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LEGAL NOTICE
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The text of this publication, or any part thereof, shall not be reproduced or transmitted in any
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Table of Contents
1.0 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................. 6
1.1 About ZEEPipe ................................................................................................ 6
1.2 Current Version ............................................................................................... 6
1.3 Future Developments ..................................................................................... 6
1.4 Quality Control ................................................................................................ 7
1.5 Technical Support........................................................................................... 7
2.0 GETTING STARTED WITH ZEEPIPE .............................................................. 8
2.1 General Information ........................................................................................ 8
2.2 Hardware Requirement................................................................................... 8
2.3 How to Use ZEEPipe – An Overview ............................................................. 8
2.3.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 9
2.3.2 General Input Data Window ........................................................................... 9
2.3.3 Run the Analysis ........................................................................................... 17
2.3.4 Save and Load State / Workspace ............................................................... 18
3.0 WALL THICKNESS AND MATERIAL SELECTION MODULE ...................... 20
3.1 DNV-OS-F101 Module ................................................................................... 20
3.2 ASME / API Module ....................................................................................... 20
3.3 DNV-OS-F101 Module Methodology ............................................................ 20
3.3.1 Pressure Containment (Bursting)................................................................ 22
3.3.2 Local Buckling - external overpressure (System Collapse) ...................... 24
3.3.3 Propagation Buckling ................................................................................... 24
3.3.4 Load Control Condition ................................................................................ 25
3.3.4.1 Internal Overpressure........................................................................ 25
3.3.4.2 External Overpressure ...................................................................... 27
3.4 ASME / API MODULE Methodology ............................................................. 28
3.4.1 Pressure Containment / Hoop Stress (ASME B31.8) ................................. 28
3.4.2 Collapse due to External Pressure (API RP 1111)...................................... 29
3.4.3 Propagating Buckles (API RP 1111) ............................................................ 30
3.4.4 Buckling due to Combined Bending and External Pressure (API RP 1111)31
3.5 DNV- OS-F101 MODULE Input /Output........................................................ 32
3.5.1 DNV-OS-F101 Input ....................................................................................... 32
3.5.2 DNV-OS- F101 MODULE Input Description ................................................. 35
3.5.3 DNV-OS-F101 Output .................................................................................... 44
3.6 ASME / API MODULE Input / Output............................................................ 52
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1.0 INTRODUCTION
The principle and the ZEE personnel have been involved in the development and the
application of computer software for the Oil & Gas industry for well over 25 years. With
this experience ZEE has been developing Pipeline design software for various codes
including the latest DNV codes. This software package has been used in-house for a
number of regional and international projects. In 2016 the ZEE management decided
to make this program available for public use. The public version of the program is
named ZEEPipe.
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The Program has been thoroughly checked, bench marked with available results from
3rd party sources and also with manual calculations. A verification manual is available.
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Input Stage
Use the Matlab GUI to:
Define the analysis
Define the input data
Computing Stage
Use the Matlab Engine to:
Run the analysis
Output Stage
Use the Microsoft Excel to:
View and summary the result
ZEEPipe is provided for both operating bit program, whether 32 bit program or 64 bit
program, depending of user computer specification.
The following section presents the main steps to create & set up the analysis & input
data, run an analysis, open & save input data and view the results in Microsoft Excel.
Please refer to the corresponding sections for further details.
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2.3.1 Introduction
This will launch the ZEEPIPE application and user will see the following window. The
following is an introduction window appears when you start the ZEEPIPE application.
Choose “New Workspace” for the first time use and choose “Existing Workspace” if
you already have the workspace file.
After select “New Workspace” or “Existing Workspace”, then Click “Continue” for the
next page.
Then general basic input data window will be appearing after user click “Continue”
button. The general basic input data window is given in below.
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1
2
3
4 5
The main important parts of the general basic input data window are;
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3. Project Info Input. The user shall specify the “Client” name, “Pipe Ref.” And
“Project” name.
4. General Input Parameters. The general input parameters are mandatory to fill.
6. Analysis module available on ZEEPipe. User can select more than one
analysis or combination.
The user shall fill the “Project Info Input”, “General Input Parameters”, “Additional
General Input Parameters” and select the “Analysis Module”. Then click “Next Button”.
The following window will be appearing after User click “Next” button (Please Note that
the following window will be appear if the user select the entire analysis module
available).
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“CathTab” button : This button is appearing if the user select “Cathodic Protection
Analysis Module” in Geneneral Basic Input data window. The user shall define the
and setting the parameters for the cathodic protection calculation.
“Calculate” button : Begin or run the calculation.
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After user fill the input data in “general basic input data” window, “WallTab”, “ObsTab”,
“Span Tab” and “Cath Tab”, please click calculate to begin or run the analysis.
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There are 2 steps when calculate the analysis, first is “Computing Stage” and second
is “Output Stage”. The “Output Stage” is the stage when the result is extracted to
Microsoft windows excel template that provided in ZEEPipe folder.
Below is the Microsoft windows excel template that provided in ZEEPipe folder.
Caution:
1. Make sure that output template is already in the ZEEPipe folder.
2. Don’t cut or delete the output template in ZEEPipe folder. Please copy the output
file after “run” the analysis in other folder. The result in the output template is
based on the latest run.
3. During “run” the analysis, don’t open the output template, if not the program can’t
extracted the result to the output template.
ZEEPIPE supports save and load state to make a job easier for users. Every analysis
has its own file type / extension. For example, if you want to load Wall Thickness
workspace, then the file is in *.wt, and for Wall Thickness combined with On-Bottom
Stability, the file you are looking for is *.wbs, and so on. Below is the complete table
containing the extension files and the associated analyzes.
Analysis Extension
WT *.wt
WTA *.wta
OBS *.obs
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SPAN *.spn
CP *.cp
WT + OBS *.wbs
WT + SPAN *.wpn
WT + OBS + SPAN *.wbp
WTA + OBS *.abs
WTA + SPAN *.apn
WTA + OBS + SPAN *.abp
OBS + SPAN *.opn
WT + OBS + SPAN + CP *.wop
WTA + OBS + SPAN + CP *.aop
Notes:
WT = Wall Thickness Analysis refer to DNV-OS-F101
WTA = Wall Thickness Analysis refer to ASME B31.8 and API RP 1111
OBS = On Bottom Stability Analysis refer to DNV-RP-F109
SPAN = Free Span Analysis refer to DNV-RP-F105
CP = Cathodic Protection refer to DNV-RP-F103 and ISO 15589-2
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The Wall Thickness module can be used to calculate the minimum wall thickness to
the selected material grade to satisfy the latest codes, which includes DNV-OS-F101
(October 2013) and ASME B31.8 & API RP1111. The ASME Code and DNV-OS-F101
modules are integrated to the remaining DNV programs (which if required can be used
as a standalone module), however the ASME Code and DNV-OS-F101 shall be
selected prior fill input data due to ASME Code and DNV-OS-F101 can’t run together.
The DNV Wall Thickness Module adopts the Load and Resistance Design Format
(LRDF), a limit state approach which uses partial Load Factors as design criteria
specified in the Code.
ASME / API Wall Thickness Module adopts stress criteria as specified in ASME B31.8
and API RP 1111 codes.
Where;
w = Density of sea water (kg/m3)
g = Acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)
hmax = Maximum water depth along pipeline route – refer to Chart Datum (m)
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hmin = Minimum water depth along pipeline route – refer to Chart Datum (m)
SS max = Maximum Storm Surge (100-years) (m)
HAT = Highest Astronomical Tide refer to Chart Datum (m)
LAT = Lowest Astronomical Tide refer to Chart Datum (m)
H max = Maximum Wave height (100-years) (m)
The local internal pressure on a pipeline is derived from Bernoulli’s potential pressure
equation:
Pi Pd cont . g.(hmin href )
The local incidental internal pressure on pipeline is derived from Section 4 B202, Eq.
4.1 and 4.3:
Ovality / out-of-roundness tolerances are derived from Section 7 - G314, Table 7.17
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Figure 2
Proposed de-rating values for yield stress of C-Mn, 13Cr, 22Cr, and 25 Cr
f y S MYS f y, temp U
f u S MTS f u, temp U
Where
fy
= Characteristic Derated Yield Strength (MPa)
fu = Characteristic Derated Tensile Strength (MPa)
SMYS = Specified Minimum Yield Stress (MPa)
SMTS = Specified Minimum Tensile Strength (MPa)
U = Material Strength Factor from Section 5 Table 5-4
U 0.96 1.00
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2t 2
Pb t = f cb
D o t 3
Where
fu
f cb Min( f y , )
1.15
Pb (t1 )
Pli Pe min
m . SC
P (t )
Plt Pe min b 1
m . SC
Wall thickness fabrication tolerance is given in Section 7 - G314 Table 7.18 and Table
7.26
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External pressure criteria along the pipeline is given in Section 5 – D401, Eq. 5.10
Pc t1
Pe Pmin
m SC
( Pe Pmin ) m SC Pc t1
For worst case, Pmin = 0 and Pe represent the maximum external pressure (Pemax).
Pe m SC Pc
Characteristic resistance for external pressure is derived from Section 5 – D402, Eq.
5.11
2 2 Do
( Pc Pel )( Pc Pp ) Pc Pel Pp f o
t
Elastic pressure resistance is given in Section 5 – D402, Eq. 5.12
3
2 E t
Pel t Do
1 2
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2
S
2
M P P 2
γm γ SC sd + γ m γ SC sd +αp i e
1.0
αc S p
αc M p αc Pb
where
M Sd
= Design Bending Moment (kN. m)
S Sd
= Design Axial Force (kN)
Pi
= Internal Pressure (MPa)
Pe
= External Pressure (MPa)
Pb
= Burst Pressure (MPa)
S p and M p denote the plastic capacities for pipe, defined in Section 5 – D605, Eq.
5.20, Eq. 5.21 and 5.22.
S p t = f y π D o t nom t nom
M p t = f y Do t t
2
fu
α c = 1 β + β
fy
p and is given in DNV OS F101 2013, Section 5 – D605 Eq. 5.23 and Eq. 5.24
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pi p e 2
1
pb 3
p
1 3 1 pi pe
pi p e 2
pb pb 3
D
60 o
t nom
β=
90
Where c is a flow stress parameter and p account for effect of D / t 2 ratio.
“User Input” option. User can fill Functional Bending Moment and Environmental
Bending Moment manually.
Referring to Bending Radius Curvature. If the user selects this option, the
environmental bending moment will be neglected.
E.Do I
MF .
2.RC 0.5.Do
where;
Do
= Outside Diameter (m)
RC
= Radius Curvature (m)
I = Pipeline Moment Inertia (m4)
Referring to Allowable Bending Stress. If the user selects this option, the
environmental bending moment will be neglected.
I
M F all .SMYS.
0.5.Do
where;
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If “Calculated” option selected, the environmental axial force will be neglected and
functional (effective) axial force of a totally restrained pipe in the linear elastic stress
range will be consider as follows:
Pipe members subjected to bending moment, effective axial force and external
overpressure shall be designed to satisfy the following criterion at all cross sections is
derived from Section 5 – D607 Eq 5.28
2
2
2
γ m γ SC
S sd + γ m γ SC M sd + γ m γ SC Pe Pmin 1.0
αc S p αc M p Pc
where
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The hoop stress formula taken from ASME B31.8 Para A842.2.2 shall be used to
determine the minimum required wall thickness. In the hoop stress analysis, the
minimum required wall thickness is calculated based on net internal design pressure,
nominal outside diameter, design factor, SMYS and corrosion allowance of pipeline.
The minimum required wall thickness is calculated using the following equation.
