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Thermodynamics Solution 5th Chapter

Problem 5.1 Problem 5.5


T1=800 C=800 273=1073K Max.Temp. = T3 =1400 C=1400+273=1673K
T2=15 C=15+273=288K Minimum Temp. = T1=15 C=15+273=288K
Efficiency=? Heat Supplied = Q1=800KJ/Kg
(I) Compression Ratio = ?
Efficiency=1 (II) Cycle Efficiency = ?
=1 (III) Pressure Ratio = ?
Efficiency= 0.732 OR =73.2%
_______________________________________ (I) Heat Supplied in Otto Cycle =
Q1= (T3 T2)
800 = 0.718(1673 T2)
Problem 5.3 T2 = 559K
Max. Temp. = T1 = 307 C = 307 + 273 = 580K
Minimum Temp. 17 C = T2 = 17 + 273 =290K
Max. Pressure = P4 = 62.4bar = 62.4 Nm-2
Min. Pressure = P2 = 1.04bar = 1.04 Nm-2
(I) Carnot Efficiency =?
(II) Work Ratio = ?

(I) =1  =1  =50%
(II) Work Ratio = (II)
 _______ (I)
(T1 T2)(S1 S4) From process 2 to 3,constant volume heating
W4→1+ W1→2
W4→1 is Isothermal Process; For Isothermal  
Process work done is W = Q = S  3 _______ (II)
W4→1 = (S1 S4)T1
Multiplying (I) & (II)
W1→2 is Isentropic Process; For Isentropic
Process Work done is = (T2 T1)
S1 S4
S1 S4 1.005
S1 S4 4784KJ/Kg K (III) =
Work Ratio =
=  =0.4844 =48.4%
Work Ratio =
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Work Ratio = 0.286
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Problem 5.6

1
For Otto Cycle: Max.Temp. = T3=1650 C = 1650 + 273 =1923K
Swept volume = 2000cm3 Minimum Temp. = T1=15 C = 15 +273 =288K
Clearance Volume = 4 60 = 240cm3 Max.Pressure = P2=P3= 45bar =45 Nm-2
P1 =1bar = 1 Nm-2 (I) Cycle efficiency = ?
T1=24 C = 24 273 = 297K (II) Mean Effective Pressure = ?
T3=1400 C=1400 273=1673K
(I) Cycle efficiency = ? (I) = ___________ (1)
(II) Mean Effective Pressure = ?
First we find 
(I) Compression Ratio =

 288 
851K
 
Cycle Efficiency = = 2.26 Putting values in Equation (1)
=  =0.5906  = 59.06% =  =59.1%
(II) P1v1=RT1
(II)  P1 = 45
v1 =  v1 =  v1=0.8523m3/Kg
P1 = 1.015 =1.015bar
v1 =  v1 =  v1=0.8143m3/Kg
 v2 =  v2 = 0.05428m3/Kg
v2 =  v2 = 0.09135m /Kg 3
v2 v1 0.05428
v2 v1 0.8523 0.09135 3
v2 v1 0.76002m /Kg
v2 v1 0.7609m3/Kg Heat Supplied in Diesel Cycle = Q1= (T3 T2)
Q1=1.005(1923 851)
Q1=1077.36KJ/Kg
=  W=  W = 0.591 1077.36

297
W = 637KJ/Kg
725K
Heat Supplied in Otto Cycle = Q1= (T3 T2) W=  =
Q1=0.718(1673 725) =  = 8.38bar
Q1=680.64KJ/Kg
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=  W=  W = 0.591 680.64
W = 402.25 KJ/Kg
W=  =
Problem 5.8
=  = 5.28bar For Dual Combustion:

_______________________________________ Max. Temp. = T4 = 2000 C = 2000+273=2273K


Minimum Temp. = T1=17 C = 17+273=290K
Minimum Pressure = P1= 1bar = Nm-2
Problem 5.7 Maximum Pressure =P3=70bar=70 Nm-2
For Diesel Cycle: Compression Ratio = 18/1
Compression Ratio = 15/1 (I) Cycle efficiency = ?

2
(II) Mean Effective Pressure = ? W = 828.124KJ/Kg
W=  =
=  = 10.53bar
(I) 
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290  922K
In 2 Process For Constant Volume 
nd
Problem 5.9
 To find Mean Effective Pressure =
10bar=10 Nm-2
 Minimum Temp. = T1=17 C = 17+273=290K
1  Nm-2 Minimum Pressure = P1= 1bar = Nm-2
  Compression Ratio = 16/1
1130K Cycle efficiency = 0.6
Maximum Pressure =P3=60bar=60 Nm-2
____________ (I) Maximum Temp. = T4=?
So to calculate we need
From Figure it is evident that & =  Q1 =  Q1 =
, so and Supplied in Diesel Cycle =
Q1=
_____________ (II)
For 
0.499 , Put in (II)
 9 ; Put in (I)
 944K 
290  879K
Now Heat Supplied in Diesel Cycle = In 2 Process For Constant Volume 
nd

Q1=
Q1=0.718(1130 922) 1.005(2273 1130)  To find
Q1=1298KJ/Kg
Heat Rejected in Diesel Cycle =Q2= 
Q2=0.718(944 290) 1  Nm-2
Q2=470KJ/Kg
 
  63.8%
K
P1v1=RT1
(II)
v1 =  v1 =  v1=0.8323m3/Kg
P1v1=RT1
v1 =  v1 =  v1=0.8323m3/Kg

v2 =  v2 = 0.05201m3/Kg
v2 v1 0.8323 0.05201
v2 =  v2 = 0.04623m3/Kg
v2 v1 0.7802m3/Kg
v2 v1 0.8323 0.04623 Putting Values in above equation:
v2 v1 0.786m3/Kg
Q1=1298KJ/Kg
=  W=  W = 0.638 1298

3
T4= 2232K  T4= 2232 273  T4=1959 C
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