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 Stator
A stator is the stationary part of a machine in the form of a hollow cylinder
inside which the rotor will be placed with a narrow air gap between them.

An automatic voltage regulator (AVR) is a electronic device for
automatically maintaining generator output terminal voltage at a set
value under varying load and operating temperature. It controls output by
sensing the voltage Vout at a power-generating coil and comparing it to a
stable reference.

 Excitation Transformer
Excitation transformers are use to magnetize generators and
synchronous motors. Excitation transformers are a main component of
any electrical system and its failure can cause the black out of the system.

 Thyristor
A thyristor is a solid state and four-layered semiconductor used in
electronic devices and equipment to control electrical power or current
output through a phase angle control technique.
A thyristor is also known as a semiconductor-controlled rectifier (SCR) or
silicon controlled rectifier (SCR).
 DC Shunt
In electronics, a shunt is a device which creates a low-resistance path for
electric current, to allow it to pass around another point in the circuit.
 DC Multiplier
A be boosted (stepped up) to a higher output DC voltage which is more
, along with voltage or potential transformers, are instrument
 PT
Voltage transformers (VT), also called potential transformers (PT),
are a parallel connected type of instrument transformer. They are

designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and

have an accurate voltage ratio and phase relationship to enable accurate
secondary connected metering.
 Protective Relay
Restricted earth fault (REF) protection is a sensitive
way to protect a zone between two measuring points
against earth faults. ... The CT secondaries are wired to
cancel each other's currents during through faults and to
drive all secondary current to the relay when the fault is
inside the protected zone.

 Differential Relay
A differential relay is defined as the relay that
operates when the phase difference of two or more
identical electrical quantities exceeds a predetermined
amount. The differential relay works on the principle of
comparison between the phase angle and magnitude of
two or more similar electrical quantities.
 Buchholz relay
In the field of electric power distribution and
transmission, a Buchholz relay is a safety device
mounted on some oil-filled power transformers and
reactors, equipped with an external overhead oil
reservoir called a "conservator".
 DOL Starter
The simplest form of motor starter for the induction motor is the Direct On
Line starter. The Direct On Line Motor Starter (DOL) consist a MCCB or
Circuit Breaker, Contactor and an overload relay for protection.
Electromagnetic contactor which can be opened by the thermal overload
relay under fault conditions.
 Motor Star Delta Connection
This is the reduced voltage starting method. Voltage reduction during
star-delta starting is achieved by physically reconfiguring the motor
windings as illustrated in the figure below. During starting the motor
windings are connected in star configuration and this reduces the voltage
across each winding 3. This also reduces the torque by a factor of three.

Scheme – Working Principle of Star-Delta Starter

After a period of time the winding are reconfigured as delta and
the motor runs normally. Star/Delta starters are probably the most
common reduced voltage starters. They are used in an attempt to reduce
the start current applied to the motor during start as a means of reducing
the disturbances and interference on the electrical supply.
 AM Meter
An ammeter is a measuring device used to measure the electric
current in a circuit.
 FM Meter
A frequency meter is an instrument that displays the frequency of a
periodic electrical signal. Various types of frequency meters are used.
Many are instruments of the deflection type, ordinarily used for measuring
low frequencies but capable of being used for frequencies as high as
900 Hz.
 Energy Meter
An electricity meter, electric meter, electrical meter, or energy
meter is a device that measures the amount of electric energy consumed
by a residence, a business, or an electrically powered device.

 Speed Sensor
A wheel speed sensor or vehicle speed sensor (VSS) is a type
of tachometer. It is a sender device used for reading the speed of a
vehicle's wheel rotation. It usually consists of a toothed ring and pickup.

Resistance thermometers, also called resistance temperature
detectors (RTDs), are sensors used to measure temperature.
Many RTD elements consist of a length of fine wire wrapped around a
ceramic or glass core but other constructions are also used.
The RTD wire is a pure material, typically platinum, nickel, or copper.