Pi Pe D
t min
2 F1 S T
t req t min CA
Pe .g.h
Where:
= Seawater density
t min = Minimum calculated wall thickness
Pi
= Internal design pressure
Pe
= Minimum external pressure shall be utilized for pressure containment
check
D = Pipe outside diameter
F1 = Design factor
g = Gravity acceleration
h = Minimum water depth
S = SMYS
T = Temperature derating factor, 1.0 for temperature ≤120 0C, Table 841.1.8-
1 of ASME B31.8
t req
= Minimum required wall thickness
CA = Corrosion allowance
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The design factor used in the calculation shall depend on the location of pipeline and
the pipeline condition. The summary of design factor used in the wall thickness
calculation is given in the table below in accordance with Table A842.2.2-1.
Table A842.2.2-1 – Design Factors (Edited)
Condition Location Design Factor
Offshore Pipeline 0.72
Operation
Topside Piping, Riser and Spool 0.50
Offshore Pipeline, Topside Piping,
Hydrotest Normally consider 0.9
Riser and Spool
The pipeline shall be designed to resist the collapse due to external pressure during
installation and shutdown condition. The installation condition shall be based on un-
corroded pipe and non-pressurized condition. The shutdown condition shall be based
on corroded pipe (taken as fully corroded) and non-pressurized condition.
The criteria for collapse due to external pressure shall be calculated in accordance
with API RP 1111, as follows:
Py Pe
Pc
Py2 Pe2
t
Py 2 S min
D
3
t min
D
Pe 2 E
1 2
treq tmin CA tm
PO Pi f O PC
Where:
v = Poisson’s ratio
D = Pipe Outside Diameter
E = Young’s modulus
PC = Collapse pressure of the pipe
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The maximum external hydrostatic pressure shall be determined using maximum water
depth calculated by equation below.
The propagation buckling pressure shall be determined as per API RP 1111 for
installation and shutdown condition and any requirements such as increased linepipe
wall thickness or using buckle arrestors shall be assessed.
Critical propagation buckling pressure is calculated using the following equation.
2.4
t
PP 24 S
D
Permissible criteria check for propagation buckling shall be as per the equation below.
PO Pi f P PP
t req t t cor
Where:
D = Outside diameter
Po = Maximum external hydrostatic pressure
Pi = Internal pressure
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3.4.4 Buckling due to Combined Bending and External Pressure (API RP 1111)
Combined bending strain and external pressure load should satisfy the following:
Po Pi
g ( )
b Pc
f1 . 1
f 2 . 2
g ( ) (1 20 ) 1
t
b
2 .D
Where:
g ( ) = Collapse reduction factor
= Ovality
b = Buckling strain under pure bending
= Bending strain in the pipe
1 = Maximum installation bending strain
2 = Maximum in-place bending strain
f1 = Bending safety factor for installation bending plus external
pressure
f2 = Bending safety factor for in-place bending plus external pressure
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General Data
Pipe Dimension
Options;
1. If “NPS” (Nominal Pipe Size) is entered select Pipeline Diameter from
built-in Table as per API 5L.
2. If “User Define” option is selected the pipe OD (mm) must be entered.
Outer Diameter (OD). Unit: mm
Enter outside diameter of Pipe for “user defined” option in Pipe Dimensions.
Wall Thickness (tnom). Unit: mm
1. If “NPS” option has been input, select Wall Thickness from built-in Table
as per API 5L.
2. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined wall thickness.
Pipe Joint (Lpj). Unit: m
Enter average Pipe joint length.
Default 12.1 m.
Corrosion Allowance (t_corr). Unit: mm
Enter corrosion allowance.
Default 3.175 mm (1/8”).
Water Density. Unit: kg/m3
Enter Seawater Density.
Default 1025 kg/m3.
Minimum Depth. Unit: m
Enter minimum water.
Depth shall be considered for minimum external hydrostatic pressure.
Poisson Ratio (v). Unit: Non Dimensional
Enter Poisson ratio.
Default 0.3.
Modulus Young (E). Unit: MPa
Enter Young’s Modulus.
Default 207000.0 MPa.
Material Grade. Unit: Unit Non Dimensional
Options:
1. If Material grade is selected from built-in table as per API 5L, SMYS and
SMTS shall be automatically generated.
2. If User defined option is selected, SMYS and SMTS must be entered.
Unit MPa
Marine Growth Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter Marine Growth Thickness.
To be considered as accumulation of outer diameter for operation condition
hydro dynamic loads. For the Installation condition marine growth shall be
taken as 0.0 mm.
Anti-Corrosion Coating Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter Anti-Corrosion Coating Thickness.
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Pipe Data
Pipe Type
Enter Pipe Type. Select from built-in Table. The type of Pipe will define the
wall thickness fabrication tolerance. Reference Section 7, Table 7-18 and
Table 7-26.
Table 7-18 Tolerances for wall thickness
Type of pipe Wall thickness (mm) Tolerance
t < 4 mm 0.5 mm
4 mm ≤ t < 10 mm 0.125 * t
SMLS
10 mm ≤ t < 25 mm 0.125 * t
t ≥ 25 mm max(0.1 * t, 3 mm)
t ≤ 6 mm 0.4 mm
HFW, EBW, LBW and
6 mm < t ≤ 15 mm 0.7 mm
MWP
t > 15 mm 1.0 mm
SAW t ≤ 6 mm 0.5 mm
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Pipe Fabrication
Enter Type of Pipe Fabrication. Select from built-in Table.
The type of fabrication of Pipe will define fabrication factor. Reference
Section 5, Table 5-5.
U 0.96 1.00
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Supplementary Dimensions
Enter (Yes or No) if Supplementary Dimensions are to be included.
The supplementary dimension shall define the wall thickness fabrication
tolerance.
Options:
1. If “Yes” is selected from built-in table, the wall thickness fabrication
tolerance is refer to Table 7-26.
2. If “No” is selected, the wall thickness fabrication tolerance is refer to
Table 7-18.
Table 7-18 Tolerances for wall thickness
Type of pipe Wall thickness (mm) Tolerance
t < 4 mm 0.5 mm
4 mm ≤ t < 10 mm 0.125 * t
SMLS
10 mm ≤ t < 25 mm 0.125 * t
t ≥ 25 mm max(0.1 * t, 3 mm)
t ≤ 6 mm 0.4 mm
HFW, EBW, LBW and
6 mm < t ≤ 15 mm 0.7 mm
MWP
t > 15 mm 1.0 mm
t ≤ 6 mm 0.5 mm
6 mm < t ≤ 10 mm 0.7 mm
SAW
10 mm < t ≤ 20 mm 1.0 mm
t > 20 mm 1.0 mm
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Content Data
Design Temperature (T_max). Unit: Deg C.
Enter Design Temperature.
Used for de-rating of SMYS & SMTS. Reference Section C302.
Temperature de-rating is given in Section 5 Figure 2;
Figure 2
Proposed de-rating values for yield stress of C-Mn, 13Cr, 22Cr, and
25Cr
Max. Density (rho_cont). Unit: kg/m3
Enter Maximum Density of fluid/contents.
Fluid Category
Enter Fluid category as per hazard potential.
Select from built-in Table. Reference Section 2, Table 2-1.
Category Description
A Typical non-flammable water-based fluids.
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Environmental Data
Zone
Enter the Zone location class. Select from built-in Table. Reference Section
2, Table 2-2.
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m 1.15 1.00
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MATERIAL DATA
Specified Minimum Yield Stress SMYS MPa 450.000
Specified Minimum Tensile Stress SMTS MPa 535.000
Material Strength Factor u ‐ 1.000 1.000 1.000
Derating in Yield Stress due to Tem. fy.temp - 0.000 24.000 0.000
Derating in Tensile Stress due to Tem. fu.temp - 0.000 24.000 0.000
Poisson Ratio - 0.300
Young's Modulus E MPa 207000
CONTENTS DATA
Fluid Category ‐ - E
Fluid Density cont kg/m 3 0.000 120.000 1025.000
OPERATIONAL DATA
Zone ‐ - Zone 1
0
M aximum Design Temperature Tmax C - 90.000 -
Design Pressure Pi MPa - 9.000 0.000
Incidental to Design Pressure Ratio inc - - 1.100 1.000
Elevation at Pressure Reference Level href m 10.000
DESIGN CRITERIA
Limit State Category - - ULS
Apply Supplementary Pipe Dimension - - No
Pipeline Ovality f0 % 1.500 1.500 1.500
Safety Class - ‐ Low Medium Low
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INTERMEDIATE RESULTS
Characteristic yield stress: fy MPa 426.000
Steel wall thickness used in code check: t1 /t2 mm 10.913 12.900
Elastic collapse pressure: p el MPa 17.398 -
Plastic collapse pressure: pp MPa 28.705 -
Characteristic collapse pressure: pc MPa 0.955 -
Propagating buckle criterion pressure p pr MPa - 4.72
Material resistance factor: m - 1.150
Safety class resistance factor: SC - 1.140
External pressure: pe MPa 0.728
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INTERMEDIATE RESULTS
Pipeline Moment Inertia I mm 4 182921604.916
Plastic Moment Resistance Mp kN.m 531.521
Characteristic Plastic Axial Force Resistance Sp kN 5369.200
Flow Stress Parameter ( - - 0.388
Flow Stress Parameter ( - - 1.077
Effective Design Axial Force Sd kN -2698.574
Design Moment Md kN.m 22.283
Pressure Containment Resistant Pb MPa 40.807
D/t Ratio Effect - - 0.612
CRITERIA CHECK
CODE UNITY CHECK BUCKLING 0.200
OK
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INTERMEDIATE RESULTS
Plastic Moment Resistance Mp kN.m 678.752
Characteristic Plastic Axial Force Resistance Sp kN 6923.253
Flow Stress Parameter ( - - 0.440
Flow Stress Parameter ( - - 1.083
Allowable Stress MPa 0.000
Effective Design Axial Force Sd kN 0.000
Design Moment Md kN.m 0.000
Elastic Pressure Resistance Pel MPa 53.817
Plastic Pressure Resistance Pp MPa 44.180
Collapse Pressure Pc MPa 31.028
CRITERIA CHECK
CODE UNITY CHECK BUCKLING 0.001
OK
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ANALYSIS OUTPUT
ITEMS UNIT EM PTY OPERATION HYDROTEST
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ANALYSIS SUMMARY
9.807 15.900 OK
15.900 0.200 OK
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General Data
Pipe Dimension
Options;
1. If “NPS” (Nominal Pipe Size) is entered select Pipeline Diameter from
built-in Table as per API 5L.
2. If “User Define” option is selected the pipe OD (mm) must be entered.
Outer Diameter (OD). Unit: mm
Enter outside diameter of Pipe for “user defined” option in Pipe Dimensions.
Wall Thickness (tnom). Unit: mm
1. If “NPS” option has been input, select Wall Thickness from built-in Table
as per API 5L.
2. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined wall thickness.
Pipe Joint (Lpj). Unit: m
Enter average Pipe joint length.
Default 12.1 m.
Corrosion Allowance (t_corr). Unit: mm
Enter corrosion allowance.
Default 3.175 mm (1/8”).
Water Density. Unit: kg/m3
Enter Seawater Density.
Default 1025 kg/m3.
Minimum Depth. Unit: m
Enter minimum water.
Depth shall be considered for minimum external hydrostatic pressure.
Poisson Ratio (v). Unit: Non Dimensional
Enter Poisson ratio.
Default 0.3.
Modulus Young (E). Unit: MPa
Enter Young’s Modulus.
Default 207000.0 MPa.
Material Grade. Unit: MPa.
Options:
1. If Material grade is selected from built-in table as per API 5L, SMYS and
SMTS shall be automatically generated.
2. If User defined option is selected, SMYS and SMTS must be entered.
Pipeline Data
Pipe Location
Enter Pipe Location. Select from built-in Table. The pipe location will define
the hoop stress design factor, as per Table A842.2.2-1of ASME B31.8.
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Fabrication Method
Enter Fabrication Method. Select from built-in Table. The fabrication method
will define the collapse design factor, as per Section 4.3.2.1 of API RP 1111.
