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USER MANUAL

________________________________________________________

Submarine Pipeline Design

ZEE ENGINEERING SDN BHD PT ZEE INDONESIA


882, Block A1, Pusat Dagang Setia Jaya, Ruko Golden Madrid,
No. 9, PJS 8/9, 46150 Petaling Jaya, 1 Block E-23,
Selangor DE, BSD- City, Tangerang Selatan
MALAYSIA 15322 Indonesia
Tel : +603 7877 8001/9001 Tel : +6221 531 60571/70
Web : www.zee-eng.com
Pipeline Design Computer Program to DNV
User Manual

LEGAL NOTICE

This User Manual is given to ____________________________________________________

under the agreement signed by both parties. Agreement No ___________________________

In publishing this Manual, Zee Engineering Sdn Bhd/ PT Zee Indonesia makes no warranty or
representation, expressed or implied, with respect to the accuracy, completeness, usefulness,
or fitness for purpose of the information contained herein.

The text of this publication, or any part thereof, shall not be reproduced or transmitted in any
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information retrieval system, or otherwise, without the prior, written approval of Zee Engineering
Sdn Bhd.

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Table of Contents
1.0  INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................. 6 
1.1  About ZEEPipe ................................................................................................ 6 
1.2  Current Version ............................................................................................... 6 
1.3  Future Developments ..................................................................................... 6 
1.4  Quality Control ................................................................................................ 7 
1.5  Technical Support........................................................................................... 7 
2.0  GETTING STARTED WITH ZEEPIPE .............................................................. 8 
2.1  General Information ........................................................................................ 8 
2.2  Hardware Requirement................................................................................... 8 
2.3  How to Use ZEEPipe – An Overview ............................................................. 8 
2.3.1  Introduction ..................................................................................................... 9 
2.3.2  General Input Data Window ........................................................................... 9 
2.3.3  Run the Analysis ........................................................................................... 17 
2.3.4  Save and Load State / Workspace ............................................................... 18 
3.0  WALL THICKNESS AND MATERIAL SELECTION MODULE ...................... 20 
3.1  DNV-OS-F101 Module ................................................................................... 20 
3.2  ASME / API Module ....................................................................................... 20 
3.3  DNV-OS-F101 Module Methodology ............................................................ 20 
3.3.1  Pressure Containment (Bursting)................................................................ 22 
3.3.2  Local Buckling - external overpressure (System Collapse) ...................... 24 
3.3.3  Propagation Buckling ................................................................................... 24 
3.3.4  Load Control Condition ................................................................................ 25 
3.3.4.1  Internal Overpressure........................................................................ 25 
3.3.4.2  External Overpressure ...................................................................... 27 
3.4  ASME / API MODULE Methodology ............................................................. 28 
3.4.1  Pressure Containment / Hoop Stress (ASME B31.8) ................................. 28 
3.4.2  Collapse due to External Pressure (API RP 1111)...................................... 29 
3.4.3  Propagating Buckles (API RP 1111) ............................................................ 30 
3.4.4  Buckling due to Combined Bending and External Pressure (API RP 1111)31 
3.5  DNV- OS-F101 MODULE Input /Output........................................................ 32 
3.5.1  DNV-OS-F101 Input ....................................................................................... 32 
3.5.2  DNV-OS- F101 MODULE Input Description ................................................. 35 
3.5.3  DNV-OS-F101 Output .................................................................................... 44 
3.6  ASME / API MODULE Input / Output............................................................ 52 

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3.6.1  ASME / API Input ........................................................................................... 52 


3.6.2  ASME / API Input Description ...................................................................... 55 
3.6.3  ASME /API Output ......................................................................................... 59 
4.0  ON-BOTTOM STABILITY MODULE (DNV-RP-F109 Nov 2011) ................... 62 
4.1  DNV–RP-F109 Methodology ......................................................................... 62 
4.1.1  Vertical Stability in Water ............................................................................. 62 
4.1.2  Current Conditions ....................................................................................... 62 
4.1.3  Short Term Wave Conditions ....................................................................... 63 
4.1.4  Wave Directionality and Spreading ............................................................. 65 
4.1.5  Hydrodynamic Loads ................................................................................... 66 
4.1.6  Load Reduction Due To Permeable Seabed ............................................... 66 
4.1.7  Load Reduction Due To Penetration ........................................................... 66 
4.1.8  Load Reduction Due To Trenching ............................................................. 67 
4.1.9  Soil Resistance ............................................................................................. 67 
4.1.10 Absolute Lateral Static Stability Method .................................................... 68 
4.1.11 Generalized Lateral Stability Method .......................................................... 69 
4.2  DNV-RP-F109 MODULE Input / Output ........................................................ 71 
4.2.1  DNV-RP-F109 Input ....................................................................................... 71 
4.2.2  DNV-RP-F109 Input Description .................................................................. 74 
4.2.3  DNV-RP-109 Output ...................................................................................... 79 
5.0  FREE SPANNING PIPELINES ....................................................................... 87 
5.1  METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................... 87 
5.1.1  Current Conditions ....................................................................................... 87 
5.1.2  Short-term Wave Conditions ....................................................................... 88 
5.1.3  Modal Damping Ratio ................................................................................... 90 
5.1.4  Stability Parameter ....................................................................................... 92 
5.1.5  Onset Vibration Reduced Velocity .............................................................. 94 
5.1.6  Soil Stiffness ................................................................................................. 95 
5.1.7  Effective Span Length .................................................................................. 96 
5.1.8  Stiffness of Concrete Coating ..................................................................... 97 
5.1.9  Effective Axial Force and Critical Buckling Load ...................................... 97 
5.1.10 Static Deflection ............................................................................................ 98 
5.1.11 Fundamental Natural Frequency ................................................................. 98 
5.1.12 Natural Frequency for Onset Vibration Mode ............................................. 99 
5.1.13 Boundary Conditions Coefficients .............................................................. 99 

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5.1.14 Safety Factors ............................................................................................. 100 


5.1.15 Onset Vibration Criteria.............................................................................. 102 
5.1.16 Screening Fatigue Criteria ......................................................................... 102 
5.1.17 Keulegan-Carpenter.................................................................................... 103 
5.1.18 Current Flow Velocity ................................................................................. 103 
5.1.19 In-line Response Model .............................................................................. 103 
5.1.20 Cross-flow Response Model ...................................................................... 105 
5.1.21 Force Model ................................................................................................. 107 
5.1.22 Bending Moment ......................................................................................... 110 
5.1.23 Design Bending Moment and Effective Axial Force ................................ 112 
5.1.24 ULS Criterion ............................................................................................... 112 
5.1.25 Safety Factors ............................................................................................. 113 
5.1.26 Return Periods ............................................................................................ 115 
5.2  DNV-RP-F105 INPUT / OUTPUT ................................................................. 116 
5.2.1  DNV-RP-F105 INPUT ................................................................................... 116 
5.2.2  DNV-RP-F105 Input Desciption .................................................................. 119 
5.2.3  DNV-RP-F105 OUTPUT ............................................................................... 131 
6.0  CATHODIC PROTECTION ANALYSIS MODULE ....................................... 138 
6.1  Methodology ............................................................................................... 138 
6.1.1  Coating Breakdown Factor ........................................................................ 138 
6.1.1.1  DNV-RP-F103 .................................................................................... 138 
6.1.1.2  ISO 15589-2 ...................................................................................... 140 
6.1.2  Current Demand .......................................................................................... 141 
6.1.3  Total Anode Net Mass to Meet Current Demand ...................................... 142 
6.1.4  Anode Volume and Mass Calculation ....................................................... 144 
6.1.5  Total Anode Current Output to Meet Final Current Demand ................... 145 
6.1.6  Total Anode to Meet Attenuation Length .................................................. 148 
6.1.7  Total Anode to Meet Maximum Spacing ................................................... 149 
6.1.8  Total Anode Requirement and Distribution .............................................. 149 
6.1.9  Crack Propensity Ratio (CPR) ................................................................... 150 
6.2  CATHODIC PROTECTION MODULE Input /Output................................... 151 
6.2.1  Cathodic Protection Module Input............................................................. 151 
6.2.2  CATHODIC PROTECTION MODULE Input Description............................ 154 
6.2.3  Cathodic Protection Module Output.......................................................... 162 

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

ZEE Engineering Consultants (ZEE) was established in 1986 to provide Engineering


Consultancy Services and marketing of Software to the Oil/Gas industry. Currently in
association with strategic partners ZEE offers comprehensive multidisciplinary
engineering consultancy services.

The principle and the ZEE personnel have been involved in the development and the
application of computer software for the Oil & Gas industry for well over 25 years. With
this experience ZEE has been developing Pipeline design software for various codes
including the latest DNV codes. This software package has been used in-house for a
number of regional and international projects. In 2016 the ZEE management decided
to make this program available for public use. The public version of the program is
named ZEEPipe.

1.1 About ZEEPipe

A modular approach has been adopted in the development of ZEEPipe. A common


data base is created to be accessed by all the modules ensuring a smooth flow of
information between various modules. This enables the input of data only once, which
is useful for quality control, continues and repetitive analysis.

ZEEPipe incorporates the following features.

 Full implementation of the latest DNV, ASME & API Codes,


 Stand alone or network installation,
 Built in on-line help features,
 Built in standard data and default values for quick reference,
 Program modules are linked, hence input of data only once,
 Output in word, excel and graphical format, which can be transported to reports.

1.2 Current Version

The current version has the following modules;


 Wall thickness and Material selection to;
- DNV-OS-F101
- ASME B31.8
- API RP 1111
 On Bottom Stability to DNV-RP-F109,
 Free Spanning (Screening VIV Criteria and ULS) to DNV-RP-F105
 Cathodic Protection to
- DNV-RP-F103
- ISO 15589-2

1.3 Future Developments

Future developments include;


 Thermal Expansion
 Shore Approach Design,
 Riser Span (VIV) Analysis to DNV-RP-C205,
 Fatigue Analysis to DNV-RP-F105,

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 Lateral Buckling Analysis (Level 1) to DNV-RP-F110 and Hobs Paper,


 Static Pipe-lay Analysis to DNV-OS-F101,
 Upheaval Buckling Analysis to OTC 6335 (Submarine Pipelines Against Upheaval
Buckling by Palmer, A, Ellinas, C.P. Offshore Pipeline Technology Conference,
May 1990).

1.4 Quality Control

The Program has been thoroughly checked, bench marked with available results from
3rd party sources and also with manual calculations. A verification manual is available.

1.5 Technical Support

Effective and Efficient technical support shall be provided by a dedicated team of


pipeline engineers and programmers in the form of seminars / workshops, telephone,
and e-mails.

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2.0 GETTING STARTED WITH ZEEPIPE

2.1 General Information

ZEEPipe is a suite of program for offshore pipeline analysis developed by ZEE


Engineering Consultants (ZEE). Consisting of two main programs working
simultaneously, a standard Graphical User Interface and Computational Engine using
Matlab and a standard Output using Microsoft Excel. The interaction between the two
programs is described in the following figure.

Input Stage
Use the Matlab GUI to:
 Define the analysis
 Define the input data

Computing Stage
Use the Matlab Engine to:
 Run the analysis

Output Stage
Use the Microsoft Excel to:
 View and summary the result

2.2 Hardware Requirement

ZEEPipe interface is a Microsoft Windows 7 or higher and Matlab Compiler Runtime


(MCR) 2015a applications that provides a user-friendly interface to the pipeline
analysis module. Matlab Compiler Runtime (MCR) is also provided in CD folder for
user to install.
The minimum system requirements are:
 Any Intel Core Processor
 Minimum of 1 GB RAM
 Minimum of 2.5 MB disk space

ZEEPipe is provided for both operating bit program, whether 32 bit program or 64 bit
program, depending of user computer specification.

Please note that we do not support Windows 7 or higher operating systems.

2.3 How to Use ZEEPipe – An Overview

The following section presents the main steps to create & set up the analysis & input
data, run an analysis, open & save input data and view the results in Microsoft Excel.
Please refer to the corresponding sections for further details.

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2.3.1 Introduction

This will launch the ZEEPIPE application and user will see the following window. The
following is an introduction window appears when you start the ZEEPIPE application.
Choose “New Workspace” for the first time use and choose “Existing Workspace” if
you already have the workspace file.

2.3.2 General Input Data Window

After select “New Workspace” or “Existing Workspace”, then Click “Continue” for the
next page.

Then general basic input data window will be appearing after user click “Continue”
button. The general basic input data window is given in below.

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1
2
3

4 5

The main important parts of the general basic input data window are;

1. Toolbar. Consists of File, Option and Help Menu.

a. File Toolbar is consisting of Open State, Save State and Quit.


 Open State : If the user wants to open the existing file / input data
 Save State : If the user wants to save the existing file / input data
 Quit : If the user wants to quit / exit from the program

b. Options Toolbar is consisting of WT Analysis and Pressure Unit.


 WT Analysis : Two options are provided in wall thickness analysis,
whether the wall thickness analysis refer to DNV Method (DNV-OS-
F101) or ASME/API Method (ASME B31.8 & API RP 1111)
 Pressure Unit : Two options are provided which are MPa (Mega Pascal)
unit and barg unit.

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c. Options Help is consisting of user manual for user guideline or reference.

2. Next Button. This button leads you to the next step.

3. Project Info Input. The user shall specify the “Client” name, “Pipe Ref.” And
“Project” name.

4. General Input Parameters. The general input parameters are mandatory to fill.

5. Additional General Input Parameters. The additional general input parameters


will be active if the User select On Bottom Stability or Pipeline Spanning
Module.

6. Analysis module available on ZEEPipe. User can select more than one
analysis or combination.

The user shall fill the “Project Info Input”, “General Input Parameters”, “Additional
General Input Parameters” and select the “Analysis Module”. Then click “Next Button”.

The following window will be appearing after User click “Next” button (Please Note that
the following window will be appear if the user select the entire analysis module
available).

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The array of buttons:


 “Back” button : If the user want to change the previous parameter or switch the
selected analysis
 “WallTab” button : This button is appearing if the user select “Wall Thickness
Analysis Module” in Geneneral Basic Input data window. The user shall define the
and setting the parameters for the wall thickness calculation.
 “ObsTab” button : This button is appearing if the user select “On Bottom Stability
Analysis Module” in Geneneral Basic Input data window. The user shall define the
and setting the parameters for the on bottom stability calculation.
 “SpanTab” button : This button is appearing if the user select “Free Span Analysis
Module” in Geneneral Basic Input data window. The user shall define the and
setting the parameters for the free span calculation.

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 “CathTab” button : This button is appearing if the user select “Cathodic Protection
Analysis Module” in Geneneral Basic Input data window. The user shall define the
and setting the parameters for the cathodic protection calculation.
 “Calculate” button : Begin or run the calculation.

The definition of input data of each module as per following;


 “WallTab” refer to Section 3.5.2 and 3.6.2
 “ObsTab” refer to Section 4.2.2
 “SpanTab” refer to Section 5.2.2
 “CathTab” refer to Section 6.2.2

Wall Thickness DNV-OS-F101 Tab Section (“WallTab”)

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Wall Thickness ASME/API Tab Section (“WallTab”)

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On Bottom Stability Tab Section (“ObsTab”)

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Pipeline Spanning Tab Section (“SpanTab”)

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Cathodic Protection Tab Section (“CathTab”)

2.3.3 Run the Analysis

After user fill the input data in “general basic input data” window, “WallTab”, “ObsTab”,
“Span Tab” and “Cath Tab”, please click calculate to begin or run the analysis.

The run progress window will be appearing as per following;

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There are 2 steps when calculate the analysis, first is “Computing Stage” and second
is “Output Stage”. The “Output Stage” is the stage when the result is extracted to
Microsoft windows excel template that provided in ZEEPipe folder.

Below is the Microsoft windows excel template that provided in ZEEPipe folder.

File Name Definition


The output template for wall thickness analysis refer to
output_wall.xlsx
DNV-OS-F101
The output template for wall thickness analysis refer to
output_wall_asme.xlsx
ASME B31.8 and API RP 1111
The output template for on bottom stability analysis refer
output_obs.xlsx
to DNV-RP-F109
The output template for free span analysis refer to DNV-
output_span.xlsx
RP-F105
The output template for cathodic protection analysis refer
output_cp.xlsx
to DNV-RP-F103 and ISO 15589-2

Caution:
1. Make sure that output template is already in the ZEEPipe folder.
2. Don’t cut or delete the output template in ZEEPipe folder. Please copy the output
file after “run” the analysis in other folder. The result in the output template is
based on the latest run.
3. During “run” the analysis, don’t open the output template, if not the program can’t
extracted the result to the output template.

2.3.4 Save and Load State / Workspace

ZEEPIPE supports save and load state to make a job easier for users. Every analysis
has its own file type / extension. For example, if you want to load Wall Thickness
workspace, then the file is in *.wt, and for Wall Thickness combined with On-Bottom
Stability, the file you are looking for is *.wbs, and so on. Below is the complete table
containing the extension files and the associated analyzes.

Analysis Extension
WT *.wt
WTA *.wta
OBS *.obs

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SPAN *.spn
CP *.cp
WT + OBS *.wbs
WT + SPAN *.wpn
WT + OBS + SPAN *.wbp
WTA + OBS *.abs
WTA + SPAN *.apn
WTA + OBS + SPAN *.abp
OBS + SPAN *.opn
WT + OBS + SPAN + CP *.wop
WTA + OBS + SPAN + CP *.aop
Notes:
WT = Wall Thickness Analysis refer to DNV-OS-F101
WTA = Wall Thickness Analysis refer to ASME B31.8 and API RP 1111
OBS = On Bottom Stability Analysis refer to DNV-RP-F109
SPAN = Free Span Analysis refer to DNV-RP-F105
CP = Cathodic Protection refer to DNV-RP-F103 and ISO 15589-2

Save and Load menu


To save workspace, select File --> Save State on the menu bar
To load workspace, select File --> Load State on the menu bar

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3.0 WALL THICKNESS AND MATERIAL SELECTION MODULE

The Wall Thickness module can be used to calculate the minimum wall thickness to
the selected material grade to satisfy the latest codes, which includes DNV-OS-F101
(October 2013) and ASME B31.8 & API RP1111. The ASME Code and DNV-OS-F101
modules are integrated to the remaining DNV programs (which if required can be used
as a standalone module), however the ASME Code and DNV-OS-F101 shall be
selected prior fill input data due to ASME Code and DNV-OS-F101 can’t run together.

3.1 DNV-OS-F101 Module

The DNV Wall Thickness Module adopts the Load and Resistance Design Format
(LRDF), a limit state approach which uses partial Load Factors as design criteria
specified in the Code.

Program checks the following criteria,


 Pressure Containment (Bursting),
 Collapse when no internal pressure occurs,
 Propagating buckling when no internal pressure occurs,
 Local buckling for Load controlled condition (internal and external overpressure),

3.2 ASME / API Module

ASME / API Wall Thickness Module adopts stress criteria as specified in ASME B31.8
and API RP 1111 codes.

Program checks the following criteria;


 Hoop Stress / Pressure Containment to ASME B31.8,
 Collapse due to External Pressure to API RP 1111,
 Buckling due to Combined Bending and External Pressure to API RP 1111,
 Propagating Buckling to API RP 1111.

3.3 DNV-OS-F101 Module Methodology

The methodology of pipeline design as stated in DNV-OS-F101 (Oct 2013) is briefly


described in this section.

The external pressure on a pipeline is derived from Bernoulli’s potential pressure


equation:
Pe   w .g .h
 H 
Pe max   w .g  SS max  HAT  max  hmax 
 2 
Pe min   w .g LAT  hmin 

Where;
w = Density of sea water (kg/m3)
g = Acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)
hmax = Maximum water depth along pipeline route – refer to Chart Datum (m)

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hmin = Minimum water depth along pipeline route – refer to Chart Datum (m)
SS max = Maximum Storm Surge (100-years) (m)
HAT = Highest Astronomical Tide refer to Chart Datum (m)
LAT = Lowest Astronomical Tide refer to Chart Datum (m)
H max = Maximum Wave height (100-years) (m)

The local internal pressure on a pipeline is derived from Bernoulli’s potential pressure
equation:
Pi  Pd   cont . g.(hmin  href )

The local incidental internal pressure on pipeline is derived from Section 4 B202, Eq.
4.1 and 4.3:

Pli   inc  Pd   cont . g(hmin  href )


The test pressure on pipeline is given in Section 4 B202, Eq. 4.2.

Plt  Pt  (hmin  href )  t . g


Where

h ref = Elevation of the reference point – positive upwards (m)


 cont = Density of contents (kg/m3)
t = Density of fluid for test pressure (kg/m3)
Pd = Design Pressure (MPa)
Pt = System Test Pressure (MPa)
 inc = Incidental to Design Pressure ratio. Refer to Section 3 D209 Table 3.1.

Ovality / out-of-roundness tolerances are derived from Section 7 - G314, Table 7.17

Table 7-17 Tolerance for diameter and out-of-roundness (edited)


Out of Roundness
Method Criteria Additional Crit.
(Pipe Body)
D < 60.3 mm 0.0 mm
-
60.3 mm ≤ D ≤ 610 mm 0.015 * D
Calculated D / t ≤ 75 min(0.01 * D, 10 mm)
610 mm < D ≤ 1422 mm
D / t > 75 10.0 mm
D > 1422 mm - 10.0 mm
Manual Input - - % ovality * D

Temperature de-rating is given in Section 5 Figure 2

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Figure 2
Proposed de-rating values for yield stress of C-Mn, 13Cr, 22Cr, and 25 Cr

Characteristic material properties (yield/tensile strength) are given in Section 5 - C302,


Eq. 5.4 and 5.5

f y  S MYS  f y, temp    U

f u  S MTS  f u, temp    U

Where

fy
= Characteristic Derated Yield Strength (MPa)
fu = Characteristic Derated Tensile Strength (MPa)
SMYS = Specified Minimum Yield Stress (MPa)
SMTS = Specified Minimum Tensile Strength (MPa)
U = Material Strength Factor from Section 5 Table 5-4

Table 5-4 Material Strength Factor


Factor Normally Supplementary Requirement U

U 0.96 1.00

3.3.1 Pressure Containment (Bursting)

The pressure containment resistance Pb (t ) is given in Section 5 – D202, Eq. 5.8;

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2t 2
Pb t  =  f cb
D o  t  3

Where
fu
f cb  Min( f y , )
1.15

The pressure containment shall fulfill the following criteria;

Pb (t1 )
Pli  Pe min 
 m . SC
P (t )
Plt  Pe min  b 1
 m . SC

Wall thickness fabrication tolerance is given in Section 7 - G314 Table 7.18 and Table
7.26

Table 7-18 Tolerances for wall thickness


Type of pipe Wall thickness (mm) Tolerance
t < 4 mm 0.5 mm
4 mm ≤ t < 10 mm 0.125 * t
SMLS
10 mm ≤ t < 25 mm 0.125 * t
t ≥ 25 mm max(0.1 * t, 3 mm)
t ≤ 6 mm 0.4 mm
HFW, EBW, LBW and
6 mm < t ≤ 15 mm 0.7 mm
MWP
t > 15 mm 1.0 mm
t ≤ 6 mm 0.5 mm
6 mm < t ≤ 10 mm 0.7 mm
SAW
10 mm < t ≤ 20 mm 1.0 mm
t > 20 mm 1.0 mm

Table 7-26 Supplementary requirements D, enhanced Tolerances and/or


increased Frequency of inspection (edited)
Type of pipe Wall thickness (mm) Tolerance
t < 4 mm 0.5 mm
SMLS 4 mm ≤ t < 10 mm 0.125 * t
t ≥ 10 mm max(0.1 * t, 3 mm)
t ≤ 6 mm 0.5 mm
6 mm < t ≤ 10 mm 0.6 mm
HFW 10 mm < t ≤ 15 mm 0.7 mm
15 mm < t ≤ 20 mm 0.8 mm
t > 20 mm 1.0 mm

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Type of pipe Wall thickness (mm) Tolerance


t ≤ 6 mm 0.5 mm
6 mm < t ≤ 10 mm 0.6 mm
SAW
10 mm < t ≤ 20 mm 0.8 mm
t > 20 mm 1.0 mm

3.3.2 Local Buckling - external overpressure (System Collapse)

External pressure criteria along the pipeline is given in Section 5 – D401, Eq. 5.10
Pc t1 
Pe  Pmin 
 m  SC

( Pe  Pmin ) m SC  Pc t1 

For worst case, Pmin = 0 and Pe represent the maximum external pressure (Pemax).

Pe   m   SC  Pc

Characteristic resistance for external pressure is derived from Section 5 – D402, Eq.
5.11

2 2 Do
( Pc  Pel )( Pc  Pp )  Pc Pel Pp f o 
t
Elastic pressure resistance is given in Section 5 – D402, Eq. 5.12
3
2  E   t 
Pel t    Do 
1 2

Plastic pressure resistance is given in Section 5 – D402, Eq. 5.13


2t
Pp  f y   fab
Do
Substitute Eq. 5.12 and Eq. 5.13 into Eq. 5.11

Solve the fifth order polynomial using numerical methods.

3.3.3 Propagation Buckling


Propagating buckle criteria is given in Section 5 – D501, Eq. 5.15
Ppr
Pe  Pmin 
γ m  γ SC 
Pe  Pmin γ m  γ SC  Ppr  0

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for worst case, Pmin = 0


Pe  γ m  γ SC  Ppr = 0

Substitute Eq. 5.16 to the above question


2.5
t 
Pe  γ m  γ SC  35  f y  α fab  2  =0
 Do 
1 / 2.5
 P γ γ 
t 2 = Do  e m SC 
 35  f  α  
 y fab 

3.3.4 Load Control Condition

3.3.4.1 Internal Overpressure


Pipe members subjected to bending moment, effective axial force and internal
overpressure shall be designed to satisfy the following criterion at all cross sections is
derived from Section 5 – D605 in Eq. 5.19

2
 S 
2
M   P  P   2
 γm  γ SC sd  + γ m  γ SC sd  +αp i e
  1.0



αc  S p  
 αc  M p   αc  Pb  

where

M Sd
= Design Bending Moment (kN. m)
S Sd
= Design Axial Force (kN)
Pi
= Internal Pressure (MPa)
Pe
= External Pressure (MPa)
Pb
= Burst Pressure (MPa)

S p and M p denote the plastic capacities for pipe, defined in Section 5 – D605, Eq.
5.20, Eq. 5.21 and 5.22.
S p t  = f y  π  D o  t nom   t nom

M p t  = f y  Do  t   t
2

fu
α c = 1  β  + β
fy

 p and  is given in DNV OS F101 2013, Section 5 – D605 Eq. 5.23 and Eq. 5.24

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 pi  p e 2
 1  
 pb 3
p  
 
1  3 1  pi  pe 
pi  p e 2

  pb pb 3
 
 D 
 60  o 
t nom 
β= 
90
Where  c is a flow stress parameter and  p account for effect of D / t 2 ratio.

Design Bending Moment


The design bending moment can generally be expressed in the following format, in
accordance with Section 4 - G300:
M Sd  M F . F . C  M E . E
where;
MF = Functional Bending Moment (kN. m)
ME = Environmental Bending Moment (kN. m)
F = Functional Load Effect Factor
E = Environmental Load Effect Factor
C = Condition Load Effect Factor

There are three methodologies/options to calculated functional bending moment;

 “User Input” option. User can fill Functional Bending Moment and Environmental
Bending Moment manually.

