 LCD and how it can be interfaced with AT89C51 to display a character.

39
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

RESISTANCE
Resistor is a passive component used to control current in a circuit. Its resistance is given by the
ratio of voltage applied across its terminals to the current passing through it. Thus a particular
value of resistor, for fixed voltage, limits the current through it. They are omnipresent in
electronic circuits.

The different value of resistances are used to limit the currents or get the desired voltage drop
according to the current-voltage rating of the device to be connected in the circuit. For example,
if an LED of rating 2.3V and 6mA is to be connected with a supply of 5V, a voltage drop of 2.7V
(5V-2.3V) and limiting current of 6mA is required. This can be achieved by providing a resistor
of 450 connected in series with the LED.

Resistors can be either fixed or variable. The low power resistors are comparatively smaller in
size than high power resistors. The resistance of a resistor can be estimated by their colour codes
or can be measured by a multimeter. There are some non linear resistors also whose resistance
changes with temperature or light. Negative temperature coefficient (NTC), positive temperature
coefficient (PTC) and light dependent resistor (LDR) are some such resistors. These special
resistors are commonly used as sensors. Read and learn about internal structure and working of
a resistor.

What is a Resistor?
An electric resistor is a two-terminal passive component specifically used to oppose and limit
current. A resistor works on the principle of Ohm’s Law which states that voltage across the
terminals of a resistor is directly proportional to the current flowing through it.
Ohm’s Law: V = IR
where V is the voltage applied across resistor,
I is the current flowing through it,
and R is the constant called resistance.
The unit of resistance is ohms.

40
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

Types of Resistors:
Resistors can be broadly classified based on the following criteria: the type of material used, the
power rating and resistance value.
Fixed resistors.
In some scenarios, an electrical circuit may need a lesser amount of current to flow through it
than the input value. Fixed resistors are used in these situations to limit the flow of current.

Carbon Composition Resistors:


These resistors are cylindrical rods which are a mixture of carbon granules and powdered
ceramic. The resistor value depends on the composition of the ceramic material. A higher
quantity of ceramic content will result in more resistance. Since the rod is coated with an
insulated material, there are chances of damage due to excessive heat caused by soldering.

High current and voltage can also damage the resistor. These factors bring irreversible changes
in the resistance power of these resistors. Thistype of resistor is rarely used nowadays due to
their high cost and are only preferred in power supply and welding circuits.

Carbon film resistors:


This resistor is formed by depositing a carbon film layer on an insulating substrate. Helical cuts
are then made through the carbon film to trace a long and helical resistive path. The resistance
can be varied by using different resistivity carbon material and modifying the shape of the
resistor. The helical resistive path make these resistors highly inductive and of little use for RF
applications.
41
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

They exhibit a temperature coefficient between -100 and -900 ppm/ °C. The carbon film is
protected either by a conformal epoxy coating or a ceramic tube. The operation of
these resistors requires high pulse stability.

42
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

CAPACITOR
Capacitor is a passive component used to store charge. The charge (q) stored in a
capacitor is the product of its capacitance (C) value and the voltage (V) applied to it. Capacitors
offer infinite reactance to zero frequency so they are used for blocking DC components or
bypassing the AC signals. The capacitor undergoes through a recursive cycle of charging and
discharging in AC circuits where the voltage and current across it depends on the RC time
constant. For this reason, capacitors are used for smoothing power supply variations. Other uses
include, coupling the various stages of audio system, tuning in radio circuits etc. These are used
to store energy like in a camera flash.

Capacitors may be non-polarized/polarized and fixed/variable. Electrolytic capacitors are


polarized while ceramic and paper capacitors are examples of non polarized capacitors. Since
capacitors store charge, they must be carefully discharged before troubleshooting the circuits.
The maximum voltage rating of the capacitors used must always be greater than the supply
voltage. Click to learn more about working of a capacitor along with its internal structure.

