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MAJOR Ubaid-Ur-Rehman i

Colorfastness: Resistance to fading; i.e., the property of


a dye to retain its color when the dyed (or printed) textile
material is exposed to conditions or agents such as light,
perspiration, atmospheric gases, or washing that can remove
or destroy the color. A dye may be reasonably fast to one
agent and only moderately fast to another. Degree of
fastness of color is tested by standard procedures. Textile
materials often must meet certain fastness specifications for
a particular use.
OR

Colorfastness is the resistance of a material to


change in any of its colorant to adjacent materials for both ,
as a result of the exposure of the material to any
environment that might be encountered during the
processing , testing , storage or use of the material.

The outstandingly important property of a


dyed fabric is the fastness of its shade . A number of tests
are necessary to cover all the properties of any one dye .
The tests may be divided into those consumer significance
such as light , washing & salt-water staining , & those
concerning the producer only , such as cross-dyeing ,
bleaching & shrink resist treatments.

Colorfastness To Water : Colorfastness to water can


be define as resistance of color to immersion in water .

Now before discussing


the testing method in detail we first must know
what is meant by ISO & AATCC . ISO stands for
International Organization for Standards & AATCC
stands for American Association of Textile
Chemists and Colorists .

MAJOR
MAJOR Ubaid-Ur-Rehman ii

Development Of Method : AATCC Method 107 – 1997


was developed in 1962 by AATCC committee RA23 it was
revised ; 1967, 1968, 1972, 1981 ; reaffirmed 1975, 1978,
1989; editorially revised 1983, 1985, 1994, 2001; editorially
revised & reaffirmed 1986, 1991, 1997, 2002 . Technically it
is equivalent to ISO 105-E01.

Purpose and scope : This test method is designed to


measure resistance to water of a dyed, printed, or
otherwise colored textile yarns & fabrics. Distilled water or
deionized water is used in this test method because natural
(tap) water is variable in composition .

Principle : The specimen , backed by multifiber test


fabric , is immersed in water under specified conditions of
temperature & time , and then placed between glass or
plastic plates under specified conditions of pressure ,
temperature & time . The change in color of the specimen
and the staining of the attached multifiber test fabric are
observed .

Apparatus & Materials Required : AATCC


Perspiration tester , perspirometer or equivalent device
(plastic or glass plates which are available with the
equipment ) . Drying oven convection , multifiber test fabric
No.1 or No.10 , AATCC Chromatic Transference scale ,
AATCC Gray Scale for Color Change & Gray Scale for
Staining , Wringer , freshly boiled distilled water or deionized
water from an ion-exchange device , test specimens Colored
specimens of 60*60 mm ± 2mm (2.25*2.25in.) backed with
multifiber test fabric .

Procedure : The standard procedure to be follow in this


experiment is as follows .

 Immerse the test specimen in the test solution at room


temperature with occasional agitation to ensure thorough
wetting out (approximately 15 min generally required for
average fabrics .

MAJOR
MAJOR Ubaid-Ur-Rehman iii

 Remove the test specimen from the test solution and only
pass between squeeze rolls (wringer) to remove excess
liquor when the wet weight of the test specimen is more
than 3 times its dry weight .whenever possible , the wet
weight should be 2.5-3.5times the dry weight .
 Place the test specimen between glass or plastic plates
and insert in the specimen unit of the perspiration tester.
Adjust the perspiration tester to produce a pressure of
4.5KG(10 lb) on the test specimen .
 Heat the loaded specimen unit in an oven at
38±1°C(100±2°F) for 18h. remove specimen from unit
and complete drying by hanging in air at room
temperature. Do not press dry.

Evaluation Method For Color Change : Rate the


effect on the color of the test specimens by the gray scale
for color change .

 Grade 5__negligible or no change as shown in gray scale


step 5.
 Grade 4.5__change in color equivalent to gray scale step
4-5.
 Grade 4__change in color equivalent to gray scale step 4.
 Grade 3.5__change in color equivalent to gray scale step
3-4.
 Grade 3__change in color equivalent to gray scale step 3.
 Grade 2.5__change in color equivalent to gray scale step
2-3.
 Grade 2__change in color equivalent to gray scale step 2.
 Grade 1.5__change in color equivalent to gray scale step
1-2.
 Grade 1__change in color equivalent to gray scale step 1.