 Referring to Bending Radius Curvature. If the user selects this option, the
environmental bending moment will be neglected.
E.Do I
MF  .
2.RC 0.5.Do
where;
Do
= Outside Diameter (m)
RC
= Radius Curvature (m)
I = Pipeline Moment Inertia (m4)

 Referring to Allowable Bending Stress. If the user selects this option, the
environmental bending moment will be neglected.
I
M F   all .SMYS.
0.5.Do
where;

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 all = Allowable Bending Stress (%)


SMYS = Specified Minimum Yield Strength (MPa)

Effective Axial Force


The design effective axial force can generally be expressed in the following format, in
accordance with Section 4 – G300:
S Sd  S F . F . C  S E . E
where;
SF = Functional Axial Force (kN)
SE = Environmental Axial Force (kN)
F = Functional Load Effect Factor
E = Environmental Load Effect Factor
C = Condition Load Effect Factor

There are two methodologies/options to calculated functional axial force;


 “User Input” option. User can fill Functional Axial Force and Environmental Axial
Force manually.

 If “Calculated” option selected, the environmental axial force will be neglected and
functional (effective) axial force of a totally restrained pipe in the linear elastic stress
range will be consider as follows:

S F  H  pld . Ai .(1  2. )  AS .E. .T


where;
H = Residual Lay Tension (kN)
p ld
= Local Design Pressure (kN)
Ai
= Inside Section Area (m2)
 = Poison’s Ratio
AS
= Steel Section Area (m2)
T = Temperature difference relative to As Laid (0C)

3.3.4.2 External Overpressure

Pipe members subjected to bending moment, effective axial force and external
overpressure shall be designed to satisfy the following criterion at all cross sections is
derived from Section 5 – D607 Eq 5.28

2
 
2
  
2

 γ m  γ SC
S sd  + γ m  γ SC M sd  +  γ m  γ SC Pe  Pmin   1.0


αc  S p   αc  M p   Pc 

where

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p min = minimum internal pressure (MPa)


PC
= characteristic collapse pressure (Eq. 5.10) (MPa)

3.4 ASME / API MODULE Methodology

Methodology of pipeline design as stated in ASME / API is briefly described in this


section.

3.4.1 Pressure Containment / Hoop Stress (ASME B31.8)

The hoop stress formula taken from ASME B31.8 Para A842.2.2 shall be used to
determine the minimum required wall thickness. In the hoop stress analysis, the
minimum required wall thickness is calculated based on net internal design pressure,
nominal outside diameter, design factor, SMYS and corrosion allowance of pipeline.

The minimum required wall thickness is calculated using the following equation.
Pi  Pe   D
t min 
2  F1  S  T

t req  t min  CA

Pe  .g.h

Where:
 = Seawater density
t min = Minimum calculated wall thickness
Pi
= Internal design pressure
Pe
= Minimum external pressure shall be utilized for pressure containment
check
D = Pipe outside diameter
F1 = Design factor
g = Gravity acceleration
h = Minimum water depth
S = SMYS
T = Temperature derating factor, 1.0 for temperature ≤120 0C, Table 841.1.8-
1 of ASME B31.8
t req
= Minimum required wall thickness
CA = Corrosion allowance

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The design factor used in the calculation shall depend on the location of pipeline and
the pipeline condition. The summary of design factor used in the wall thickness
calculation is given in the table below in accordance with Table A842.2.2-1.
Table A842.2.2-1 – Design Factors (Edited)
Condition Location Design Factor
Offshore Pipeline 0.72
Operation
Topside Piping, Riser and Spool 0.50
Offshore Pipeline, Topside Piping,
Hydrotest Normally consider 0.9
Riser and Spool

3.4.2 Collapse due to External Pressure (API RP 1111)

The pipeline shall be designed to resist the collapse due to external pressure during
installation and shutdown condition. The installation condition shall be based on un-
corroded pipe and non-pressurized condition. The shutdown condition shall be based
on corroded pipe (taken as fully corroded) and non-pressurized condition.

The criteria for collapse due to external pressure shall be calculated in accordance
with API RP 1111, as follows:

Collapse pressure is calculated using the following equation

Py  Pe
Pc 
Py2  Pe2

t 
Py  2  S   min 
 D 

3
 t min 
 
D 
Pe  2  E 

1 2 
treq  tmin  CA  tm

Permissible criteria check shall be as per the equation below.

PO  Pi  f O  PC

Where:
v = Poisson’s ratio
D = Pipe Outside Diameter
E = Young’s modulus
PC = Collapse pressure of the pipe

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Py = Yield pressure at collapse


Pe = Elastic collapse pressure of the pipe
PO = Maximum external hydrostatic pressure
Pi = Internal pressure (zero for installation and fully depressurized and empty
case)
fo = Collapse factor
tm = Manufacturing tolerance
t min = Minimum calculated wall thickness
t req = Minimum required wall thickness
CA = Corrosion allowance
S = SMYS

The maximum external hydrostatic pressure shall be determined using maximum water
depth calculated by equation below.

d max  d m  HAT  0.5  H max  Ss


Where:
d max = Design water depth
dm = Maximum water depth along the pipeline route
HAT = Highest Astronomical Tide
H max = Maximum wave height (1 year return period for installation, 100
years return period for shutdown condition)
Ss = Storm surge

3.4.3 Propagating Buckles (API RP 1111)

The propagation buckling pressure shall be determined as per API RP 1111 for
installation and shutdown condition and any requirements such as increased linepipe
wall thickness or using buckle arrestors shall be assessed.
Critical propagation buckling pressure is calculated using the following equation.
2.4
t 
PP  24  S   
D
Permissible criteria check for propagation buckling shall be as per the equation below.
PO  Pi  f P  PP
t req  t  t cor

Where:
D = Outside diameter
Po = Maximum external hydrostatic pressure
Pi = Internal pressure

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Pp = Buckle propagation pressure


fp = Propagation buckling design factor
t = Minimum wall thickness
t req = Minimum required wall thickness
t cor = Corroded thickness to be considered
S = SMYS

3.4.4 Buckling due to Combined Bending and External Pressure (API RP 1111)

Combined bending strain and external pressure load should satisfy the following:

 Po  Pi
  g ( )
b Pc

To avoid buckling, bending strains should be limited as follows:

  f1 . 1

  f 2 . 2

g ( )  (1  20 ) 1

t
b 
2 .D
Where:
g ( ) = Collapse reduction factor
 = Ovality
b = Buckling strain under pure bending
 = Bending strain in the pipe
1 = Maximum installation bending strain
2 = Maximum in-place bending strain
f1 = Bending safety factor for installation bending plus external
pressure
f2 = Bending safety factor for in-place bending plus external pressure

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3.5 DNV- OS-F101 MODULE Input /Output

3.5.1 DNV-OS-F101 Input

Screen Shots are enclosed.

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Tick DNV Method if the Wall


Thickness Calculation to DNV- Blank, if only run Wall Thickness
OS-F101 Analysis

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3.5.2 DNV-OS- F101 MODULE INPUT DESCRIPTION

Input parameters are:

 General Data
 Pipe Dimension
Options;
1. If “NPS” (Nominal Pipe Size) is entered select Pipeline Diameter from
built-in Table as per API 5L.
2. If “User Define” option is selected the pipe OD (mm) must be entered.
 Outer Diameter (OD). Unit: mm
Enter outside diameter of Pipe for “user defined” option in Pipe Dimensions.
 Wall Thickness (tnom). Unit: mm
1. If “NPS” option has been input, select Wall Thickness from built-in Table
as per API 5L.
2. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined wall thickness.
 Pipe Joint (Lpj). Unit: m
Enter average Pipe joint length.
Default 12.1 m.
 Corrosion Allowance (t_corr). Unit: mm
Enter corrosion allowance.
Default 3.175 mm (1/8”).
 Water Density. Unit: kg/m3
Enter Seawater Density.
Default 1025 kg/m3.
 Minimum Depth. Unit: m
Enter minimum water.
Depth shall be considered for minimum external hydrostatic pressure.
 Poisson Ratio (v). Unit: Non Dimensional
Enter Poisson ratio.
Default 0.3.
 Modulus Young (E). Unit: MPa
Enter Young’s Modulus.
Default 207000.0 MPa.
 Material Grade. Unit: Unit Non Dimensional
Options:
1. If Material grade is selected from built-in table as per API 5L, SMYS and
SMTS shall be automatically generated.
2. If User defined option is selected, SMYS and SMTS must be entered.
Unit MPa
 Marine Growth Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter Marine Growth Thickness.
To be considered as accumulation of outer diameter for operation condition
hydro dynamic loads. For the Installation condition marine growth shall be
taken as 0.0 mm.
 Anti-Corrosion Coating Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter Anti-Corrosion Coating Thickness.

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To be considered as accumulation of outer diameter in installation and


operation conditions for hydrodynamic loading.
 Concrete Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter Concrete Coat Thickness.
To be considered as accumulation of outer diameter in installations and
operating conditions for hydrodynamic loading.
 Internal Cladding Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter Internal Cladding Thickness.
To be considered for reduction in inside diameter of the pipeline.
 Field Joint Coating Cutback. Unit: mm.
Enter Field Joint Coating Cutback.
Default = 150 mm.
 Field Joint Coating Density. Unit: kg/m3.
Enter Field Joint Coating Density.
 Marine Growth Density. Unit: kg/m3.
Enter Marine Growth Density.
Default = 1325 kg/m3
 Corrosion Coating Density. Unit: kg/m3.
Enter Corrosion Coating Density.
Default = 1300 kg/m3.
 Concrete Coating Density. Unit: kg/m3.
Enter Concrete Coating Density.
Default = 3044 kg/m3.
 Internal Cladding Density. Unit: kg/m3.
Enter Internal Cladding Density.
 Steel Density Unit. kg/m3.
Enter Steel Density.
Default = 7850 kg/m3.

 Pipe Data
 Pipe Type
Enter Pipe Type. Select from built-in Table. The type of Pipe will define the
wall thickness fabrication tolerance. Reference Section 7, Table 7-18 and
Table 7-26.
Table 7-18 Tolerances for wall thickness
Type of pipe Wall thickness (mm) Tolerance
t < 4 mm 0.5 mm
4 mm ≤ t < 10 mm 0.125 * t
SMLS
10 mm ≤ t < 25 mm 0.125 * t
t ≥ 25 mm max(0.1 * t, 3 mm)
t ≤ 6 mm 0.4 mm
HFW, EBW, LBW and
6 mm < t ≤ 15 mm 0.7 mm
MWP
t > 15 mm 1.0 mm
SAW t ≤ 6 mm 0.5 mm

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Type of pipe Wall thickness (mm) Tolerance


6 mm < t ≤ 10 mm 0.7 mm
10 mm < t ≤ 20 mm 1.0 mm
t > 20 mm 1.0 mm

Table 7-26 Supplementary requirements D, enhanced Tolerances


and/or increased Frequency of inspection (edited)
Type of pipe Wall thickness (mm) Tolerance
t < 4 mm 0.5 mm
SMLS 4 mm ≤ t < 10 mm 0.125 * t
t ≥ 10 mm max(0.1 * t, 3 mm)
t ≤ 6 mm 0.5 mm
6 mm < t ≤ 10 mm 0.6 mm
HFW 10 mm < t ≤ 15 mm 0.7 mm
15 mm < t ≤ 20 mm 0.8 mm
t > 20 mm 1.0 mm
t ≤ 6 mm 0.5 mm
6 mm < t ≤ 10 mm 0.6 mm
SAW
10 mm < t ≤ 20 mm 0.8 mm
t > 20 mm 1.0 mm

 Pipe Fabrication
Enter Type of Pipe Fabrication. Select from built-in Table.
The type of fabrication of Pipe will define fabrication factor. Reference
Section 5, Table 5-5.

Table 5-5 Maximum Fabrication Factor


Factor Seamless UO & TRB & ERW UOE

 fab 1.00 0.93 0.85

 Material Strength Factor


Enter (Yes or No) if Material Strength Factor is to be included.
The material strength factor will be utilized for installation and operation
conditions. For pressure test the material strength factor shall be set equal
to 1.0, Reference Section 5, Table 5-4.

Table 5-4 Material Strength Factor


Factor Normally Supplementary Requirement U

U 0.96 1.00

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 Supplementary Dimensions
Enter (Yes or No) if Supplementary Dimensions are to be included.
The supplementary dimension shall define the wall thickness fabrication
tolerance.
Options:
1. If “Yes” is selected from built-in table, the wall thickness fabrication
tolerance is refer to Table 7-26.
2. If “No” is selected, the wall thickness fabrication tolerance is refer to
Table 7-18.
Table 7-18 Tolerances for wall thickness
Type of pipe Wall thickness (mm) Tolerance
t < 4 mm 0.5 mm
4 mm ≤ t < 10 mm 0.125 * t
SMLS
10 mm ≤ t < 25 mm 0.125 * t
t ≥ 25 mm max(0.1 * t, 3 mm)
t ≤ 6 mm 0.4 mm
HFW, EBW, LBW and
6 mm < t ≤ 15 mm 0.7 mm
MWP
t > 15 mm 1.0 mm
t ≤ 6 mm 0.5 mm
6 mm < t ≤ 10 mm 0.7 mm
SAW
10 mm < t ≤ 20 mm 1.0 mm
t > 20 mm 1.0 mm

Table 7-26 Supplementary requirements D, enhanced Tolerances


and/or increased Frequency of inspection (edited)
Type of pipe Wall thickness (mm) Tolerance
t < 4 mm 0.5 mm
SMLS 4 mm ≤ t < 10 mm 0.125 * t
t ≥ 10 mm max(0.1 * t, 3 mm)
t ≤ 6 mm 0.5 mm
6 mm < t ≤ 10 mm 0.6 mm
HFW 10 mm < t ≤ 15 mm 0.7 mm
15 mm < t ≤ 20 mm 0.8 mm
t > 20 mm 1.0 mm
t ≤ 6 mm 0.5 mm
6 mm < t ≤ 10 mm 0.6 mm
SAW
10 mm < t ≤ 20 mm 0.8 mm
t > 20 mm 1.0 mm

 Corrosion Percentage. Unit: %.


Enter Corrosion to be considered in propagation buckling calculations.
Normally, 0% of corrosion allowance shall be considered. However, this
value shall be based on COMPANY Specification / Requirement.

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 Pipe Ovality. Unit: %.


Options;
1. “DNV Method” for Ovality to be defined based on Section 7, Table 7.17.
2. “Manual Input”.

Table 7-17 Tolerance for diameter and out-of-roundness


Out of Roundness
Method Criteria Additional Crit.
(Pipe Body)
D < 60.3 mm 0.0 mm
-
60.3 mm ≤ D ≤ 610 mm 0.015 * D
Calculated D / t ≤ 75 min(0.01 * D, 10 mm)
610 mm < D ≤ 1422 mm
D / t > 75 10.0 mm
D > 1422 mm - 10.0 mm
Manual Input - - % ovality * D

 Tolerance. Unit: mm.


Options
1. Enter “DNV Method” for Fabrication tolerance to be based on Section 7,
Table 7-18 and Table 7-26.
2. Manual input.

Table 7-18 Tolerances for wall thickness


Type of pipe Wall thickness (mm) Tolerance
t < 4 mm 0.5 mm
4 mm ≤ t < 10 mm 0.125 * t
SMLS
10 mm ≤ t < 25 mm 0.125 * t
t ≥ 25 mm max(0.1 * t, 3 mm)
t ≤ 6 mm 0.4 mm
HFW, EBW, LBW and
6 mm < t ≤ 15 mm 0.7 mm
MWP
t > 15 mm 1.0 mm
t ≤ 6 mm 0.5 mm
6 mm < t ≤ 10 mm 0.7 mm
SAW
10 mm < t ≤ 20 mm 1.0 mm
t > 20 mm 1.0 mm

Table 7-26 Supplementary requirements D, enhanced Tolerances


and/or increased Frequency of inspection (edited)
Type of pipe Wall thickness (mm) Tolerance
t < 4 mm 0.5 mm
SMLS 4 mm ≤ t < 10 mm 0.125 * t
t ≥ 10 mm max(0.1 * t, 3 mm)
t ≤ 6 mm 0.5 mm
HFW
6 mm < t ≤ 10 mm 0.6 mm

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Type of pipe Wall thickness (mm) Tolerance


10 mm < t ≤ 15 mm 0.7 mm
15 mm < t ≤ 20 mm 0.8 mm
t > 20 mm 1.0 mm
t ≤ 6 mm 0.5 mm
6 mm < t ≤ 10 mm 0.6 mm
SAW
10 mm < t ≤ 20 mm 0.8 mm
t > 20 mm 1.0 mm

 Content Data
 Design Temperature (T_max). Unit: Deg C.
Enter Design Temperature.
Used for de-rating of SMYS & SMTS. Reference Section C302.
Temperature de-rating is given in Section 5 Figure 2;

Figure 2
Proposed de-rating values for yield stress of C-Mn, 13Cr, 22Cr, and
25Cr
 Max. Density (rho_cont). Unit: kg/m3
Enter Maximum Density of fluid/contents.
 Fluid Category
Enter Fluid category as per hazard potential.
Select from built-in Table. Reference Section 2, Table 2-1.

Table 2-1 Classification of fluids

Category Description
A Typical non-flammable water-based fluids.

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B Flammable and/or toxic fluids which are liquids at


ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure
conditions. Typical examples are oil and petroleum
products. Methanol is an example of a flammable
and toxic fluid.
C Non-flammable fluids which are non-toxic gases at
ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure
conditions. Typical examples are nitrogen, carbon
dioxide, argon and air.
D Non-toxic, single-phase natural gas.
E Flammable and/or toxic fluids which are gases at
ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure
conditions and which are conveyed as gases and/or
liquids. Typical examples would be hydrogen,
natural gas (not otherwise covered under category
D), ethane, ethylene, liquefied petroleum gas (such
as propane and butane), natural gas liquids,
ammonia, and chlorine.

 Environmental Data
 Zone
Enter the Zone location class. Select from built-in Table. Reference Section
2, Table 2-2.

Table 2-2 Classification of location


Location Definition
Zone 1 The area where no frequent human activity is
anticipated along the pipeline route.
Zone 2 The part of the pipeline/riser in the near platform
(manned) area or in areas with frequent human
activity.
The extent of location class 2 should be based on
appropriate risk analyses. If no such analyses are
performed a minimum horizontal distance of 500 m
from platform shall be adopted.

 Highest Astronomical Tide. Unit: m


Enter Highest Astronomical Tide elevation from Chart Datum.
 Maximum Storm Surge (100yrs – RP). Unit: m
Enter Maximum Storm Surge for 100 years return period.
 Lowest Astronomical Tide. Unit: m
Enter Lowest Astronomical Tide elevation with reference to Chart Datum.
If the elevation of Chart Datum and LAT is same, then 0.0 (m) to be entered
as input.
 Maximum Depth. Unit: m
Enter Maximum Water Depth.

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To be considered for maximum external pressure.


 Maximum Wave Height (100yrs – RP). Unit: m
Enter Maximum Wave Height for 100 years return period
To be considered for maximum external pressure.
 Operational Data
 Pressure Ref Height. Unit: m.
Enter Reference Pressure Elevation, for design pressure (above Chart
Datum positive).
 Design Pressure (p_d). Unit: MPa or Barg, as chosen in
Toolbars/Options/Pressure Unit.
Enter Internal Design Pressure
 Incidental to Design Ratio
Enter minimum incidental to design ratio from built-in Table. Reference
Table 3-1.

Table 3-1 Incidental to design pressure ratios


γinc Condition or pipeline system
1.1 Typical pipeline system
1.05 Minimum, except for below
1.00 When design pressure is equal to full shut-in
pressure including dynamic effects

 Limit State Category


Enter Limit State Category. Select from built-in Table. Reference Section 5
Table 5-2.
The limit state category will define the material resistance factor.
Table 5-2 Material Resistance Factor
Factor SLS / ULS / ALS FLS

m 1.15 1.00

 Hydrotest Pressure. Unit MPa or Barg, as chosen in


Toolbars/Options/Pressure Unit.
Options
1. Enter “DNV Calculation” for Hydrotest pressure to be calculated as
defined in Section 5, B202.
2. User input.
 Bending Moment
Options;
1. Enter “Alw Stress or R curvature” for Bending moment calculations to
Allowable Stress or Radius of Curvature as stated in ASME B31.8
Section 833.2
2. User Input

For User Input the following parameters must be entered.


1. Func. Intern. Bending Moment. Unit: kN.m.
Enter Functional Bending Moment for Internal Overpressure condition.

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2. Env. Intern. Bending Moment. Unit: kN.m.


Enter Environmental Bending Moment for Internal Overpressure
condition.
3. Func. Extern. Bending Moment. Unit: kN.m.
Enter Functional Bending Moment for External Overpressure condition.
4. Env. Extern. Bending Moment. Unit: kN.m.
Enter Environmental Bending Moment for External Overpressure
condition
 Axial Force
Options;
1. Enter “Calculate” for effective axial force calculation as stated in Section
4 - G411.
2. User Input.

For User input the following parameters must be entered.


1. Func. Intern. Axial Force. Unit: kN.
Enter Functional Axial Force for Internal Overpressure condition.
2. Env. Intern. Axial Force. Unit: kN.
Enter Environmental Axial Force for Internal Overpressure condition.
3. Func. Extern. Axial Force. Unit: kN.
Enter Functional Axial Force for External Overpressure condition.
4. Env. Extern. Axial Force Unit kN
Enter Environmental Axial Force for External Overpressure condition.
 Min. Int. Pressure. Unit: MPa.
Options;
1. Enter “Air Pressure” for automatic calculation of minimum internal
pressure based on the air density, gravity and maximum water depth.
Density of 1.225 kg/m3 is considered as air density.
2. User input
 Curvature Radius. Unit: m.
If “Radius of Curvature” option has been selected for Bending Moment,
enter Minimum Curvature of pipeline along route.
 Allowable Stress. Unit: %.
If “Allowable Stress” option has been selected for Bending Moment, enter
Allowable bending stress as a % of SMYS.
 Lay Tension. Unit: kN.
If “Axial Force” input option has been selected enter residual Lay Tension.
 Thermal Expansion Coefficient. Unit: 1/0C.
If “Axial Force” Input option has been selected, enter Thermal Expansion
Coefficient.
Default 1.17 x 10-5 / 0C.
 Ambient Temperature. Unit: 0C.
If “Axial Force” input option has been selected enter Ambient Temperature.
Used to determine the thermal axial force.

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3.5.3 DNV-OS-F101 Output

Sample Output enclosed

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User Manual

S UBMARINE PIPELINE DES IGN S UITE


TO DNV OS -F101 V10-05 V14-12
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 1 of 7

WALL THICKNESS AND MATERIAL SELECTION MODULE

INPUT DATA AND RELEVANT PARAMETERS


ITEMS SYM BOL UNIT EM PTY OPERATION HYDROTEST
PIPELINE DATA
Nominal Outside Diameter Do mm 323.900
Nominal Wall Thickness of Pipeline tnom mm 15.900
Corrosion Allowance tcorr mm 0.000 3.000 0.000
Fabrication Thickness Tolerance tfab mm 1.988
Pipeline Type - - S MLS
Pipeline Fabrication Process - - S eamless

MATERIAL DATA
Specified Minimum Yield Stress SMYS MPa 450.000
Specified Minimum Tensile Stress SMTS MPa 535.000
Material Strength Factor u ‐ 1.000 1.000 1.000
Derating in Yield Stress due to Tem. fy.temp - 0.000 24.000 0.000
Derating in Tensile Stress due to Tem. fu.temp - 0.000 24.000 0.000
Poisson Ratio  - 0.300
Young's Modulus E MPa 207000

CONTENTS DATA
Fluid Category ‐ - E
Fluid Density  cont kg/m 3 0.000 120.000 1025.000

OPERATIONAL DATA
Zone ‐ - Zone 1
0
M aximum Design Temperature Tmax C - 90.000 -
Design Pressure Pi MPa - 9.000 0.000
Incidental to Design Pressure Ratio inc - - 1.100 1.000
Elevation at Pressure Reference Level href m 10.000

ENVIRONM ENTAL PARAM ETER


M aximum Water Depth d m 65.000
M inimum Water Depth dmin m 58.500
Storm Surge SS m 1.200
Highest Astronomical Tide HAT m 1.800
M aximum Wave Height Hmax m 8.900
Density of External Fluid  water kg/m 3
1025.000

DESIGN CRITERIA
Limit State Category - - ULS
Apply Supplementary Pipe Dimension - - No
Pipeline Ovality f0 % 1.500 1.500 1.500
Safety Class - ‐ Low Medium Low

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S UBMARINE PIPELINE DES IGN S UITE


TO DNV OS -F101 V10-05 V14-12
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 2 of 7

PRESSURE CONTAINMENT (BURSTING)

RELEVANT INPUT PARAMETERS


ITEMS SYM BOL UNIT EM PTY OPERATION HYDROTEST
Nominal outer steel diameter Do mm 323.900
Nominal steel wall thickness tnom mm 15.900
Fabrication tolerance tfab mm 1.988
Corrosion allowance tcorr mm 0.000 3.000 0.000
Specified minimum yield stress SMYS MPa 450.000
Specified minimum tensile strength SMTS MPa 535.000
Derating in yield stress due to temp. fy,temp MPa 0.000 24.000 0.000
Derating tensile strength due to temp. fu,temp MPa 0.000 24.000 0.000
Material strength factor U 1.000 1.000 1.000
Internal pressure at reference level p int MPa - 9.000 0.000
Reference level for internal pressure zref m - 10.000 10.000
3
Density of internal fluid  int kg/m - 120.000 1025.000
Incidental to design pressure ratio inc - 1.100 1.000
Depth d m 58.500
Density of external fluid  water kg/m3 1025.000
Safety Class Low Medium Low
Corroded wall thickness NO YES NO
Derated material properties NO YES NO

INTERMEDIATE RESULTS (Pressure Containment)


Wall Thickness Used in Code Check t1 / t2 mm 13.913 10.913 13.913
Characteristic Yield Stress fy MPa 450.000 426.000 450.000
Characteristic Ultimate Strength fu MPa 535.000 511.000 535.000
Press. Containment Resistance (Yield) Pbs MPa 46.642 34.301 46.642
Press. Containment Resistance (Buckling) Pbu MPa 48.219 35.778 48.219
Press. Containment Resistance (Minimum) Pb MPa 46.642 34.301 46.642
Material Resistance Factor m - 1.150
Safety Class Resistance Factor sc - 1.046 1.138 1.046
Local Design Pressure Pld MPa 0.000 9.081 10.480
Local Incidental Pressure Pli MPa 0.000 9.981 10.480
External Pressure Pe MPa 0.601
Pressure Difference MPa 0.601 9.380 9.879

PRESSURE CONTAINMENT (RESULTS)


Mininum Wall Thickness Required mm 0.275 7.991 4.185
Selected Wall Thickness mm 15.900
CODE UNITY CHECK BUCKLING (tmin/tsel) 0.017 0.503 0.263
OK OK OK