What is a Capacitor?
A capacitor is a passive two terminal component which stores electric charge. This
component consists of two conductors which are separated by a dielectric medium. The potential
difference when applied across the conductors polarizes the dipole ions to store the charge in the
dielectric medium. The circuit symbol of a capacitor is shown below:

The capacitance or the potential storage by the capacitor is measured in Farads which is
symbolized as ‘F’. One Farad is the capacitance when one coulomb of electric charge is stored in
the conductor on the application of one volt potential difference.
The charge stored in a capacitor is given by
Q = CV
Where Q - charge stored by the capacitor
C - Capacitance value of the capacitor

43
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

V - Voltage applied across the capacitor


Note the other formula of current, I = dQ/dt
Taking the derivative with respect to time,
dQ/dt = d(CV)/dt
From the above statement, we can express the equation as
I = C (dV/dt)
As you turn on the power supply, the current begins to flow through the capacitor
inducing the positive and negative potentials across its plates. The capacitor continues to charge
until the capacitor voltage equalizes up to the supply voltage which is called as the charging
phase of the capacitor. Once the capacitor is fully charged at the end of this phase, it gets open
circuited for DC. It begins to discharge when the power of the capacitor is switched off. The
charging and discharging of the capacitor is given by a time constant.
The voltage across the capacitor is given by

Capacitors are widely used in a variety of applications of electronic circuits such as


 store charges such as in a camera flash circuit
 smoothing the output of power supply circuits
 coupling of two stages of a circuit (coupling of an audio stage with a loud speaker)
 filter networks(tone control of an audio system)
 delay applications (as in 555 timer IC controlling the charging and discharging)
 tuning radios to particular frequencies
 phase alteration.

The conductors offer a series resistance and if the capacitor is constructed using tubular structure
then some inductance is also induced. The dielectric medium between the plates has an electric
field strength limit and also passes a small amount of leakage current which results into a
Breakdown voltage.

44
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

There are different types of capacitors; they can be fixed or variable. They are categorized into
two groups, polarized or non-polarized. Electrolytic capacitors are polarized. Most of the low
value capacitors are non-polarized. The symbol of capacitors from each group is shown below:

45
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

VARIABLE RESISTANCE PRESET


A preset is a three legged electronic component which can be made to offer varying
resistance in a circuit. The resistance is varied by adjusting the rotary control over it. The
adjustment can be done by using a small screw driver or a similar tool. The resistance does not
vary linearly but rather varies in exponential or logarithmic manner. Such variable resistors are
commonly used for adjusting sensitivity along with a sensor.

The variable resistance is obtained across the single terminal at front and one of the two
other terminals. The two legs at back offer fixed resistance which is divided by the front leg. So
whenever only the back terminals are used, a preset acts as a fixed resistor. Presets are specified
by their fixed value resistance.

Preset is a small variable resistor generally used to provide a variable resistance in a


circuit in order to tune the circuit. They are directly mounted on the PCBs. A screwdriver or
similar tool is required to adjust them.
A 20K-ohm metal preset is shown in the image above i.e. the maximum value of
resistance that we can give in a circuit by using this preset is 20k ohm.
The rectangular space between the cover of the preset is used to rotate it on the track.
Upper side of the cover has a slight curved dent which connects the resistive strip with third leg
(upper leg) of the potentiometer.

46
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

LED Light Emitting Diode


Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are semiconductor light sources. The light emitted
from LEDs varies from visible to infrared and ultraviolet regions. They operate on low voltage
and power. LEDs are one of the most common electronic components and are mostly used as
indicators in circuits. They are also used for luminance and optoelectronic applications.
Based on semiconductor diode, LEDs emit photons when electrons recombine with holes
on forward biasing. The two terminals of LEDs are anode (+) and cathode (-) and can be
identified by their size. The longer leg is the positive terminal or anode and shorter one is
negative terminal.
The forward voltage of LED (1.7V-2.2V) is lower than the voltage supplied (5V) to drive
it in a circuit. Using an LED as such would burn it because a high current would destroy its p-n
gate. Therefore a current limiting resistor is used in series with LED. Without this resistor, either
low input voltage (equal to forward voltage) or PWM (pulse width modulation) is used to drive
the LED. Get details about internal structure of a LED.
The dazzling Water Cube swimming arena at last summer's Beijing Olympics was lit up
by around half a million LEDs. Famous Bridges, buildings and hotels are opting LEDs for their
exquisite night lighting and general illumination too. Why there is this sudden rage for the tiny
LED?
A little light emitter, a well renowned indicator that faithfully served in the display units
of calculators, digital watches, and mobile phones for years is now geared up to enlighten the day
to day life.
Yes, the tiny LED is all set to light our lives. It has taken a giant leap, from being a humble
indicator to on the way to monopolize the lighting market. Years of research has brought LEDs
to this advanced stage.