Ovality. Unit: %.
Enter Ovality of pipe, for collapse reduction factor as per Section 4.3.2.2 of
API RP 1111.
Fabrication Tolerance. Unit: mm.
Options;
1. Calculate to API Table 11 of API Spec 5L.
2. User defined.
Table 11 – Tolerances for Wall Thickness (edited)
Type of pipe Wall thickness (mm) Tolerance
t ≤ 4 mm 0.5 mm
SMLS 4 mm < t < 25 mm 0.125 * t
t ≥ 25 mm max(0.1 * t, 3 mm)
t ≤ 5 mm 0.5 mm
Welded Pipe 5 mm < t < 15 mm 0.1 * t
t ≥ 15 mm 1.5 mm
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Design Factors
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ENVIRONMENTAL DATA
Water Density w kg/m3 1025.000
Highest Astronomical Tide HAT m 1.800
Minimum Water Depth dmin m 58.500
Maximum Water Depth dmax m 65.000
Surge (1 Year) SS1y r m 0.800
Surge (100 Year) SS100y r m 1.200
Maximum Wave Height (1 Year) H1y r m 5.500
Maximum Wave Height (100 Year H100y r m 8.900
OPERATIONAL DATA
0
Design Temperature Td C 90.000
Internal Design Pressure Pd MPa 9.000
Hydrotest Pressure Phy d MPa 11.250
Maximum Content Density cont kg/m3 120.000
Reference Elevation href m 10.000
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PRESSURE CONTAINMENT
Required Wall Thickness for Operation tnom mm 4.24
Required Wall Thickness for Hydrotest tnom mm 4.54
PROPAGATING BUCKLING
Required Wall Thickness for Operation tnom mm 6.50
Required Wall Thickness for Installation tnom mm 6.42
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This module considers the stability of submarine pipelines subject to wave and current
loading. Calculations are carried out for vertical and lateral stability as per DNV-RP-
F109 Nov 2011.
The vertical stability checks flotation of the submerged pipeline. For lateral stability two
methods are presented in the code, for pipeline resting on sea bed, in trench or buried.
Three methods for stability assessment are recommended in the code, which are;
In order to avoid floatation in water, the submerged weight of the pipeline shall meet
the following criterion as per Section 3.2, Eq. 3.1:
b
w w 1.0
b ws sg
where :
w = Safety factor
b = Pipe buoyancy per unit length
ws = Pipe submerged weight per unit length
sg = Pipe specific density
The steady current flow at the pipe level may have components from,
tidal current,
wind induced current,
storm surge and,
density driven currents.
The current velocity may be reduced to take account of the effect of the bottom
boundary layer and directionality. Reference Section 3.4.2, Eq. 3.2
lnz z 0 lnz 0
V z V z r sin c
lnz r z 0 lnz 0
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where :
V(zr) = Steady state current velocity perpendicular to pipeline
z = Elevation above seabed
z0 = Bottom roughness parameter
zr = Reference measurement height over seabed
c = Angle between current direction and pipe
Mean perpendicular current velocity over the pipe diameter is given in DNV-RP-F109
2011, Section 3.4.2, Eq. 3.3
z z
1 0 ln 1 1
z z0
Vc Vc z r sin c
z
ln 1
z
0
Where the directionality of the current velocity is accounted for through θc, that is the
angle between current velocity and the pipeline axis. If information on directionality is
unavailable, the current should be assumed to act perpendicular to the pipeline.
The short-term, stationary, irregular sea states may be described by a wave spectrum
S(ω) i.e. the power spectral density function of the sea surface elevation. Wave
spectra may be given in table form, as measured spectra, or in an analytical form.
For the JONSWAP spectrum, which is often appropriate, the spectral density function
reads is given in Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.4.
2
5
4
exp 0.5 pp
S g exp
2 5
4 p
The Generalised Phillips’ constant is given in Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.5
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5 H s p
2 4
1 0.287 ln
16 g2
The spectral width parameter is given in DNV-RP-F109 2011, Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.6
0.07 if p
{
0.09 otherwise
The peak-enhancement factor may be taken as stated in Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.7.
The wave induced velocity spectrum at the sea bed SUU() may be obtained through a
spectral transformation of the waves at sea level using a first order wave theory (as
stated in Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.8.
SUU G 2 ( ) S ( )
The transfer function G transform sea surface elevation to wave induced flow velocities
at seabed is given as stated in Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.9.
G ( )
sinh( k d )
where d is the water depth and k is wave number establish by iteration from the
transcendental equation as stated in Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.10.
2
k tanh k d
g
The spectral moments of order n is defined as stated in Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.11.
M n n SUU d
0
Us 2 M0
Mean zero up-crossing period of oscillating flow at pipe level as stated in DNV-RP-
F109 2011, Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.13.
M0
Tu 2
M2
Assuming linear wave theory, Us may be taken from Figure 3-2 and Tu from DNV-RP-
109 2011 Figure 3-3, which as stated in Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.14.
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d
Tn
g
The ratio between the design single oscillation velocity amplitude and the design
spectral velocity amplitude for oscillations is given in Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.15
U* 1 0.5772
kU 2 ln
Us 2 2 ln
The ratio between design single oscillation velocity period and the average zero up-
crossing period (both at seabed level) is site specific. In absence of other data, this can
be taken as stated in Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.16.
The effect of main wave directionality and wave spreading is introduced in the form of
a reduction factor on the significant flow velocity, i.e. projection onto the velocity
normal to the pipe and effect of wave spreading as stated in DNV-RP-F109 2011,
Section 3.4.4.
U w R D U w
2
RD D d
w
2
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The angle w is the angle between wave heading and pipe. is the gamma function
and ‘s’ is a site specific spreading parameter, normally ‘s’ is taken between 2 and 8. If
no information is available, the most conservative value in the range 2 to 8 shall be
selected.
The total load reduction due to pipe soil interaction is given in as stated in Section
3.4.5, Eq. 3.17
The subscript “i” takes the value y for the horizontal load and z for the vertical load.
For load reduction due to permeable seabed parameter, if the vertical hydrodynamic
load used in an analysis are based on load coefficients derived from the assumption of
a non-permeable seabed, then the following load reduction applies as stated in Section
3.4.5, Eq 3.18.
r perm , z 0.7
4.1.7 Load Reduction Due To Penetration
Load reduction due to penetration is given in Section 3.4.5, Eq 3.19 and 3.20
zp
rpen , y 1.0 1.4 however ≥ 0.3
D
zp
rpen, z 1.0 1.3 0.1 however > 0.0
D
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Load reduction due to trenching as stated in Section 3.4.5, Eq 3.21 and 3.22;
0.42
z
rtr , y 1.0 0.18 5
0.25
t 5 ≤ ≤ 45
D
0.46
z
rtr , z 1.0 0.14 5
0.43
t 5 < < 45
D
Passive resistance on clay can be taken as stated in Section 3.4.6, Eq 3.25 and 3.26
Total penetration can be taken as the sum of initial penetration and penetration due to
pipe movement as stated in Section 3.4.6, Eq 3.27
z p z pi z pm
Initial penetration on sand, Reference Section 3.4.6, Eq 3.28
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z pi 0.67
0.037 s
D
Initial penetration on clay, Reference Section 3.4.6, Eq 3.29
3.2 0.7
z pi Gc 0.3 Gc 0.3
0.0071
0.062
D
c
c
For a pipe lying in a trench, the resistance from the trench wall may be accounted for
through an equivalent penetration, Reference, Section 3.4.6, Eq 3.30.
which corresponds to a situation where the pipe has moved one half diameter into
trench wall with a trench angle equal to θ, but limited to half the depth of the trench
depth zt.
This method gives an absolute static requirement for lateral on-bottom pipelines based
on static equilibrium of forces that ensures that the resistance of the pipe against
motion is sufficient to withstand maximum hydrodynamic loads during a sea state, i.e.
the pipe will experience no lateral displacement under the design extreme single wave
induced oscillatory cycle in the sea state considered.
This requirement for absolute stability may be relevant for e.g. pipe spools, pipes on
narrow supports, cases dominated by current and/or on stiff clay.
This requirement of zero displacement leads to a heavy pipes, especially so for cases
dominated by wave induced flow velocity with small amplitude, i.e. K and M are small,
where force reduction effects due to relative movement are significant even for small
movements and the oscillating flow will not move a slightly lighter pipe a long distance.
Note also that the peak loads presented below are measured in experiments and the
horizontal component thus includes both the drag term and the inertia. Furthermore,
with a zero displacement requirement, one cannot take advantage of the increased
passive resistance that is built up due to the penetration caused by the pipe being
rugged back and forth by the wave induced flow.
F 'Y F ' Z
SC 1.0
Wsub _ p min F ' R
F 'Z
SC 1.0
Wsub _ p min
The safety factors SC to be used for absolute stability in regular winter sea states are
stated in Section 3.6.3, Tables 3.5 and 3.6. If cyclonic cases are governing for on-
bottom stability design, the safety factors SC to be used for absolute stability in
cyclonic conditions are stated in Section 3.6.3, Tables 3.7 and 3.8. For other areas
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than those mentioned above, conservative assumptions should be made for the choice
of safety factors.
and
Peak load coefficients and are stated in Table 3.9 and Table 3.10.
The absolute stability method provide an absolute static requirement for lateral on-
bottom pipelines based on static equilibrium of forces to ensure that the resistance of
the pipe against motion is sufficient to withstand maximum hydrodynamic loads during
a sea state, i.e. the pipe will experience no lateral displacement under the design
extreme single wave induced oscillatory cycle in the sea state considered.
Furthermore, this requirement of zero displacement leads to the need of heavy pipes.
This is because, with zero displacement, one cannot take advantage of the increased
passive resistance build up due to the penetration caused by the pipe being rugged
back and forth by the wave induced flow.
This bring us to the generalized stability method which takes advantage of a large
reduction in weight requirement by allowing some displacement which would be limited
to a value that most pipelines can experience. It is recommended to limit the sum of
the lateral displacement during temporary condition and operation to 10 pipe
diameters. For larger displacements one should perform a full dynamic analysis with
adequate tools.
For the pipeline to be stable, the actual submerged weight of the pipeline must be
equal to or greater than the required submerged resulting from the required concrete
thickness for lateral stability.
Y ( L, K , M , N , , Gs , Gc )
1.00
Yallowable
Where:
Y = Dimensionless lateral pipe displacement governed by a set of non-
dimensional parameters = y D
y = Lateral pipe displacement
D = Pipe outer diameter including all coating
Yallowable = Allowed lateral displacement scaled to pipe diameter
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ws
= Significant weight parameter = 0.5 w D U s
2
L
K = Significant Keulegan-Carpenter number =
U s Tu D
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General Data
Pipe Dimension
Options;
1. If “NPS” (Nominal Pipe Size) is entered select Pipeline Diameter from
built-in Table as per API 5L.
2. If “User Define” option is selected the pipe OD (mm) must be entered.
Outer Diameter (OD). Unit: mm
Enter outside diameter of Pipe for “user defined” option in Pipe Dimensions.
Wall Thickness (tnom). Unit: mm
1. If “NPS” option has been input, select Wall Thickness from built-in Table
as per API 5L.
2. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined wall thickness.
Pipe Joint (Lpj). Unit: m
Enter average Pipe joint length.
Default 12.1 m.
Corrosion Allowance (t_corr). Unit: mm
Enter corrosion allowance.
Default 3.175 mm (1/8”).
Water Density. Unit: kg/m3
Enter Seawater Density.
Default 1025 kg/m3.
Minimum Depth. Unit: m
Enter minimum water.
Depth shall be considered for minimum external hydrostatic pressure.
Poisson Ratio (v). Unit: Non Dimensional
Enter Poisson ratio.
Default 0.3.
Modulus Young (E). Unit: MPa
Enter Young’s Modulus.
Default 207000.0 MPa.