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S UBMARINE PIPELINE DES IGN S UITE


TO DNV OS -F101 V10-05 V14-12
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 3 of 7

SYSTEM COLLAPSE and PROPAGATING BUCKLING

RELEVANT INPUT PARAMETERS


ITEMS SYM BOL UNIT COLLAPSE P.BUCKLING
Nominal outer steel diameter Do mm 323.900
Nominal steel wall thickness tnom mm 15.900
Corrosion allowance tcorr mm 3.000 3.000
Out-of-roundness f0 % 1.500
Young's modulus E MPa 207000.000
Poisson's ratio  0.300
Specified minimum yield stress SMYS MPa 450.000
Derating in yield stress due to temperature fy,temp MPa 24.000
Fabrication factor fab 1.000
Material strength factor U 1.000
Depth d m 65.000
Density of external fluid  water kg/m3 1025.000
Safety Class Medium Medium
Derated material properties YES YES

INTERMEDIATE RESULTS
Characteristic yield stress: fy MPa 426.000
Steel wall thickness used in code check: t1 /t2 mm 10.913 12.900
Elastic collapse pressure: p el MPa 17.398 -
Plastic collapse pressure: pp MPa 28.705 -
Characteristic collapse pressure: pc MPa 0.955 -
Propagating buckle criterion pressure p pr MPa - 4.72
Material resistance factor: m - 1.150
Safety class resistance factor: SC - 1.140
External pressure: pe MPa 0.728

SYS. COLLAPSE AND PROP. BUCKLING (Results)


Mininum Wall Thickness Required mm 8.330 9.807
Selected Wall Thickness mm 15.900
CODE UNITY CHECK BUCKLING (tmin/tsel) 0.524 0.617
OK OK

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S UBMARINE PIPELINE DES IGN S UITE


TO DNV OS -F101 V10-05 V14-12
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 4 of 7

LOAD CONTROLLED CONDITION (INTERNAL OVERPRESSURE)

RELEVANT INPUT PARAMETERS


ITEMS SYM BOL UNIT VALUE
Nominal outer steel diameter Do mm 323.900
Nominal steel wall thickness t nom mm 15.900
Corrosion allowance t corr mm 3.000
Out-of-roundness f0 % 1.500
Specified minimum yield stress SMYS MPa 450.000
Specified minimum tensile strength SMTS MPa 535.000
Derating in yield stress due to temperature fy,temp MPa 24.000
Derating tensile strength due to temperature fu,temp MPa 24.000
Young's modulus E MPa 207000.000
Poisson's ratio  - 0.300
Material strength factor U - 1.000
Internal pressure at reference level p int MPa 9.000
Reference level for internal pressure zref m 10.000
Density of internal fluid  int kg/m3 120.000
Depth d m 65.000
Density of external fluid  ext kg/m3 1025.000
Bending Moment - - R.Curvature
Functional Bending Moment MF kN.m 0.000
Environmental Bending Moment ME kN.m 0.000
Radius of Curvature Rc m 2000.000
Allowable Stress - MPa 0.000
Axial Force - - Calculated
Installation Temperature Tins deg C 35.000
Residual Lay Tension Heff kN 0.000
Functional Axial Force TF kN 0.000
Environmental Axial Force TE kN 0.000

INTERMEDIATE RESULTS
Pipeline Moment Inertia I mm 4 182921604.916
Plastic Moment Resistance Mp kN.m 531.521
Characteristic Plastic Axial Force Resistance Sp kN 5369.200
Flow Stress Parameter (  - - 0.388
Flow Stress Parameter (  - - 1.077
Effective Design Axial Force Sd kN -2698.574
Design Moment Md kN.m 22.283
Pressure Containment Resistant Pb MPa 40.807
D/t Ratio Effect - - 0.612
CRITERIA CHECK
CODE UNITY CHECK BUCKLING 0.200
OK

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S UBMARINE PIPELINE DES IGN S UITE


TO DNV OS -F101 V10-05 V14-12
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 5 of 7

LOAD CONTROLLED CONDITION (EXTERNAL OVERPRESSURE)

RELEVANT INPUT PARAMETERS


ITEMS SYM BOL UNIT VALUE
Nominal outer steel diameter Do mm 323.900
Nominal steel wall thickness t nom mm 15.900
Corrosion allowance t corr mm 3.000
Out-of-roundness f0 % 1.500
Specified minimum yield stress SMYS MPa 450.000
Specified minimum tensile strength SMTS MPa 535.000
Derating in yield stress due to temperature fy,temp MPa 24.000
Derating tensile strength due to temperature fu,temp MPa 24.000
Young's modulus E MPa 207000.000
Poisson's ratio  - 0.300
Material strength factor U - 1.000
Internal pressure at reference level p int MPa 9.000
Reference level for internal pressure zref m 10.000
Density of internal fluid  int kg/m3 120.000
Depth d m 65.000
Density of external fluid  ext kg/m3 1025.000
Bending Moment - - R.Curvature
Functional Bending Moment MF kN.m 0.000
Environmental Bending Moment ME kN.m 0.000
Radius of Curvature Rc m 2000.000
Allowable Stress - MPa 0.000
Axial Force - - Calculated
Installation Temperature Tins deg C 35.000
Residual Lay Tension Heff kN 0.000
Functional Axial Force TF kN 0.000
Environmental Axial Force TE kN 0.000

INTERMEDIATE RESULTS
Plastic Moment Resistance Mp kN.m 678.752
Characteristic Plastic Axial Force Resistance Sp kN 6923.253
Flow Stress Parameter (  - - 0.440
Flow Stress Parameter (  - - 1.083
Allowable Stress  MPa 0.000
Effective Design Axial Force Sd kN 0.000
Design Moment Md kN.m 0.000
Elastic Pressure Resistance Pel MPa 53.817
Plastic Pressure Resistance Pp MPa 44.180
Collapse Pressure Pc MPa 31.028
CRITERIA CHECK
CODE UNITY CHECK BUCKLING 0.001
OK

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S UBMARINE PIPELINE DES IGN S UITE


TO DNV OS -F101 V10-05 V14-12
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 6 of 7

WALL THICKNESS AND MATERIAL SELECTION MODULE

ANALYSIS OUTPUT
ITEMS UNIT EM PTY OPERATION HYDROTEST

Characteristic Yield Strength MPa 450.000 426.000 450.000


Characteristic Tensile Strength MPa 535.000 511.000 535.000
Safety Class Resistance Factor for Pressure
- 1.046 1.138 1.046
Containment
Safety Class Resistance Factor (General) - 1.040 1.140 1.040
Local Pressure MPa 0.000 9.081 10.480
Design Strength MPa 450.000 426.000 450.000
Corrosion Allowance mm 0.000 3.000 0.000

Minimum Wall Thickness for Pressure


mm 0.275 7.991 4.185
Containment
Safety Factor - 57.887 1.990 3.799
Minimum Wall Thickness for System
mm 4.751 8.330 4.751
Collapse
Safety Factor - 3.346 1.909 3.346
Minimum Wall Thickness for Propagating
mm 6.420 9.807 6.420
Buckling
Safety Factor - 2.477 1.621 2.477

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S UBMARINE PIPELINE DES IGN S UITE


TO DNV OS -F101 V10-05 V14-12
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 7 of 7

WALL THICKNESS AND MATERIAL SELECTION MODULE

ANALYSIS SUMMARY

MINIMUM WALL THICKNESS CALCULATION


WALL THICKNESS INTERNAL PRESSURE LOCAL PROPAGATING MINIMUM
(mm) CONTAINMENT BUCKLING BUCKLING REQUIRED
OPERATING 7.991 8.330 9.807 9.807
HYDROTEST 4.185 4.751 6.420 6.420
EM PTY 0.275 4.751 6.420 6.420

SELECTED WALL THICKNESS


REQUIRED MIN. SELECTED
WALL WALL REMARKS
THICKNESS (mm) THICKNESS (mm)

9.807 15.900 OK

WALL THICKNESS CHECK FOR COMBINED LOADING

SELECTED WALL LOAD CONTROLLED


REMARKS
THICKNESS (mm) CRITERIA

15.900 0.200 OK

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3.6 ASME / API MODULE Input / Output

3.6.1 ASME / API Input

Screen shots are enclosed.

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Tick ASME/API Method if the Wall


Thickness Calculation to ASME Blank, if only run Wall Thickness
B31.8 and API RP 1111 Analysis

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3.6.2 ASME / API Input Description

Input parameters are:

 General Data
 Pipe Dimension
Options;
1. If “NPS” (Nominal Pipe Size) is entered select Pipeline Diameter from
built-in Table as per API 5L.
2. If “User Define” option is selected the pipe OD (mm) must be entered.
 Outer Diameter (OD). Unit: mm
Enter outside diameter of Pipe for “user defined” option in Pipe Dimensions.
 Wall Thickness (tnom). Unit: mm
1. If “NPS” option has been input, select Wall Thickness from built-in Table
as per API 5L.
2. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined wall thickness.
 Pipe Joint (Lpj). Unit: m
Enter average Pipe joint length.
Default 12.1 m.
 Corrosion Allowance (t_corr). Unit: mm
Enter corrosion allowance.
Default 3.175 mm (1/8”).
 Water Density. Unit: kg/m3
Enter Seawater Density.
Default 1025 kg/m3.
 Minimum Depth. Unit: m
Enter minimum water.
Depth shall be considered for minimum external hydrostatic pressure.
 Poisson Ratio (v). Unit: Non Dimensional
Enter Poisson ratio.
Default 0.3.
 Modulus Young (E). Unit: MPa
Enter Young’s Modulus.
Default 207000.0 MPa.
 Material Grade. Unit: MPa.
Options:
1. If Material grade is selected from built-in table as per API 5L, SMYS and
SMTS shall be automatically generated.
2. If User defined option is selected, SMYS and SMTS must be entered.

 Pipeline Data
 Pipe Location
Enter Pipe Location. Select from built-in Table. The pipe location will define
the hoop stress design factor, as per Table A842.2.2-1of ASME B31.8.

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Table A842.2.2-1 – Design Factors (Edited)


Condition Location Design Factor

Offshore Pipeline 0.72


Operation
Topside Piping, Riser and Spool 0.50
Offshore Pipeline, Topside Piping,
Hydrotest Normally consider 0.9
Riser and Spool

 Fabrication Method
Enter Fabrication Method. Select from built-in Table. The fabrication method
will define the collapse design factor, as per Section 4.3.2.1 of API RP 1111.
 Ovality. Unit: %.
Enter Ovality of pipe, for collapse reduction factor as per Section 4.3.2.2 of
API RP 1111.
 Fabrication Tolerance. Unit: mm.
Options;
1. Calculate to API Table 11 of API Spec 5L.
2. User defined.
Table 11 – Tolerances for Wall Thickness (edited)
Type of pipe Wall thickness (mm) Tolerance
t ≤ 4 mm 0.5 mm
SMLS 4 mm < t < 25 mm 0.125 * t
t ≥ 25 mm max(0.1 * t, 3 mm)
t ≤ 5 mm 0.5 mm
Welded Pipe 5 mm < t < 15 mm 0.1 * t
t ≥ 15 mm 1.5 mm

 Wall Thickness Tolerance. Unit: mm.


Enter Wall Thickness Tolerance if “User Defined” Fabrication Tolerance is
chosen.
 Environmental Data
 Maximum Depth. Unit: m.
Enter Maximum Water Depth.
To be considered for maximum external pressure.
 Wave Height 1yr. Unit: m.
Enter Wave Height for 1 year return period.
To be considered for minimal external pressure.
 Wave Height 100yrs. Unit: m.
Enter Wave Height for 100 years return period.
To be considered for maximum external pressure
 Highest Astronomical Tide. Unit: m.
Enter Highest Astronomical Tide reference elevation from Chart Datum.
To be considered for maximum external pressure.
 Storm Surge 1yr. Unit: m.
Enter Storm Surge for 1 year return period.
To be considered for minimal external pressure.

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 Storm Surge 100yrs. Unit: m.


Enter Storm Surge for 100 years return period.
To be considered for maximum external pressure
 Operational Data
 Corrosion Percentage. Unit: %.
Enter Corrosion Percentage.
To be considered in propagation buckling calculations.
 Pressure Ref height. Unit: m.
Enter Pressure Reference elevation for design pressure (above Chart
Datum - positive).
 Design Pressure (p_d). Unit: MPa or Barg, as chosen in
Toolbars/Options/Pressure Unit.
Enter Design Pressure.
 Design Temperature (T_max). Unit: Deg C.
Enter Design Temperature.
To define temperature derating factor as per Table 841.1.8-1 of ASME
B31.8.
Table 841.1.8-1 – Temperature Derating Factor, T, for Steel Pipe
Temperature (0C) Temperature Derating Factor
121 or less 1.000
149 0.967
177 0.933
204 0.900
232 0.867

 Max. Density (rho_cont). Unit: kg/m3.


Enter Maximum Density of Fluid / Contents.

 Design Factors

All Design Factors are as per API RP1111 Section 4.3.2.3.2.


 First Bending Safety Factor. Unit: Non Dimensional.
Enter Bending Safety Factor for installation bending plus external pressure.
 Second Bending Safety Factor. Unit: Non Dimensional.
Enter Bending Safety Factor for in-place bending plus external pressure.
 Maximum In-place Bending Strain. Unit: %.
Enter Maximum In-place Bending Strain.
 Maximum Installation Bending Strain. Unit: %.
Enter Maximum installation Bending Strain.
 Weld Joint Factor. Unit: Non Dimensional.
Enter Weld Joint Factor.
 Hydrotest Hoop Stress Factor. Unit: Non dimensional.
Enter Design Factor for Hoop Stress in Hydrotest condition.
Default 0.9.

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 Propagating Buckle Design Factor. Unit: Non dimensional.


Enter propagating buckle design factor.
Default 0.8.

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3.6.3 ASME /API Output

Sample Output enclosed

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SUBMARINE PIPELINE DESIGN SUITE


TO ASME 31.8 and API RP 1111
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 1 of 2
WALL THICKNESS INPUT DATA AND RELEVANT PARAMETERS

ITEMS SYMBOL UNIT VALUE


PIPELINE DATA
Nominal Outside Diameter Do mm 323.900
Nominal Wall Thickness of Pipeline t nom mm 15.900
Corrosion Allowance t corr mm 3.000
Location - - Pipeline
Fabrication Method for Collapse Factor - - Seamless
Wall Thickness Tolerance t f ab mm 1.988
Corrosion Allowance Percentage - % 100.000
Specified Minimum Yield Stress SMYS MPa 450.000
Specified Minimum Tensile Stress SMTS MPa 535.000
Poisson Ratio  - 0.300
Young's Modulus E MPa 207000.000
Pipe Ovality fo % 0.750

ENVIRONMENTAL DATA
Water Density w kg/m3 1025.000
Highest Astronomical Tide HAT m 1.800
Minimum Water Depth dmin m 58.500
Maximum Water Depth dmax m 65.000
Surge (1 Year) SS1y r m 0.800
Surge (100 Year) SS100y r m 1.200
Maximum Wave Height (1 Year) H1y r m 5.500
Maximum Wave Height (100 Year H100y r m 8.900

OPERATIONAL DATA
0
Design Temperature Td C 90.000
Internal Design Pressure Pd MPa 9.000
Hydrotest Pressure Phy d MPa 11.250
Maximum Content Density  cont kg/m3 120.000
Reference Elevation href m 10.000

DESIGN AND SAFETY FACTOR


Hoop Stress Design Factor fd - 0.720
Collapse Factor- External Collapse fo - 0.700
Longitudinal Weld Joint Factor fe - 1.000
Hydrotest Hoop Stress Design Fac fh - 0.900
Propagating Buckle Design Factor fp - 0.800
Maximum Installation Bending Stra 1 - 0.002
Maximum In-place Bending Strain 2 - 0.002
First Bending Safety Factor f1 - 3.330
Second Bending Safety Factor f2 - 2.000

Page 60 of 165
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SUBMARINE PIPELINE DESIGN SUITE


TO ASME 31.8 and API RP 1111
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 2 of 2
INTERMEDIATE RESULTS

ITEMS SYMBOL UNIT VALUE


PRESSURE
Temperature Derating Factor ft - 1.000
Minimum Water Depth dmin m 58.500
Minimum External Pressure Pe MPa 0.588
Internal Pressure during Operation Pi MPa 9.081
Internal Pressure Differential @ min. Water Depth P MPa 8.493
Hydrotest Pressure @ min. Water Depth Phy d MPa 11.939
Maximum Water Depth @ HAT (installation) dmax m 70.350
Maximum Water Depth @ HAT (operation) dmax m 72.450
Net External Pressure @ min. Water Depth (installation) Pne MPa 0.588
Net External Pressure @ max. Water Depth (installation) Pne MPa 0.707
Net External Pressure @ min. Water Depth (operation) Pne MPa 0.588
Net External Pressure @ max. Water Depth (operation) Pne MPa 0.728
Net Internal Pressure @ min. Water Depth (installation) Pni MPa 0.000
Net Internal Pressure @ max. Water Depth (installation) Pni MPa 0.000
Net Internal Pressure @ min. Water Depth (operation) Pni MPa 9.081
Net Internal Pressure @ max. Water Depth (operation) Pni MPa 9.097

PRESSURE CONTAINMENT
Required Wall Thickness for Operation tnom mm 4.24
Required Wall Thickness for Hydrotest tnom mm 4.54

HYDROSTATIC COLLAPSE PRESSURE


Required Wall Thickness for Operation tnom mm 4.27
Required Wall Thickness for Installation tnom mm 4.23

PROPAGATING BUCKLING
Required Wall Thickness for Operation tnom mm 6.50
Required Wall Thickness for Installation tnom mm 6.42

THICKNESS incl. CORROSION/MILL TOLERANCE


Min. Thickness for Pressure Containment tnom mm 7.245
Min. Thickness for Hydrostatic Collapse tnom mm 9.260
Min. Thickness for Propagation Buckling tnom mm 9.499
Min. Thickness for All Cases tnom mm 9.499
Collapse Reduction Factor gc - 0.870
Buckling Strain Under Pure Bending (Installation) b1 - 0.049
Buckling Strain Under Pure Bending (Operation) b2 - 0.040
Selected Wall Thickness tnom mm 15.900
Unity Check (Installation) UC - 0.141
Unity Check (Operation) UC - 0.124
OK

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4.0 ON-BOTTOM STABILITY MODULE (DNV-RP-F109 Nov 2011)

This module considers the stability of submarine pipelines subject to wave and current
loading. Calculations are carried out for vertical and lateral stability as per DNV-RP-
F109 Nov 2011.

The vertical stability checks flotation of the submerged pipeline. For lateral stability two
methods are presented in the code, for pipeline resting on sea bed, in trench or buried.

Three methods for stability assessment are recommended in the code, which are;

1. Dynamic lateral stability method,


2. A generalised lateral stability method based on data base results from Dynamic
Simulation for 0.5D and 10D,
3. Absolute lateral static stability method.

In this module the two stringent methods 2 and 3 are considered.

4.1 DNV–RP-F109 Methodology


The methodology of On-Bottom-Stability analysis as stated in DNV-RP-109 is briefly
described in this section

4.1.1 Vertical Stability in Water

In order to avoid floatation in water, the submerged weight of the pipeline shall meet
the following criterion as per Section 3.2, Eq. 3.1:

b 
w  w  1.0
b  ws sg

where :
w = Safety factor
b = Pipe buoyancy per unit length
ws = Pipe submerged weight per unit length
sg = Pipe specific density

If a sufficiently low probability of negative buoyancy is not documented, the safety


factor w = 1.1 may be applied.

4.1.2 Current Conditions

The steady current flow at the pipe level may have components from,
 tidal current,
 wind induced current,
 storm surge and,
 density driven currents.
The current velocity may be reduced to take account of the effect of the bottom
boundary layer and directionality. Reference Section 3.4.2, Eq. 3.2
lnz  z 0   lnz 0 
V z   V z r  sin  c 
lnz r  z 0   lnz 0 

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where :
V(zr) = Steady state current velocity perpendicular to pipeline
z = Elevation above seabed
z0 = Bottom roughness parameter
zr = Reference measurement height over seabed
c = Angle between current direction and pipe

Value of z0 is given in Section 3.4.2, Table 3-1.

Table 3-1 Seabed Roughness


Grain Size, d50 Roughness, z0
Seabed
(mm) (m)
Silt and Clay 0.0625 5 x 10-6
Fine Sand 0.25 1 x 10-5
Medium Sand 0.5 4 x 10-5
Coarse Sand 1.0 1 x 10-4
Gravel 4.0 3 x 10-4
Pebble 25 2 x 10-3
Cobble 125 1 x 10-2
Boulder 500 4 x 10-2

Mean perpendicular current velocity over the pipe diameter is given in DNV-RP-F109
2011, Section 3.4.2, Eq. 3.3

 z    z  
1  0    ln  1  1
 z    z0  
Vc  Vc  z r   sin  c
  z 
 ln  1 
 z 
  0 

Where the directionality of the current velocity is accounted for through θc, that is the
angle between current velocity and the pipeline axis. If information on directionality is
unavailable, the current should be assumed to act perpendicular to the pipeline.

4.1.3 Short Term Wave Conditions

The short-term, stationary, irregular sea states may be described by a wave spectrum
S(ω) i.e. the power spectral density function of the sea surface elevation. Wave
spectra may be given in table form, as measured spectra, or in an analytical form.
For the JONSWAP spectrum, which is often appropriate, the spectral density function
reads is given in Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.4.
     
2

 5  
4
 exp  0.5   pp 
S      g    exp       
2 5  
4   p  
  
The Generalised Phillips’ constant is given in Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.5

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5 H s p
2 4

 1  0.287  ln 
16 g2
The spectral width parameter is given in DNV-RP-F109 2011, Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.6
0.07 if    p
 {
0.09 otherwise
The peak-enhancement factor may be taken as stated in Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.7.

The wave induced velocity spectrum at the sea bed SUU() may be obtained through a
spectral transformation of the waves at sea level using a first order wave theory (as
stated in Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.8.
SUU    G 2 ( )  S ( )
The transfer function G transform sea surface elevation to wave induced flow velocities
at seabed is given as stated in Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.9.

G ( ) 
sinh( k  d )
where d is the water depth and k is wave number establish by iteration from the
transcendental equation as stated in Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.10.
2
 k  tanh k  d 
g
The spectral moments of order n is defined as stated in Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.11.

M n    n  SUU   d
0

Significant flow velocity amplitude at pipe level as stated in DNV-RP-F109 2011,


Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.12.

Us  2 M0
Mean zero up-crossing period of oscillating flow at pipe level as stated in DNV-RP-
F109 2011, Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.13.

M0
Tu  2
M2
Assuming linear wave theory, Us may be taken from Figure 3-2 and Tu from DNV-RP-
109 2011 Figure 3-3, which as stated in Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.14.

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d
Tn 
g
The ratio between the design single oscillation velocity amplitude and the design
spectral velocity amplitude for  oscillations is given in Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.15
U* 1 0.5772 
kU    2  ln   
Us 2  2  ln  
The ratio between design single oscillation velocity period and the average zero up-
crossing period (both at seabed level) is site specific. In absence of other data, this can
be taken as stated in Section 3.4.3, Eq. 3.16.

4.1.4 Wave Directionality and Spreading

The effect of main wave directionality and wave spreading is introduced in the form of
a reduction factor on the significant flow velocity, i.e. projection onto the velocity
normal to the pipe and effect of wave spreading as stated in DNV-RP-F109 2011,
Section 3.4.4.

U w  R D  U w

Reduction factor for wave is given by


2
RD   D    d
w

2

where the wave energy spreading directional function is given by a frequency


independent cosine power function

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The angle w is the angle between wave heading and pipe.  is the gamma function
and ‘s’ is a site specific spreading parameter, normally ‘s’ is taken between 2 and 8. If
no information is available, the most conservative value in the range 2 to 8 shall be
selected.

4.1.5 Hydrodynamic Loads

The hydrodynamic loads may be reduced due:


 a permeable seabed, rperm ,i
 pipe penetrating the seabed, rpen ,i and/or
 trenching, rtt ,i

The total load reduction due to pipe soil interaction is given in as stated in Section
3.4.5, Eq. 3.17

rtot ,i  r perm ,i  r pen ,i  rtt ,i

The subscript “i” takes the value y for the horizontal load and z for the vertical load.

4.1.6 Load Reduction Due To Permeable Seabed

For load reduction due to permeable seabed parameter, if the vertical hydrodynamic
load used in an analysis are based on load coefficients derived from the assumption of
a non-permeable seabed, then the following load reduction applies as stated in Section
3.4.5, Eq 3.18.
r perm , z  0.7
4.1.7 Load Reduction Due To Penetration

Load reduction due to penetration is given in Section 3.4.5, Eq 3.19 and 3.20
zp
rpen , y  1.0  1.4  however ≥ 0.3
D
 zp 
rpen, z  1.0  1.3    0.1 however > 0.0
D 

Figure 3.5 - Definition of Penetration

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4.1.8 Load Reduction Due To Trenching

Load reduction due to trenching as stated in Section 3.4.5, Eq 3.21 and 3.22;
0.42
z 
rtr , y  1.0  0.18    5
0.25
 t  5 ≤  ≤ 45
D
0.46
z 
rtr , z  1.0  0.14    5
0.43
 t  5 <  < 45
D

Figure 3.7 Definition of Trench Parameters

4.1.9 Soil Resistance

Passive resistance FR on sand is given in DNV-RP-F109 2011, Section 3.4.6, Eq 3.23


and 3.24

Passive resistance on clay can be taken as stated in Section 3.4.6, Eq 3.25 and 3.26

Total penetration can be taken as the sum of initial penetration and penetration due to
pipe movement as stated in Section 3.4.6, Eq 3.27
z p  z pi  z pm
Initial penetration on sand, Reference Section 3.4.6, Eq 3.28

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z pi  0.67
 0.037   s
D
Initial penetration on clay, Reference Section 3.4.6, Eq 3.29
3.2 0.7
z pi  Gc 0.3   Gc 0.3 
 0.0071   
  0.062   

D 
 c  
 c 
For a pipe lying in a trench, the resistance from the trench wall may be accounted for
through an equivalent penetration, Reference, Section 3.4.6, Eq 3.30.

which corresponds to a situation where the pipe has moved one half diameter into
trench wall with a trench angle equal to θ, but limited to half the depth of the trench
depth zt.

4.1.10 Absolute Lateral Static Stability Method

This method gives an absolute static requirement for lateral on-bottom pipelines based
on static equilibrium of forces that ensures that the resistance of the pipe against
motion is sufficient to withstand maximum hydrodynamic loads during a sea state, i.e.
the pipe will experience no lateral displacement under the design extreme single wave
induced oscillatory cycle in the sea state considered.
This requirement for absolute stability may be relevant for e.g. pipe spools, pipes on
narrow supports, cases dominated by current and/or on stiff clay.
This requirement of zero displacement leads to a heavy pipes, especially so for cases
dominated by wave induced flow velocity with small amplitude, i.e. K and M are small,
where force reduction effects due to relative movement are significant even for small
movements and the oscillating flow will not move a slightly lighter pipe a long distance.
Note also that the peak loads presented below are measured in experiments and the
horizontal component thus includes both the drag term and the inertia. Furthermore,
with a zero displacement requirement, one cannot take advantage of the increased
passive resistance that is built up due to the penetration caused by the pipe being
rugged back and forth by the wave induced flow.