LED have come of age of traffic signals, indicators and other automotive applications,
they now deserve serious consideration to replace conventional incandescent and compact
fluorescent bulbs. When the drift of going green and energy efficiency is on the globe, it’s high
time to make way for energy efficient lighting solutions in place of traditional incandescent
sources that are only around 10% of energy is converted to visible light. Also Incandescent and
CFLs release a huge 80-90% of energy as heat. On the other hand there is no such energy loss in

47
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

case of LEDs and they use much less energy than these traditional sources. LEDs are extensively
used in the green building concept. Click to read more about green buildings.
Solid-State Lighting (SSL), the term refers to the use of Light Emitting Diode for lighting
applications. No wire filaments or gases but semiconductor technology is employed to produce
light from electricity.

HISTORY
Let us look at this journey of LEDs through which they triumphed over the Lighting world.
It was 1962, when Nick Holonyak Jr. invented first visible led, emitting red light, while working
at General Electric. As the light output of these LED’s was not enough to illuminate the
surrounding area, but were good enough to be used as indicators and hence Indicators, seven
segment displays were some initial applications followed by being used in appliances such as
calculators, watches, TV, telephones.

With the help of similar alloys, more colours green, yellow were manufactured by mid 1970’s.
The ongoing research in LED technology brought superior ones with improved efficiency and
light output. In early 1980’s LED were being used for messages and other outdoor applications.
They used less power and were ten times brighter than previous ones.
With improved performance, applications and market penetration began to rise. By early 1990’s
High brightness LED packages were developed and were widespread used in Traffic lights.

A remarkable milestone was achieved in mid 1990’s when Dr.Shuji Nakamura of Nichia
chemical Corporation invented high brightness GaN blue LED. It was this LED that paved path
for the development of white LED when coated with phosphor. By this technique white LED’s
were produced by 1993.
This was the pre phase of the giant leap of LEDs, which made it possible to use them for
illumination by invention and development of high power white light LEDs.
Today LEDs have reached performance levels far exceeding previous projections. Market
expectations have increased and a wide range of applications including facade lighting, general
purpose illumination.

48
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

RS232 COMMUNICATION PORT CONNECTOR

In telecommunications, RS-232 is a standard for serial communication transmission of


data. It formally defines the signals connecting between a DTE (data terminal equipment) such
as a computer terminal, and a DCE (data circuit-terminating equipment, originally defined
as data communication equipment[1]), such as a modem. The RS-232 standard is commonly used
in computer serial ports. The standard defines the electrical characteristics and timing of signals,
the meaning of signals, and the physical size and pinout of connectors. The current version of the
standard is TIA-232-F Interface Between Data Terminal Equipment and Data Circuit-
Terminating Equipment Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange, issued in 1997.

An RS-232 serial port was once a standard feature of a personal computer, used for
connections to modems, printers, mice, data storage, uninterruptible power supplies, and other
peripheral devices. However, RS-232 is hampered by low transmission speed, large voltage
swing, and large standard connectors. In modern personal computers, USBhas displaced RS-232
from most of its peripheral interface roles. Many computers do not come equipped with RS-232
ports and must use either an external USB-to-RS-232 converter or an internal expansion card
with one or more serial ports to connect to RS-232 peripherals. Nevertheless, RS-232 devices are
still used, especially in industrial machines, networking equipment and scientific instruments.

The Serial Port is harder to interface than the Parallel Port. In most cases, any device you
connect to the serial port will need the serial transmission converted back to parallel so that it can

49
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

be used. This can be done using a UART. On the software side of things, there are many more
registers that you have to attend to than on a Standard Parallel Port. (SPP)
So what are the advantages of using serial data transfer rather than parallel?

1. Serial Cables can be longer than Parallel cables. The serial port transmits a '1' as -3 to -25 volts
and a '0' as +3 to +25 volts where as a parallel port transmits a '0' as 0v and a '1' as 5v.
Therefore the serial port can have a maximum swing of 50V compared to the parallel port
which has a maximum swing of 5 Volts. Therefore cable loss is not going to be as much of a
problem for serial cables than they are for parallel.
2. You don't need as many wires than parallel transmission. If your device needs to be mounted a
far distance away from the computer then 3 core cable (Null Modem Configuration) is going
to be a lot cheaper that running 19 or 25 core cable. However you must take into account the
cost of the interfacing at each end.
3. Infra Red devices have proven quite popular recently. You may of seen many electronic
diaries and palmtop computers which have infra red capabilities build in. However could you
imagine transmitting 8 bits of data at the one time across the room and being able to (from the
devices point of view) decipher which bits are which? Therefore serial transmission is used
where one bit is sent at a time. IrDA-1 (The first infra red specifications) was capable of
115.2k baud and was interfaced into a UART. The pulse length however was cut down to
3/16th of a RS232 bit length to conserve power considering these devices are mainly used on
diaries, laptops and palmtops.
4. Microcontroller's have also proven to be quite popular recently. Many of these have in built
SCI (Serial Communications Interfaces) which can be used to talk to the outside world. Serial
Communication reduces the pin count of these MPU's. Only two pins are commonly used,
Transmit Data (TXD) and Receive Data (RXD) compared with at least 8 pins if you use a 8 bit
Parallel method (You may also require a Strobe).

