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Representation – media's version of Gender Identity

the truth, giving meaning, how the Ideology – prevailing ideas behind a text
media represents something Patriarchy – 'pat' meaning father, male dominated society
Stuart Hall - Hall emphasises the Hegemony – the way power is maintained through the control of media
importance of visual representation – Good vs Evil, Man vs Woman. Women always appear on the 'evil' side due to in the
the image seems to be the prevalent Mention colour codes and connotations in all essays biblical story of Adam & Eve, she picked the apple from the Garden of Eden when God
sign of late modern culture. told her not to and therefore cast everyone out of heaven.
Representation – to present/to depict.
The word suggests something was Key Terms Cultivation Theory – George Gerbner
there already and has been Narrative – the meaning behind a text. What the
The idea that exposure to repeated patterns of representation over long periods of
represented by the media. producer wants us to take away. Structuralism & Levis Strauss
time can shape and infuence the way in which people perceive the world around
Representation as that which stands in Dichotomy – a division or contrast between two CLS studied myths and legends from
them (i.e. cultivating particular views and opinions).
for something else. Representation is things that are or are represented as being opposed around the world. He found that we
The idea that cultivation reinforces mainstream values (dominant ideologies).
the way in which meaning is given to or entirely different only make sense of the world,
the things which are depicted that people & events by seeing and
stand in for something. Exposure to Advertising using binary opposites.
● Shops, Cinema, TV Narratives involving confict of being
Affects people who watch more media and When a person or group threatens our idea
Key Words violence believe the world is more of what is right
● Social Media, Internet, Busses binary opposites
Visual Code – anything you can see ● Newspapers, Billboards You wouldn't understand what good
dangerous than it is actually is. (can lead to
Soft Sell Technique – sell a lifestyle Media Packs – tells advertisers who their is without understanding the
more purchases of safety stuff) “Keep everyone afraid and they'll consume”
rather than a product – e.g Dior Advert audience is and how many people will read opposite (evil) frst and vice versa.
This can also lead to Moral Panic
or Coke or John Lewis the text. Audiences are sold to advertisers!
Hard Sell Technique – loads of
information/ in your face
Demonstrative Action –
demonstration of a product, like
dishwasher, fairy liquid etc.
Intertexuality – refers to another
product or relies on an audience
knowing the other existing product
USP – unique selling point – product
that is different from the competitors Dominant Reading Negotiated Oppositional
Dior Advert demonstrating a soft sell technique audience decodes the Reading Reading
message and agrees Take some elements Reject the meaning Reception
Tide Demographic or Psychographic ASA – Advertising
with what's said (this and reject others, for ideological, Theory
Demographic – Female. 18+, Housewives, BC1,C2D Standards Authority
is the preferred neither agree nor political or cultural

Two Step Flow Theory (below)

Uses & Gratifications (above)
Social NRS Grading, White Americans They ensure adverts are reading) disagree reasons
Psychographic - Heterosexual, idealises nuclear family, truthful, fair gender
mainstreamer, aspirer neutral stereotypes and
In Comparison to Modern Adverts: More modern focus politically correct.
of family, Focus on children and all generations of family

Charity Adverts Codes and Conventions Need to be familiar

Codes and Conventions
Visual Codes (close ups, establishing shots with context of the
of Film Posters

of dry earth and emotive images – kids set products:

● Main Characters and
crying) Tide (1950s)
iconography that tell us
Graphics (intetext, phone number and Kiss of the Vampire
which genre of flm it is –

logo) (1963)
shows the narrative too
Narrative (before and after, personal story) WaterAid (2016
Title – normally towards

● Lexis (2nd person pronouns, statistics and a the bottom

presumptive close – thank you) ● Starring and Cast Credits Laura Mulvey – Theory of the Male Gaze Men who were
● Technical Codes (black and white, non ● Production Company producing the media represented women how they wanted them
diegetic sounds, voiceover – normally male ● Date of Release to look at them. The audience view women from the heterosexual
and authoritative, diegetic sounds of kids ● Slogan, typography viewpoint of a male. E.g the camera would linger on the curves of
crying) the female body - male gaze only objectifed women further.