A pipeline can be considered to satisfy the absolute static stability requirement,


Reference Section 3.6.2, Eq 3.38 and 3.39.

F 'Y    F ' Z
 SC  1.0
  Wsub _ p min  F ' R

F 'Z
 SC  1.0
Wsub _ p min

The safety factors SC to be used for absolute stability in regular winter sea states are
stated in Section 3.6.3, Tables 3.5 and 3.6. If cyclonic cases are governing for on-
bottom stability design, the safety factors SC to be used for absolute stability in
cyclonic conditions are stated in Section 3.6.3, Tables 3.7 and 3.8. For other areas

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than those mentioned above, conservative assumptions should be made for the choice
of safety factors.

Peak horizontal and vertical loads are:

and

Peak load coefficients and are stated in Table 3.9 and Table 3.10.

4.1.11 Generalized Lateral Stability Method

The absolute stability method provide an absolute static requirement for lateral on-
bottom pipelines based on static equilibrium of forces to ensure that the resistance of
the pipe against motion is sufficient to withstand maximum hydrodynamic loads during
a sea state, i.e. the pipe will experience no lateral displacement under the design
extreme single wave induced oscillatory cycle in the sea state considered.
Furthermore, this requirement of zero displacement leads to the need of heavy pipes.
This is because, with zero displacement, one cannot take advantage of the increased
passive resistance build up due to the penetration caused by the pipe being rugged
back and forth by the wave induced flow.

This bring us to the generalized stability method which takes advantage of a large
reduction in weight requirement by allowing some displacement which would be limited
to a value that most pipelines can experience. It is recommended to limit the sum of
the lateral displacement during temporary condition and operation to 10 pipe
diameters. For larger displacements one should perform a full dynamic analysis with
adequate tools.
For the pipeline to be stable, the actual submerged weight of the pipeline must be
equal to or greater than the required submerged resulting from the required concrete
thickness for lateral stability.

Stability is verified the equation given in Section 2.5,

Y ( L, K , M , N , , Gs , Gc )
 1.00
Yallowable

Where:
Y = Dimensionless lateral pipe displacement governed by a set of non-
dimensional parameters = y D
y = Lateral pipe displacement
D = Pipe outer diameter including all coating
Yallowable = Allowed lateral displacement scaled to pipe diameter

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ws
= Significant weight parameter = 0.5   w  D  U s
2
L
K = Significant Keulegan-Carpenter number =
U s  Tu D

M = Steady to oscillatory velocity ratio for design spectrum =


V Us
Us
N = Spectral acceleration factor =
g  Tu
 = Number of oscillations in the design bottom velocity spectrum
 s
Gs = Soil (sand) density parameter =
g  w
su
Gc = Soil (clay) strength parameter =
D  s
ws = Pipe submerged weight per unit length
w = Mass density of sea water
Us = Spectrally derived oscillatory velocity (significant amplitude) for design
spectrum, perpendicular to pipeline
Tu 2  M 0 M 2
= Spectrally derived mean zero up-crossing period =
V = Steady current velocity associated with design spectrum, perpendicular
to pipeline
g = Acceleration of gravity; should be taken as 9.81 m/s2
 s = Submerged unit soil weight
s = Dry unit soil weight
su = Un-drained clay shear strength
z0 = Bottom roughness parameter
d 50 = Mean grain size
r perm , z
= Load reduction factor due to a permeable seabed
 = Friction coefficient
 = Number of oscillation in the design bottom velocity spectrum
s g ,operation
= Pipe specific density
Tstorm = Storm duration

The lateral stability analysis is started by calculation of the non-dimensional


parameters of K, M and N by the above equations; then significant weight
parameter (L) for 0.5D (Lstable) and 10D (L10) displacements is obtained from Section
3.5.2 of DNV-RP-F109 2011 and finally the submerged weight per unit length of
pipe (ws) is calculated by the following equation:
ws ( necessary)  L  0.5   w  D  U 2 s

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4.2 DNV-RP-F109 MODULE Input / Output

4.2.1 DNV-RP-F109 Input

Input screen shots enclosed.

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All General Data to be filled

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4.2.2 DNV-RP-F109 Input Description

Input parameters are:

 General Data
 Pipe Dimension
Options;
1. If “NPS” (Nominal Pipe Size) is entered select Pipeline Diameter from
built-in Table as per API 5L.
2. If “User Define” option is selected the pipe OD (mm) must be entered.
 Outer Diameter (OD). Unit: mm
Enter outside diameter of Pipe for “user defined” option in Pipe Dimensions.
 Wall Thickness (tnom). Unit: mm
1. If “NPS” option has been input, select Wall Thickness from built-in Table
as per API 5L.
2. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined wall thickness.
 Pipe Joint (Lpj). Unit: m
Enter average Pipe joint length.
Default 12.1 m.
 Corrosion Allowance (t_corr). Unit: mm
Enter corrosion allowance.
Default 3.175 mm (1/8”).
 Water Density. Unit: kg/m3
Enter Seawater Density.
Default 1025 kg/m3.
 Minimum Depth. Unit: m
Enter minimum water.
Depth shall be considered for minimum external hydrostatic pressure.
 Poisson Ratio (v). Unit: Non Dimensional
Enter Poisson ratio.
Default 0.3.
 Modulus Young (E). Unit: MPa
Enter Young’s Modulus.
Default 207000.0 MPa.
 Material Grade. Unit: MPa.
Options:
1. If Material grade is selected from built-in table as per API 5L, SMYS and
SMTS shall be automatically generated.
2. If User defined option is selected, SMYS and SMTS must be entered.
 Marine Growth Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter Marine Growth Thickness.
To be considered as accumulation of outer diameter for operation condition
hydro dynamic loads. For the Installation condition marine growth shall be
taken as 0.0 mm.
 Anti-Corrosion Coating Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter Anti-Corrosion Coating Thickness.

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To be considered as accumulation of outer diameter in installation and


operation conditions for hydrodynamic loading.
 Concrete Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter Concrete Coat Thickness.
To be considered as accumulation of outer diameter in installations and
operating conditions for hydrodynamic loading.
 Internal Cladding Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter Internal Cladding Thickness.
To be considered for reduction in inside diameter.
 Field Joint Coating Cutback. Unit: mm.
Enter Field Joint Coating Cutback.
Default = 150 mm.
 Field Joint Coating Density. Unit: kg/m3.
Enter Field Joint Coating Density.
 Marine Growth Density. Unit: kg/m3.
Enter Marine Growth Density.
Default = 1325 kg/m3
 Corrosion Coating Density. Unit: kg/m3.
Enter Corrosion Coating Density.
Default = 1300 kg/m3.
 Concrete Coating Density. Unit: kg/m3.
Enter Concrete Coating Density.
Default = 3044 kg/m3.
 Internal Cladding Density. Unit: kg/m3.
Enter Internal Cladding Density.
 Steel Density Unit. kg/m3.
Enter Steel Density.
Default = 7850 kg/m3.

 Pipe Data
 Wall Thickness Tolerance. Unit: mm.
Enter Wall Thickness Tolerance.
Minus tolerance shall be considered for nominal wall thickness.
 Corrosion. Unit: %.
Enter Percentage of Corrosion.
The corrosion to be considered in on bottom stability refer to percentage of
corrosion allowance. The percentage of corrosion shall be considered in
nominal wall thickness in operation condition.
 Water Absorption. Unit. %.
Enter Water Absorption.
Default = 5%.
 Minimum Content Density (op.). Unit kg/m3.
Enter Minimum Content Density for Operation Condition.
 Maximum Content Density (op.). Unit kg/m3.
Enter Maximum Content Density for Operation Condition.

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 Minimum Content Density (ins.). Unit kg/m3.


Enter Minimum Content Density for Installation Condition.
 Maximum Content Density (ins.). Unit kg/m3.
Enter Maximum Content Density for Installation Condition.

 Piggy Back Data


 Piggy Back Line
Enter Yes, if there is another pipe attached to the pipeline (piggy back).
 Piggy Block. Unit: mm.
Enter Piggy Back Diameter. To be considered for overall height of line for
hydrodynamic loading.
 Weight in Air. Unit: N/m.
Enter Piggy Back weight in air.
To be considered as accumulated total weight in air of the pipeline.
 Buoyancy. Unit: N/m.
Enter Buoyancy of Marine Growth.
To be considered as accumulated total buoyancy of line.

 Environment and Seabed Data


 Cyclonic Area
If the area to be check is in cyclonic area, select Yes. Meanwhile if the area
to be check is in winter storms area, select No.
 Region
The area to be analyzed is in Gulf of Mexico or in other area, referring to
Section 3.6.3 of DNV-RP-F109.
 Location Class
Location 1: The area where no frequent human activity is anticipated along
the pipeline route.
Location 2: The part of the pipeline/riser in the near platform (manned) area
or in areas with frequent human activity. Minimum horizontal distance of
500m from near platform shall be considered as Location 2.
 Seabed Type
Enter Type of Seabed. Select from built-in Table.
Reference Table 3.1.
Table 3-1 Seabed Roughness
Seabed Grain Size, d50, (mm) Roughness, z0 (m)
Silt and Clay 0.0625 5 x 10-6
Fine Sand 0.25 1 x 10-5
Medium Sand 0.5 4 x 10-5
Coarse Sand 1.0 1 x 10-4
Gravel 4.0 3 x 10-4
Pebble 25 2 x 10-3
Cobble 125 1 x 10-2
Boulder 500 4 x 10-2

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 Soil Type
Enter Soil Type, Clay / Sand.
 Friction Factor. Unit: Non Dimensional.
Options;
1. User defined, If user defined selected, the factor value shall be filled.
2. DNV RP F109 (Section 3.4.6). Values automatically generated.
If Soil type is clay the factor will be 0.2.
If Soil type is sand the factor will be 0.6.
 Angle of Sand Friction. Unit: Deg.
Enter Angle of Sand Friction.
 Clay Shear Strength. Unit Pa.
Enter Undrained Clay Shear Strength.
 Submerged Soil Weight. Unit N/m3.
Enter Submerged Soil Weight.
 Current-Pipeline Angle. Unit: Deg.
Enter Angle between Current heading and Pipeline.
 Wave-Pipeline Angle. Unit: Deg.
Enter Angle between Wave heading and Pipeline.
 Current Reference Height. Unit m
Enter Current Reference Height over seabed.
 Wave Height 1yr. Unit: m.
Enter Significant Wave Height for Installation Condition.
 Wave Height 100yr. Unit: m.
Enter Significant Wave Height for Operation Condition.
 Wave Period 1yr. Unit: Sec.
Enter Peak Period for Installation Condition.
 Wave Period 100yr. Unit: Sec.
Enter Peak Period for Operation Condition.
 Current Velocity 1yr. Unit: m/s.
Enter Current Velocity for Installation Condition.
 Current Velocity 100yr. Unit: m/s.
Enter Current Velocity for Operation Condition.

 Trench and Penetration Data


 Pipeline Position
Enter pipeline position.
Trench or Seabed.
 Trench Cover Depth. Unit: m.
If “Trench” option is selected in Pipeline Position, Enter Trench Cover Depth.
 Slope Angle of Trench. Unit Deg.
If “Trench” option is selected in Pipeline Position, Enter Slope Angle of
Trench.

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 Penetration due to Movement (DNV-RP-F109, Section 3.4.6). Unit: %.


Enter Penetration of Pipeline (sinkage) due to Movement in percentage from
Outer Diameter.
 Penetration due to Laying (DNV-RP-F109, Section 3.4.6). Unit: %.
Enter Penetration of Pipeline (sinkage) due to Laying in percentage from
Outer Diameter.

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4.2.3 DNV-RP-109 Output

Sample output enclosed.

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S UBMARINE PIPELINE DES IGN S UITE


TO DNV RP-F109 V10-05 V14-12
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 1 of 7
VALUE
ITEMS SYM BOL UNIT
Installation Operation
GENERAL INPUT
Pipe Position - - S eabed
Location Class - - 1
Trench Cover Depth Tdepth m 0.00
Water Depth D m 58.50
Percentage of Corrosion Allowance percca % 0.0 100.0
Steel Density  steel kg/m 3 7850
Sea Water Density  water kg/m 3 1025
PIPE DATA
Pipe Joint JL m 12.10
Outside Diameter OD mm 323.90
Wall Thickness tnom mm 15.90
Corrosion Allowance CA mm 0.00 3.00
Internal Cladding Thickness tclad mm 0.00
Internal Cladding Density  clad kg/m 3 0.00
Anti-Corrosion Coating Thickness tcorr mm 5.50
Anti-Corrosion Coating Density  corr kg/m 3 900.00
Concrete Coating Thickness tconc mm 40.00
Concrete Coating Density  conc kg/m 3 3040.00
Coating Cutback Xconc mm 150.00
Field Joint Coating Density  fj kg/m 3 150.00
Marine Growth Thickness tmg mm 0.00 0.00
Marine Growth Density  mg kg/m 3 0.00 0.00
Water Absorbtion Absn % 0.00 5.00
Content Minimum Density  cmin kg/m 3 0.00 60.00
Content Maximum Density  cmax kg/m 3 0.00 120.00
SEABED AND SOIL DATA
Soil Type ‐ ‐ Clay
-3
Submerged Weight of Soil soil N.m 16000.00
Clay/Sand Shear Strength Su Pa 4500.00
Angle of Internal Friction of Sand s deg 0.0
Soil Friction Factor  ‐ 0.20
ENVIRONMENTAL DATA
Current Velocity Vs m/s 0.35 0.55
Measurement Height of Current Velocity zr m 1.00
Significant Wave Height Hs m 3.06 4.94
Peak Wave Period Tp s 6.90 10.90
Angle between Current with Pipeline Bearing - deg 90.00
Angle between Wave with Pipeline Bearing - deg 90.00
SAFETY FACTOR
Cyclonic Area - ‐ Yes
Gulf of Mexico - ‐ O the r Are a
Safety Class - ‐ Low Normal
PIGGY BACKLINE
Piggy Back Block PBB mm 0.00
Piggy Weight in Air PWA N/m 0.00
Buoyancy of Piggy Block PWW N/m 0.00

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S UBMARINE PIPELINE DES IGN S UITE


TO DNV RP-F109 V10-05 V14-12
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 2 of 7
VALUE
PIPELINE WEIGHT AND BUOYANCY SYM BOL UNIT
Installation Operation
Nominal Wall Thickness tnom mm 15.90
Wall Thickness Design tcorr mm 15.90 12.90
Internal Cladding Diameter D clad mm 292.10 298.10
Corroded Inside Diameter Di_cor mm 292.10 298.10
Anti-corrosion Coating Diameter Dcc mm 334.9
Concrete Coating Diameter Dconc mm 414.9
Pipe Diameter + Marine Growth D mg mm 414.90 414.90
Weight of Steel Wts N/m 1184.37 970.26
Weight of Internal Cladding Wtclad N/m 0.00 0.00
Weight of Anti-corrosion Coating Wtcc N/m 50.23
Weight of Concrete Coating Wtconc N/m 1404.49
Weight of Field Joint Coating per Joint Wtfjconc N 23.30
Weight of Water Absorption per Joint Wtwtab N 0.00 848.55
Weight of Water Wtw N/m 673.59 701.55
Weight of Content (Minimum) Wtcmin N/m 0.00 41.07
Weight of Content (Maximum) Wtcmax N/m 0.00 82.13
Buoyancy Without Marine Growth Wb N/m 1359.01
Buoyancy of Marine Growth Wbmg N/m 0.00 0.00

SUBM ERGED WEIGHT


Weight of Coatings in Air Wtcoat N/m 1454.73
Weight in Air Wair_e N/m 2637.17 2493.19
Submerged Weight (empty) Wsub_e N/m 1278.17 1134.19
Submerged Weight (water filled) Wsub_w N/m 1951.76 1835.74
Submerged Weight (max. product filled, no MG) Wsub_pmax N/m 1278.17 1216.32
Submerged Weight (max. product filled, with MG) Wsub_pmaxmg N/m 1278.17 1216.32
Submerged Weight (min. product filled, no MG) Wsub_pmin N/m 1278.17 1175.26
Submerged Weight (min. product filled, with MG) Wsub_pminmg N/m 1278.17 1175.26
Specific Gravity, Content Filled SG - 1.94 1.86

BUOYANCY
Buoyancy Wbmgeq N/m 1359.01 1359.01

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S UBMARINE PIPELINE DES IGN S UITE


TO DNV RP-F109 V10-05 V14-12
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 3 of 7
VALUE
ON-BOTTOM STABILITY CALCULATION SYM BOL UNIT
Installation Operation

VERTICAL STABILITY IN WATER


Submerged Weight ws N/m 1278.17 1175.26
Buoyancy b N/m 1359.01 1359.01
Safety Factor for Weight w - 1.1
Unity Check UC - 0.57 0.59
Safety Factor for Vertical Stability SF - 1.76 1.70

VERTICAL STABILITY ON AND IN SOIL


Cross Sectional Area A m2 0.14
3
Max. Submerged Specific Weight (water-filled) submax kN/m 14.44
Max. Submerged Weight (water-filled) Wsubmax N/m 1951.76
Specific Weight Soil (incl. water) soil_wet N/m 3 26051.82
Bearing Capacity Factors Nq - 1.00
Nc - 5.14
N - 0.00
Contact Width for Pipe-Soil Interaction B m 0.08
Bearing Capacity R N/m 1951.74
Cross Sectional Area of Penetrated Part of Pipe Ap mm2 362.23
Vertical Penetration for Vert. Equilibrium vp mm 4.31
UC for Vertical Soil Penetration UC - 0.02
Vertical Soil Penetration Check - - OK
UC for Vertical Stability UC - 0.55
Vertical Stability Check - - OK

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S UBMARINE PIPELINE DES IGN S UITE


TO DNV RP-F109 V10-05 V14-12
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 4 of 7
VALUE
LATERAL STABILITY CALCULATION SYM BOL UNIT
Installation Operation
CURRENT AND WAVE CHARACTERISTIC
Current by Taken into Account V m/s 0.32 0.51
Steady Current Velocity V' m/s 0.30 0.47
Peak Enhancement Parameter  - 3.95 4.90
Peak Enhancement Factor  - 3.36 1.12
Generalized Phillips' Constant  - 0.01 0.01
Significant Wave Velocity UsH m/s 0.03 0.31
Mean Zero Up-crossing Period Tu s 8.37 11.66
Reference Period Tn s 2.44
Number of Oscillations in Spectrum  - 1290.4 926.5
Parameter for Wave Period Kt - 1.22 1.17
Wave Velocity @ Pipe Level U'H m/s 0.07 0.60
Period Associated with Max. Wave T' s 8.37 11.66
Spectral Spreading sp - 8.00
Reduction Factor RD - 0.95
Velocity Normal to the Pipe - Design Spectrum Us m/s 0.03 0.30
Velocity Normal to the Pipe - Single Oscillation U' m/s 0.06 0.57

STEADY TO OSCILLATORY VEL. RATIO AND KC


Velocity Ratio for Design Spectrum M - 9.28 1.56
Significant Keulegan-Carpenter Number Ks - 0.64 8.36
Velocity Ratio for Single Oscillation M' - 4.71 0.81
Significant KC Number (single oscillation) K's ‐ 1.27 16.10

PENETRATION DEPTH
Penetration due to Movement zpm mm 41.49
Soil Parameters  si - 1.41 1.41
 ci - 0.96 0.96
Gci ‐ 0.42
Penetration due to Laying zpl mm 41.49
Initial Penetration zpi mm 23.54 23.54
Trench Depth zt mm 0.00
Total Pipe Penetration zp mm 106.52 106.52
Equivalent Penetration in Trench zpt mm 0.00
Total Pipe Penetration including in Trench ztp mm 106.52 106.52

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S UBMARINE PIPELINE DES IGN S UITE


TO DNV RP-F109 V10-05 V14-12
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 5 of 7
VALUE
LATERAL STABILITY CALCULATION (cont'd) SYM BOL UNIT
Installation Operation
LOAD REDUCTION
Load Reduction due to Permeable Seabed rperm_z - 1.00
Load Reduction due to Penetration (horz.) rpen_y - 0.64 0.64
Load Reduction due to Penetration (vert.) rpen_z - 0.80 0.80
Slope Angle of Trench tr deg 0.0
Load Reduction Factor due to Trenching (horz.) rtr_y - 1.00 1.00
Load Reduction Factor due to Trenching (vert.) rtr_z - 1.00 1.00
Total Reduction Factor for Horizontal Load rtot_y - 0.64 0.64
Total Reduction Factor for Vertical Load rtot_z - 0.80 0.80

HYDRODYNAMIC LOADS AND PASSIVE RESISTANCE


Peak Load Coefficients (horz.) C'y - 1.15 1.73
Peak Load Coefficients (vert.) C'z - 0.92 1.41
Peak Horizontal Hydrodynamic Load F'y N/m 20.16 254.44
Peak Vertical Hydrodynamic Load F'z N/m 19.97 256.92
Soil Resistance Parameters L' - 6.66 10.07
F'c N/m 1258.20 918.34
 's - 2.19 3.00
 'c - 1.48 2.03
Gc - 0.42 0.42
F'R N/m 1814.62 1814.62

LATERAL STABILITY CHECK


Safety Factor for Abs. Stability sc - 0.95 1.56
UC for First Requirement UC - 0.01 0.23
UC for Second Requirement UC - 0.01 0.34
Stability Check - - OK OK

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S UBMARINE PIPELINE DES IGN S UITE


TO DNV RP-F109 V10-05 V14-12
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 6 of 7
VALUE
ITEMS SYM BOL UNIT
Installation Operation
ENVIRONMENTAL DATA
Current Velocity Vs m/s 0.35 0.55
Significant Wave Height Hs m 3.06 4.94
Peak Wave Period Tp s 6.90 10.90
Angle Between Current and Pipe Axis c deg 90.00
Angle Between Wave Heading and Pipe Axis w deg 90.00

PIPELINE BOUYANCY WEIGHT


Submerged Weight (empty) Wsub_e N/m 1278.17 1134.19
Submerged Weight (water filled) Wsub_w N/m 1951.76 1835.74
Submerged Weight (max. product filled, no MG) Wsub_pmax N/m 1278.17 1216.32
Submerged Weight (max. product filled, with MG) Wsub_pmaxmg N/m 1278.17 1216.32
Submerged Weight (min. product filled, no MG) Wsub_pmin N/m 1278.17 1175.26
Submerged Weight (min. product filled, with MG) Wsub_pminmg N/m 1278.17 1175.26

ON-BOTTOM STABILITY RESULTS


Max. Submerged Weight in Soil Wsubmax N/m 1951.76
Specific Weight Soil soil_wet N/m 3 26051.82
UC for Pipe Stability in Water UC ‐ 0.57 0.59
Check for Pipe Stability in Water ‐ ‐ OK OK
Vertical Penetration for Vertical Equilibrium vp mm 4.31
Vertical Penetration Stability Check on Soil ‐ ‐ OK
Vertical Soil Stability Check ‐ ‐ OK

LATERAL STABILITY CALCULATION


Current Velocity at Pipe Level (Single Design
V' m/s 0.30 0.47
Oscilation)
Wave Velocity at Pipe Level (Single Design
U' m/s 0.06 0.57
Oscilation)
Initial Pipe Penetration Depth zpi mm 23.54 23.54
Penetration Depth due to Pipe Laying zpl mm 41.49
Total Penetration Depth zto mm 106.52 106.52
Significant Keulegan-Carpenter Number K's ‐ 1.27 16.10
Steady to Oscillatory Velocity Ratio M' ‐ 4.71 0.81
Stability Requirement 1 UC ‐ 0.01 0.23
Stability Requirement 2 UC ‐ 0.01 0.34
Stability Criteria ‐ ‐ OK OK

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S UBMARINE PIPELINE DES IGN S UITE


TO DNV RP-F109 V10-05 V14-12
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 6 of 7
VALUE
GENERAL STABILITY CALCULATION SYM BOL UNIT
Installation Operation

Spectral Accelaration Factor Ns - 0.00 0.00


Significant Weight Parameter Ls - 5900.49 62.45
Specific Weight of Pipe sg - 1.65 1.86
Validity of Generalized Stability Method - - S atisfied S atisfied
Max. Lateral Displacement Y1000 m 4.15 4.15
Actual Allowed Lateral Displacement Y m 5.35 3.84
Soil Type - - Clay
Weight Parameter for Virtual Stable Pipe Lstable - 1004.57 85.39
Weight Parameter for 10*D Stable Pipe L10 - 400.53 40.16

UC for 0.5*D Displacement UC - 0.17 1.37


Stability Check - - OK Not OK
UC for 10*D Displacement UC - 0.07 0.64
Stability Check - - OK OK

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5.0 FREE SPANNING PIPELINES

This module is used to check free spanning in pipelines, subjected to combined wave
and current loading. The module checks the integrity of the pipeline both to Vortex
Shedding and Stress criteria as per DNV-RP-F105 and DNV-0S-F101 Codes.

Free spanning design shall be carried out to ensure that:

a. The pipeline span is less than in-line VIV onset span.


b. The pipeline span is less than cross-flow VIV onset span.
c. The pipeline span is less than in-line screening fatigue span.
d. The pipeline span is less than cross-flow screening fatigue span.
e. The pipeline span is less than ULS span in accordance with DNV OS F101.

Analysis are carried out as per DNV-OS-F101 for the following cases;

a. Empty condition, with no pressure & temperature, empty, un-corroded, and


temporary return period for wave and current loads.
b. Flooded condition, with no pressure & temperature, filled with seawater, un-
corroded, and temporary return period for wave and current loads.
c. Hydrotest condition, with no temperature difference, hydrotest pressure, filled with
seawater, un-corroded, and temporary return period for wave and current loads.
d. Operational condition, with temperature difference, design pressure, filled with
operational fluid, un-corroded/corroded, and permanent return period for wave and
current loads.