50
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

PROGRAMMING AND SOFTWARE IDEA


SOFTWARE
BASCOM-8051® is a Windows BASIC COMPILER for the 8051 family.
It is designed to run on all versions of MS Windows (W9x, NT, 2000, ME, XP, Vista and 7
(32&64-bit)) and has all the features of BASCOM LT.
In addition it has full support for arrays and the single floating point type.
Key Benefits
 Structured BASIC with labels.
 Structured programming with IF-THEN-ELSE-END IF, DO-LOOP, WHILE-WEND,
SELECT- CASE.
 Fast machine code instead of interpreted code.
 Variables and labels can be as long as 32 characters.
 Bit, Byte, Integer, Word, Long, Single and String variables.
 Compiled programs work with any 8051 uP such as AT89C1051, AT89C2051, 8031,
8032, 8051, 8052, 80552, 80535 and 80537 m Processors.
 Statements are highly compatible with Microsoft's VB/QB.
 Special commands for LCD-displays , I2C chips and 1WIRE chips.
 Integrated terminal emulator with download option..
 Integrated simulator for testing.
 Integrated flash programmer and support for SPI, PG2051, PG302, SE512, SE514,
TAFE. (hardware can be purchased separately)
 Editor with statement highlighting.
 Context sensitive help.
 For compatibility with BASCOM LT, there is also a 32-bit version of the BASCOM LT
compiler.

51
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

52
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

Microcontroller program
'--------------------------------------------------------------
' (c) Fingerprint security system
'--------------------------------------------------------------
' file: Fingerprint security system
'--------------------------------------------------------------
$large
$baud = 57600
$crystal = 11059200
Config Lcd = 16 * 2

Add_fin Alias P1.0


Delete_fin Alias P1.1

Up_btn Alias P1.2


Down_btn Alias P1.3

Buzzer Alias P0.7

Leds Alias P3.5

Config Lcdpin = Pin , Db4 = P0.2 , Db5 = P0.3 , Db6 = P0.4 , Db7 = P0.5 , E = P0.1 , Rs = P0.0
'Config Lcdpin = Pin , Db4 = P1.5 , Db5 = P1.4 , Db6 = P1.3 , Db7 = P1.2 , E = P1.6 , Rs = P1.7
Declare Sub Getline
Declare Sub Send_r305
Declare Sub Wrong
Declare Sub Title

Dim Gps As Byte


Dim Red As Byte
Dim Green As Byte
Dim Blue As Byte
Dim R305(15) As Byte
Dim Ids As Byte
Dim Alm_count As Byte

Reset Buzzer
Alm_count = 0
Reset Leds

Home
Cls
Cursor Off
Lcd " Fingerprint"
Lowerline

53
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

Lcd " Attendance Sys"


Wait 3

Add_fin = 1
Up_btn = 1
Down_btn = 1
Delete_fin = 1

Do
Main_prog:

Restore Genimg 'get the image to Buffer


Send_r305
Getline
If R305(4) = 0 Then
Restore Img2tz 'point to data
Send_r305
Getline
If R305(4) = 0 Then
Restore Hispeedsearch 'point to data
Send_r305
Getline

If R305(4) = 0 Then
Cls
Lcd " Finger Matched"
Lowerline
Lcd "ID: " ; R305(6)
Open "com3.2:9600" For Output As #1 ' Associate signal used as transmission
line, to channel 1
Put #1 , Asc( "X")
Put #1 , R305(6) ' Transmit character on sw serial line, associated to
channel 1
Close #1
Set Buzzer
Waitms 250
Reset Buzzer
Alm_count = 0
Wait 2
Title
Elseif R305(4) = 9 Then
Cls
Lcd " No Matching"
Lowerline
Lcd "#### Found ####"