Material Grade. Unit: MPa.
Options:
1. If Material grade is selected from built-in table as per API 5L, SMYS and
SMTS shall be automatically generated.
2. If User defined option is selected, SMYS and SMTS must be entered.
Marine Growth Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter Marine Growth Thickness.
To be considered as accumulation of outer diameter for operation condition
hydro dynamic loads. For the Installation condition marine growth shall be
taken as 0.0 mm.
Anti-Corrosion Coating Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter Anti-Corrosion Coating Thickness.
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Pipe Data
Wall Thickness Tolerance. Unit: mm.
Enter Wall Thickness Tolerance.
Minus tolerance shall be considered for nominal wall thickness.
Corrosion. Unit: %.
Enter Percentage of Corrosion.
The corrosion to be considered in on bottom stability refer to percentage of
corrosion allowance. The percentage of corrosion shall be considered in
nominal wall thickness in operation condition.
Water Absorption. Unit. %.
Enter Water Absorption.
Default = 5%.
Minimum Content Density (op.). Unit kg/m3.
Enter Minimum Content Density for Operation Condition.
Maximum Content Density (op.). Unit kg/m3.
Enter Maximum Content Density for Operation Condition.
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Soil Type
Enter Soil Type, Clay / Sand.
Friction Factor. Unit: Non Dimensional.
Options;
1. User defined, If user defined selected, the factor value shall be filled.
2. DNV RP F109 (Section 3.4.6). Values automatically generated.
If Soil type is clay the factor will be 0.2.
If Soil type is sand the factor will be 0.6.
Angle of Sand Friction. Unit: Deg.
Enter Angle of Sand Friction.
Clay Shear Strength. Unit Pa.
Enter Undrained Clay Shear Strength.
Submerged Soil Weight. Unit N/m3.
Enter Submerged Soil Weight.
Current-Pipeline Angle. Unit: Deg.
Enter Angle between Current heading and Pipeline.
Wave-Pipeline Angle. Unit: Deg.
Enter Angle between Wave heading and Pipeline.
Current Reference Height. Unit m
Enter Current Reference Height over seabed.
Wave Height 1yr. Unit: m.
Enter Significant Wave Height for Installation Condition.
Wave Height 100yr. Unit: m.
Enter Significant Wave Height for Operation Condition.
Wave Period 1yr. Unit: Sec.
Enter Peak Period for Installation Condition.
Wave Period 100yr. Unit: Sec.
Enter Peak Period for Operation Condition.
Current Velocity 1yr. Unit: m/s.
Enter Current Velocity for Installation Condition.
Current Velocity 100yr. Unit: m/s.
Enter Current Velocity for Operation Condition.
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BUOYANCY
Buoyancy Wbmgeq N/m 1359.01 1359.01
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PENETRATION DEPTH
Penetration due to Movement zpm mm 41.49
Soil Parameters si - 1.41 1.41
ci - 0.96 0.96
Gci ‐ 0.42
Penetration due to Laying zpl mm 41.49
Initial Penetration zpi mm 23.54 23.54
Trench Depth zt mm 0.00
Total Pipe Penetration zp mm 106.52 106.52
Equivalent Penetration in Trench zpt mm 0.00
Total Pipe Penetration including in Trench ztp mm 106.52 106.52
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This module is used to check free spanning in pipelines, subjected to combined wave
and current loading. The module checks the integrity of the pipeline both to Vortex
Shedding and Stress criteria as per DNV-RP-F105 and DNV-0S-F101 Codes.
Analysis are carried out as per DNV-OS-F101 for the following cases;
5.1 METHODOLOGY
The steady current flow at the free span level has load components from:
tidal current,
wind induced current,
storm surge induced current,
density driven current.
The current velocity (U) is taken from equation stated in Section 3.2.6;
ln(z) ln(z o )
U ( z ) Rc .U ( z r ).
ln(z r ) ln(z o )
Where;
Rc = Reduction Factor
z = Elevation above the seabed (m)
zr = Reference measurement height (m)
zo = Bottom roughness parameter to be taken from Table 3-1 (m)
The elevation to be measure shall be in the center of outer diameter, therefore the
elevation above the seabed shall be as per following;
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z is taken as;
1
z e .D
2
Where;
e = Seabed gap to bottom of pipe (m)
D = Pipe outer diameter (including any coating) (m)
The short term, stationary, irregular sea state is described by a wave spectrum S ( )
i.e. the power spectral density function at the sea surface elevation. Wave spectra may
be given in tabulated form, as measured spectra, or in an analytical form.
The JONSWAP or the Pierson-Moskowitz are generally adopted. The spectral density
function is derived from Section 3.3.3;
2
5
4
exp 0.5 pp
S g exp
2 5
4 p
Where;
= 2 / Tw is the angular wave frequency (Hz)
Tw = Wave period (s)
Tp = Peak period (s)
p = 2 / T p is the angular spectral peak frequency (Hz)
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1 0.287 ln
16 g2
The spectral width parameter is given by;
0.07 if p
0.09 else
The peak-enhancement factor is given by;
5 .0 3 .6
Tp
exp(5.75 1.15 ) 3.6 5.0
Hs
1 .0 5 .0
Where;
Hs = Significant wave height (m)
Tp = Peak period (s)
The wave induced velocity spectrum at the sea bed SUU() may be obtained through a
spectral transformation of the waves at sea level using a first order wave theory
derived from Section 3.3.5;
SUU G 2 ( ) S ( )
Where h is the water depth and k is wave number establish by iteration from the
transcendental equation;
2 .h
kh coth( k .h)
g
The spectral moments of order n is defined in Section 3.3.6.
M n n SUU d
0
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The effect of wave directionality and wave spreading is introduced in the form of a
reduction factor on the significant flow velocity, i.e. projection onto the velocity normal
to the pipe and effect of wave spreading, derived from Section 3.4.3
U w RD U s
2
RD ( ).sin .d
2
rel
2
Where rel is the relative direction between the pipeline direction and wave direction.
2 w
0 else 1 s
2 2
5.1.3 Modal Damping Ratio
Structural damping is due to internal friction forces of the pipe material and depends on
the strain level and associated deflections. If no information is available, a structural
modal damping ratio, following can be assumed; Refer Section 6.2.11.
str 0.005
If concrete coating is present, the sliding at the interface between concrete and
corrosion coating may further increase the damping to typically 0.01 - 0.02.
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Soil damping ratio, soil , can be derived from Table 7-3 and Table 7-4.
Table 7-3 Modal soil damping ratios (in %) for sand
Horizontal (in-line) Vertical (cross-flow)
direction L/D direction L/D
Sand Type
>
< 40 100 > 160 < 40 100
160
Loose 3.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 1.4 0.8
Medium 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.2 1.0 0.8
Dense 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.2 1.0 0.8
For pipe supported in rock, values for the modal soil damping ratios may be taken as
dense sand. Interpolation of Table 7-3 and Table 7-4 are utilized to define the modal
soil damping ratios in in-line and cross flow directions, and simplified in following
equations;
L / D 40
Loose 3.0 3 1.0
60
Medium 1.5
Dense 1.5
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L / D 40
Loose 2.0 2 0.8
100
L / D 40
Medium 1.2 1.2 0.8
300
L / D 40
Dense 1.2 1.2 0.8
300
Very Soft – L / D 40
Soft
3.0 3.0 1.0
60
L / D 40
Firm – Stiff 1.2 1.2 0.8
300
Very Stiff - L / D 40
Hard
0.7 0.7 0.5
600
For VIV within the lock-in region, the hydrodynamic modal damping ratio, h is
normally to be taken as zero. Reference Section 4.1.9.
Then the total modal damping ratio for in-line and cross flow direction can be
calculated as follows;
T ( IL) str soil( IL) h
T (CF ) str soil(CF ) h
The stability parameter, K s , representing the damping for a given modal shape is
given by (derived from Section 4.1.8);
4 π me ζ T
Ks =
ρ D2
Where;
= Water density (kg/m3)
T = Total modal damping ratio
me = Effective mass (kg/m)
The effective mass, me , is defined by (derived from Section 6.7.3);
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ms 2 s ds
me L
s ds
2
L
Where, s , is the assumed mode shape satisfying the boundary conditions and ms
is the mass per unit length including structural mass, added mass, and mass of
internal fluid.
The effective mass in above equation can be derived as follows;
ws b
me C a . .D 2 .
g 4
Where;
ws = Submerged weight (N/m)
b = Buoyancy (N/m)
Ca = Added mass coefficient
The added mass coefficient in below is for calculation of still water frequency (in-line),
derived from Section 6.9.1;
1.6
0.68 for e / D 0.8
C a ( IL) (1 5(e / D)
1 for e / D 0.8
Where e / D is the span gap ratio. This expression applies for both smooth and rough
pipe surface.
The added mass coefficient for modifying cross-flow response frequency is derived
from Section 4.5 Reference Figure 4-7.
Figure 4-7 Added mass coefficients Ca,CF RES as a function of reduced velocity
The effective mass referring to added mass coefficient in-line and cross-flow can be
derived as follows;
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ws b
me ( IL) C a ( IL ) . .D 2 .
g 4
ws b
me (CF ) C a ,CF RES . .D 2 .
g 4
The safety factor on stability, k parameter shall be considered to determine the
stability parameter for onset reduced velocity (derived from Section 4.3.5).
Ks
K sd
k
Therefore, the stability parameter for in-line and cross-flow by considering safety
factor, k are simplified to the following equation;
4 π m e ( IL ) ζ T ( IL )
K sd ( IL ) =
ρ D 2 . k
4 π m e ( CF ) ζ T ( CF )
K sd (CF ) =
ρ D 2 . k
5.1.5 Onset Vibration Reduced Velocity
The onset vibration reduced velocity for in-line direction can be calculated based on
following. Reference Section 4.3.5.
1.0
for K sd 0.4
on , IL
0.6 K sd
VRIL, onset for 0.4 K sd 1.6
on , IL
2.2 for K sd 1.6
on , IL
Where;
on, IL = Safety factor on onset value for in-line
Meanwhile, the onset vibration reduced velocity for cross-flow direction can be
calculated based on following equation (derived from Section 4.4.4);
3. proxi,onset . trench,onset
V RCF
, onset =
on,CF
proxi,onset
is a correction factor accounting for the seabed proximity (derived from
Section 4.4.6);
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1 e e
4 1.25 for 0.8
proxi,onset 5 D D
1 else
trench,onset
is a correction factor accounting for the effect of a pipe located in/over trench
(derived from Section 4.4.7);
trench,onset 1 0.5
D
Where / D denotes a relative trench depth given by;
1.25d e
D D
When the topographical conditions are not complex, when the soils are non-stratified
and homogeneous, and when no detailed analysis is carried out for determination of K V
and K L , the values of these stiffness in units of kN/m/m may be calculated as shown in
Section 7.4.10.
CV 2 s 1
KV = D
1 3 3
2 s 1
K L = C L 1 D
3 3
Where;
CV = Vertical dynamic stiffness factor, refer to Tables 7-5 and 7-6
CL = Lateral dynamic stiffness factor, refer to Tables 7-5 and 7-6
s / = Specific mass ratio between the pipe mass (not including added mass) and
displaced water
Table 7-5 Dynamic stiffness factor and static stiffness for pipe-soil interaction in
sand
CV CL K V ,S
Sand Type
(kN/m5/2) (kN/m5/2) (kN/m/m)
Loose 10500 9000 250
Medium 14500 12500 530
Dense 21000 18000 1350
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Table 7-6 Dynamic stiffness factor and static stiffness for pipe-soil interaction in
clay with OCR = 1
CV CL K V ,S
Sand Type
(kN/m5/2) (kN/m5/2) (kN/m/m)
Very Soft 600 500 50 – 100
Soft 1400 1200 160 – 260
Firm 3000 2600 500 – 800
Stiff 4500 3900 1000 – 1600
Very Stiff 11000 9500 2000 – 3000
Hard 12000 10500 2600 - 4200
For free spans supported by sand, the lateral dynamic stiffness K L should be
calculated under an assumption of loose sand properties in order to properly account
for effects of complex soil mobility, including erosion and self-burial.