Evaluation Method For Staining : Rate the


staining of the multifiber test fabric by the AATCC chromatic
transference scale or the gray scale for staining . Report
which classification scale is used .

 Grade 5__negligible or no color transfer.

MAJOR
MAJOR Ubaid-Ur-Rehman iv

 Grade 4.5__color transfer equivalent to step 4-5 on the


gray scale for staining or row 4.5 on the 9-step AATCC
chromatic transference scale.
 Grade 4__color transfer equivalent to step 4 on the gray
scale for staining or row 4 on the 9-step AATCC chromatic
transference scale.
 Grade 3.5__color transfer equivalent to step 3-4 on the
gray scale for staining or row 3.5 on the 9-step AATCC
chromatic transference scale.
 Crade 3__color transfer equivalent to step 3 on the gray
scale for staining or row 3 on the 9-step AATCC chromatic
transference scale.
 Grade 2.5__color transfer equivalent to step 2-3 on the
gray scale for staining or row 2.5 on the 9-step AATCC
chromatic transference scale.
 Grade 2__color transfer equivalent to step 2 on the gray
scale for staining or row 2 on the 9-step AATCC chromatic
transference scale.
 Grade 1.5__color transfer equivalent to step 1-2 on the
gray scale for staining or row 1.5 on the 9-step AATCC
chromatic transference scale.
 Grade 1__color transfer equivalent to step 1 on the gray
scale for staining or row 1 on the 9-step AATCC chromatic
transference scale.

After discussing the method in detail we will now


discuss some important apparatus of the method & how to
use them in experiment .

AATCC Perspiration Tester : AATCC perspiration


tester consists of 21 glass or plastic plates & dual plates with
compensating springs . To use it experiment put all 21 glass
or plastic plates into the unit regardless of the number of
specimens. After the final glass or plastic plate is put in
position on top, set the dual plates with compensating
springs in position . Place the 3.6 kg (8.0 lb) weight on top
making a total of 4.5 kg (10.0 lb) under the pressure plate .
lock the pressure plate in position by turning the thumb-

MAJOR
MAJOR Ubaid-Ur-Rehman v

screws. Remove the weight. Place the unit in the oven on its
side, so that the plates and the specimens are vertical.

Grey Scale For Assessing Change In Shade :This


Grey Scale is for assessing the degree of change in shade
caused to a dyed Textile fabric / yarn in color fastness
tests . For example, the chnage of shade of wool , polyester
cotton etc fabrics in the water , wash fastness , per spiration
fastness , etc.

The scale consists of nine pairs of gray color chips each


representing a visual difference and contrast.

The fastness rating goes step-wise from:

Note 5 = no visual change (best rating) to Note 1 = a large


visual change (worst rating).

The gray scale has the 9 possible values:5, 4-5, 4, 3-4, 3, 2-


3, 2, 1-2, 1.

Grey Scale For Assessing Staining : This Grey Scale


is for assessing the degree of staining caused by a dyed
Textile / yarn in color fastness tests. For example, the
staining of polyester & cotton fabrics in the wash fastness,
water , perspiration fastness, etc.

MAJOR
MAJOR Ubaid-Ur-Rehman vi

The scale consists of nine pairs of gray color chips each


representing a visual difference and contrast.

The fastness rating goes step-wise from:

Note 5 = no visual change (best rating) to Note 1 = a large


visual change (worst rating).

The grey scale has the 9 possible values:5, 4-5, 4, 3-4, 3, 2-


3, 2, 1-2, 1.

References :

 Dyeing & Chemical Technology Of Textile Fibers By


E.R.Trotman .
 http://www.thesmarttime.com/testing/testing-procedures-
34.htm .
 http://clothinger.blog.163.com/blog/static/2569718820075
137393979/

MAJOR