54
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

Set Buzzer
Waitms 250
Waitms 250
Reset Buzzer
Title
End If
End If
End If

Waitms 30

If Delete_fin = 0 Then
Ids = 0
Cls
Lcd "Select the ID to"
Lowerline
Lcd "Delete: " ; Ids
Bitwait Delete_fin , Set

Do
Waitms 200

If Up_btn = 0 And Ids < 99 Then


Incr Ids
Waitms 250
Cls
Lcd "Press DELETE btn"
Lowerline
Lcd "to delete ID:" ; Ids
End If

If Down_btn = 0 And Ids > 0 Then


Decr Ids
Waitms 250
Cls
Lcd "Press DELETE btn"
Lowerline
Lcd "to delete ID:" ; Ids
End If

If Add_fin = 0 Then
Cls
Lcd " Fingerprint"
Lowerline
Lcd "Security System"

55
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

Bitwait Add_fin , Set


Bitwait Delete_fin , Set
Goto Main_prog
End If

If Delete_fin = 0 Then
Restore Delete 'point to data
Send_r305
Printbin Ids
Printbin 0
Printbin 1
Printbin 0
Green = Ids + &H15
Printbin Green

Getline
If R305(4) = 0 Then
Cls
Lcd "Finger Deleted"
Lowerline
Lcd "Successfully.."
Set Buzzer
Waitms 250
Reset Buzzer
Wait 2
Title
Goto Main_prog
Else
Wrong
Goto Main_prog
End If

End If
Loop
End If

If Add_fin = 0 Then
Ids = 0
Cls
Lcd "Show Finger2 ADD"
Lowerline
Lcd " ID: " ; Ids
Bitwait Add_fin , Set
Do

56
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

Restore Genimg 'get the image to Buffer


Send_r305
Getline
If R305(4) = 0 Then
Restore Img2tz 'point to data
Send_r305
Getline
If R305(4) = 0 Then
Restore Genimg 'get the image to Buffer
Send_r305
Getline

If R305(4) = 0 Then
Restore Img2tz1 'point to data
Send_r305
Getline
If R305(4) = 0 Then
Restore Regmodel 'point to data
Send_r305
Getline
If R305(4) = 0 Then '
Restore Store 'point to data
Send_r305
Printbin Ids
Printbin &H0
Green = Ids + &H0F
Printbin Green
Getline
If R305(4) = 0 Then
Cls
Lcd "Finger Added"
Lowerline
Lcd "Successfully.."
Set Buzzer
Waitms 250
Reset Buzzer
Title
Goto Main_prog
Else
Wrong
Goto Main_prog
End If
Else
Wrong
Goto Main_prog
End If

57
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

Else
Wrong
Goto Main_prog
End If
Else
Wrong
Goto Main_prog
End If
Else
Wrong
Goto Main_prog
End If
End If

If Up_btn = 0 And Ids < 99 Then


Incr Ids
Waitms 250
Cls
Lcd "Show Finger2 ADD"
Lowerline
Lcd " ID: " ; Ids
' Bitwait Up_btn , Set 'wait until bit a is set
End If

If Down_btn = 0 And Ids > 0 Then


Decr Ids
Waitms 250
Cls
Lcd "Show Finger2 ADD"
Lowerline
Lcd " ID: " ; Ids
' Bitwait Down_btn , Set 'wait until bit a is set
End If

If Add_fin = 0 Or Delete_fin = 0 Then


Cls
Lcd " Fingerprint"
Lowerline
Lcd "Security System"
Bitwait Add_fin , Set
Bitwait Delete_fin , Set
Goto Main_prog
End If
Loop
End If

58
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

Loop
End
'@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@
' Send to R305
'@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@
Sub Title
Wait 2
Cls
Lcd " Fingerprint"
Lowerline
Lcd " Attendance Sys"
End Sub
'@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@
' Send to R305
'@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@
Sub Wrong
Cls
Lcd " Something Went"
Lowerline
Lcd " Wrong"
Set Buzzer
Waitms 250
Waitms 250
Reset Buzzer
Wait 1
Cls
Lcd " Fingerprint"
Lowerline
Lcd " Attendance Sys"
End Sub
'@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@
' Send to R305
'@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@

59
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

Sub Send_r305
Read Blue
For Red = 1 To Blue
Read Green : Printbin Green ; 'read data and print it
Next
End Sub
'@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@
' Read from R305
'@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@
Sub Getline
Dim Length As Byte