The Leff / L term is used for the effective length in order to consider a fully fixed span.
This ratio decreases as the L / D s ratio and soil stiffness increase. The Leff / L term is
given by (reference Hobbs, 1986), derived from Section 6.7.9;
4.73
for 2.7
Leff 0.66 1.02 0.63
2
L 4.73
for 2.7
0.036 0.61 1.0
2
Where,
K .L4
β = log10
( 1 + CSF) EI
Where K is the relevant soil stiffness (dynamic vertical or horizontal).
To prevent any numerical anomalies, the effective span length has been limited to 30
times D. Reference Section 1.8.1. When L / D 30 the pipe is unlikely to experience
VIV, hence is not critical.
Therefore, the value can be simplified as follows;
K .(30D) 4
10
log for L 30D
( 1+ CSF) EI
β=
log K .L4
for L 30D
10
( 1+ CSF) EI
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As stated in Section 6.4.3 the effective axial force for a completely unrestrained
(axially) pipe is 0
S eff 0
While for a totally restrained thin walled pipe the effective axial force is given in the
following equation. Reference Section 6.4.3.
S eff H eff pi Ai 1 2 As .E.T . E
Where;
H eff = Effective lay tension (kN)
pi
= Internal pressure difference relative to laying (MPa)
Ai = Inside diameter area (m2)
= Poisson ratio for steel, normally 0.3.
As = Pipe steel cross section area (m2)
T = Temperature difference relative to laying (0C)
E = Temperature expansion coefficient, normally 1.17 x 10-5 (1/0C)
In this module, the effective axial force has been considered for totally restrained
condition if the user select the methodology of effective axial force calculation refer to
DNV-RP-F105.
Page 97 of 165
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EI
Pcr 1 CSF .C 2 . 2
L2eff
5.1.10 Static Deflection
In the case the static deflection is not given by direct measurement (survey) or
estimated by accurate analytical tools, it may be estimated as stated in Section 6.7.7.
q.L4eff 1
C6 .
E.I .(1 CSF ) S
1 eff
Pcr
Where q represents the submerged weight of the pipe in the vertical (cross-flow)
direction. The in-line direction is generally ignored. Therefore, the static deflection in
the vertical (cross-flow direction) is derived as;
ws .L4eff (CF ) 1
CF C6 .
E.I .(1 CSF ) S
1 eff
P
cr ( CF )
EI S eff
2
f1 C1 . 1 CSF
. 1 C3
me .L4eff P D
cr
Where;
C1 C 3 = Boundary condition coefficients
E = Young modulus for steel (MPa)
I = Moment of inertia for steel (m4)
CSF = Concrete stiffness enhancement factor
Leff = Effective span length (m)
me = Effective mass (kg/m)
D = Outer diameter of pipe (m)
Pcr = Critical buckling load, positive sign (kN)
= Static deflection (m), normally ignored for in-line direction
S eff = Effective axial force (kN), negative in compression
EI S
f n, IL C1 . 1 CSF .1 eff
me ( IL) .L4eff ( IL) Pcr ( IL)
Page 98 of 165
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User Manual
EI S eff CF
2
f n,CF C1 . 1 CSF
. 1 C3
me(CF ) .L4eff (CF ) Pcr (CF ) D
For in-line direction, the static deflection has been ignored.
The natural frequency for a given vibration mode, is derived from equation stated in
Section 4.1.5;
Uc Uw
fn
VR .D
Where;
fn = Natural frequency for a given vibration mode (Hz). The safety
factor on natural frequency, f shall be applied in natural
frequency (derived from Section 2.6.2)
Uc = Mean current velocity normal to the pipe (m/s)
Uw = Significant wave-induced flow velocity (m/s)
D = Outer pipe diameter (m)
VR = Reduced velocity
Taking into consideration the safety factors, the natural frequency for in-line and cross-
flow vibration modes stated in the above equation can be can be simplified as;
Uc Uw
f on, IL . f
VRIL,onset .D
Uc Uw
f on,CF . f
VRCF
,onset .D
14.1L / Leff 2
C4 4.93 14.1 Shoulder:
Page 99 of 165
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1) Note that C3 0 is normally assumed for in-line if the steady current is not
accounted for.
2) For pinned-pinned boundary condition Leff is to be replaced by L in the above
expressions also for Pcr .
4) C 5 shall be calculated using the static soil stiffness in the Leff / L calculation.
The safety factors to be used with the screening criteria are given in Table 2-1.
IL 1.4
CF 1.4
f , on , k and s denote partial safety factors for the natural frequency, onset of VIV,
stability parameter and stress range respectively. The set of partial safety factors to be
applied for both response models and force models are specified in Table 2-2 and 2-3.
s 1.3
on, IL 1.1
on,CF 1.2
Comments:
s is to be multiplied to the stress range ( S . s )
f applies to the natural frequency ( f n / f )
on applies to onset values for in-line and cross-flow VIV
(V CF
R , on / on ,CF and V IL
R , on / on , IL )
k applies to the total damping
for ULS, the calculation of load effects is to be performed without safety factors
s f k on 1.0
( )
Referring to Section 2.3.6, it is possible to perform the analysis as the traditional onset
criterion in order to establish conservative allowable free span lengths. The allowable
span length shall be determined based on the onset vibration criteria.
Therefore, the maximum allowable span is limited that the onset vibration criteria for in-
line and cross-flow directions are less than natural vibration criteria for in-line and
cross-flow directions.
In-line Direction
f n, IL f on, IL
Cross-flow Direction
f n,CF f on,CF
The screening criteria have been calibrated against full fatigue analyses to provide a
fatigue life in excess of 50 years.
As per Section 2.3.3 the in-line natural frequencies f n, IL must fulfill the condition;
f n. IL U c,100 years L / D 1
> IL 1 .
γ IL V R,onset D 250 α
Where;
IL = Screening factor for in-line
U c ,100 years
= Current flow ratio =
U w ,1 year U c ,100 years
Minimum value of 0.6
D = Outer pipe diameter include coating (m)
U c,100 years
= 100 years return period value for the current velocity at the pipe
level
U w,1 year = Significant 1 year return period value for the wave-induced flow
velocity at the pipe level corresponding to the annual significant
wave height, H s ,1 year
As per section 2.3.4 the cross-flow natural frequencies f n,CF must fulfill the condition;
VRCF
,onset = Cross-flow onset value for the reduced velocity
5.1.17 Keulegan-Carpenter
The amplitude response depends mainly on the reduced velocity, VR , the stability
parameter, K s , the turbulence intensity, I c ,and the flow angle, rel ,relative to the
pipe. Mitigation effects from the seabed proximity (e / D ) are conservatively not
included.
The in-line VIV induced stress range S IL is calculated by the Response Model as
stated in Section 4.3.3;
Ay
S IL 2. AIL . . , IL . s
D
Where;
AIL = Unit stress amplitude (stress due to unit diameter in-line mode
shape deflection)
, IL = Correction factor to be multiplied to the stress range
s = Safety factor to be multiplied to the stress range
The response model can be constructed from the co-ordinates in Figure 4-2 as;
1.0
for K sd 0.4
on , IL
0.6 K sd
VRIL, onset for 0.4 K sd 1.6
on , IL
2.2 for K sd 1.6
on , IL
AY ,1
V RIL,1 10. V RIL,onset
D
AY , 2
V RIL, 2 V RIL,end 2
D
4.5 0.8.K sd for K sd 1.0
V RIL,end
3.7 for K sd 1.0
AY ,1 K A
max 0.181 sd .RI ,1 ; Y , 2
D 1.2 D
AY , 2 K
0.13.1 sd .R I , 2
D 1 .8
The reduction factors, R I ,1 ( I c , rel ) and RI , 2 ( I c ) , account for the effect of the
turbulence intensity and angle of attack (in radians) for the flow, refer Figure 4-3;
RI ,1 1.0 2 2 . rel I c 0.03 0 R I ,1 1
2
I 0.03
RI , 2 1.0 c 0 RI , 2 1
0.17
Figure 4-3 Reduction function wrt turbulence intensity and flow angle
The cross-flow VIV induced stress range S CF due to a combined current and wave
flow is assessed using the following response model. Reference section 4.4.3.
A
SCF 2. ACF . z .Rk . s
D
Where;
ACF = Unit stress amplitude (stress due to unit diameter cross-flow
mode shape deflection)
Rk = Amplitude reduction factor due to damping
7 Az ,1
, 2 V R ,end
V RCF
CF
1.3 D
,end 16
V RCF
f n 1,CF
0. 9 0. 8 1. 5
f
n ,CF
0.9 0.5. f n 1,CF 1.5 0.8 1.5
f n 1,CF
2. 3
f
Az ,1 n ,CF f n ,CF
f n 1,CF
D 1.3 0. 8 2. 3
f
n , CF
0. 9 0 .8 KC 30
0.7 0.01KC 10 0 .8 10 KC 30
0. 7 0. 8 KC 10
Az , 2 Az ,1
D D
f n1,CF
is the cross-flow frequency ratio for two consecutive (contributing) cross flow
f
n ,CF
modes.
1 0.15.K sd for K sd 4
Rk 1.5
3.2.K sd for K sd 4
ACF
The maximum (unit diameter) stress amplitude for cross-flow direction may be
estimated as stated in Section 6.7.5;
D.( D s t ).E
ACF C 4 .(1 CSF ).
L2eff
Where;
t = Steel pipe wall thickness (m)
C4 = Boundary condition coefficient
The force P(x,t) per unit length of a pipe free span is represented by the Morison’s
equation. Assuming that the velocity of the structure is not negligible compared with
the water particle velocity Morison’s equation. Reference Section 5.4.1.
P( x, t ) g D U y U y g I .U C a .D 2 y
4
Where;
= Water density
D = Outer pipe diameter
U = Instantaneous (time dependent) flow velocity
y = Pipe lateral displacement
gD = 0.5. .D.C D is the drag force term
gI = .D 2 .C M is the inertia force term
4
The force P(x,t) can be simplified as;
1
P . .D.CD U w max . cos( ) U c U w max . cos( ) U c . .D 2 .CM . Awave . sin( )
2 4
Where;
CD = Drag coefficient
U w max = Maximum wave velocity, refer to maximum wave height and
period.
Uc = Current velocity
= Phase angle
CM = Inertia coefficient
Awave = Wave acceleration, refer to maximum wave velocity
Drag Coefficient
The drag coefficient CD is taken from Section 5.4.3;
C D C D0 (k / D). KC
CD
, . proxi . trench. VIV
CD CD CD
C D0 ( k / D ) is the basic drag coefficient for steady flow as a function of roughness k/D.
as stated in Section 5.4.4;
0.65 ; k / D 10 4 ( smooth)
29 4
C D0 (k / D) 0.65 log 10 (k / D) ; 10 4 k / D 10 2
13 13
1.05 ; k / D 10 2 (rough)
In lieu of detailed documentation of the surface roughness the values in Table 5-1 may
be applied for the absolute roughness, k.
Table 5-1 Surface roughness
Pipe Surface k (metres)
Steel, painted 10-6
Steel, un-coated (not rusted) 10-5
Concrete 1/300
Marine Growth 1/200 -> 1/20
KC
CD
, is a correction factor accounting for the unsteadiness of the flow, including
effects of Keulegan-Carpenter number KC and the current flow ratio as stated in
Section 5.4.5.
6
0.85 0.5
KC 2
KC ,
CD
5 KC 40
0.6 6 0.5
KC
For KC 40 , the term 6 / KC in the formula above shall be substituted by 0.15.
The drag load is often of small practical importance for small KC values and KC
CD
,
may be interpolated for completeness for KC 5 .