5.1 METHODOLOGY

5.1.1 Current Conditions

The steady current flow at the free span level has load components from:
 tidal current,
 wind induced current,
 storm surge induced current,
 density driven current.
The current velocity (U) is taken from equation stated in Section 3.2.6;
ln(z)  ln(z o )
U ( z )  Rc .U ( z r ).
ln(z r )  ln(z o )
Where;
Rc = Reduction Factor
z = Elevation above the seabed (m)
zr = Reference measurement height (m)
zo = Bottom roughness parameter to be taken from Table 3-1 (m)
The elevation to be measure shall be in the center of outer diameter, therefore the
elevation above the seabed shall be as per following;

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z is taken as;
1
z  e  .D
2
Where;
e = Seabed gap to bottom of pipe (m)
D = Pipe outer diameter (including any coating) (m)

Introducing the effect of directionality, the reduction factor, Rc becomes;


Rc  sin rel 
Where  rel is the relative direction between the pipeline direction and the current flow
directions.
Table 3-1 Seabed Roughness
Table 3-1 Seabed roughness (zo)
Seabed Roughness zo (metres)
Silt/clay 5.0 x 10-6
Fine sand 1.0 x 10-5
Medium sand 4.0 x 10-5
Coarse sand 1.0 x 10-4
Gravel 3.0 x 10-4
Pebble 2.0 x 10-3
Cobble 1.0 x 10-2
Boulder 4.0 x 10-2

5.1.2 Short-term Wave Conditions

The short term, stationary, irregular sea state is described by a wave spectrum S ( )
i.e. the power spectral density function at the sea surface elevation. Wave spectra may
be given in tabulated form, as measured spectra, or in an analytical form.
The JONSWAP or the Pierson-Moskowitz are generally adopted. The spectral density
function is derived from Section 3.3.3;
     
2

 5  
4
 exp 0.5   pp 
S      g    exp       
2 5  
4   p  
  
Where;
 = 2 / Tw is the angular wave frequency (Hz)
Tw = Wave period (s)
Tp = Peak period (s)
p = 2 / T p is the angular spectral peak frequency (Hz)

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g = gravitational acceleration (m/s2)

The Generalised Phillips’ constant is given by;


5 H s p
2 4

 1  0.287  ln 
16 g2
The spectral width parameter is given by;
0.07 if  p
  
 0.09 else 
The peak-enhancement factor is given by;
 5 .0   3 .6 
  Tp
  exp(5.75  1.15 ) 3.6    5.0  
  Hs
 1 .0   5 .0 
Where;
Hs = Significant wave height (m)
Tp = Peak period (s)

The wave induced velocity spectrum at the sea bed SUU() may be obtained through a
spectral transformation of the waves at sea level using a first order wave theory
derived from Section 3.3.5;
SUU    G 2 ( )  S ( )

G 2 ( ) is a frequency transfer function from sea surface elevation to wave-induced flow


velocities at pipe level given by:
 . cosh( k .( D  e))
G ( ) 
sinh( k .h )

Where h is the water depth and k is wave number establish by iteration from the
transcendental equation;
 2 .h
kh  coth( k .h)
g
The spectral moments of order n is defined in Section 3.3.6.

M n    n  SUU   d
0

Significant flow velocity amplitude at pipe level is;


Us  2 M0
Mean zero up-crossing period of oscillating flow at pipe level is;
M0
Tu  2
M2

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The effect of wave directionality and wave spreading is introduced in the form of a
reduction factor on the significant flow velocity, i.e. projection onto the velocity normal
to the pipe and effect of wave spreading, derived from Section 3.4.3

U w  RD  U s

The reduction factor for wave is given by (Reference Figure 3-4);


2
RD    ( ).sin    .d
2
rel

2

Where  rel is the relative direction between the pipeline direction and wave direction.

The wave energy spreading (directional) function given by a frequency independent


cosine power function, derived from Section 3.4.4;
 s
  1  
 (  )  k w . cos (  )   ; k  1 .  2 
s

2 w
 0 else   1 s
  
2 2
5.1.3 Modal Damping Ratio

The total modal damping ratio,  T , comprises (Section 4.1.9);


 Structural damping,  str
 Soil damping,  soil
 Hydrodynamic damping,  h

Structural damping is due to internal friction forces of the pipe material and depends on
the strain level and associated deflections. If no information is available, a structural
modal damping ratio, following can be assumed; Refer Section 6.2.11.
 str  0.005
If concrete coating is present, the sliding at the interface between concrete and
corrosion coating may further increase the damping to typically 0.01 - 0.02.

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Soil damping ratio,  soil , can be derived from Table 7-3 and Table 7-4.
Table 7-3 Modal soil damping ratios (in %) for sand
Horizontal (in-line) Vertical (cross-flow)
direction L/D direction L/D
Sand Type
>
< 40 100 > 160 < 40 100
160
Loose 3.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 1.4 0.8
Medium 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.2 1.0 0.8
Dense 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.2 1.0 0.8

Table 7-4 Modal soil damping ratios (in %) for clay


Horizontal (in-line) Vertical (cross-flow)
direction L/D direction L/D
Sand Type
>
< 40 100 > 160 < 40 100
160
Very Soft - Soft 4.0 2.0 1.0 3.0 2.0 1.0
Firm - Stiff 2.0 1.4 0.8 1.2 1.0 0.8
Very Stiff - Hard 1.4 1.0 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.5

For pipe supported in rock, values for the modal soil damping ratios may be taken as
dense sand. Interpolation of Table 7-3 and Table 7-4 are utilized to define the modal
soil damping ratios in in-line and cross flow directions, and simplified in following
equations;

Modal soil damping ratios Interpolation – Horizontal (In-line) Direction (L/D)


(in %)
Sand Type < 40 40 ≤ L/D < 100 100 ≤ L/D ≤160 > 160

L / D  40
Loose 3.0 3 1.0
60
Medium 1.5
Dense 1.5

Very Soft – L / D  40 L / D  100


Soft
4.0 4 2 1.0
30 60
L / D  40
Firm – Stiff 2.0 2 0.8
100
Very Stiff - L / D  40
Hard
1.4 1.4  0.6
150

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Modal soil damping ratios Interpolation – Vertical Direction (L/D) (in %)


Sand Type < 40 40 ≤ L/D ≤ 160 > 160

L / D  40
Loose 2.0 2 0.8
100
L / D  40
Medium 1.2 1.2  0.8
300
L / D  40
Dense 1.2 1.2  0.8
300
Very Soft – L / D  40
Soft
3.0 3.0  1.0
60
L / D  40
Firm – Stiff 1.2 1.2  0.8
300
Very Stiff - L / D  40
Hard
0.7 0.7  0.5
600

For VIV within the lock-in region, the hydrodynamic modal damping ratio,  h is
normally to be taken as zero. Reference Section 4.1.9.

Then the total modal damping ratio for in-line and cross flow direction can be
calculated as follows;
 T ( IL)   str   soil( IL)   h
 T (CF )   str   soil(CF )   h

5.1.4 Stability Parameter

The stability parameter, K s , representing the damping for a given modal shape is
given by (derived from Section 4.1.8);
4  π  me  ζ T
Ks =
ρ  D2
Where;
 = Water density (kg/m3)
T = Total modal damping ratio
me = Effective mass (kg/m)
The effective mass, me , is defined by (derived from Section 6.7.3);

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 
 ms  2 s ds 
  
me   L 
 
   s ds 
2

 L 
Where,  s  , is the assumed mode shape satisfying the boundary conditions and ms 
is the mass per unit length including structural mass, added mass, and mass of
internal fluid.
The effective mass in above equation can be derived as follows;
ws  b 
me   C a . .D 2 .
g 4
Where;
ws = Submerged weight (N/m)
b = Buoyancy (N/m)
Ca = Added mass coefficient
The added mass coefficient in below is for calculation of still water frequency (in-line),
derived from Section 6.9.1;
 1.6 
0.68  for e / D  0.8
C a ( IL)  (1  5(e / D) 
 1 for e / D  0.8 
Where e / D is the span gap ratio. This expression applies for both smooth and rough
pipe surface.

The added mass coefficient for modifying cross-flow response frequency is derived
from Section 4.5 Reference Figure 4-7.

Figure 4-7 Added mass coefficients Ca,CF RES as a function of reduced velocity

The effective mass referring to added mass coefficient in-line and cross-flow can be
derived as follows;

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ws  b 
me ( IL)   C a ( IL ) . .D 2 .
g 4
ws  b 
me (CF )   C a ,CF  RES . .D 2 .
g 4
The safety factor on stability,  k parameter shall be considered to determine the
stability parameter for onset reduced velocity (derived from Section 4.3.5).
Ks
K sd 
k
Therefore, the stability parameter for in-line and cross-flow by considering safety
factor,  k are simplified to the following equation;
4  π  m e ( IL )  ζ T ( IL )
K sd ( IL ) =
ρ  D 2 . k
4  π  m e ( CF )  ζ T ( CF )
K sd (CF ) =
ρ  D 2 . k
5.1.5 Onset Vibration Reduced Velocity

The onset vibration reduced velocity for in-line direction can be calculated based on
following. Reference Section 4.3.5.

 1.0 
 

for K sd  0.4

 on , IL 

 0.6  K sd 
VRIL, onset    for 0.4  K sd  1.6
 
  on , IL 

 2.2  for K sd  1.6
  on , IL 
 
Where;
 on, IL = Safety factor on onset value for in-line

K sd = Stability parameter for in-line direction, K sd (IL)


 on,CF = Safety factor on onset value for cross-flow

Meanwhile, the onset vibration reduced velocity for cross-flow direction can be
calculated based on following equation (derived from Section 4.4.4);
3. proxi,onset . trench,onset
V RCF
, onset =
 on,CF
 proxi,onset
is a correction factor accounting for the seabed proximity (derived from
Section 4.4.6);

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1  e e
  4  1.25  for  0.8
 proxi,onset  5  D D
1 else

 trench,onset
is a correction factor accounting for the effect of a pipe located in/over trench
(derived from Section 4.4.7);

 trench,onset  1  0.5
D
Where  / D denotes a relative trench depth given by;
 1.25d  e

D D

5.1.6 Soil Stiffness

When the topographical conditions are not complex, when the soils are non-stratified
and homogeneous, and when no detailed analysis is carried out for determination of K V
and K L , the values of these stiffness in units of kN/m/m may be calculated as shown in
Section 7.4.10.
CV  2 s 1 
KV =    D
1   3  3
 2 s 1 
K L = C L 1      D
 3  3
Where;
CV = Vertical dynamic stiffness factor, refer to Tables 7-5 and 7-6
CL = Lateral dynamic stiffness factor, refer to Tables 7-5 and 7-6
 s /  = Specific mass ratio between the pipe mass (not including added mass) and
displaced water

Table 7-5 Dynamic stiffness factor and static stiffness for pipe-soil interaction in
sand

CV CL K V ,S
Sand Type
(kN/m5/2) (kN/m5/2) (kN/m/m)
Loose 10500 9000 250
Medium 14500 12500 530
Dense 21000 18000 1350

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Table 7-6 Dynamic stiffness factor and static stiffness for pipe-soil interaction in
clay with OCR = 1

CV CL K V ,S
Sand Type
(kN/m5/2) (kN/m5/2) (kN/m/m)
Very Soft 600 500 50 – 100
Soft 1400 1200 160 – 260
Firm 3000 2600 500 – 800
Stiff 4500 3900 1000 – 1600
Very Stiff 11000 9500 2000 – 3000
Hard 12000 10500 2600 - 4200

For free spans supported by sand, the lateral dynamic stiffness K L should be
calculated under an assumption of loose sand properties in order to properly account
for effects of complex soil mobility, including erosion and self-burial.

5.1.7 Effective Span Length

The Leff / L term is used for the effective length in order to consider a fully fixed span.
This ratio decreases as the L / D s ratio and soil stiffness increase. The Leff / L term is
given by (reference Hobbs, 1986), derived from Section 6.7.9;
 4.73
 for  2.7
Leff   0.66  1.02  0.63
2

L  4.73
for  2.7
  0.036  0.61  1.0
2

Where,
 K .L4 

β = log10  
 ( 1 + CSF)  EI 
Where K is the relevant soil stiffness (dynamic vertical or horizontal).

To prevent any numerical anomalies, the effective span length has been limited to 30
times D. Reference Section 1.8.1. When L / D  30 the pipe is unlikely to experience
VIV, hence is not critical.
Therefore, the  value can be simplified as follows;

  K .(30D) 4  
 10 
log  for L  30D
  ( 1+ CSF) EI  
β= 
log  K .L4 
 for L  30D
10 
  ( 1+ CSF) EI  

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5.1.8 Stiffness of Concrete Coating

The stiffening effect of concrete coating is stated in Section 6.2.5.


0.75
 EI 
CSF = k c  conc 
 EI steel 
Where CSF denotes the stiffness of concrete coating relative to the steel pipe
stiffness, and (1  CSF ) is the stress concentration factor due to the concrete coating
and localized bending. The parameter k c is an empirical constant accounting for the
deformation/slippage in the corrosion coating and the cracking of the concrete coating.
The value of k c may be taken as 0.33 for asphalt and 0.25 for PP/PE coating.

5.1.9 Effective Axial Force and Critical Buckling Load

As stated in Section 6.4.3 the effective axial force for a completely unrestrained
(axially) pipe is 0
S eff  0
While for a totally restrained thin walled pipe the effective axial force is given in the
following equation. Reference Section 6.4.3.
S eff  H eff  pi Ai 1  2   As .E.T . E
Where;
H eff = Effective lay tension (kN)

pi
= Internal pressure difference relative to laying (MPa)
Ai = Inside diameter area (m2)
 = Poisson ratio for steel, normally 0.3.
As = Pipe steel cross section area (m2)
T = Temperature difference relative to laying (0C)
E = Temperature expansion coefficient, normally 1.17 x 10-5 (1/0C)

In this module, the effective axial force has been considered for totally restrained
condition if the user select the methodology of effective axial force calculation refer to
DNV-RP-F105.

The effective axial force in a span is difficult to estimate due to uncertainties in


temperature and pressure, residual lay tension and axial force relaxation by sagging,
axial sliding (feed-in), lateral buckling, multi spanning and significant seabed
unevenness. All these effects should be considered and taken into account if relevant.
The most reliable method to estimate the effective axial force is use of non-linear FE
analysis.
Therefore, in this module user can input manually for the effective axial force for
installation, flooded, hydrotest and operation condition from FE analysis.
The critical buckling load can be calculated based on the equation in Section 6.7.2.

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EI
Pcr  1  CSF .C 2 . 2
L2eff
5.1.10 Static Deflection

In the case the static deflection is not given by direct measurement (survey) or
estimated by accurate analytical tools, it may be estimated as stated in Section 6.7.7.
q.L4eff 1
  C6 .
E.I .(1  CSF )  S 
1  eff 
 Pcr 

Where q represents the submerged weight of the pipe in the vertical (cross-flow)
direction. The in-line direction is generally ignored. Therefore, the static deflection in
the vertical (cross-flow direction) is derived as;
ws .L4eff (CF ) 1
 CF  C6 .
E.I .(1  CSF )  S 
1  eff 
 P 
 cr ( CF ) 

5.1.11 Fundamental Natural Frequency

The fundamental natural frequency (first eigen frequency) may be approximated as


stated in Section 6.7.2;

EI  S eff    
2

f1  C1 . 1  CSF 
. 1  C3  
me .L4eff  P  D  
 cr

Where;
C1  C 3 = Boundary condition coefficients
E = Young modulus for steel (MPa)
I = Moment of inertia for steel (m4)
CSF = Concrete stiffness enhancement factor
Leff = Effective span length (m)
me = Effective mass (kg/m)
D = Outer diameter of pipe (m)
Pcr = Critical buckling load, positive sign (kN)
 = Static deflection (m), normally ignored for in-line direction
S eff = Effective axial force (kN), negative in compression

This equation can be simplified as follows;

EI  S 
f n, IL  C1 . 1  CSF .1  eff 
me ( IL) .L4eff ( IL)  Pcr ( IL) 

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EI  S eff   CF  
2

f n,CF  C1 . 1  CSF 
. 1  C3  
me(CF ) .L4eff (CF )  Pcr (CF )  D  
For in-line direction, the static deflection has been ignored.

5.1.12 Natural Frequency for Onset Vibration Mode

The natural frequency for a given vibration mode, is derived from equation stated in
Section 4.1.5;
Uc Uw
fn 
VR .D
Where;
fn = Natural frequency for a given vibration mode (Hz). The safety
factor on natural frequency,  f shall be applied in natural
frequency (derived from Section 2.6.2)
Uc = Mean current velocity normal to the pipe (m/s)
Uw = Significant wave-induced flow velocity (m/s)
D = Outer pipe diameter (m)
VR = Reduced velocity

Taking into consideration the safety factors, the natural frequency for in-line and cross-
flow vibration modes stated in the above equation can be can be simplified as;
Uc Uw
f on, IL  . f
VRIL,onset .D
Uc Uw
f on,CF  . f
VRCF
,onset .D

5.1.13 Boundary Conditions Coefficients

The boundary coefficients C1 to C 6 are given in Table 6-1.


Table 6-1 Boundary conditions coefficients

Pinned – Fixed – Fixed


Coeff. Single span on seabed
Pinned 2) 3)

C1 1.57 3.56 3.56

C2 1.0 4.0 4.0

C3 0.8 1) 0.2 1) 0.4 1)

14.1L / Leff 2
C4 4.93 14.1 Shoulder:

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Table 6-1 Boundary conditions coefficients

Pinned – Fixed – Fixed


Coeff. Single span on seabed
Pinned 2) 3)

Mid Span: 8.6


Shoulder: 4)
1
18Leff / L   6
C5 1/8 1/12 2

Mid Span: 1/24

C6 5/384 1/384 1/384

1) Note that C3  0 is normally assumed for in-line if the steady current is not
accounted for.
2) For pinned-pinned boundary condition Leff is to be replaced by L in the above
expressions also for Pcr .

3) For fixed-fixed boundary conditions, Leff / L  1 per definition.

4) C 5 shall be calculated using the static soil stiffness in the Leff / L calculation.

5.1.14 Safety Factors

The safety factors to be used with the screening criteria are given in Table 2-1.

Table 2-1 Safety factors for screening criteria

 IL 1.4

 CF 1.4

 f ,  on ,  k and  s denote partial safety factors for the natural frequency, onset of VIV,
stability parameter and stress range respectively. The set of partial safety factors to be
applied for both response models and force models are specified in Table 2-2 and 2-3.

Table 2-2 General Safety factors for fatigue


Safety Class
Safety Factor
Low Normal High
 1.0 0.5 0.25

k 1.0 1.15 1.30

s 1.3

 on, IL 1.1

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Table 2-2 General Safety factors for fatigue


Safety Class
Safety Factor
Low Normal High

 on,CF 1.2

Table 2-3 Safety factor for natural frequencies, f


Safety Class
Free Span Type
Low Normal High
Very well def. 1.0 1.0 1.0
Well def. 1.05 1.1 1.15
Not well def. 1.1 1.2 1.3

Comments:
  s is to be multiplied to the stress range ( S . s )
  f applies to the natural frequency ( f n /  f )
  on applies to onset values for in-line and cross-flow VIV
(V CF
R , on /  on ,CF and V IL
R , on /  on , IL )
  k applies to the total damping
 for ULS, the calculation of load effects is to be performed without safety factors
 s   f   k   on  1.0
( )

Referring to Section 2.6.3, free spans shall be categorized as:


 Not well defined – spans where important span characteristics like span length,
gap and effective axial force are not accurately determined/measured.
 Well defined – spans where important span characteristics like span length, gap
and effective axial force are determined/measured. Site specific soil conditions
and a long-term description of the environmental conditions exist.
 Very well defined – spans where important span characteristics like span length,
gap and effective axial force are determined/measured with a high degree of
accuracy. The soil conditions and the environmental conditions along the route are
well known.

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5.1.15 Onset Vibration Criteria

Referring to Section 2.3.6, it is possible to perform the analysis as the traditional onset
criterion in order to establish conservative allowable free span lengths. The allowable
span length shall be determined based on the onset vibration criteria.
Therefore, the maximum allowable span is limited that the onset vibration criteria for in-
line and cross-flow directions are less than natural vibration criteria for in-line and
cross-flow directions.
In-line Direction
f n, IL  f on, IL

Cross-flow Direction
f n,CF  f on,CF

5.1.16 Screening Fatigue Criteria

The screening criteria have been calibrated against full fatigue analyses to provide a
fatigue life in excess of 50 years.
As per Section 2.3.3 the in-line natural frequencies f n, IL must fulfill the condition;

f n. IL U c,100 years  L / D  1
> IL 1  .
γ IL V R,onset D  250  α
Where;
 IL = Screening factor for in-line
U c ,100 years
 = Current flow ratio =
U w ,1 year  U c ,100 years
Minimum value of 0.6
D = Outer pipe diameter include coating (m)
U c,100 years
= 100 years return period value for the current velocity at the pipe
level
U w,1 year = Significant 1 year return period value for the wave-induced flow
velocity at the pipe level corresponding to the annual significant
wave height, H s ,1 year

V RIL,onset = In-line onset value for the reduced velocity

As per section 2.3.4 the cross-flow natural frequencies f n,CF must fulfill the condition;

f n.CF U c,100 years + U w,1 year


>
γCF V R,CFonset D
Where;

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 CF = Screening factor for cross-flow

VRCF
,onset = Cross-flow onset value for the reduced velocity

5.1.17 Keulegan-Carpenter

The Keulegan-Carpenter number is defined in Section 4.1.6.


Uw
KC 
f w .D
Where;
fw = Significant wave frequency ( 1 / Tp )
Then, the Keulegan-Carpenter number can be simplified to;
Uw
KC  .Tp
D

5.1.18 Current Flow Velocity

The current flow velocity is defined in Section 4.1.7.


Uc

Uc  Uw

5.1.19 In-line Response Model

The amplitude response depends mainly on the reduced velocity, VR , the stability
parameter, K s , the turbulence intensity, I c ,and the flow angle,  rel ,relative to the
pipe. Mitigation effects from the seabed proximity (e / D ) are conservatively not
included.
The in-line VIV induced stress range S IL is calculated by the Response Model as
stated in Section 4.3.3;
 Ay 
S IL  2. AIL . .  , IL . s

 D 
Where;
AIL = Unit stress amplitude (stress due to unit diameter in-line mode
shape deflection)
  , IL = Correction factor to be multiplied to the stress range
s = Safety factor to be multiplied to the stress range

The response model can be constructed from the co-ordinates in Figure 4-2 as;

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 1.0 
 

for K sd  0.4
  on , IL 

 0.6  K sd 
VRIL, onset    for 0.4  K sd  1.6
 
  on , IL 

 2.2  for K sd  1.6
  on , IL 
 
 AY ,1 
V RIL,1  10.   V RIL,onset
 D 
 AY , 2 
V RIL, 2  V RIL,end  2 
 D 
4.5  0.8.K sd for K sd  1.0
V RIL,end  
3.7 for K sd  1.0
 AY ,1    K  A 
   max 0.181  sd .RI ,1 ;  Y , 2  
 
 D    1.2   D 
 AY , 2   K 
   0.13.1  sd .R I , 2
 D   1 .8 

Figure 4-2 Response model generation principle

The reduction factors, R I ,1 ( I c ,  rel ) and RI , 2 ( I c ) , account for the effect of the
turbulence intensity and angle of attack (in radians) for the flow, refer Figure 4-3;
 
RI ,1  1.0   2   2 . rel I c  0.03 0  R I ,1  1
2 
I  0.03
RI , 2  1.0  c 0  RI , 2  1
0.17

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Figure 4-3 Reduction function wrt turbulence intensity and flow angle

  , IL is a reduction function to account for reduced in-line VIV in wave dominated


conditions, refer Section 4.3.7;
0 for   0.5

  , IL    0.5 / 0.3 for 0.5    0.8
1.0 for   0.8

Thus, if α < 0.5, in-line VIV may be ignored.
AIL
The maximum (unit diameter) stress amplitude for in-line direction may be
estimated as stated in Section 6.7.5;
D.( D s  t ).E
AIL  C 4 .(1  CSF ).
L2eff
Where;
t = Steel pipe wall thickness (m)
C4 = Boundary condition coefficient

5.1.20 Cross-flow Response Model

The cross-flow VIV induced stress range S CF due to a combined current and wave
flow is assessed using the following response model. Reference section 4.4.3.
A 
SCF  2. ACF . z .Rk . s
D 
Where;
ACF = Unit stress amplitude (stress due to unit diameter cross-flow
mode shape deflection)
Rk = Amplitude reduction factor due to damping

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s = Safety factor to be multiplied to the stress range

The amplitude response ( Az / D) as a function of  and KC can be constructed from,


see Figure 4-5;
3. proxi ,onset . trench ,onset
, onset 
V RCF
 on ,CF
7  V CF
R , onset .1.3  A 

z ,1
,1  7 
V RCF 
1.15  D 

 7  Az ,1 
, 2  V R ,end  
V RCF  
CF

 1.3  D 

,end  16
V RCF
  f n 1,CF 
 0. 9   0. 8    1. 5
 f 
  n ,CF 

0.9  0.5. f n 1,CF  1.5    0.8 1.5  
 f n 1,CF 
  2. 3
  f  
 Az ,1    n ,CF   f n ,CF 
     f n 1,CF 
 D   1.3   0. 8    2. 3
  f 
 n , CF 

 0. 9   0 .8 KC  30
0.7  0.01KC  10    0 .8 10  KC  30

 0. 7   0. 8 KC  10

 Az , 2   Az ,1 
    
 D   D 
 f n1,CF 
  is the cross-flow frequency ratio for two consecutive (contributing) cross flow
 f 
 n ,CF 
modes.

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Figure 4-5 Response model generation principle


The characteristic amplitude response for cross-flow VIV may be reduced due to the
effect of damping. The reduction factor, R k , is given by;

1  0.15.K sd for K sd  4
Rk   1.5
3.2.K sd for K sd  4
ACF
The maximum (unit diameter) stress amplitude for cross-flow direction may be
estimated as stated in Section 6.7.5;
D.( D s  t ).E
ACF  C 4 .(1  CSF ).
L2eff
Where;
t = Steel pipe wall thickness (m)
C4 = Boundary condition coefficient

5.1.21 Force Model

The force P(x,t) per unit length of a pipe free span is represented by the Morison’s
equation. Assuming that the velocity of the structure is not negligible compared with
the water particle velocity Morison’s equation. Reference Section 5.4.1.

P( x, t )  g D U  y U  y  g I .U  C a  .D 2 y
4
Where;
 = Water density
D = Outer pipe diameter
U = Instantaneous (time dependent) flow velocity
y = Pipe lateral displacement
gD = 0.5. .D.C D is the drag force term

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gI =  .D 2 .C M is the inertia force term
4
The force P(x,t) can be simplified as;
1 
P  . .D.CD U w max . cos( )  U c U w max . cos( )  U c  . .D 2 .CM . Awave . sin( )
2 4
Where;
CD = Drag coefficient
U w max = Maximum wave velocity, refer to maximum wave height and
period.
Uc = Current velocity
 = Phase angle
CM = Inertia coefficient
Awave = Wave acceleration, refer to maximum wave velocity

Drag Coefficient
The drag coefficient CD is taken from Section 5.4.3;

C D  C D0 (k / D). KC
CD
, . proxi . trench. VIV
CD CD CD

C D0 ( k / D ) is the basic drag coefficient for steady flow as a function of roughness k/D.
as stated in Section 5.4.4;
 0.65 ; k / D  10 4 ( smooth)

  29 4 
C D0 (k / D)  0.65  log 10 (k / D)  ; 10  4  k / D  10  2
  13 13 
 1.05 ; k / D  10  2 (rough)

In lieu of detailed documentation of the surface roughness the values in Table 5-1 may
be applied for the absolute roughness, k.
Table 5-1 Surface roughness
Pipe Surface k (metres)
Steel, painted 10-6
Steel, un-coated (not rusted) 10-5
Concrete 1/300
Marine Growth 1/200 -> 1/20

 KC
CD
, is a correction factor accounting for the unsteadiness of the flow, including
effects of Keulegan-Carpenter number KC and the current flow ratio  as stated in
Section 5.4.5.

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 6 
 0.85     0.5
 KC 2
 KC ,  
CD
5  KC  40
0.6  6   0.5
 KC
For KC  40 , the term 6 / KC in the formula above shall be substituted by 0.15.
The drag load is often of small practical importance for small KC values and  KC
CD
,
may be interpolated for completeness for KC  5 .