For Blue = 1 To 15
R305(blue) = 0
Next Blue

Green = 1
Blue = 1
Length = 0
Do

Gps = Waitkey()
If Green > 6 Then
R305(blue) = Gps
Incr Blue
If Length > 0 Then
Decr Length
If Length = 0 Then Exit Do
End If
End If

If Green = 9 Then
Length = Gps
End If

Incr Green

Loop

End Sub

60
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

'@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@
Genimg:
Data 12 , &HEF , &H1 , &HFF , &HFF , &HFF , &HFF , &H1 , &H0 , &H3 , &H1 , &H0 ,
&H5

Img2tz:
Data 13 , &HEF , &H1 , &HFF , &HFF , &HFF , &HFF , &H1 , &H0 , &H4 , &H2 , &H1 ,
&H0 , &H8

Img2tz1:
Data 13 , &HEF , &H1 , &HFF , &HFF , &HFF , &HFF , &H1 , &H0 , &H4 , &H2 , &H2 ,
&H0 , &H9

Hispeedsearch:
Data 17 , &HEF , &H1 , &HFF , &HFF , &HFF , &HFF , &H1 , &H0 , &H8 , &H1B , &H1 ,
&H0 , &H0 , &H1 , &H1 , &H0 , &H27

Regmodel:
Data 12 , &HEF , &H1 , &HFF , &HFF , &HFF , &HFF , &H1 , &H0 , &H3 , &H5 , &H0 ,
&H9

Store:
Data 12 , &HEF , &H1 , &HFF , &HFF , &HFF , &HFF , &H1 , &H0 , &H6 , &H6 , &H2 ,
&H0

Delete:
Data 11 , &HEF , &H1 , &HFF , &HFF , &HFF , &HFF , &H1 , &H0 , &H7 , &HC , &H0

61
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

VISUAL BASIC .NET


Visual Basic .NET (VB.NET or VB .NET) is a version of Microsoft's Visual Basic that was
designed, as part of the company's .NET product group, to make Web servicesapplications easier
to develop. According to Microsoft, VB .NET was reengineered, rather than released as VB 6.0
with added features, to facilitate making fundamental changes to the language. VB.NET is the
first fully object-oriented programming (OOP) version of Visual Basic, and as such, supports
OOP concepts such as abstraction,inheritance, polymorphism, and aggregation.
Visual Basic .NET (VB.NET) is a multi-paradigm, high level programming language,
implemented on the .NET Framework. Microsoft launched VB.NET in 2002 as the successor to
its original Visual Basic language. Although the ".NET" portion was dropped in 2005, this article
uses "Visual Basic .NET" to refer to all Visual Basic languages releases since 2002, in order to
distinguish between them and the classic Visual Basic. Along with Visual C#, it is one of the two
main languages targeting the .NET framework.
Microsoft's integrated development environment (IDE) for developing in Visual Basic .NET
language is Visual Studio. Most of Visual Studio editions are commercial; the only exceptions
are Visual Studio Express and Visual Studio Community which arefreeware. In addition, .NET
Framework SDK includes a freeware command-line compiler called vbc.exe. Mono also
includes a command-line VB.NET compiler.

62
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

COMPONENT LIST
SR. NO. PARTS / COMPONENTS QUANTITY PRICE
1 SM360 Fingerprint Module 1 5000
2 SIM 300 GSM Module 1 1500
3 LM358 (Dual OP amp) 1 25
4 AT89C52 1 200
5 Max 232 1 25
6 16x2 LCD Module 1 250
7 IR LED/ Photo diode 1 pair 30
8 Resistance array 10 K 1 15
9 LM7805 1 25
10 1000mF/ 25 volt electrolytic capacitor 1 10
11 4700mF/ 25 volt electrolytic capacitor 1 8
12 1mF/ 63 volt electrolytic capacitor 6 64
13 11.059 Mhz Crystal oscillator 1 25
14 40 Pin IC base 1 20
15 8 pin IC base 1 4
16 16 Pin ic base 1 8
17 Buzzer 1 50
18 1N4007 Rectifier Diode 4 8
19 0-12 / 1 Amp Transformer 1 250
20 33pf Ceramic disk capacitor 2 4
21 BC547 NPN transistor 1 5
22 Copper clad PCB 1x1 1 150
23 Variable resistance Preset 2 15
24 Resistance ¼ watt 16 30
25 DB9 Connector female 1 35
26 Shielded cable 2 meter 55
27 Dust Cover 1 35
28 7/36 Flexible wire 5 meter 60
29 Plastic Box 1 100
30 Misslenious items 500

63
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

ADVANTAGES
 Biometrics technology can be used as a type of employee time management system
because of its ability to recognize people’s unique physiological characteristics.
Biometrics based time and attendance terminals are becoming increasingly popular in
today’s market because of their many benefits (and, lets face it, hand or face scanning
equipment is just pretty awesome). Because biometrics terminals read a person’s unique
fingerprint, iris, hand shape, or face shape, they ensure that employees cannot clock in for
one another, thereby preventing employee time theft.