CD
proxi is a correction factor accounting for the seabed proximity refer Section 5.4.6.
0.5
0.9 for e / D 0.8
CD
proxi 1 5.(e / D)
1 else
trench
CD
is a correction factor accounting for the effect of a pipe in a trench refer Section
5.4.7.
2
trench
CD
1
3 D
VIV
CD
is an amplification factor due to cross-flow vibration Refer Section 5.4.8.
0.65
A
CD
trench 1 1.043 2 z
D
Inertia Coefficient
The inertia coefficient CM is to be taken as stated in Section 5.4.9.
CM C M ,0 . kCM . CM
proxi . trench
CM
C M , 0 is the basic inertia coefficient for a free concrete coated pipe taken as stated in
Section 5.4.10.
52 f
C M , 0 f
KC 5
1.6 2. 0.5
f
0.6 0.5
kCM is a correction factor accounting for the pipe roughness, refer Section 5.4.11.
k
kCM 0.75 0.434. log
D
CM
proxi is a correction factor accounting for the seabed proximity, refer Section 5.4.12.
0.8
0.84 for e / D 0.8
CM
proxi 1 5.(e / D)
1 else
trench
CM
is a correction factor accounting for the effect of a pipe in a trench (derived from
Section 5.4.13);
1
trench
CM
1
3 D
q.L2eff
M static C 5 .
S eff
1
Pcr
Where q represents the loading, i.e. the submerged weight of the pipe in the vertical
(cross-flow) direction and/or the drag loading in the horizontal (in-line) direction.
Note:
- Leff shall be calculated using the static soil stiffness in the Leff/L calculation
- The term Seff / Pcr becomes negative when the effective axial force is in
compression since Pcr is defined as positive.
Therefore, the bending moment due to drag and inertia load defined as M wave , can be
used in following equation;
P.L2eff
M wave C5 .
S eff
1
Pcr
Meanwhile, the bending moment due to the submerged weight defined as M FUNC , can
be used in following equation;
ws .L2eff
M FUNC C5 .
S
1 eff
Pcr
The maximum environmental stress for in-line and cross-flow direction, E , is taken as
stated in Section 2.5.8.
1 AIL
E . max S IL ;0.4.S CF . FM , max in line
2 ACF
1
E .S CF cross flow
2
Where;
S IL = In-line stress range
S CF = Cross-flow stress range
FM , max = Maximum environmental stress due to direct wave loading
A design wave approach using regular wave analysis in Time Domain, i.e., with
bending moment calculated from H max is utilized to determine FM , max as described in
following equation (Section 2.5.9);
M wave .( Ds t )
FM ,max
2 .I
The maximum environmental bending moment due to in-line and cross-flow VIV or
direct wave and current action may be found from the dynamic stresses as stated in
Section 2.5.7.
2.I
M E , IL E , IL in line
Ds t
2.I
M E ,CF E ,CF cross flow
Ds t
In accordance with DNV-OS-F1 Equation 4.5 the design lad effect can be expressed
as follows;
L Sd L F . F . c L E . E L I . F . c M A . A . c
For design bending moment, moment due to interference and accidental loads are
ignored. For design effective axial force, effective axial force due to environmental,
interference and accidental loads are ignored.
For Load effect factors for functional and environmental loads Table 4-4 shall be
adopted. Therefore, the design bending moment and effective axial force can be
expressed as follows;
M Sd M FUNC . F . c M E ,CF . E M E , IL . E
2 2
S Sd S eff . F . c
Local buckling check for a pipeline free span shall be in compliance with the combined
loading – load controlled condition criteria in DNV OS F101, Section 5, D605 & D607.
Functional and Environmental, Bending Moment, Axial Force and Pressure shall be
taken into consideration.
The pipe members subjected to Bending Moment, Effective Axial Force and internal
Overpressure shall be designed to satisfy the following conditions at all cross sections
as stated in DNV-OS-F101 Section 5, D605, Eq. 5.19:
2
M Sd m . SC .S Sd ( p i )
2
pi pe
2
m . SC. p . 1
c .M p (t 2 ) c .S p (t 2 ) c . pb (t 2 ).
Where;
M Sd = Design bending moment
S Sd = Design effective axial force
pi = Internal pressure
pe = External pressure
pb = Burst pressure
S p and M p denote the plastic capacities for a pipe defined as;
S p (t ) f y . .( D t ).t
M p (t ) f y .( D t ) 2 .t
fu
c 1 .
fy
pi p e 2
1 pb
3
p
1 3. 1 pi p e
pi p e 2
pb pb 3
0 .5 for D / t 2 15
60 D / t 2
for 15 D / t 2 60
90
0 .0 for D / t 2 60
Where;
c = Flow stress parameter
p = Account for effect of D/t ratio
The pipe members subjected to Bending moment, Effective Axial Force and External
Overpressure shall be designed to satisfy the conditions for all cross sections as stated
in DNV-OS-F101 Section 5, D607, Eq. 5.28.
2
M Sd . .S
2
p e p min
2
m . SC. m SC Sd m . SC . 1
c .M p (t 2 ) c .S p (t 2 ) p c (t 2 )
Where;
p min = Minimum internal pressure that can be sustained. Taken as zero.
pc = Characteristic collapse pressure.
The design load effect shall be calculated for each design case for all relevant load
combinations as stated in DNV-OS-F101 Table 4-4.
The condition load effect factor applies to the conditions in DNV-OS-F101 Table 4-5.
Conditions load effect factors are in addition to the load effect factors that are referred
to in Eq. 4.5, 4.6 and 4.7.
Table 4-5 Condition load effect factors, C
Condition C
Pipeline resting on uneven seabed 1.07
Continuously stiff supported 0.82
System pressure test 0.93
Otherwise 1.00
The material resistance factor is dependent on the limit state category, and is defined
in DNV-FS-101 Section 5, C205, Table 5-2;
Table 5-2 Material resistance factor, m
Limit state category SLS/ULS/ALS FLS
m 1.15 1.00
The safety class may vary for different phases and different locations as stated in
DNV-FS-101Section 5, C206, Table 5-3;
Table 5-3 Safety class resistance factors, SC
Safety Class Low Medium High
2) 3),4)
Pressure Containment 1.046 1.138 1.3081)
Other 1.04 1.14 1.26
Notes:
1) For parts of pipelines in location class 1, resistance safety class medium may be applied (1.138).
2) The number of significant digits is given in order to comply with the ISO usage factors.
3) Safety class low will be governed by the system pressure test which is required to be 3% above
the incidental pressure. Hence, for operation in safety class low, the resistance factor will be
effectively be 3% higher.
4) For system pressure test, U shall be equal to 1.00, which gives an allowable hoop stress of 96% of
SMYS both for materials fulfilling supplementary requirement U and those not.
For manufacturing process which introduce cold deformations giving different strength in
tension and compression, a fabrication factor, fab shall be determined. If no other
information exists, maximum fabrication factors for pipes manufactured by the UOE or
UO process are given in DNV-OS-F101 Table 5-5.
The fabrication factor may be improved through heat treatment or external cold sizing
(compression), if documented.
Table 5-5 Maximum fabrication factor, fab
Pipe Seamless UO&TRB&ERW UOE
The following return periods are applied in for Temporary and Permanent Conditions.
Pipe Data
Coating Type (Empirical parameter - kc)
Enter Coating Type. Select from built-Table.
Parameter used to calculate the stiffening effect of concrete as per Section
6.2.5. The values used are: 0.25 for PP/PE Coating and 0.33 for asphalt
coating.
Elastic Concrete Modulus (Ec). Unit: MPa.
Enter Young’s Modulus of Concrete.
Span Gap (eo). Unit: % of OD.
Enter Span Gap. Gap is defined as the distance between the bottom of pipe
and the seabed. The gap used in design, as a single representative value,
must be characteristic for the free span. The span gap will be present as
percentage of outer diameter.
Pipe Heading / Bearing (pipea). Unit: Deg.
Enter Pipe Heading direction.
Operational Data
Span Definition
Enter Free Span type. Select from built-table.
f
The free span type will define the safety factor of natural frequencies ( ) as
defined in Table 2-3.
Soil Type
Enter Soil Type. Select from built-in Table.
Reference Tables 7-5 and 7-6 .The factors are used to calculate Dynamic
and static stiffness factors.
Table 7-5 Dynamic stiffness factor and static stiffness for pipe-soil
interaction in sand
CV CL KV ,S
Sand Type
(kN/m5/2) (kN/m5/2) (kN/m/m)
Loose 10500 9000 250
Medium 14500 12500 530
Dense 21000 18000 1350
Table 7-6 Dynamic stiffness factor and static stiffness for pipe-soil
interaction in clay with OCR = 1
CV CL KV ,S
Sand Type
(kN/m5/2) (kN/m5/2) (kN/m/m)
Very Soft 600 500 50 – 100
Soft 1400 1200 160 – 260
Firm 3000 2600 500 – 800
Table 7-6 Dynamic stiffness factor and static stiffness for pipe-soil
interaction in clay with OCR = 1
CV CL KV ,S
Sand Type
(kN/m5/2) (kN/m5/2) (kN/m/m)
Stiff 4500 3900 1000 – 1600
Very Stiff 11000 9500 2000 – 3000
Hard 12000 10500 2600 - 4200
Boundary Condition
Enter Boundary Condition of span. Select from built-in table.
Reference Section 6.7.8, Table 6-1.
Table 6-1 Boundary conditions coefficients
14.1L / Leff 2
Shoulder:
C4 4.93 14.1
Mid Span: 8.6
Shoulder: 4)
1
18Leff / L 6
C5 1/8 1/12 2
1) Note that C3 0 is normally assumed for in-line if the steady current is not
accounted for.
2) For pinned-pinned boundary condition Leff is to be replaced by L in the
above expressions also for Pcr .
4) C 5 shall be calculated using the static soil stiffness in the Leff / L calculation.
Safety Class
Enter Safety Class for Operation Condition. Select from built-in table.
Reference DNV-OS-F101, Section 2 C403 Table 2-3 and Table 2-4.
0 deg
180 deg
The maximum
67.5 deg
reduction factor
-22.5 deg
Direction from from 67.5deg to
90deg 112.5deg (every
90 deg
(Typical for other 1deg) will be
directions) +22.5 deg utilized for
reduction factor
112.5 deg
of 90deg
Condition C
Pipeline resting on uneven seabed 1.07
Continuously stiff supported 0.82
System pressure test 0.93
Otherwise 1.00
m 1.15 1.00
The user shall fill the ULS factors based on following guidelines; Note: File to
be compiled in “free format”, i.e. values separated by comma (CSV).
REFERENCE CONDITIONS
FACTOR
TABLE INSTALLATION FLOODED HYDROTEST OPERATION
55-33 SC 1.04 1.04 1.046 1.138
For directional current velocity data from 8deg direction, fill all cells from A1
to C8 as per example in below. It means that the module will calculate the
relative angle between pipe heading and each direction current attack angle
in order to define the reduction factor. The maximum reduction factor for
each direction current attack angle will be utilized in the analysis.
If the user has select “wave heights and periods” in environmental data
available input, then the significant wave height, significant wave period,
maximum wave height and period associated with maximum wave shall be
filled by user for 1 year, 10 years and 100 years return periods (clockwise).
Unit: m for height and s for period.
The wave heights and periods input data file shall be selected by user. This
file shall be in CSV (Comma Separated Values) File. The user shall fill the
wave height and periods input data from A1 cell to L8 Cell based on
following guideline;
The example of filling this input is same with current data. The maximum
wave height and period will be utilized for ULS criteria, meanwhile the
significant height and period will be utilized for onset and screening fatigue
criteria.
The example of filling this input is same with current data. The maximum
wave velocity and period will be utilized for ULS criteria, meanwhile the near
bottom velocity and period will be utilized for onset and screening fatigue
criteria.