Figure 5-1 Correction factor  KC,


CD

 CD
proxi is a correction factor accounting for the seabed proximity refer Section 5.4.6.

 0.5
0.9  for e / D  0.8
 CD
proxi  1  5.(e / D)
 1 else

 trench
CD
is a correction factor accounting for the effect of a pipe in a trench refer Section
5.4.7.
2  
 trench
CD
 1  
3 D
 VIV
CD
is an amplification factor due to cross-flow vibration Refer Section 5.4.8.
0.65
 A 
 CD
trench  1  1.043 2 z 
 D
Inertia Coefficient
The inertia coefficient CM is to be taken as stated in Section 5.4.9.
CM  C M ,0 . kCM . CM
proxi . trench
CM

C M , 0 is the basic inertia coefficient for a free concrete coated pipe taken as stated in
Section 5.4.10.

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Figure 5-2 Basic Inertia Coefficient CM,0 versus KC and α

52  f  
C M , 0  f   
KC  5
1.6  2.   0.5
f    
0.6   0.5
 kCM is a correction factor accounting for the pipe roughness, refer Section 5.4.11.
k
 kCM  0.75  0.434. log 
D
 CM
proxi is a correction factor accounting for the seabed proximity, refer Section 5.4.12.

 0.8
0.84  for e / D  0.8
 CM
proxi  1  5.(e / D)
 1 else

 trench
CM
is a correction factor accounting for the effect of a pipe in a trench (derived from
Section 5.4.13);
1  
 trench
CM
 1  
3 D 

5.1.22 Bending Moment

The static bending moment may be estimated as stated in Section 6.7.6.

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q.L2eff
M static  C 5 .
 S eff 
1  
 Pcr 
 
Where q represents the loading, i.e. the submerged weight of the pipe in the vertical
(cross-flow) direction and/or the drag loading in the horizontal (in-line) direction.
Note:
- Leff shall be calculated using the static soil stiffness in the Leff/L calculation
- The term Seff / Pcr becomes negative when the effective axial force is in
compression since Pcr is defined as positive.

Therefore, the bending moment due to drag and inertia load defined as M wave , can be
used in following equation;
P.L2eff
M wave  C5 .
 S eff 
1  
 Pcr 
Meanwhile, the bending moment due to the submerged weight defined as M FUNC , can
be used in following equation;
ws .L2eff
M FUNC  C5 .
 S 
1  eff 
 Pcr 
The maximum environmental stress for in-line and cross-flow direction,  E , is taken as
stated in Section 2.5.8.
1  AIL 
 E  . max  S IL ;0.4.S CF .    FM , max in  line
2  ACF 
1
 E  .S CF cross  flow
2
Where;
S IL = In-line stress range
S CF = Cross-flow stress range
 FM , max = Maximum environmental stress due to direct wave loading

AIL = In-line unit deflection stress amplitude due to VIV


ACF = Cross-flow unit deflection stress amplitude due to VIV

A design wave approach using regular wave analysis in Time Domain, i.e., with
bending moment calculated from H max is utilized to determine  FM , max as described in
following equation (Section 2.5.9);

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M wave .( Ds  t )
 FM ,max 
2 .I
The maximum environmental bending moment due to in-line and cross-flow VIV or
direct wave and current action may be found from the dynamic stresses as stated in
Section 2.5.7.
2.I
M E , IL   E , IL in  line
Ds  t
2.I
M E ,CF   E ,CF cross  flow
Ds  t

5.1.23 Design Bending Moment and Effective Axial Force

In accordance with DNV-OS-F1 Equation 4.5 the design lad effect can be expressed
as follows;
L Sd  L F . F . c  L E . E  L I . F . c  M A . A . c
For design bending moment, moment due to interference and accidental loads are
ignored. For design effective axial force, effective axial force due to environmental,
interference and accidental loads are ignored.
For Load effect factors for functional and environmental loads Table 4-4 shall be
adopted. Therefore, the design bending moment and effective axial force can be
expressed as follows;

M Sd  M FUNC . F . c  M E ,CF . E   M E , IL . E 
2 2

S Sd  S eff . F . c

5.1.24 ULS Criterion

Local buckling check for a pipeline free span shall be in compliance with the combined
loading – load controlled condition criteria in DNV OS F101, Section 5, D605 & D607.
Functional and Environmental, Bending Moment, Axial Force and Pressure shall be
taken into consideration.

The pipe members subjected to Bending Moment, Effective Axial Force and internal
Overpressure shall be designed to satisfy the following conditions at all cross sections
as stated in DNV-OS-F101 Section 5, D605, Eq. 5.19:
2
 M Sd   m . SC .S Sd ( p i )   
2
pi  pe 
2

 m . SC.      p .  1
  c .M p (t 2 )   c .S p (t 2 )     c . pb (t 2 ). 

Where;
M Sd = Design bending moment
S Sd = Design effective axial force
pi = Internal pressure

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pe = External pressure
pb = Burst pressure
S p and M p denote the plastic capacities for a pipe defined as;
S p (t )  f y . .( D  t ).t
M p (t )  f y .( D  t ) 2 .t
fu
 c  1      .
fy
 pi  p e 2
1   pb

3

p  
1  3. 1  pi  p e 

pi  p e 2

  pb pb 3
  
 0 .5 for D / t 2  15

 60  D / t 2 
    for 15  D / t 2  60
 90 
 0 .0 for D / t 2  60
Where;
c = Flow stress parameter
p = Account for effect of D/t ratio

The pipe members subjected to Bending moment, Effective Axial Force and External
Overpressure shall be designed to satisfy the conditions for all cross sections as stated
in DNV-OS-F101 Section 5, D607, Eq. 5.28.

2
 M Sd   . .S 
2
  p e  p min 
2
 
 m . SC.   m SC Sd     m . SC .  1
  c .M p (t 2 )   c .S p (t 2 )    p c (t 2 ) 

Where;
p min = Minimum internal pressure that can be sustained. Taken as zero.
pc = Characteristic collapse pressure.

5.1.25 Safety Factors

The design load effect shall be calculated for each design case for all relevant load
combinations as stated in DNV-OS-F101 Table 4-4.

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Table 4-4 Load effect factors and load combinations

Limit state / Load Design Load Functional Load Environmental Load


Combination Combination F E
A System Check 1.2 0.7
ULS
B Local Check 1.1 1.3

The condition load effect factor applies to the conditions in DNV-OS-F101 Table 4-5.
Conditions load effect factors are in addition to the load effect factors that are referred
to in Eq. 4.5, 4.6 and 4.7.
Table 4-5 Condition load effect factors, C

Condition C
Pipeline resting on uneven seabed 1.07
Continuously stiff supported 0.82
System pressure test 0.93
Otherwise 1.00

The material resistance factor is dependent on the limit state category, and is defined
in DNV-FS-101 Section 5, C205, Table 5-2;
Table 5-2 Material resistance factor, m
Limit state category SLS/ULS/ALS FLS

m 1.15 1.00

The safety class may vary for different phases and different locations as stated in
DNV-FS-101Section 5, C206, Table 5-3;
Table 5-3 Safety class resistance factors,  SC
Safety Class Low Medium High
2) 3),4)
Pressure Containment 1.046 1.138 1.3081)
Other 1.04 1.14 1.26
Notes:
1) For parts of pipelines in location class 1, resistance safety class medium may be applied (1.138).
2) The number of significant digits is given in order to comply with the ISO usage factors.
3) Safety class low will be governed by the system pressure test which is required to be 3% above
the incidental pressure. Hence, for operation in safety class low, the resistance factor will be
effectively be 3% higher.
4) For system pressure test, U shall be equal to 1.00, which gives an allowable hoop stress of 96% of
SMYS both for materials fulfilling supplementary requirement U and those not.

The material factor, depend on Supplementary requirement U is stated in DNV-FS-


101 Section 5, C306, Table 5-4;

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Table 5-4 Material Strength factor, U


Factor Normally Supplementary Requirement U
U 0.96 1.00
Note: For system pressure test, U shall be equal to 1.00, which gives an allowable hoop stress of 96%
of SMYS both for materials fulfilling supplementary requirement U and those not. This equivalent to the
mill test utilization.

For manufacturing process which introduce cold deformations giving different strength in
tension and compression, a fabrication factor,  fab shall be determined. If no other
information exists, maximum fabrication factors for pipes manufactured by the UOE or
UO process are given in DNV-OS-F101 Table 5-5.
The fabrication factor may be improved through heat treatment or external cold sizing
(compression), if documented.
Table 5-5 Maximum fabrication factor,  fab
Pipe Seamless UO&TRB&ERW UOE

 fab 1.00 0.93 0.85

5.1.26 Return Periods

The following return periods are applied in for Temporary and Permanent Conditions.

Return Periods for Permanent Condition / Operation Condition

Criterion Load Cases H s ,Tp Uc References

Case 1 (Wave Domination) 100 years 1 year DNV RP F105,


Onset
Case 2 (Current Domination) 1 year 100 years Section 2.5.5

Screening DNV RP F105,


- 1 year 100 years
VIV Section 2.3.1
Case 1 (Wave Domination) 100 years 10 years DNV OS F101,
ULS
Case 2 (Current Domination) 10 years 100 years Section 4, C608

Return Periods for Temporary Condition / Installation, Flooded, Hydrotest Condition

Criterion Load Cases H s ,Tp Uc References

Case 1 (Wave Domination) 10 years 1 year DNV RP F105,


Onset
Case 2 (Current Domination) 1 year 10 years Section 2.5.5

Screening DNV RP F105,


- 1 year 10 years
VIV Section 2.3.1
DNV OS F101,
ULS Case 1 (Wave Domination) 10 years 1 year
Section 4, C608

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5.2 DNV-RP-F105 INPUT / OUTPUT

5.2.1 DNV-RP-F105 INPUT

Input screen shots are enclosed.

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All General Data to be filled

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5.2.2 DNV-RP-F105 Input Desciption

Input parameters are:


 General Data
 Pipe Dimension
Options;
1. If “NPS” (Nominal Pipe Size) is entered select Pipeline Diameter from
built-in Table as per API 5L.
2. If “User Define” option is selected the pipe OD (mm) must be entered.
 Outer Diameter (OD). Unit: mm
Enter outside diameter of Pipe for “user defined” option in Pipe Dimensions.
 Wall Thickness (tnom). Unit: mm
1. If “NPS” option has been input, select Wall Thickness from built-in Table
as per API 5L.
2. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined wall thickness.
 Pipe Joint (Lpj). Unit: m
Enter average Pipe joint length.
Default 12.1 m.
 Corrosion Allowance (t_corr). Unit: mm
Enter corrosion allowance.
Default 3.175 mm (1/8”).
 Water Density. Unit: kg/m3
Enter Seawater Density.
Default 1025 kg/m3.
 Minimum Depth. Unit: m
Enter minimum water.
Depth shall be considered for minimum external hydrostatic pressure.
 Poisson Ratio (v). Unit: Non Dimensional
Enter Poisson ratio.
Default 0.3.
 Modulus Young (E). Unit: MPa
Enter Young’s Modulus.
Default 207000.0 MPa.
 Material Grade. Unit: MPa.
Options:
1. If Material grade is selected from built-in table as per API 5L, SMYS and
SMTS shall be automatically generated.
2. If User defined option is selected, SMYS and SMTS must be entered.
 Marine Growth Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter Marine Growth Thickness.
To be considered as accumulation of outer diameter for operation condition
hydro dynamic loads. For the Installation condition marine growth shall be
taken as 0.0 mm.
 Anti-Corrosion Coating Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter Anti-Corrosion Coating Thickness.

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To be considered as accumulation of outer diameter in installation and


operation conditions for hydrodynamic loading.
 Concrete Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter Concrete Coat Thickness.
To be considered as accumulation of outer diameter in installations and
operating conditions for hydrodynamic loading.
 Internal Cladding Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter Internal Cladding Thickness.
To be considered for reduction in inside diameter.
 Field Joint Coating Cutback. Unit: mm.
Enter Field Joint Coating Cutback.
Default = 150 mm.
 Field Joint Coating Density. Unit: kg/m3.
Enter Field Joint Coating Density.
 Marine Growth Density. Unit: kg/m3.
Enter Marine Growth Density.
Default = 1325 kg/m3.
 Corrosion Coating Density. Unit: kg/m3.
Enter Corrosion Coating Density.
Default = 1300 kg/m3.
 Concrete Coating Density. Unit: kg/m3.
Enter Concrete Coating Density.
Default = 3044 kg/m3.
 Internal Cladding Density. Unit: kg/m3.
Enter Internal Cladding Density.
 Steel Density Unit. kg/m3.
Enter Steel Density.
Default = 7850 kg/m3.

 Pipe Data
 Coating Type (Empirical parameter - kc)
Enter Coating Type. Select from built-Table.
Parameter used to calculate the stiffening effect of concrete as per Section
6.2.5. The values used are: 0.25 for PP/PE Coating and 0.33 for asphalt
coating.
 Elastic Concrete Modulus (Ec). Unit: MPa.
Enter Young’s Modulus of Concrete.
 Span Gap (eo). Unit: % of OD.
Enter Span Gap. Gap is defined as the distance between the bottom of pipe
and the seabed. The gap used in design, as a single representative value,
must be characteristic for the free span. The span gap will be present as
percentage of outer diameter.
 Pipe Heading / Bearing (pipea). Unit: Deg.
Enter Pipe Heading direction.

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 Operational Data
 Span Definition
Enter Free Span type. Select from built-table.
f
The free span type will define the safety factor of natural frequencies ( ) as
defined in Table 2-3.

Table 2-3 Safety factor for natural frequencies, f


Safety Class
Free Span Type
Low Normal High
Very well def. 1.0 1.0 1.0
Well def. 1.05 1.1 1.15
Not well def. 1.1 1.2 1.3

 Reference Elevation for Design Pressure (Elev). Unit: m.


Enter Reference Elevation for Design Pressure from Chart Datum.
 Operational Pressure (Pde). Unit: MPa or Barg, as chosen in
Toolbars/Options/Pressure Unit.
Enter Operational (Design) Pressure.
 Hydrotest Pressure (Phyd). Unit: MPa or Barg, as chosen in
Toolbars/Options/Pressure Unit.
Enter Hydrotest Pressure.
 Temperature As-Laid (Tamb). Unit: 0C.
Enter Temperature As Laid (Ambient).
 Temperature Difference to As-Laid (∆To). Unit: 0C.
Enter Temperature Difference (relative to ambient).
 Water Absorption (ABS). Unit: %.
Enter Water Absorption in concrete to be considered in increase weight of
concrete coating. The water absorption is only considered in Operation
Condition.
 Piggy Back Weight in water (Wpig). Unit: kgf/m.
Enter Submerged Weight of Piggy Back, to be consider as accumulation of
total submerged pipe weight.
 Design Content Density(ρcont). Unit: kg/m3.
Enter Content Density.
 Axial Force Calculation
Enter methodology to calculate effective axial force.
Options;
1. The effective axial force shall be calculated based on DNV-RP-F105.
2. User Input. Unit: kN.
If User Input is selected, the effective axial force for installation, flooded,
hydrotest and operation must be entered by user.
 Effective Axial Force for Installation Condition, (negative
compression),

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 Effective Axial Force for Flooded Condition, (negative


compression),
 Effective Axial Force for Hydrotest Condition, (negative
compression),
 Effective Axial Force for Operation Condition, (negative
compression).
 Thermal Expansion Coefficient (αe). Unit: 1/0C.
Enter Thermal expansion coefficient.
Default 1.17 x 10-5 0C-1.
 Residual Lay Tension (Heff). Unit: kN.
Enter Residual Lay Tension.

 Environment and Boundary Condition Data


 Pipe Roughness
Enter Pipe Surface Roughness. Ref. Section 5.4.4.
In lieu of detailed documentation values from Table 5-1 may be used.
Table 5-1 Surface roughness
Pipe Surface k (metres)
Steel, painted 10-6
Steel, un-coated (not rusted) 10-5
Concrete 1/300
Marine Growth 1/200 -> 1/20

 Soil Type
Enter Soil Type. Select from built-in Table.
Reference Tables 7-5 and 7-6 .The factors are used to calculate Dynamic
and static stiffness factors.
Table 7-5 Dynamic stiffness factor and static stiffness for pipe-soil
interaction in sand

CV CL KV ,S
Sand Type
(kN/m5/2) (kN/m5/2) (kN/m/m)
Loose 10500 9000 250
Medium 14500 12500 530
Dense 21000 18000 1350

Table 7-6 Dynamic stiffness factor and static stiffness for pipe-soil
interaction in clay with OCR = 1

CV CL KV ,S
Sand Type
(kN/m5/2) (kN/m5/2) (kN/m/m)
Very Soft 600 500 50 – 100
Soft 1400 1200 160 – 260
Firm 3000 2600 500 – 800

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Table 7-6 Dynamic stiffness factor and static stiffness for pipe-soil
interaction in clay with OCR = 1

CV CL KV ,S
Sand Type
(kN/m5/2) (kN/m5/2) (kN/m/m)
Stiff 4500 3900 1000 – 1600
Very Stiff 11000 9500 2000 – 3000
Hard 12000 10500 2600 - 4200

 Boundary Condition
Enter Boundary Condition of span. Select from built-in table.
Reference Section 6.7.8, Table 6-1.
Table 6-1 Boundary conditions coefficients

Pinned – Fixed – Fixed


Coeff. Single span on seabed
Pinned 2) 3)

C1 1.57 3.56 3.56

C2 1.0 4.0 4.0

C3 0.8 1) 0.2 1) 0.4 1)

14.1L / Leff 2
Shoulder:
C4 4.93 14.1
Mid Span: 8.6
Shoulder: 4)
1
18Leff / L   6
C5 1/8 1/12 2

Mid Span: 1/24

C6 5/384 1/384 1/384

1) Note that C3  0 is normally assumed for in-line if the steady current is not
accounted for.
2) For pinned-pinned boundary condition Leff is to be replaced by L in the
above expressions also for Pcr .

3) For fixed-fixed boundary conditions, Leff / L  1 per definition.

4) C 5 shall be calculated using the static soil stiffness in the Leff / L calculation.

 Safety Class
Enter Safety Class for Operation Condition. Select from built-in table.
Reference DNV-OS-F101, Section 2 C403 Table 2-3 and Table 2-4.

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Table 2-3 Classification of Safety Classes


Safety
Definition
Class
Where failure implies insignificant risk of human injury and minor
Low
environmental and economic consequences
Where failure implies low risk of human injury, minor environmental
Medium
pollution or high economic or political consequences
Classification for operating conditions where failure implies risk of
High human injury, significant environmental pollution or very high economic
or political consequences

Table 2-4 Normal Classification of Safety Classes


Fluid Category A, C Fluid Category B, D an E
Phase
Location Class Location Class
1 2 1 2
Operational Low Medium Medium High

 Sea Bed Roughness


Enter type of soil for Seabed Roughness. Select from built-in table.
Reference Section 3.2.6, Table 3-1.
Table 3-1 Seabed roughness (zo)
Seabed Roughness zo (metres)
Silt/clay 5.0 x 10-6
Fine sand 1.0 x 10-5
Medium sand 4.0 x 10-5
Coarse sand 1.0 x 10-4
Gravel 3.0 x 10-4
Pebble 2.0 x 10-3
Cobble 1.0 x 10-2
Boulder 4.0 x 10-2

 Turbulence Intensity (Ic). Unit: %.


Enter Turbulence Intensity over 30 minutes.
Reference 3.2.12, If no other information is available, the turbulence
intensity should be taken as 5%.
 Trench Depth (dtrench). Unit: m.
Enter Trench Depth.
 Structural Damping Ratio (ζstr). Unit: Non dimensional.
Enter Structural Damping Ratio.
Reference Section 6.2.11. Structural damping is due to internal friction
forces of the pipe material and depends on the strain level and associated
deflections. If no information is available, a structural modal damping ratio of

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0.005 can be assumed. If concrete coating is present, the sliding at the


interface between concrete and corrosion coating may further increase the
damping to typically 0.01 – 0.02.
 Current reference height (zr). Unit: m.
Enter Current Reference Height (Height over seabed).
Default 1.0 m.
 Tide and Surge (Tsurge). Unit: m.
Enter Total Tide and Surge Height.
Default 0.0 m for conservatism.
 Wave - Current Angle.
Select from built-in table.
This module provided 8 directions inputs of wave / current angle, which are
0deg, 45deg, 90deg, 135deg, 180deg, 225deg, 270deg, and 315deg.
Options;
1) Single direction (as per input)
The reduction factor will be calculated based on pipe heading and user
input 8 directions of wave and current. The each of directions will be
considered as single direction.

0 deg

315 deg 45 deg

270 deg 90 deg

225 deg 135 deg

180 deg

2) Maximum +/- 22.5deg (every 1deg)


The reduction factor will be calculated based on the pipe heading and
the maximum of user input 8 direction of wave/current every 1deg. The
value of each direction will be utilized for every 1deg, with margin +/-
22.5deg.

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The maximum
67.5 deg
reduction factor
-22.5 deg
Direction from from 67.5deg to
90deg 112.5deg (every
90 deg
(Typical for other 1deg) will be
directions) +22.5 deg utilized for
reduction factor
112.5 deg
of 90deg

 ULS Factors, Wave and Current Data Input


 Environmental Data Available
Enter Environmental Data Available. Select from built-in table.
Options;
1. Wave induced currents, if near bottom wave velocity and period are
available.
2. Wave heights and periods, if wave height and period are available.
 ULS Factors
Enter ULS factors user input data file. Reference DNV-OS-F101 Tables 4-4,
4-5, 5-2, 5-3, 5-4, 5-5.

Table 4-4 Load effect factors and load combinations


Environmental
Limit state / Load Design Load Functional Load
Load
Combination Combination F E
System
A 1.2 0.7
Check
ULS
Local
B 1.1 1.3
Check

Table 4-5 Condition load effect factors, C

Condition C
Pipeline resting on uneven seabed 1.07
Continuously stiff supported 0.82
System pressure test 0.93
Otherwise 1.00

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Table 5-2 Material resistance factor, m


Limit state category SLS/ULS/ALS FLS

m 1.15 1.00

Table 5-3 Safety class resistance factors,  SC


Safety Class Low Medium High
2) 3),4)
Pressure Containment 1.046 1.138 1.3081)
Other 1.04 1.14 1.26

Table 5-4 Material Strength factor, U


Supplementary Requirement
Factor Normally
U
U 0.96 1.00

Table 5-5 Maximum fabrication factor,  fab


Pipe Seamless UO&TRB&ERW UOE

 fab 1.00 0.93 0.85

The user shall fill the ULS factors based on following guidelines; Note: File to
be compiled in “free format”, i.e. values separated by comma (CSV).

REFERENCE CONDITIONS
FACTOR
TABLE INSTALLATION FLOODED HYDROTEST OPERATION
55-33  SC 1.04 1.04 1.046 1.138

55-23 m 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.15

54-43 F 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1


454-43-4 E 0.7 1.3 1.3 1.3

4-5 C 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.07

55-43 U 0.96 0.96 1.0 0.96

Ovality fo 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

5-555-435-  fab 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.93

 Current Data. Unit: m/sec.


Enter Current Directional Velocities.
For omnidirectional option Refer to following sample

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Current RETURN PERIODS


Direction
1-Year 10-Year 100-Year
(Deg)
0.0 0.39 0.42 0.51
45.0 0.585 0.63 0765
90.0 0.585 0.63 0.765
135.0 0.26 0.28 0.34
180.0 0.26 0.28 0.34
225.0 0.39 0.42 0.51
270.0 0.39 0.42 0.51
315.0 0.39 0.42 0.51

For omnidirectional/extreme current velocity data refer to sample, the table


to be filled shall be based on the pipe heading direction. For example the
pipe heading is 0deg, and then the current shall be from 90deg direction.
Therefore sheet A3 (1yr RP), B3 (10yrs RP) and C3 (100yrs RP) to be filled
and other columns to be filled by zero as per example in below. It means
that the module will determine the maximum current velocity.

Current RETURN PERIODS


Direction
1-Year 10-Year 100-Year
(Deg)
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
45.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
90.0 0.585 0.63 0.765
135.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
180.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
225.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
270.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
315.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

For directional current velocity data from 8deg direction, fill all cells from A1
to C8 as per example in below. It means that the module will calculate the
relative angle between pipe heading and each direction current attack angle
in order to define the reduction factor. The maximum reduction factor for
each direction current attack angle will be utilized in the analysis.

Current RETURN PERIODS


Direction
1-Year 10-Year 100-Year
(Deg)
0.0 0.39 0.42 0.51
45.0 0.585 0.63 0765
90.0 0.585 0.63 0.765
135.0 0.26 0.28 0.34
180.0 0.26 0.28 0.34
225.0 0.39 0.42 0.51
270.0 0.39 0.42 0.51
315.0 0.39 0.42 0.51

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For one directional current velocity data to be assess, then column of


directional current velocity (refer to one directional current velocity data) to
be filled, and other columns to be filled as zero. The directional current
velocity input only considered 00 / 450 / 900 /1350 / 1800 / 2250 / 2700 / 3150.
For example if user have the current velocity from south (1800), then it
means that the module will calculate the relative angle between pipe
heading and 1800 direction current attack angle in order to define the
reduction factor.

Current RETURN PERIODS


Direction
1-Year 10-Year 100-Year
(Deg)
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
45.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
90.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
135.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
180.0 0.585 0.63 0.765
225.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
270.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
315.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

 Wave Data (Wave Heights and Periods)

If the user has select “wave heights and periods” in environmental data
available input, then the significant wave height, significant wave period,
maximum wave height and period associated with maximum wave shall be
filled by user for 1 year, 10 years and 100 years return periods (clockwise).
Unit: m for height and s for period.

WAVE SIGNIFICANT WAVES MAXIMUM WAVES


DIRECT 1-YEAR 10-YEAR 100-YEAR 1-YEAR 10-YEAR 100-YEAR
ION HEIGH PERIO HEIGH PERIO HEIGH PERIO HEIGH PERIO HEIGH PERIO HEIGH PERIO
(Des) T (M) D (S) T (M) D (S) T (M) D (S) T (M) D (S) T (M) D (S) T (M) D (S)
0.0 0.4 4.57 0.7 5.08 1 5.46 0.74 3.6 1.3 4 1.9 4.3
45.0 1.1 5.59 1.7 6.35 2.2 6.99 2.05 4.4 3.16 5 4.09 5.5
90.0 0.8 5.21 1.3 5.97 1.9 6.6 1.49 4.1 2.42 4.7 3.53 5.2
135.0 1 5.46 1.5 6.22 2.1 6.86 1.86 4.3 2.79 4.9 3.91 5.4
180.0 1.8 6.48 2.7 7.49 3.3 8.13 3.35 5.1 5.02 5.9 6.14 6.4
225.0 1 5.46 1.5 6.22 2.1 6.86 1.86 4.3 2.79 4.9 3.91 5.4
270.0 0.5 4.83 1 5.59 1.9 6.6 0.93 3.8 1.86 4.4 3.53 5.2
315.0 0.5 4.83 1 5.59 1.9 6.6 0.93 3.8 1.86 4.4 3.53 5.2

The wave heights and periods input data file shall be selected by user. This
file shall be in CSV (Comma Separated Values) File. The user shall fill the
wave height and periods input data from A1 cell to L8 Cell based on
following guideline;

The example of filling this input is same with current data. The maximum
wave height and period will be utilized for ULS criteria, meanwhile the
significant height and period will be utilized for onset and screening fatigue
criteria.