 One of the most prevalent biometric technologies is the fingerprint recognition system;
by placing a finger on the scanner, the time clock terminal reads the fingerprint and
allows the person to clock in or out.

 Another biometrics terminal that Acumen carries has the ability to recognize hand shape
and size. I originally assumed that the device was capturing a three dimensional image of
the hand being scanned when I first saw the system. However, in reality, it captures
unique “minutia points” on the hand of the employee and measures between the points,
then hashes the measurement to a single unique value that is transmitted for verification.

 This technology is not restricted to just hands and fingers; there are terminals that scan a
person’s iris to recognize the individual. Additionally, certain systems capture an image
of a person’s unique face shape and use this to allow employees access to features on the
terminal.

 One of the newest and most interesting types of biometrics technology deals with
recognizing the unique patterns that veins make in a person’s hand. Because these
patterns are intricate and highly complex, it is nearly impossible for one person to clock
in as another. The technology, therefore, has very low false acceptance and false rejection
rates and is used in especially high security areas.

64
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

 In this way, biometrics is extremely useful both in helping businesses feel secure and in
eliminating employee time theft, as it relies on personal characteristics that vary between
individuals. The wide variety of easy to use terminals ensures that biometrics is a smart
(and cool) solution when deciding what kind of time and attendance system to purchase
for your company.

65
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

APPLICATIONS
There are many concerning potential biometric applications, some popular examples
being:

i. Automated Teller Machine (ATM): Most of the leading banks have been experimenting with
biometrics of ATM machines use and as general means of combining card fraud. Surprisingly,
these experiments have rarely consisted of carefully integrated devices into a common process,
as could be achieved with certain biometric devices. Previous comments in this paper concerning
user psychology come to mind here one wonder why we have not seen a more professional and
carefully considered implementation from this sector. The banks will of course have a view
concerning the level of fraud and cost of combating it via technology solutions such as
biometrics. They will also express concern about potentially alienating customers with such as
approach. However, it still surprises many in the biometric industry that the banks and financial
institutions have so far failed to embrace this technology with any enthusiasm.

ii. Workstation and Network Access: For a long time this was an area often discussed but rarely
implemented until recent developments aw the unit price of biometric devices fall dramatically
as well as several designs aimed squarely at this application. In addition, with household names
such as Sony, Compaq, Samsung and others entering the market, these devices appear almost as
a standard computer peripheral. Many are viewing this as the application, which will provide
critical mass for biometric industry and create the transition between sci-fi device to regular
systems component, thus raising public awareness and lowering resistance to the use of
biometrics in general.

iii. Travels and Tourism: There are many in this industry who have the vision of a multi
application card for travelers which, incorporating a biometric, would enable them to participate
in various frequent flyer and border controls systems as well as paying for their air ticket, hotel
rooms, hire care etc, all with one convenient token. Technically this is eminently possible, but
from a political and commercial point of view there are many issues to resolve, not the least
being who would own the card, are responsible for administration and so on. These may not be
insurmountable problems and perhaps we may see something along these lines emerge. A

66
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

notable challenge in this respect would be packaging such an initiative in a way that would be
truly attractive for users.

iv. Internet Transactions: Many immediately of think of on line transactions as being an


obvious area for biometrics, although there are some significant issues to consider in this context.
Assuming device cost could be brought down to level whereby a biometric (and perhaps chip
card) reader could be easily incorporated into a standard build PC, westill have the problem of
authenticated enrollment and template management, although there are several approaches one
could take to that. Of course, if your credit already incorporated a biometric this would simplify
things considerably. It is interesting to note that certain device manufactures have collaborated
with key encryption providers to provide an enhancement to their existing services. Perhaps we
shall see some interesting developments in this area in the near future.