ALLOWABLE SPAN
Inline Onset L ILon m 29.73 30.35 28.56 17.05
Crossflow Onset L CFon m 32.97 33.22 31.46 18.20
ALLOWABLE SPAN
Inline Onset L ILscr m 34.18 34.91 31.89 18.02
Crossflow Onset LCFscr m 30.35 30.14 28.36 18.13
ULS RESULTS
DESCRIPTIONS SYM BOL UNIT EM PTY FLOODED HYDROTEST OPERATING
ULS PARAMETERS
Drag Coefficient Cd - 2.796 2.154 2.468 1.494
Inertia Coefficient Cm - 2.544 2.544 2.544 2.163
Submerged Weight Wsub kN/m 1246.989 1920.582 1920.582 1354.903
Combined Velocity U tot m/s 0.441 0.441 0.441 0.682
Flow Regime Velocity αULS - 0.928 0.928 0.928 0.734
Keulegan Carpenter Number KC - 0.644 0.644 0.644 4.699
Effective Axial Force Sef f ULS kN 0.000 -15.762 -317.316 -1918.909
Maximum (unit diameter) Stress AIL MPa 70.362 80.324 165.834 2069.450
Amplitude ACF MPa 70.362 80.324 165.834 2069.450
VILR,onset - 1.260 1.437 1.741 2.200
VILR,1 - 2.070 2.051 2.161 2.304
VILR,2 - 3.827 3.708 3.616 3.679
Inline Response Model
VILR,end - 3.972 3.831 3.700 3.700
AY ,1 / D - 0.081 0.061 0.042 0.010
AY ,2 / D - 0.073 0.061 0.042 0.010
VCFR,onset - 2.625 2.625 2.625 2.625
VCFR,1 - 4.717 4.717 4.717 4.717
VCFR,2 - 12.231 12.231 12.231 12.231
Crossflow Response Model
VCFR,end - 16.000 16.000 16.000 16.000
AZ,1 / D - 0.700 0.700 0.700 0.700
AZ,2 / D - 0.700 0.700 0.700 0.700
Inline VIV induced Stress Range SIL MPa 0.000 0.000 6.358 0.000
Crossflow VIV induced Stress Range SCF MPa 18.208 1.743 16.114 0.000
Critical Angle cr it deg 11.917 15.457 13.495 11.465
Maximum Horizontal Hydrodynamic Fo Fhmax N/m 418.743 328.237 372.357 488.691
Static Bending Moment Mstatic kN.m 163.379 113.095 132.342 111.526
Dynamic Inline Bending Stress σdy nIL MPa 109.448 73.590 88.929 72.929
Dynamic Crossflow Bending Stress σdy nCF MPa 9.104 0.872 8.057 0.000
Static, Functional [Vertical] Bending M MFUNC kN.m 480.545 599.132 577.591 279.951
Dynamic Inline Bending Moment Mdy nIL kN.m 169.003 113.633 137.319 112.612
Dynamic Crossflow Bending Moment Mdy nCF kN.m 14.058 1.346 12.441 0.000
Design Moment MSd kN.m 522.680 611.135 605.801 301.752
Design Effective Axial Force SSd kN 0.000 -18.552 -349.048 -2258.556
ULS ALLOWABLE SPAN
ULS L ULS m 64.78 59.64 40.27 11.40
VALIDITY LIMITS
Inline (Seff to Pcr) Ratio Limit ILBuckLim m 64.78 64.78 46.64 13.26
Crossflow (Seff to Pcr) Ratio Limit CFBuckLim m 64.78 64.78 47.45 14.08
Span Length to Diameter Ratio Limit MaxmODL m 45.35
Static Deflc. to Diameter Ratio Limit LDefLim m 54.57 48.15 41.73 22.00
The cathodic protection analysis module can be used to determine anode mass and
distribution along pipeline route to ensure that the design life of the pipeline will be
reached referring to the latest codes, which includes DNV-RP-F103 (2010) and ISO
15589-2 (2012).
6.1 Methodology
f cm a 0.5.b.t f
Where;
tf = Design life (years)
a &b = Constants refer to Table A.1 and A.2
The final coating breakdown factor ( f cf ) is derived from Section 5.3.2, Eq. (4);
f cf a 0.5.b.t f
Where;
tf = Design life (years)
a &b = Constants refer to Table A.1 and A.2
Table A.1 and A.2 in Annex 1 described in followings are give recommendations for
constants to be used for specific combinations of linepipe coating and FJC systems as
defined in DNV-RP-F106 and DNV-RP-F102, respectively, and for the maximum
operating temperatures indicated in the tables.
Table A.1: Recommendations for constants “a” and “b” to be used for calculation of coating
breakdown factors associated with specific linepipe coating systems as defined in DNV-RP-F106.
(Maximum temperatures refer to continuous operation and are indicative only. Manufacturer’s
recommendations shall always apply. For coatings with an inner layer of FBE and operating temperatures
above 90°C, adequate properties shall be documented by pre-qualification and/or PQT. The same applies
for polychloroprene based coatings at operating temperatures above 90°C).
Max.
DNV-RP-F106 Concrete Weight a b
Linepipe Coating Type Temperature
CDS Coating x 100 x 100
(0C)
Glass Fibre Reinforced
No. 5 Yes 70 0.3 0.01
Asphalt Enamel
Glass Fibre Reinforced
No. 6 Yes 80 0.3 0.01
Coal Tar Enamel
Single or Dual Layer FBE No. 1 Yes 90 1 0.03
3-layer FBE/PE No. 2 Yes 80 0.1 0.003
Table A.2: Recommendations for constants “a” and “b” to be used for calculation of coating
breakdown factors associated with specific field joint coating systems, with and without infill, as
defined in DNV-RP-F102.
(Maximum temperatures refer to continuous operation ad are indicative only. Manufacturer’s
recommendations shall always apply. For coatings with an inner layer of FBE and operating temperatures
above 90°C, adequate properties shall be documented by pre-qualification and/or PQT. The same applies
for polychloroprene based coatings at operating temperatures above 100°C)
Examples of
FJC Type Infill Type Max. Compatibility with a b
Temperature DNV-RP-F106
(DNV-RP-F102 FJC (DNV-RP-F102
Linepipe Coating x 100 x 100
System) System) (0C)
System
The mean coating breakdown factor ( f c ) is derived from Section 7.5, Eq. (1);
f c f i (0.5.f .tdl )
The final coating breakdown factor ( f f ) is derived from Section 7.5, Eq. (2);
f f f i (f .t dl )
Where;
fi = Initial coating breakdown factor at the start of pipeline operation
f = Average yearly increase in the coating breakdown factor
t dl = Design life (years)
The initial coating breakdown factor and average yearly increase in the coating
breakdown factor given in Tables 3 and 4 should be considered.
Table 3 – Coating breakdown factors, f c , for pipelines without concrete weight
coating
Factory-applied coating type Field joint coating type fi f
Heat-shrinkable sleeves
0.080 0.0035
Fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) (HSSa)
FBE 0.060 0.0030
a
HSS 0.009 0.0006
Three-layer coating systems FBE 0.008 0.005
including epoxy, adhesive and Multilayer coating including
polyethylene (3LPE) epoxy and PE (e.g. moulded, 0.007 0.0005
HSSa or flame spray)
HSSa 0.007 0.0003
FBE 0.006 0.0002
Three-layer coating systems
including epoxy, adhesive and Multilayer coating including
polypropylene (3LPP) epoxy and PP (e.g. HSSa, hot
tapes, moulding or flame 0.005 0.0002
spray)
Thick multilayer coating
Heat insulation multilayer
systems including epoxy,
coating systems including
adhesive and/or PE, PP, PU, 0.002 0.0001
epoxy, adhesive and/or PE,
HSSa or a combination of
PP or PU
these products.
Thick coatings: elastomeric
materials (e.g. polychloroprene Thick elastomeric materials or
0.002 0.0001
or EPDM) or glassfibre- glassfibre-reinforced resins
reinforced resins
Not applicable (mechanical
Flexible pipelines couplings) 0.002 0.0001
a
HSS can be used with or without primer.
Ac .OD.L
Where;
Ac = Surface area of pipeline to be protected (m2)
f cm = Mean coating breakdown factor
i cm = Design mean current densities, refer to Table 5-1 (A/m2)
OD = Outside Diameter
L = Length of pipeline to be protected (m)
The ‘total final current demand’, ( I cf ) for a specific pipeline section is calculated by
adding the contributions from coated linepipe, field joints and pipeline components
calculated from Section 5.3.1 of DNV-RP-F103:
I cf Ac . f cf .i cm
Where;
f cf = Final coating breakdown factor
Table 5.1 of DNV-RP-F103 gives recommended mean design current densities for
buried and non-buried pipelines (or sections of a pipeline) as a function of the fluid
temperature but independent of depth as described in following.
Table 5-1 Recommended design mean current densities (in A/m2) as a function of
internal fluid temperature
Internal Fluid Temperature (0C)
Exposure Condition
≤ 50 > 50 - 80 > 80 - 120 > 120
Non-Buried 0.050 0.060 0.070 0.100
Buried 0.020 0.025 0.030 0.040
Using the calculated total mean current demand ( I cm ), the ‘total net anode mass’ M
(kg) required is calculated from Section 5.4.1 of DNV-RP-F103 and Section A.6 of ISO
15589-2:
I cm .t f .8760
M
u.
Where;
I cm = Mean current demand (Ampere)
tf = Design life (years)
u = Anode utilization factor
= Electrochemical capacity (A.h/kg)
Buried in Seawater
Immersed in Seawater
Sedimentsd
Anode
Surface Electrochemical Electrochemical
Potential Potential
Anode Temperaturea Capacity Capacity
Type
Ag/AgCl/ Ag/AgCl/
Seawater Seawater
(0C) mV A.h/kg mV A.h/kg
< 30 - 1050 2000 - 1000 1500
Aluminium 60 - 1050 1500 - 1000 800
b
80 - 1000 900 - 1000 400
< 30 - 980 750
Zinc c
- 1030 780
> 30 to 50 - 980 580
Electrochemical capacity for a given alloy is a function of temperature and anode current
density. Reference is made to Annex A for guidance on CP design for variations in anode
current densities.
For non-buried pipelines, the anode surface temperature should be taken as the external
pipeline temperature and not the internal fluid temperature. For buried pipelines, the anode
surface temperature shall be taken as the internal fluid temperature.
a
For anode surface temperatures between the limits stated, the electrochemical capacity
shall be interpolated.
b
For aluminium anodes, the anode surface temperature shall not exceed 80 °C unless
the performance has been demonstrated in tests and has been documented.
c
For zinc anodes, the anode surface temperature shall not exceed 50 °C unless
satisfactory performance has been demonstrated in tests and has been documented.
d
Pipelines which are rock-dumped shall be considered as buried in seawater sediments.
The total net anode mass is given in following, derived from Section A.7, Eq. (A.3) of
ISO 15589-2;
M n.ma
Where;
M = Total net anode mass for the specific pipeline section (kg)
n = Number of anodes to be installed (mm)
ma = Individual net anode mass (kg)
ODa
Roa
2
IDa
Ria
2
Roa Ria
Rma
2
gap
2 .4
a sin
Rma
360 0
Vac 0
. .Rma .2 .t core .wcore .ncore
360
Vad Lat . .Roa2 Ria2 Vac gap.t a .Lat .2
ma 1 Ftol .Vad . a
Where;
ODa = Outside diameter of Anode (mm)
OD pipe = Outside diameter of Steel Pipe (mm)
ta = Anode thickness (mm)
t cc = External coating thickness (mm)
t ac = Anode internal coating thickness (mm)
ODtol = Pipe OD tolerance (mm)
Atol = Anode ID tolerance (mm)
IDa = Inside diameter of Anode (mm)
Roa = Outside radius of Anode (mm)
Ria = Inside radius of Anode (mm)
Rma = Mean radius of Anode (mm)
= Anode Gap Angle (deg)
gap = Half shell gap (mm)
Vac = Anode core volume (m3)
t core = Flat bar / core thickness (mm)
Following figure explains the definition of each layer for typical anode.