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 Wave Data (Near Bottom Wave Induced Velocities)


If the user has select “near bottom wave induced velocities” in environmental
data available input, then the near bottom velocity for fatigue and onset
criteria, maximum velocity for ULS, zero crossing period and maximum
period for ULS shall be filled by user for 1 year, 10 years and 100 years
return periods (clockwise). Unit: m/s for velocity and s for period.
The near bottom wave induced velocities input data file shall be selected by
user. This file shall be in CSV (Comma Separated Values) File. The user
shall fill the near bottom wave induced velocities input data from A1 cell to
L8 Cell based on following guideline;

WAVE SIGNIFICANT WAVES MAXIMUM WAVES


DIRECT 1-YEAR 10-YEAR 100-YEAR 1-YEAR 10-YEAR 100-YEAR
ION HEIGH PERIO HEIGH PERIO HEIGH PERIO HEIGH PERIO HEIGH PERIO HEIGH PERIO
(Des) T (M) D (S) T (M) D (S) T (M) D (S) T (M) D (S) T (M) D (S) T (M) D (S)
0.0 0.4 4.57 0.7 5.08 1 5.46 0.74 3.6 1.3 4 1.9 4.3
45.0 1.1 5.59 1.7 6.35 2.2 6.99 2.05 4.4 3.16 5 4.09 5.5
90.0 0.8 5.21 1.3 5.97 1.9 6.6 1.49 4.1 2.42 4.7 3.53 5.2
135.0 1 5.46 1.5 6.22 2.1 6.86 1.86 4.3 2.79 4.9 3.91 5.4
180.0 1.8 6.48 2.7 7.49 3.3 8.13 3.35 5.1 5.02 5.9 6.14 6.4
225.0 1 5.46 1.5 6.22 2.1 6.86 1.86 4.3 2.79 4.9 3.91 5.4
270.0 0.5 4.83 1 5.59 1.9 6.6 0.93 3.8 1.86 4.4 3.53 5.2
315.0 0.5 4.83 1 5.59 1.9 6.6 0.93 3.8 1.86 4.4 3.53 5.2

The example of filling this input is same with current data. The maximum
wave velocity and period will be utilized for ULS criteria, meanwhile the near
bottom velocity and period will be utilized for onset and screening fatigue
criteria.

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5.2.3 DNV-RP-F105 OUTPUT

Sample Output is enclosed.

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S UBMARINE PIPELINE DES IGN S UITE


TO DNV RP-F105 V10-05 V14-12
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 1 of 6

FREE SPAN ANALYSIS SELECTION MODULE


DESCRIPTIONS SYM BOL UNIT EM PTY FLOODED HYDROTEST OPERATING
PIPELINE DATA
Nominal Outside Diameter Do mm 323.90
Wall Thickness tnom mm 15.90
Internal Coating Thickness tint mm 0.00
Corrosion Coating Thickness tcc mm 5.50
Concrete Coating Thickness twc mm 40.00
Field Joint Cutback Length FJ mm 150.00
Pipe Joint Length Lpj m 12.10
Water Absorption ABS % 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.00
Young Modulus E MPa 207000.00
SMYS SMYS MPa 450.00
SMTS SMTS MPa 535.00
Poisson's Ratio of Steel v - 0.3
Corrosion Allowance tcorr mm 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.00
3
Steel Density ρs kg/m 7850.0
Internal Coating Density ρint kg/m 3 0.0
3
Corrosion Coating Density ρcc kg/m 900.0
3
Concrete Coating Density ρwc kg/m 3040.0
Field Joint Infill Density ρfj kg/m 3 150.0
Elastic Modulus of Concrete Ec MPa 29671.00
0
Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient αE 1/ C 1.17E-05
Empirical Parameter kc - 0.25
PIGGY BACK LINE DATA
Weight of Piggy Back Line Wpig kg/m 0.00
Percentage of Pipeline Diameter used to eo % 30.00
PROCESS DATA
Design Internal Pressure Pde bar 0.00 0.00 112.50 90.00
0
Temperature As Laid Tamb C 35.00
0
Temperature Difference to As Laid ∆To C 0.00 0.00 0.00 45.00
Content Density ρcont kg/m 3 0.00 1025.00 1025.00 60.00
Residual Lay Tension Heff kN 0.00
Reference Elevation for Design Pressur Elev m 0.00
Effective Axial Force Calculation - - DNV RP F105
Effective Axial Force User Input Seff kN 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

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S UBMARINE PIPELINE DES IGN S UITE


TO DNV RP-F105 V10-05 V14-12
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 2 of 6

FREE SPAN ANALYSIS SELECTION MODULE


DESCRIPTIONS SYM BOL UNIT EM PTY FLOODED HYDROTEST OPERATING
ENVIRONMENTAL DATA
Water Density ρw kg/m 3 1025.00
Water Depth WD m 58.50
Marine Growth Thickness tmar mm 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Trench Depth dtrench m 0.00
Turbulence Intensity over 30mins Ic % 5.00
Undrained Poisson Ratio of Soil vsoil - 0.45
Structural Damping ζstr % 0.010
Hydrodynamic Damping ζh MPa 0.000
Marine Growth Density ρmar MPa 0.00
Current Velocity Reference Height Zr MPa 1.00
Tide & Surge Tsurge - 0.0
Pipe Heading pipea deg 90.0
Wave & Current Angle Direction ‐ - Max. +/- 22.5 deg
DNV RP F105 & OS F101 FACTORS
Safety Class ‐ - Low Low Low Medium
Span Definition ‐ - Not Well Defined
Boundary Condition ‐ - S ingle S pan on the S eabed
Pipe Roughness - - Concrete
-
Seabed Roughness zo S ilt
Soil Type - - Very S oft Clay
st nd
Ratio between 1 and 2 modes fn12 - 2.70
S.F. for Screening Criteria γIL - 1.40
S.F. for Screening Criteria γCF - 1.40
S.F. for Natural Frequencies γf - 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.20
-
γk 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.15
-
General Safety Factors for Fatigue γon,IL 1.10
-
γon,CF 1.20
Safety Class Factor γSC - 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.14
Material Resistance Factor γm - 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.15
Functional Load Factor γF - 1.20 1.10 1.10 1.10
Environmental Load Factor γE - 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30
Condition Load Factor γC - 1.07 1.07 1.00 1.07
Material Strength Factor αU - 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.96
Ovality fo % 1.50
Material Fabrication Factor αfab - 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85

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S UBMARINE PIPELINE DES IGN S UITE


TO DNV RP-F105 V10-05 V14-12
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 3 of 6

VIV ONSET RESULTS


DESCRIPTIONS SYM BOL UNIT EM PTY FLOODED HYDROTEST OPERATING
VIV ONSET PARAMETERS
Outer Diameter Dt m 0.415 0.415 0.415 0.415
Effective Axial Force Seffop kN 0.000 -15.762 -301.554 -1917.986
Onset Steady Current Velocity Uc m/s 0.318 0.318 0.318 0.318
Onset Wave Induced Velocity Uw m/s 0.181 0.181 0.181 0.298
Onset current flow ratio aa -- 0.637 0.637 0.637 0.517
Submerged Weight Wsub N/m 1246.989 1920.582 1920.582 1354.903
Effective Mass (Inline) m e (IL) kg/m 448.663 517.351 517.351 459.667
Effective Mass (Crossflow) m e (CF) kg/m 638.171 706.859 706.859 649.175
Concrete Stiffness Factor CSF - 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.182
Inline Onset [Reduced] Velocity VRILon m/s 1.691 1.850 1.898 1.830
Crossflow Onset [Reduced] Velocity VRCFon m/s 2.188 2.188 2.188 2.188
Crossflow Onset Deflection deltaCF m 0.191 0.295 0.325 0.116
Dynamic Soil Stiffness Factor (Inline) CL kN/m 5/2 500.000
5/2
Dynamic Soil Stiffness Factor (Crossflo CV kN/m 600.000
Modified Soil Stiffness (Inline) KIL kN/m 2 752.659 906.969 906.969 777.381
2
Modified Soil Stiffness (Crossflow) KCF kN/m 1132.528 1364.719 1364.719 1169.726
Soil Modal Damping Ratio (Inline) ζsoilIL - 0.029 0.029 0.030 0.040
Soil Modal Damping Ratio (Crossflow) ζsoilCF - 0.023 0.023 0.024 0.029
Total Modal Damping Ratio (Inline) ζTIL - 0.039 0.039 0.040 0.050
Total Modal Damping Ratio (Crossflow ζTCF - 0.033 0.033 0.034 0.039
Stability Parameter (Inline) KsIL - 1.260 1.435 1.488 1.413
Stability Parameter (Crossflow) KsCF - 1.519 1.678 1.713 1.582
Critical Buckling Load (Inline) PcrIL kN 1230.730 1191.787 1337.642 2850.005
Critical Buckling Load (Crossflow) PcrCF kN 1090.101 1076.962 1197.153 2764.424
Effective Span Length (Inline) L effIL m 37.894 38.508 36.348 24.901
Effective Span Length (Crossflow) L effCF m 40.264 40.509 38.421 25.284
Natural Frequency (Inline) fnIL Hz 0.783 0.716 0.698 0.973
Natural Frequency (Inline) fnCF Hz 0.606 0.606 0.606 0.814

ALLOWABLE SPAN
Inline Onset L ILon m 29.73 30.35 28.56 17.05
Crossflow Onset L CFon m 32.97 33.22 31.46 18.20

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S UBMARINE PIPELINE DES IGN S UITE


TO DNV RP-F105 V10-05 V14-12
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 4 of 6

VIV SCREENING FATIGUE RESULTS


DESCRIPTIONS SYM BOL UNIT EM PTY FLOODED HYDROTEST OPERATING
VIV SCREENING PARAMETERS
Steady Current Velocity (Screening Fat Uc m/s 0.409 0.409 0.409 0.500
Wave Induced Velocity (Screening Fat Uw m/s 0.032 0.032 0.032 0.032
Current flow ratio (Screening Fatigue) - aa -- 0.928 0.928 0.928 0.940
Inline Onset [Reduced] Velocity VRILon m/s 1.587 1.727 1.809 1.810
Crossflow Onset [Reduced] Velocity VRCFon m/s 2.188 2.188 2.188 2.188
Crossflow Onset Deflection deltaCF m 0.146 0.215 0.222 0.113
Soil Modal Damping Ratio (Inline) ζ soilIL - 0.026 0.025 0.028 0.039
Soil Modal Damping Ratio (Crossflow) ζ soilCF - 0.024 0.025 0.025 0.029
Total Modal Damping Ratio (Inline) ζ TIL - 0.036 0.035 0.038 0.049
Total Modal Damping Ratio (Crossflow ζ TCF - 0.034 0.035 0.035 0.039
Stability Parameter (Inline) KsIL - 1.146 1.300 1.389 1.391
Stability Parameter (Crossflow) KsCF - 1.567 1.740 1.776 1.583
Critical Buckling Load (Inline) PcrIL kN 988.041 955.260 1124.464 2640.191
Critical Buckling Load (Crossflow) PcrCF kN 1244.564 1258.927 1413.149 2779.793
Effective Span Length (Inline) Lef f IL m 42.292 43.012 39.644 25.872
Effective Span Length (Crossflow) L ef f CF m 37.682 37.467 35.363 25.214
Natural Frequency (Inline) fnIL Hz 0.629 0.572 0.570 0.820
Natural Frequency (Inline) fnCF Hz 0.681 0.681 0.681 0.821

ALLOWABLE SPAN
Inline Onset L ILscr m 34.18 34.91 31.89 18.02
Crossflow Onset LCFscr m 30.35 30.14 28.36 18.13

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S UBMARINE PIPELINE DES IGN S UITE


TO DNV RP-F105 V10-05 V14-12
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 5 of 6

ULS RESULTS
DESCRIPTIONS SYM BOL UNIT EM PTY FLOODED HYDROTEST OPERATING
ULS PARAMETERS
Drag Coefficient Cd - 2.796 2.154 2.468 1.494
Inertia Coefficient Cm - 2.544 2.544 2.544 2.163
Submerged Weight Wsub kN/m 1246.989 1920.582 1920.582 1354.903
Combined Velocity U tot m/s 0.441 0.441 0.441 0.682
Flow Regime Velocity αULS - 0.928 0.928 0.928 0.734
Keulegan Carpenter Number KC - 0.644 0.644 0.644 4.699
Effective Axial Force Sef f ULS kN 0.000 -15.762 -317.316 -1918.909
Maximum (unit diameter) Stress AIL MPa 70.362 80.324 165.834 2069.450
Amplitude ACF MPa 70.362 80.324 165.834 2069.450
VILR,onset - 1.260 1.437 1.741 2.200
VILR,1 - 2.070 2.051 2.161 2.304
VILR,2 - 3.827 3.708 3.616 3.679
Inline Response Model
VILR,end - 3.972 3.831 3.700 3.700
AY ,1 / D - 0.081 0.061 0.042 0.010
AY ,2 / D - 0.073 0.061 0.042 0.010
VCFR,onset - 2.625 2.625 2.625 2.625
VCFR,1 - 4.717 4.717 4.717 4.717
VCFR,2 - 12.231 12.231 12.231 12.231
Crossflow Response Model
VCFR,end - 16.000 16.000 16.000 16.000
AZ,1 / D - 0.700 0.700 0.700 0.700
AZ,2 / D - 0.700 0.700 0.700 0.700
Inline VIV induced Stress Range SIL MPa 0.000 0.000 6.358 0.000
Crossflow VIV induced Stress Range SCF MPa 18.208 1.743 16.114 0.000
Critical Angle cr it deg 11.917 15.457 13.495 11.465
Maximum Horizontal Hydrodynamic Fo Fhmax N/m 418.743 328.237 372.357 488.691
Static Bending Moment Mstatic kN.m 163.379 113.095 132.342 111.526
Dynamic Inline Bending Stress σdy nIL MPa 109.448 73.590 88.929 72.929
Dynamic Crossflow Bending Stress σdy nCF MPa 9.104 0.872 8.057 0.000
Static, Functional [Vertical] Bending M MFUNC kN.m 480.545 599.132 577.591 279.951
Dynamic Inline Bending Moment Mdy nIL kN.m 169.003 113.633 137.319 112.612
Dynamic Crossflow Bending Moment Mdy nCF kN.m 14.058 1.346 12.441 0.000
Design Moment MSd kN.m 522.680 611.135 605.801 301.752
Design Effective Axial Force SSd kN 0.000 -18.552 -349.048 -2258.556

Internal / External Overpressure External External Internal Internal


- -
Unity Check UC - 0.724 0.989 0.989 0.989

ULS ALLOWABLE SPAN
ULS L ULS m 64.78 59.64 40.27 11.40

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S UBMARINE PIPELINE DES IGN S UITE


TO DNV RP-F105 V10-05 V14-12
CLIENT : ZEE
PROJECT : EXAMPLE Project
REF : 12" OD DATE : 25/11/16 Page 6 of 6

SUMMARY OF FREESPAN ANALYSIS


DESCRIPTIONS SYM BOL UNIT EM PTY FLOODED HYDROTEST OPERATING
ALLOWABLE SPAN LENGTH
Inline Onset LILon m 29.73 30.35 28.56 17.05
Crossflow Onset LCFon m 32.97 33.22 31.46 18.20
Inline Screening LILscr m 34.18 34.91 31.89 18.02
Crossflow Screening LCFscr m 30.35 30.14 28.36 18.13
ULS LULS m 64.78 59.64 40.27 11.40

VALIDITY LIMITS
Inline (Seff to Pcr) Ratio Limit ILBuckLim m 64.78 64.78 46.64 13.26
Crossflow (Seff to Pcr) Ratio Limit CFBuckLim m 64.78 64.78 47.45 14.08
Span Length to Diameter Ratio Limit MaxmODL m 45.35
Static Deflc. to Diameter Ratio Limit LDefLim m 54.57 48.15 41.73 22.00

MAX. ALLOWABLE SPAN LENGTH LALL m 29.73 30.14 28.36 11.40

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6.0 CATHODIC PROTECTION ANALYSIS MODULE

The cathodic protection analysis module can be used to determine anode mass and
distribution along pipeline route to ensure that the design life of the pipeline will be
reached referring to the latest codes, which includes DNV-RP-F103 (2010) and ISO
15589-2 (2012).

6.1 Methodology

6.1.1 Coating Breakdown Factor


6.1.1.1 DNV-RP-F103
The mean coating breakdown factor ( f cm ) is derived from Section 5.2.6, Eq. (2);

f cm  a  0.5.b.t f
Where;
tf = Design life (years)
a &b = Constants refer to Table A.1 and A.2
The final coating breakdown factor ( f cf ) is derived from Section 5.3.2, Eq. (4);

f cf  a  0.5.b.t f
Where;
tf = Design life (years)
a &b = Constants refer to Table A.1 and A.2
Table A.1 and A.2 in Annex 1 described in followings are give recommendations for
constants to be used for specific combinations of linepipe coating and FJC systems as
defined in DNV-RP-F106 and DNV-RP-F102, respectively, and for the maximum
operating temperatures indicated in the tables.

Table A.1: Recommendations for constants “a” and “b” to be used for calculation of coating
breakdown factors associated with specific linepipe coating systems as defined in DNV-RP-F106.
(Maximum temperatures refer to continuous operation and are indicative only. Manufacturer’s
recommendations shall always apply. For coatings with an inner layer of FBE and operating temperatures
above 90°C, adequate properties shall be documented by pre-qualification and/or PQT. The same applies
for polychloroprene based coatings at operating temperatures above 90°C).
Max.
DNV-RP-F106 Concrete Weight a b
Linepipe Coating Type Temperature
CDS Coating x 100 x 100
(0C)
Glass Fibre Reinforced
No. 5 Yes 70 0.3 0.01
Asphalt Enamel
Glass Fibre Reinforced
No. 6 Yes 80 0.3 0.01
Coal Tar Enamel
Single or Dual Layer FBE No. 1 Yes 90 1 0.03
3-layer FBE/PE No. 2 Yes 80 0.1 0.003

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3-layer FBE/PP No. 3 No 110 0.1 0.003


Multi-Layer FBE/PP No. 4 No 140 0.03 0.001
Polychloroprene No. 7 No 90 0.1 0.01
Note: x100 in the heading of the two column to the right means that all figures in these columns have
been multiplied by a factor of 100; i.e. before use in eqns. (2) or (4), the numbers shall be multiplied with a
factor 10-2.

Table A.2: Recommendations for constants “a” and “b” to be used for calculation of coating
breakdown factors associated with specific field joint coating systems, with and without infill, as
defined in DNV-RP-F102.
(Maximum temperatures refer to continuous operation ad are indicative only. Manufacturer’s
recommendations shall always apply. For coatings with an inner layer of FBE and operating temperatures
above 90°C, adequate properties shall be documented by pre-qualification and/or PQT. The same applies
for polychloroprene based coatings at operating temperatures above 100°C)
Examples of
FJC Type Infill Type Max. Compatibility with a b
Temperature DNV-RP-F106
(DNV-RP-F102 FJC (DNV-RP-F102
Linepipe Coating x 100 x 100
System) System) (0C)
System

II (PU), III CDS no 1, 2, 5, 6


None (Concrete) or IV - with concrete, 30 3
(PP) CDS no. 4
1A Adhesive Tape or
Heat Shrink Sleeve I (Mastic), II or CDS no 5 and 6
70 10 1
(PVC/PE backing) with III with concrete
mastic adhesive
2A Heat Shrink Sleeve
CDS no. 2 with
(Backing + adhesive in II or III 70 3 0.3
concrete
PE, LE primer)
2B Heat Shrink Sleeve
(Backing + adhesive in none 110 CDS no. 3 3 0.3
PP, LE primer)
3A FBE none 90 CDS no. 1 3 0.3
3B FBE with PE Heat CDS no. 2 with
II or III 80 1 0.03
Shrink Sleeve concrete
3C FBE with PP Heat
None or II 140 CDS no. 3 1 0.03
Shrink Sleeve
3D FBE, PP adhesive
and PP (wrapped,
None or II 140 CDS no. 3 or 4 1 0.03
extruded or flame
sprayed)
4A Polychloroprene None 90 CDS no. 7 1 0.03
Note: x100 in the heading of the two column to the right means that all figures in these columns have
been multiplied by a factor of 100; i.e. before use in eqns. (2) or (4), the numbers shall be multiplied with a
factor 10-2.

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6.1.1.2 ISO 15589-2


These coating breakdown factors shall be applied to calculate the bare metal surface
areas of the coated pipe for mean conditions and at the end of the design life
respectively. Mean and final coating breakdown factors shall be calculated as follows.

The mean coating breakdown factor ( f c ) is derived from Section 7.5, Eq. (1);

f c  f i  (0.5.f .tdl )
The final coating breakdown factor ( f f ) is derived from Section 7.5, Eq. (2);

f f  f i  (f .t dl )
Where;
fi = Initial coating breakdown factor at the start of pipeline operation
f = Average yearly increase in the coating breakdown factor
t dl = Design life (years)

The initial coating breakdown factor and average yearly increase in the coating
breakdown factor given in Tables 3 and 4 should be considered.
Table 3 – Coating breakdown factors, f c , for pipelines without concrete weight
coating
Factory-applied coating type Field joint coating type fi f
Heat-shrinkable sleeves
0.080 0.0035
Fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) (HSSa)
FBE 0.060 0.0030
a
HSS 0.009 0.0006
Three-layer coating systems FBE 0.008 0.005
including epoxy, adhesive and Multilayer coating including
polyethylene (3LPE) epoxy and PE (e.g. moulded, 0.007 0.0005
HSSa or flame spray)
HSSa 0.007 0.0003
FBE 0.006 0.0002
Three-layer coating systems
including epoxy, adhesive and Multilayer coating including
polypropylene (3LPP) epoxy and PP (e.g. HSSa, hot
tapes, moulding or flame 0.005 0.0002
spray)
Thick multilayer coating
Heat insulation multilayer
systems including epoxy,
coating systems including
adhesive and/or PE, PP, PU, 0.002 0.0001
epoxy, adhesive and/or PE,
HSSa or a combination of
PP or PU
these products.
Thick coatings: elastomeric
materials (e.g. polychloroprene Thick elastomeric materials or
0.002 0.0001
or EPDM) or glassfibre- glassfibre-reinforced resins
reinforced resins
Not applicable (mechanical
Flexible pipelines couplings) 0.002 0.0001

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a
HSS can be used with or without primer.

Table 4 – Coating breakdown factors, f c , for pipelines with concrete weight


coating
Factory-applied Field joint
Field joint coating type fi f
coating type infill
Cold-applied tapes (CATa)
or heat-shrinkable sleeves
0.045 0.0025
(HSS) over a wire-brushed
surface to St 3
No
Asphalt or coal tar Cold-applied tapes (CATa)
or heat-shrinkable sleeves
enamel (HSS) over a blast-cleaned 0.040 0.0020
surface to Sa 2 ½
CATa 0.030 0.0015
Yes
HSS 0.020 0.0008
HSS 0.045 0.0025
No
Fusion bonded FBE 0.035 0.0020
epoxy (FBE) HSS 0.040 0.0020
Yes
FBE 0.030 0.0015
HSS or FBE, 0.008 0.005
Multilayer coating including
Three-layer coating No
epoxy and PE (e.g. HSS, or 0.007 0.0003
systems including flame spray)
epoxy, adhesive
HSS or FBE 0.004 0.0002
and polyethylene
(3LPE) Multilayer coating including
Yes
epoxy and PE (e.g. HSS or 0.004 0.0002
flame spray)
HSS or FBE 0.008 0.0005
Multilayer coating including
Three-layer coating No
epoxy and PP (e.g. HSS, 0.007 0.0003
systems including moulded or flame spray)
epoxy, adhesive
HSS or FBE 0.004 0.0002
and polypropylene
(3LPP) Multilayer coating including
Yes
epoxy and PP (e.g. HSS, 0.004 0.0002
moulded or flame spray)
a
CAT should be applied with primer.

6.1.2 Current Demand


For the detailed CP design, a pipeline should normally be divided into sections based
on variations in fluid and environmental parameters (e.g. fluid temperature and burial
conditions) that affect the ‘current demand’ ( I c ) for CP.

The ‘mean current demand’, ( I cm ) for a specific pipeline ‘surface area’ ( Ac ) is


calculated from Section 5.2.1 of DNV-RP-F103:
I cm  Ac . f cm .i cm

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Ac   .OD.L
Where;
Ac = Surface area of pipeline to be protected (m2)
f cm = Mean coating breakdown factor
i cm = Design mean current densities, refer to Table 5-1 (A/m2)
OD = Outside Diameter
L = Length of pipeline to be protected (m)

The ‘total final current demand’, ( I cf ) for a specific pipeline section is calculated by
adding the contributions from coated linepipe, field joints and pipeline components
calculated from Section 5.3.1 of DNV-RP-F103:
I cf  Ac . f cf .i cm
Where;
f cf = Final coating breakdown factor

Table 5.1 of DNV-RP-F103 gives recommended mean design current densities for
buried and non-buried pipelines (or sections of a pipeline) as a function of the fluid
temperature but independent of depth as described in following.

Table 5-1 Recommended design mean current densities (in A/m2) as a function of
internal fluid temperature
Internal Fluid Temperature (0C)
Exposure Condition
≤ 50 > 50 - 80 > 80 - 120 > 120
Non-Buried 0.050 0.060 0.070 0.100
Buried 0.020 0.025 0.030 0.040

6.1.3 Total Anode Net Mass to Meet Current Demand


For the detailed CP design, a pipeline should normally be divided into sections based
on variations in fluid and environmental parameters (e.g. fluid temperature and burial
conditions) that affect the ‘current demand’ ( I c ) for CP.

Using the calculated total mean current demand ( I cm ), the ‘total net anode mass’ M
(kg) required is calculated from Section 5.4.1 of DNV-RP-F103 and Section A.6 of ISO
15589-2:
I cm .t f .8760
M
u.
Where;
I cm = Mean current demand (Ampere)
tf = Design life (years)
u = Anode utilization factor
 = Electrochemical capacity (A.h/kg)

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The anode utilisation factor u (dimensionless) shall be selected according to Section


7.4 of ISO 15589-2; i.e. maximum 0.80 for bracelet anodes, and maximum 0.90 for
elongated stand-off type of anodes placed on other subsea structures for protection of
the pipeline (slender anode systems).
According to ISO 15589-2, the anode material electrochemical capacity (ε) used for CP
design shall take into account the effect of the estimated anode current density. For
design purposes, the values quoted in Table 5 of ISO 15589-2 should be used as
described in following.
Table 5 – Design Values for Galvanic Anodes

Buried in Seawater
Immersed in Seawater
Sedimentsd
Anode
Surface Electrochemical Electrochemical
Potential Potential
Anode Temperaturea Capacity Capacity
Type
Ag/AgCl/ Ag/AgCl/
 
Seawater Seawater
(0C) mV A.h/kg mV A.h/kg
< 30 - 1050 2000 - 1000 1500
Aluminium 60 - 1050 1500 - 1000 800
b
80 - 1000 900 - 1000 400
< 30 - 980 750
Zinc c
- 1030 780
> 30 to 50 - 980 580
Electrochemical capacity for a given alloy is a function of temperature and anode current
density. Reference is made to Annex A for guidance on CP design for variations in anode
current densities.
For non-buried pipelines, the anode surface temperature should be taken as the external
pipeline temperature and not the internal fluid temperature. For buried pipelines, the anode
surface temperature shall be taken as the internal fluid temperature.
a
For anode surface temperatures between the limits stated, the electrochemical capacity
shall be interpolated.
b
For aluminium anodes, the anode surface temperature shall not exceed 80 °C unless
the performance has been demonstrated in tests and has been documented.
c
For zinc anodes, the anode surface temperature shall not exceed 50 °C unless
satisfactory performance has been demonstrated in tests and has been documented.
d
Pipelines which are rock-dumped shall be considered as buried in seawater sediments.