v. Telephone Transactions: No doubt many telesales and call center managers have pondered
the use of biometrics. It is an attractive possibility to consider, especially for automated
processes. However, voice verification is a difficult area of biometrics, especially if one does not
have direct control over the transducers, as indeed you wouldn’t when dealing with the general
public. The variability of telephone handsets coupled to the variability of line quality and the
variability of user environments presents a significant challenge to voice verification technology,
and that is before you even consider the variability in understanding among users. Perhaps we
shall see further developments, which will largely overcome these problems. Certainly there is a
commercial incentive to do so and I have no doubt that much research is under way in this
respect.

vi. Public Identity Cards: A biometric incorporated into a multipurpose public ID cards would
be useful in a number of scenarios if one could win public support for such a scheme.
Unfortunately, in this country as in others there are huge numbers of individuals who definitely
do not want to be identified. This ensures that any such proposal would quickly become a
political hot potato and a nightmare for the minister concerned. But we expect developments in
this field in the near future. This will solve many border security problems, airport security,
access to restricted buildings and sites.

67
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

RESULT AND CONCLUSION


The project report began with the introduction to the basic functioning of Microcontroller
based Identification, Authentication and Setup of Attendance system. Project deals with
Microcontroller as central controlling units for various other sections like Biometrics SM 630
module, LCD, PC interface, IR sensor section etc. Interfacing between all sections required for
system and microcontroller AT89S52 has been done successfully. For registration press the add
button to store the finger print into the biometrics module. When a new person who is not
register with the system try to have access, system refuses access and displays message
“Fingerprint NOT Matched”. For the person who is registered with the system will updated with
his name on the database for attendance.

The proposed system scanned the fingerprints placed on the device sensor and compared
them against those stored in the database successfully. The performance of the system was
acceptable and would be considered for full implementation specially because of its short
execution time and reports generation. This system takes the attendance of the student and sends
this attendance to their parent’s mobile through GSM. Figure 6 shows the SMS received by the
parents

There are many mature biometric systems are available now. Proper design and
implementation of the biometric system can indeed increase the overall Attendance; especially
the smartcard based solutions seem to be very promising. Making a secure biometric systems is,
however, not as easy as it might appear. The word biometrics is very often used as a synonym for
the perfect Attendance. This is a misleading view. There are numerous conditions that must be
taken in account when designing a secure biometric system. First, it is necessary to realize that
biometrics is not secrets. This implies be careful that biometric measurements cannot be used as
capability tokens and it is not secure to generate any cryptographic keys from them. Second, it is
necessary to trust the input device and make the communication link secure. Third, the input
device needs to check the live ness of the person being measured and the device itself should be
verified for example by a challenge-response protocol.

68
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

FUTURE IMPLEMENTATION

The above developed system is quit versatile in nature. So many applications can be added with
the same system by just little modification required.

1. Attendance system module can also be interfaced with the same existing system which keeps
the record (Identity, Time, Date etc.) of that person and corresponding data base can be
maintained. IC 74LS244 can be used for multiplexing RxD and TxD to creating the hardware for
attendance system.

2. Same system can be implemented at high Attendance area, where only selected persons are
allowed.

3. The end part of the system, i.e., finger print scanner can be replaced by RF Id scanner and ID
cards containing persons ID no. (Tag) can be given to the persons. During scanning data base
related to person’s position can be maintained. Only little changes are required in main
programming with appropriate hardware.

69
FINGERPRINT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM WITH GSM ALERT SYSTEM

REFERENCES

[1]. K.Jaikumar1, M.Santhosh Kumar2, S.Rajkumar3, A.Sakthivel4

1Asst. Professor-ECE, P. A. College of Engineering and Technology


2Student-ECE, P. A. College of Engineering and Technology
3Student-ECE, P. A. College of Engineering and Technology
4Student-ECE, P. A. College of Engineering and Technology

[2].Murizah Kassim, Hasbullah Mazlan, Norliza Zaini, Muhammad Khidhir Salleh “Web-
based Student Attendance System using RFID Technology” 2012 IEEE.

[3]. LI Jian-po, ZHU Xu-ning, LI Xue, ZHANG Zhi-ming “Wireless Fingerprint Attendance
System Based on ZigBee Technology” 2010 IEEE.

[4]. “What is GSM?” Online Available:


http://www.tutorialspoint.com/gsm/gsm_overview.htm[Accessed: Sept. 17, 2013].

[5]. L. Rajasekar, S. Vivek “Wireless Fingerprint Attendance System using ZigBee


Technology” International Journal of Power Control Signal and Computation (IJPCSC), Vol3.
No1. Jan-Mar 2012.

70