The following design protective potentials ( E c ) are recommended derived from Section
5.6.11 of DNV-RP-F103 and Table 1 of ISO 15589-2;
The design values of design closed circuit anode potential in Table 5 of the ISO 15589-
2 standard shall apply.
Table 5 – Design Values for Galvanic Anodes
Buried in Seawater
Immersed in Seawater
Sedimentsd
Anode
Surface Electrochemical Electrochemical
Potential Potential
Anode Temperaturea Capacity Capacity
Type
Ag/AgCl/ Ag/AgCl/
Seawater Seawater
(0C) mV A.h/kg mV A.h/kg
< 30 - 1050 2000 - 1000 1500
Aluminium 60 - 1050 1500 - 1000 800
b
80 - 1000 900 - 1000 400
< 30 - 980 750
Zinc c
- 1030 780
> 30 to 50 - 980 580
Electrochemical capacity for a given alloy is a function of temperature and anode current
density. Reference is made to Annex A for guidance on CP design for variations in anode
current densities.
For non-buried pipelines, the anode surface temperature should be taken as the external
pipeline temperature and not the internal fluid temperature. For buried pipelines, the anode
surface temperature shall be taken as the internal fluid temperature.
a
For anode surface temperatures between the limits stated, the electrochemical capacity
shall be interpolated.
b
For aluminium anodes, the anode surface temperature shall not exceed 80 °C unless
the performance has been demonstrated in tests and has been documented.
c
For zinc anodes, the anode surface temperature shall not exceed 50 °C unless
satisfactory performance has been demonstrated in tests and has been documented.
d
Pipelines which are rock-dumped shall be considered as buried in seawater sediments.
The final anode resistance ( Raf ) shall be calculated according to Section A.8, Eq.
(A.8) as per following;
Raf 0.315.
A
Where;
= Environmental resistivity (Volt)
A = Exposed surface area of the anode (m2)
For pipelines defined as “non-buried/exposed”, the ambient temperature seawater
resistivity is applicable for calculation of Raf . The seawater resistivity (annual average)
may be estimated based on Fig. A.1 in Annex A of the ISO 15589-2. For buried
pipeline anodes, an actually measured soil resistivity should be applied, corrected for
any annual temperature variations. As an alternative, a default value of 1.5 ohm·m
may be used.
Typical seawater resistivity are derived from Figure A.1, Annex A, ISO 15589-2, as
described in following figure.
2. Me .icm . f cf .D
2 2
d .( D d ) 2.Raf .I cf 4.Raf .I cf
L . .Ec E a
Me .D. f cf .icm Ltot Ltot
2
d .( D d )
Where;
d = Linepipe wall thickness
D = Linepipe outer diameter
Me = Resistivity of linepipe material
f cf = Final coating breakdown factor
icm = Design mean current density
Raf = Anode final resistance
I cf = Final current demand
Ltot = Length of pipeline section
Ec = Design protective potential
Ea = Design closed circuit anode potential
For a pipeline section with a length of Ltot (m) to be protected by N bracelet anodes, the
maximum distance between anodes become 2L, derived from Eq. (15) of DNV-RP-
F103:
Ltot
N
2 .L
The anode spacing shall be determined based on the total anode requirement and
length of pipeline section, specify in following equation;
Ltot
SP
N tot
Where;
N tot = Total anode requirement
SP = Anode spacing
Ltot = Length of pipeline section
General Data
Pipe Dimension
Options;
3. If “NPS” (Nominal Pipe Size) is entered select Pipeline Diameter from
built-in Table as per API 5L.
4. If “User Define” option is selected the pipe OD (mm) must be entered.
Outer Diameter (OD). Unit: mm
Enter outside diameter of Pipe for “user defined” option in Pipe Dimensions.
Wall Thickness (tnom). Unit: mm
3. If “NPS” option has been input, select Wall Thickness from built-in Table
as per API 5L.
4. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined wall thickness.
Pipe Joint (Lpj). Unit: m
Enter average Pipe joint length.
Default 12.1 m.
Anti-Corrosion Coating Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter Anti-Corrosion Coating Thickness.
To be considered as accumulation of outer diameter in installation and
operation conditions for hydrodynamic loading.
Field Joint Coating Cutback. Unit: mm.
Enter Field Joint Coating Cutback.
Default = 150 mm.
Pipeline Data
Pipe Condition
Enter pipeline condition. Exposed or Buried.
Refer to Section 5.2.4 of DNV-RP-F103; “Buried” refers to pipeline sections
to be subjected to trenching and backfilling. Pipelines (or pipeline sections)
to be installed in very soft soil for which complete self-burial can be
demonstrated (e.g. by calculations) may also be considered as “buried”,
however, sections for which incomplete self-burial is expected shall always
be considered as “non-buried”. Pipeline sections without trenching but
covered by rock / gravel dumping may further be considered as “buried”.
Pipeline Start. Unit: m.
Enter Start of Pipeline Section to be analyzed.
Pipeline End. Unit: m.
Enter End of Pipeline Section to be analyzed.
Design Life. Unit: years.
Enter Design Life of pipeline to be used for cathodic protection detailed
design. The design life should be a conservative estimate of the maximum
expected lifetime of the pipeline.
Ambient Temperature. Unit: 0C.
Enter ambient temperature of surrounding pipeline section.
Anode Data
Half Shell Gap. Unit: mm.
Enter gap between half shell.
Anode Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter anode thickness. Normally anode thickness shall be equal with the
concrete weight coating thickness.
Anode Density. Unit: kg/m3.
Enter anode density.
Default = 2700 kg/m3.
Anode Length. Unit: mm.
Enter anode length.
Flat bar width. Unit: mm.
Enter width of flat bar.
Flat bar thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter thickness of flat bar.
Number of Flat bar. Unit: mm.
Enter number of flat bar per each anode.
Anode Int. Coating Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter anode internal coating thickness, the coating layer between external
corrosion coatings with inside anode (if any).
Pipe OD Tolerance. Unit: mm.
Enter pipeline steel outside diameter tolerance.
Anode ID Tolerance. Unit: mm.
Enter anode internal diameter tolerance.
Fabrication Tolerance. Unit: %.
Enter anode fabrication tolerance.
Constants
Protective Potentials
Options;
1. If “DNV RP F103” is entered select Linepipe Material from built-in Table
as per DNV-RP-F103, Section 5.6.11.
Design Protective
Linepipe Potential (Volt)
Definition
Material Options
DNV-RP-F103
Design Protective
Linepipe Potential (Volt)
Definition
Material Options
ISO 15589-2
- 0.80 (for exposed)
Carbon Steels Carbon Steels Pipeline
- 0.90 (for buried)
Austenitic Austenitic Stainless Steel
- 0.30
(PREN > 40) (PREN ≥ 40)
Duplex Stainless
Duplex Stainless Steel - 0.50
Steel
Martensitic (13% Martensitic stainless (13%
- 0.50
Cr) Cr) steels
3. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined design protective
potentials. Unit: Volt.
Electrical Resistivity
User to select or input the specific electrical resistivity of the linepipe
material.
Options;
1. If “DNV RP F103” is entered select Material from built-in Table as per
DNV-RP-F103, Section 5.6.10.
Electrical Resistivity
Material Options Definition
(ohm.m)
2. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined electrical resistivity.
Unit: ohm.m.
2. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined anode utilization
factor. Unit: dimensionless.
2. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined design anode
potential and electrochemical capacity. Unit: Volt and A.h/kg,
respectively.
None 30 3
1A Adhesive Tape or Heat
10 1
Shrink
2A Heat Shrink Sleeve 3 0.3
3A FBE 3 0.3
3D FBE 1 0.03
4A Polychloroprene 1 0.03
Coating
Factory Coating Field Joint
Type fi f
Type Coating Type
Options
Heat-shrinkable
FBE 0.080 0.0035
Fusion-bonded sleeves (HSS)
epoxy (FBE)
FBE-FBE FBE 0.060 0.0030
Field
Field Joint Type Factory Coating Field Joint Coating
Joint fi f
Options Type Type
Infill
Cold-applied tapes
Asphalt/Enamel-No (CAT) or heat
Infill-CAT/HSS over shrinkable sleeves 0.045 0.0025
wire-brushed surface (HSS) over a wire
brushed surface to St 3
No Cold-applied tapes
(CAT) or heat
Asphalt/Enamel-No Asphalt or coal tar
shrinkable sleeves
Infill-CAT/HSS over 0.040 0.0020
enamel (HSS) over a blast
blast-cleaned surface
cleaned surface to Sa
2½
Asphalt/Enamel-Infill-
CAT 0.030 0.0015
CAT
Yes
Asphalt/Enamel-Infill-
HSS 0.020 0.0008
HSS
FBE-No Infill-HSS HSS 0.045 0.0025
No
FBE-No Infill-FBE FBE 0.035 0.0020
Fusion bonded
epoxy (FBE)
FBE-Infill-HSS HSS 0.040 0.0020
Yes
FBE-Infill-FBE FBE 0.030 0.0015
3LPE-No Infill-
HSS or FBE 0.008 0.005
HSS/FBE
No Multilayer coating
3LPE-No Infill- Three-layer including epoxy and PE
0.007 0.0003
Multilayer coating systems (e.g. HSS, or flame
including epoxy, spray)
adhesive and
3LPE-Infill-HSS/FBE polyethylene HSS or FBE 0.004 0.0002
(3LPE)
Multilayer coating
Yes
including epoxy and PE
3LPE-Infill-Multilayer 0.004 0.0002
(e.g. HSS, or flame
spray)
3LPP-No Infill-
HSS or FBE 0.008 0.0005
HSS/FBE
Three-layer Multilayer coating
No
3LPP-No Infill- coating including epoxy and PP
0.007 0.0003
Multilayer systems including (e.g. HSS, moulded or
epoxy, flame spray)
3LPP-Infill-HSS/FBE adhesive and HSS or FBE 0.004 0.0002
polypropylene
Multilayer coating
(3LPP) Yes
including epoxy and PP
3LPP-Infill-Multilayer 0.004 0.0002
(e.g. HSS, moulded or
flame spray)
3. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined mean and final
coating breakdown factor. Unit: %.
Current Density
Options;
1. If “DNV RP F103” is entered, the design mean current densities will be
determined based on DNV-RP-F103, Annex 1. The design mean current
densities will be depending of internal fluid temperature and pipeline
condition, whether exposed or buried.
2. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined mean and final
mean current densities. Unit: A/m2.
Env. Resistivity
Options;
1. If “DNV RP F103 / ISO 15589-2” is entered, the environmental resistivity
will be determined based on Figure A.1 of ISO 15589-2 (if pipeline
condition is exposed) and Section 5.5.2 of DNV-RP-F103 (if pipeline
condition is buried, a default value of 1.5 ohm·m is utilized).
User to enter salinity, if the pipeline condition is exposed. Units: %.
2. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined environmental
resistivity. Unit: ohm.m.
CURRENT CALCULATION
Initial Anode Electrolytic Resistance Ri ohm 0.075
Initial Anode Current Output Iai A 3.321
Final Anode Electrolytic Resistance Rf ohm 0.089
Final Anode Current Output Iaf A 2.806
ATTENUATION CALCULATION
Attenuation Length Lattenuation m 550.281
SUMMARY
Anode Mass Mad kg 56.181
Number of Anode to Satisfy Code
Nac - 54
Requirements
Total Anode Mass to Satisfy Code
Mac kg 3033.758
Requirements
Anode Spacing SPD m 103.704
SPD joint 9
Crack Propensity Ratio CPR - 0.993
Check CPR CCPR - OK
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