The total net anode mass is given in following, derived from Section A.7, Eq. (A.3) of
ISO 15589-2;
M  n.ma
Where;
M = Total net anode mass for the specific pipeline section (kg)
n = Number of anodes to be installed (mm)
ma = Individual net anode mass (kg)

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6.1.4 Anode Volume and Mass Calculation


Anode volume and mass calculation have been determined based on the simple
equation as per following;
ODa  OD pipe  2.t a  2.t cc  2.t ac  ODtol  Atol

IDa  OD pipe  2.t cc  2.t ac  ODtol  Atol

ODa
Roa 
2
IDa
Ria 
2
Roa  Ria
Rma 
2
   gap  
   
  2  .4
  a sin
  Rma 
  
  

 360 0   
Vac   0
. .Rma .2 .t core .wcore .ncore
 360 
 
Vad  Lat . .Roa2  Ria2   Vac   gap.t a .Lat .2 
ma  1  Ftol .Vad . a
Where;
ODa = Outside diameter of Anode (mm)
OD pipe = Outside diameter of Steel Pipe (mm)
ta = Anode thickness (mm)
t cc = External coating thickness (mm)
t ac = Anode internal coating thickness (mm)
ODtol = Pipe OD tolerance (mm)
Atol = Anode ID tolerance (mm)
IDa = Inside diameter of Anode (mm)
Roa = Outside radius of Anode (mm)
Ria = Inside radius of Anode (mm)
Rma = Mean radius of Anode (mm)
 = Anode Gap Angle (deg)
gap = Half shell gap (mm)
Vac = Anode core volume (m3)
t core = Flat bar / core thickness (mm)

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wcore = Flat bar / core width (mm)


ncore = Number of Flat bar / core per each anode
Vad = Anode design volume (m3)
Lat = Anode length (mm)
Ftol = Fabrication tolerance (%)
a = Anode density (kg/m3)
ma = Anode design mass (kg)

Following figure explains the definition of each layer for typical anode.

Figure 1 – Typical Anode Drawing


6.1.5 Total Anode Current Output to Meet Final Current Demand
The final anode current output, ( I af ) of an anode at the end of its design life shall be
calculated in accordance with Section 5.5.1, Eq. (6) of DNV-RP-F103 and Section A.7,
Eq. (A.6);
E c  E a 
I af 
Raf
Where;
Ec = Design protective potential, minimum negative potential (Volt)
Ea = Design closed circuit anode potential (Volt)
Raf = Anode electrolytic resistance (ohm)

The following design protective potentials ( E c ) are recommended derived from Section
5.6.11 of DNV-RP-F103 and Table 1 of ISO 15589-2;

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Table 1 – Protective Potential refer to DNV-RP-F103 and ISO 15589-2

Minimum Negative Minimum Negative Potential


Materials Potential (Volt) (Volt)
DNV-RP-F103 ISO 15589-2
Carbon Steel
Immersed in Seawater - 0.80
- 0.80
Buried in sediments - 0.90f
Austenitic stainless steel
PREN ≥ 40c N/A - 0.30d
PREN < 40c N/A - 0.50d
Duplex stainless steel - 0.50 - 0.50d
Martensitic stainless (13%
- 0.60 - 0.50d
Cr) steels
N/A : Not applicable
c
PREN = %Cr + 3.3 %(Mo + 0.5W) + 16 %N.
d
For stainless steels, the minimum negative potentials apply for aerobic and anaerobic
conditions.
f
This covers the possibility of SRB activity and/or high pipeline temperature (T > 60°C).

The design values of design closed circuit anode potential in Table 5 of the ISO 15589-
2 standard shall apply.
Table 5 – Design Values for Galvanic Anodes

Buried in Seawater
Immersed in Seawater
Sedimentsd
Anode
Surface Electrochemical Electrochemical
Potential Potential
Anode Temperaturea Capacity Capacity
Type
Ag/AgCl/ Ag/AgCl/
 
Seawater Seawater
(0C) mV A.h/kg mV A.h/kg
< 30 - 1050 2000 - 1000 1500
Aluminium 60 - 1050 1500 - 1000 800
b
80 - 1000 900 - 1000 400
< 30 - 980 750
Zinc c
- 1030 780
> 30 to 50 - 980 580
Electrochemical capacity for a given alloy is a function of temperature and anode current
density. Reference is made to Annex A for guidance on CP design for variations in anode
current densities.
For non-buried pipelines, the anode surface temperature should be taken as the external
pipeline temperature and not the internal fluid temperature. For buried pipelines, the anode
surface temperature shall be taken as the internal fluid temperature.

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a
For anode surface temperatures between the limits stated, the electrochemical capacity
shall be interpolated.
b
For aluminium anodes, the anode surface temperature shall not exceed 80 °C unless
the performance has been demonstrated in tests and has been documented.
c
For zinc anodes, the anode surface temperature shall not exceed 50 °C unless
satisfactory performance has been demonstrated in tests and has been documented.
d
Pipelines which are rock-dumped shall be considered as buried in seawater sediments.

The final anode resistance ( Raf ) shall be calculated according to Section A.8, Eq.
(A.8) as per following;

Raf  0.315.
A
Where;
 = Environmental resistivity (Volt)
A = Exposed surface area of the anode (m2)
For pipelines defined as “non-buried/exposed”, the ambient temperature seawater
resistivity is applicable for calculation of Raf . The seawater resistivity (annual average)
may be estimated based on Fig. A.1 in Annex A of the ISO 15589-2. For buried
pipeline anodes, an actually measured soil resistivity should be applied, corrected for
any annual temperature variations. As an alternative, a default value of 1.5 ohm·m
may be used.
Typical seawater resistivity are derived from Figure A.1, Annex A, ISO 15589-2, as
described in following figure.

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Figure A.1 – Seawater resistivity as a function of temperature for salinities 3.0%


to 4.0%
From the final (individual) anode current output ( I af ), and the ‘total final current
demand’ ( I cf ) for cathodic protection of a pipeline section, the required number (N) of
anodes shall be as per following, derived from Section 5.5.3, Eq. (7) of DNV-RP-F103;
I cf
N
I af
Where;
N = Total anode to meet final current demand (Volt)

6.1.6 Total Anode to Meet Attenuation Length


If cathodic protection is to be provided by bracelet anodes, then the maximum distance
between successive anodes may be calculated using Eq. (17) of DNV-RP-F103 as per
following;

2. Me .icm . f cf .D
2 2
d .( D  d ) 2.Raf .I cf 4.Raf .I cf
L .    .Ec  E a 
 Me .D. f cf .icm Ltot Ltot
2
d .( D  d )

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Where;
d = Linepipe wall thickness
D = Linepipe outer diameter
 Me = Resistivity of linepipe material
f cf = Final coating breakdown factor
icm = Design mean current density
Raf = Anode final resistance
I cf = Final current demand
Ltot = Length of pipeline section
Ec = Design protective potential
Ea = Design closed circuit anode potential

For a pipeline section with a length of Ltot (m) to be protected by N bracelet anodes, the
maximum distance between anodes become 2L, derived from Eq. (15) of DNV-RP-
F103:
Ltot
N
2 .L

6.1.7 Total Anode to Meet Maximum Spacing


In ISO 15589-2, Sec. 8.1 a default maximum anode distance of 300m is advised for
pipeline CP design. The maximum anode distance may be determined and specified
by Operator or Company. Therefore, the total anode to meet the maximum spacing
shall be as per following;
Ltot
N
.Lmax
Where;
N = Total anode to meet maximum spacing
Ltot = Length of pipeline section
Lmax = Maximum anode distance (default 300m)

6.1.8 Total Anode Requirement and Distribution


The total anode requirement shall be determined based on the maximum total anode
of following criteria:
1. Total Anode to meet mean current demand
2. Total Anode to meet final current demand
3. Total Anode to meet attenuation length
4. Total Anode to meet maximum spacing
Hence, the total anode requirement shall be as per following;
N tot  maxN m ; N f ; N a ; N ms 
Where;

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N tot = Total anode requirement


Nm = Total anode to meet mean current demand
Nf = Total anode to meet final current demand
Na = Total anode to meet attenuation length
N ms = Total anode to meet maximum spacing

The anode spacing shall be determined based on the total anode requirement and
length of pipeline section, specify in following equation;
Ltot
SP 
N tot
Where;
N tot = Total anode requirement
SP = Anode spacing
Ltot = Length of pipeline section

6.1.9 Crack Propensity Ratio (CPR)


Crack Propensity Ratio (CPR) is used to adjust the ratio of anode length, diameter and
thickness so that the anode will be manufactured with lesser probability of cracks in
accordance with Subsea Pipeline Engineering, Andrew Palmer, Roger A. King, 2008,
2nd Edition. It is advised to design anode of which CPR value is 5 or less.
 .Lat .IDa
CPR 
5.t a
Where;
CPR = Crack Propensity Ratio
Lat = Anode length
Dia = Inside diameter of anode
ta = Anode thickness

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6.2 CATHODIC PROTECTION MODULE Input /Output

6.2.1 Cathodic Protection Module Input

Screen Shots are enclosed.

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When the user only run Cathodic


Protection Module, the following
general data to be filled:
 Pipe Dimension (NPS)
 Outer Diameter (OD)
 Wall Thickness (t_nom)
 Pipe Joint (L_pj)
 Anti corrosion Coating Thick.
 Concrete Thickness
 Field Joint Coating Cutback

Other input data will be closed.

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6.2.2 CATHODIC PROTECTION MODULE INPUT DESCRIPTION

Input parameters are:

 General Data
 Pipe Dimension
Options;
3. If “NPS” (Nominal Pipe Size) is entered select Pipeline Diameter from
built-in Table as per API 5L.
4. If “User Define” option is selected the pipe OD (mm) must be entered.
 Outer Diameter (OD). Unit: mm
Enter outside diameter of Pipe for “user defined” option in Pipe Dimensions.
 Wall Thickness (tnom). Unit: mm
3. If “NPS” option has been input, select Wall Thickness from built-in Table
as per API 5L.
4. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined wall thickness.
 Pipe Joint (Lpj). Unit: m
Enter average Pipe joint length.
Default 12.1 m.
 Anti-Corrosion Coating Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter Anti-Corrosion Coating Thickness.
To be considered as accumulation of outer diameter in installation and
operation conditions for hydrodynamic loading.
 Field Joint Coating Cutback. Unit: mm.
Enter Field Joint Coating Cutback.
Default = 150 mm.

 Pipeline Data
 Pipe Condition
Enter pipeline condition. Exposed or Buried.
Refer to Section 5.2.4 of DNV-RP-F103; “Buried” refers to pipeline sections
to be subjected to trenching and backfilling. Pipelines (or pipeline sections)
to be installed in very soft soil for which complete self-burial can be
demonstrated (e.g. by calculations) may also be considered as “buried”,
however, sections for which incomplete self-burial is expected shall always
be considered as “non-buried”. Pipeline sections without trenching but
covered by rock / gravel dumping may further be considered as “buried”.
 Pipeline Start. Unit: m.
Enter Start of Pipeline Section to be analyzed.
 Pipeline End. Unit: m.
Enter End of Pipeline Section to be analyzed.
 Design Life. Unit: years.
Enter Design Life of pipeline to be used for cathodic protection detailed
design. The design life should be a conservative estimate of the maximum
expected lifetime of the pipeline.
 Ambient Temperature. Unit: 0C.
Enter ambient temperature of surrounding pipeline section.

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 Content Temperature. Unit: 0C.


Enter content temperature or internal fluid temperature.
 Anode Surface. Unit: 0C.
Enter anode surface temperature. As an alternative, the anode surface
temperature may be estimated by heat transfer calculation taking into
account any thermal insulation or coating applied between anode and steel
surface, in addition to environmental parameters.

 Anode Data
 Half Shell Gap. Unit: mm.
Enter gap between half shell.
 Anode Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter anode thickness. Normally anode thickness shall be equal with the
concrete weight coating thickness.
 Anode Density. Unit: kg/m3.
Enter anode density.
Default = 2700 kg/m3.
 Anode Length. Unit: mm.
Enter anode length.
 Flat bar width. Unit: mm.
Enter width of flat bar.
 Flat bar thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter thickness of flat bar.
 Number of Flat bar. Unit: mm.
Enter number of flat bar per each anode.
 Anode Int. Coating Thickness. Unit: mm.
Enter anode internal coating thickness, the coating layer between external
corrosion coatings with inside anode (if any).
 Pipe OD Tolerance. Unit: mm.
Enter pipeline steel outside diameter tolerance.
 Anode ID Tolerance. Unit: mm.
Enter anode internal diameter tolerance.
 Fabrication Tolerance. Unit: %.
Enter anode fabrication tolerance.

 Constants
 Protective Potentials
Options;
1. If “DNV RP F103” is entered select Linepipe Material from built-in Table
as per DNV-RP-F103, Section 5.6.11.

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Design Protective
Linepipe Potential (Volt)
Definition
Material Options
DNV-RP-F103

CMn – Steel CMn Steel Pipeline - 0.80

Martensitic Stainless Steel


Type 13 Cr - 0.60
Type 13 Cr Linepipe
Ferritic-Austenitic (duplex)
Type 22/25 Cr - 0.50
Stainless Steel Linepipe

2. If “ISO 15589-2” is entered select Linepipe Material from built-in Table as


per ISO 15589-2, Section 7.2.1.

Design Protective
Linepipe Potential (Volt)
Definition
Material Options
ISO 15589-2
- 0.80 (for exposed)
Carbon Steels Carbon Steels Pipeline
- 0.90 (for buried)
Austenitic Austenitic Stainless Steel
- 0.30
(PREN > 40) (PREN ≥ 40)

Austenitic Austenitic Stainless Steel


- 0.50
(PREN < 40) (PREN < 40)

Duplex Stainless
Duplex Stainless Steel - 0.50
Steel
Martensitic (13% Martensitic stainless (13%
- 0.50
Cr) Cr) steels

3. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined design protective
potentials. Unit: Volt.
 Electrical Resistivity
User to select or input the specific electrical resistivity of the linepipe
material.
Options;
1. If “DNV RP F103” is entered select Material from built-in Table as per
DNV-RP-F103, Section 5.6.10.

Electrical Resistivity
Material Options Definition
(ohm.m)

CMn – Steel CMn Steel Pipeline 0.2 x 10-6

Type 13 Cr Type 13 Cr Linepipe 0.8 x 10-6


Type 22/25 Cr Type 22Cr/25Cr Linepipe 1.0 x 10-6

2. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined electrical resistivity.
Unit: ohm.m.

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 Anode Utilization Factor


User to select or input the anode utilization factor.
Options;
1. If “DNV RP F103 / ISO 15589-2” is entered select Anode Type from built-
in Table as per DNV-RP-F103, Section 5.4.2 and ISO 15589-2, Section
8.4.

Anode Type Options Anode Utilization Factor

Half Shell Bracelet 0.80

Elongated Stand Off Type 0.90

2. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined anode utilization
factor. Unit: dimensionless.

 Design Anode Potential


User to select or input the design anode potential and electrochemical
capacity.
Options;
1. If “ISO 15589-2” is entered select Anode Material from built-in Table as
per ISO 15589-2, Section 8.3. The design anode potential and
electrochemical capacity will be depend of anode surface temperature
and pipeline condition, whether exposed or buried.

Immersed in Buried in Seawater


Anode Seawater (Exposed) Sediments
Anode Surface
Material Temperature Electroc. Electroc.
Options Potential Capacity Potential Capacity
(0C) (Volt) (Volt)
(A.h/kg) (A.h/kg)
< 30 -1.050 2000 -1.000 1500

Aluminium 60 -1.050 1500 -1.000 800

80 -1.000 900 -1.000 400

< 30 -1.030 780 -0.980 750


Zinc
> 30 to 50 -1.030 780 -0.980 580

2. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined design anode
potential and electrochemical capacity. Unit: Volt and A.h/kg,
respectively.

 Coating Breakdown Factor


Options;
1. If “DNV RP F103” is entered select Coating Type and Field Joint Type
from built-in Table as per DNV-RP-F103, Annex 1.

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Coating Type Options a x 100 b x 100


Glass Fibre Reinforced
0.3 0.01
Asphalt Enamel
Glass Fibre Reinforced Coal
0.3 0.01
Tar Enamel
Single or Dual Layer FBE 1 0.03

3-layer FBE/PE 0.1 0.003

3-layer FBE/PP 0.1 0.003

Multi-Layer FBE/PP 0.03 0.001

Polychloroprene 0.1 0.01

Field Joint Type Options a x 100 b x 100

None 30 3
1A Adhesive Tape or Heat
10 1
Shrink
2A Heat Shrink Sleeve 3 0.3

2B Heat Shrink Sleeve 3 0.3

3A FBE 3 0.3

3B FBE with PE 1 0.03

3C FBE with PP 1 0.03

3D FBE 1 0.03

4A Polychloroprene 1 0.03

2. If “ISO 15589-2” is entered select Coating Type (for pipelines without


concrete weight) or Field Joint Type (for pipelines with concrete weight
coating) from built-in Table as per ISO 15589-2, Table 3 and Table 4.

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Coating Type (for pipelines without concrete weight)

Coating
Factory Coating Field Joint
Type fi f
Type Coating Type
Options
Heat-shrinkable
FBE 0.080 0.0035
Fusion-bonded sleeves (HSS)
epoxy (FBE)
FBE-FBE FBE 0.060 0.0030

3LPE-HSS HSS 0.009 0.0006


Three-layer
3LPE-FBE coating systems FBE 0.008 0.005
including epoxy, Multilayer coating
adhesive and including epoxy
3LPE-PE polyethylene and PE (e.g. 0.007 0.0005
(3LPE) moulded, HSS or
flame spray)
3LPP-HSS HSS 0.007 0.0003

3LPP-FBE Three-layer FBE 0.006 0.0002


coating systems
including epoxy, Multilayer coating
adhesive and including epoxy
polypropylene and PP (e.g.
3LPP-PE 0.005 0.0002
(3LPP) HSS, hot tapes,
moulding or flame
spray)
Thick multilayer
Heat insulation
coating systems
multilayer coating
including epoxy,
Heat systems including
adhesive and/or 0.002 0.0001
Insulation epoxy, adhesive
PE, PP, PU, HSS
and/or PE, PP or
or a combination
PU
of these products.
Thick coatings:
elastomeric
Thick elastomeric
materials (e.g.
materials or
EPDM polychloroprene 0.002 0.0001
glassfibre
or EPDM) or
reinforced resins
glassfibre-
reinforced resins
Not applicable
Flexible
Flexible pipelines (mechanical 0.002 0.0001
Pipelines
couplings)

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Field Joint Type (for pipelines with concrete weight)

Field
Field Joint Type Factory Coating Field Joint Coating
Joint fi f
Options Type Type
Infill
Cold-applied tapes
Asphalt/Enamel-No (CAT) or heat
Infill-CAT/HSS over shrinkable sleeves 0.045 0.0025
wire-brushed surface (HSS) over a wire
brushed surface to St 3
No Cold-applied tapes
(CAT) or heat
Asphalt/Enamel-No Asphalt or coal tar
shrinkable sleeves
Infill-CAT/HSS over 0.040 0.0020
enamel (HSS) over a blast
blast-cleaned surface
cleaned surface to Sa

Asphalt/Enamel-Infill-
CAT 0.030 0.0015
CAT
Yes
Asphalt/Enamel-Infill-
HSS 0.020 0.0008
HSS
FBE-No Infill-HSS HSS 0.045 0.0025
No
FBE-No Infill-FBE FBE 0.035 0.0020
Fusion bonded
epoxy (FBE)
FBE-Infill-HSS HSS 0.040 0.0020
Yes
FBE-Infill-FBE FBE 0.030 0.0015
3LPE-No Infill-
HSS or FBE 0.008 0.005
HSS/FBE

No Multilayer coating
3LPE-No Infill- Three-layer including epoxy and PE
0.007 0.0003
Multilayer coating systems (e.g. HSS, or flame
including epoxy, spray)
adhesive and
3LPE-Infill-HSS/FBE polyethylene HSS or FBE 0.004 0.0002
(3LPE)
Multilayer coating
Yes
including epoxy and PE
3LPE-Infill-Multilayer 0.004 0.0002
(e.g. HSS, or flame
spray)
3LPP-No Infill-
HSS or FBE 0.008 0.0005
HSS/FBE
Three-layer Multilayer coating
No
3LPP-No Infill- coating including epoxy and PP
0.007 0.0003
Multilayer systems including (e.g. HSS, moulded or
epoxy, flame spray)
3LPP-Infill-HSS/FBE adhesive and HSS or FBE 0.004 0.0002
polypropylene
Multilayer coating
(3LPP) Yes
including epoxy and PP
3LPP-Infill-Multilayer 0.004 0.0002
(e.g. HSS, moulded or
flame spray)

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User Manual

3. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined mean and final
coating breakdown factor. Unit: %.

 Current Density
Options;
1. If “DNV RP F103” is entered, the design mean current densities will be
determined based on DNV-RP-F103, Annex 1. The design mean current
densities will be depending of internal fluid temperature and pipeline
condition, whether exposed or buried.

Design Mean Current Densities (in A/m2) as a function of internal fluid


temperature
Internal Fluid Temperature (0C)
Exposure Condition
≤ 50 > 50 - 80 > 80 - 120 > 120
Exposed 0.050 0.060 0.070 0.100
Buried 0.020 0.025 0.030 0.040

2. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined mean and final
mean current densities. Unit: A/m2.

 Env. Resistivity
Options;
1. If “DNV RP F103 / ISO 15589-2” is entered, the environmental resistivity
will be determined based on Figure A.1 of ISO 15589-2 (if pipeline
condition is exposed) and Section 5.5.2 of DNV-RP-F103 (if pipeline
condition is buried, a default value of 1.5 ohm·m is utilized).
User to enter salinity, if the pipeline condition is exposed. Units: %.
2. If “User Define” has been selected, enter user defined environmental
resistivity. Unit: ohm.m.

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Pipeline Design Computer Program to DNV
User Manual

6.2.3 Cathodic Protection Module Output

Sample Output enclosed

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User Manual

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Pipeline Design Computer Program to DNV
User Manual

SUBMARINE PIPELINE DESIGN SUITE


TO DNV RP F103, 2010 & ISO 15589-2, 2012
CLIENT : PT ZEE Indonesia
PROJECT : Validation Software
REF : Case 1 DATE : 25/04/2017 Page 2 of 3

CATHODIC PROTECTION ANALYSIS


ANODE CALCULATION AND PARAMETERS
ITEMS SYMBOL UNIT VALUE
PARAMETER AND CONSTANT
Electrical Resistivity Linepipe ρMe ohm.m 2.000E-07
Design Protective Potential Ec V -0.800
Utilization Factor u - 0.800
Closed Circuit Anode Potential Ea V -1.050

COATING BREAKDOWN FACTORS


Mean Coating Breakdown Factor fc_mean % 4.305
Final Coating Breakdown Factor fc_final % 6.593

MEAN CURRENT DENSITY


Mean Current Density icm A/m2 0.060
2
Final Current Density icf A/m 0.060

ENVIRONMENTAL RESISTIVITY & ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPACITY


Environmental Resistivity ρ ohm.m 0.192
Anode Electrochemical Capacity ɛT A.hr/kg 1683.333

MEAN & FINAL CURRENT DEMANDS


Overall Pipeline Length Ltot m 5600.000
Surface Area of Pipeline Ac m2 7149.762
Mean Current Demand Icm A 18.469
Final Current Demand Icf A 28.281
Total Net Anode Mass Required Mtot kg 3005.560

ANODE VOLUME AND MASS CALCULATION


Outside Diameter of Anode ODa mm 501.400
Inside Diameter of Anode IDa mm 411.400
Outside Radius of Anode Roa mm 250.700
Inside Radius of Anode Ria mm 205.700
Mean Radius of Anode Rma mm 228.200
Anode Gap Angle α deg 25.158
Anode Core Volume Vac m3 2.000E-04
Anode Design Volume Vad m3 2.081E-02
Anode Design Mass Mad kg 56.181

Page 164 of 165


Pipeline Design Computer Program to DNV
User Manual

SUBMARINE PIPELINE DESIGN SUITE


TO DNV RP F103, 2010 & ISO 15589-2, 2012
CLIENT : PT ZEE Indonesia
PROJECT : Validation Software
REF : Case 1 DATE : 25/04/2017 Page 3 of 3

CATHODIC PROTECTION ANALYSIS


ANODE CALCULATION AND PARAMETERS
ITEMS SYMBOL UNIT VALUE
ANODE SURFACE AREA
Initial Bracelet Surface Area Ai1 m2 0.516
Initial Taper Surface Area Ai2 m2 0.065
2
Total Initial Anode Surface Area Ai m 0.645
Final Anode External Radius Raf m 0.215
Final Bracelet Surface Area Af1 m2 0.437
2
Degredated Taper Surface Area Af2 m 0.012
Total Final Anode Surface Area Af m2 0.461

CURRENT CALCULATION
Initial Anode Electrolytic Resistance Ri ohm 0.075
Initial Anode Current Output Iai A 3.321
Final Anode Electrolytic Resistance Rf ohm 0.089
Final Anode Current Output Iaf A 2.806

ATTENUATION CALCULATION
Attenuation Length Lattenuation m 550.281

NUMBER OF ANODE REQUIREMENT AND SPACING CALCULATION


Number of Anode Required to meet
Nmcd - 53.498
Mean Current Demand
Mean Anode Spacing Requirement SPm joint 8.651
Number of Anode Required to meet
Nfcd - 10.078
Final Current Demand
Final Anode Spacing Requirement SPf joint 45.925
Number of Anode Required to meet
Nmar - 10.177
Attenuation Requirement
Attenuation Anode Spacing Requirement SPmar joint 45.478
Number of Anode Required to meet
Nmas - 18.667
Maximum Anode Spacing
Max. Anode Spacing Requirement SPmas joint 24.793

SUMMARY
Anode Mass Mad kg 56.181
Number of Anode to Satisfy Code
Nac - 54
Requirements
Total Anode Mass to Satisfy Code
Mac kg 3033.758
Requirements
Anode Spacing SPD m 103.704
SPD joint 9
Crack Propensity Ratio CPR - 0.993
Check CPR CCPR - OK

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