 Vapor Pressure
Vapor pressure (or vapour pressure in British spelling) or
equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by
a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases
(solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.
 Thermocouple
A Thermocouple is a sensor used to measure temperature.
Thermocouples consist of two wire legs made from different metals. The
wires legs are welded together at one end, creating a junction. This
junction is where the temperature is measured. When the junction
experiences a change in temperature, a voltage is created.
 Transformer
A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy from
one circuit to another by electromagnetic induction (also called
transformer action). It is used to step up or step down AC voltage.
 Parts of transformer
These are the basic components of a transformer.
1. Laminated core
2. Windings
3. Insulating materials
4. Transformer oil
5. Tap changer
6. Oil Conservator
7. Breather
8. Cooling tubes
9. Buchholz Relay
10. Explosion vent

 Core
The core acts as support to the winding in the transformer. It also provides
a low reluctance path to the flow of magnetic flux. It is made of laminated
soft iron core in order to reduce eddy current loss and Hysteresis loss.
The composition of a transformer core depends on such as factors
voltage, current, and frequency. The diameter of the transformer core is

directly proportional to copper loss and is inversely proportional to iron

 Winding
Two sets of winding are made over the transformer core and are insulated
from each other. Winding consists of several turns of copper conductors
bundled together, and connected in series.
Winding can be classified in two different ways:
1. Based on the input and output supply
2. Based on the voltage range
Within the input/output supply classification, winding are further
1. Primary winding - These are the winding to which the input voltage is
2. Secondary winding - These are the winding to which the output
voltage is applied.
Within the voltage range classification, winding are further categorized:
1. High voltage winding - It is made of copper conductor. The number of
turns made shall be the multiple of the number of turns in the low
voltage winding. The conductor used will be thinner than that of the
low voltage winding.
2. Low voltage winding - It consists of fewer number of turns than the
high voltage winding. It is made of thick copper conductors. This is
because the current in the low voltage winding is higher than that of
high voltage winding.
Input supply to the transformers can be applied from either low voltage
(LV) or high voltage (HV) winding based on the requirement.
 Insulating Materials
Insulating paper and cardboard are used in transformers to isolate primary
and secondary winding from each other and from the transformer core.
 Transformer oil
Transformer oil is another insulating material. Transformer oil
performs two important functions: in addition to insulating function,
it can also cool the core and coil assembly. The transformer's core
and winding must be completely immersed in the oil. Normally,
hydrocarbon mineral oils are used as transformer oil. Oil

contamination is a serious problem because contamination robs the

oil of its dielectric properties and renders it useless as an insulating
 Conservator
The conservator conserves the transformer oil. It is an airtight, metallic,
cylindrical drum that is fitted above the transformer. The conservator tank
is vented to the atmosphere at the top, and the normal oil level is
approximately in the middle of the conservator to allow the oil to expand
and contract as the temperature varies. The conservator is connected to
the main tank inside the transformer, which is completely filled with
transformer oil through a pipeline.
 Breather
The breather controls the moisture level in the transformer. Moisture can
arise when temperature variations cause expansion and contraction of the
insulating oil, which then causes the pressure to change inside the
conservator. Pressure changes are balanced by a flow of atmospheric air
in and out of the conservator, which is how moisture can enter the system.
If the insulating oil encounters moisture, it can affect the paper insulation
or may even lead to internal faults. Therefore, it is necessary that the air
entering the tank is moisture-free.
The transformer's breather is a cylindrical container that is filled with silica
gel. When the atmospheric air passes through the silica gel of the
breather, the air's moisture is absorbed by the silica crystals. The breather
acts like an air filter for the transformer and controls the moisture level
inside a transformer. It is connected to the end of breather pipe.
 Tap Changer
The output voltage of transformers vary according to its input voltage and
the load. During loaded conditions, the voltage on the output terminal
decreases, whereas during off-load conditions the output voltage
increases. In order to balance the voltage variations, tap changers are
used. Tap changers can be either on-load tap changers or off-load tap
In an on-load tap changer, the tapping can be changed without isolating
the transformer from the supply. In an off-load tap changer, it is done after
disconnecting the transformer. Automatic tap changers are also available.
 Cooling Tubes

Cooling tubes are used to cool the transformer oil. The transformer oil is
circulated through the cooling tubes. The circulation of the oil may either
be natural or forced. In natural circulation, when the temperature of the oil
rises the hot oil naturally rises to the top and the cold oil sinks downward.
Thus the oil naturally circulates through the tubes. In forced circulation, an
external pump is used to circulate the oil.
 Buchholz Relay
The Buchholz Relay is a protective device container housed over the
connecting pipe from the main tank to the conservator tank. It is used to
sense the faults occurring inside the transformer. It is a simple relay that
is operated by the gases emitted during the decomposition of transformer
oil during internal faults. It helps in sensing and protecting the transformer
from internal faults.
 Explosion Vent
The explosion vent is used to expel boiling oil in the transformer during
heavy internal faults in order to avoid the explosion of the transformer.
During heavy faults, the oil rushes out of the vent. The level of the
explosion vent is normally maintained above the level of the conservatory