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Joshua Soto

Ms. Trotter

Brit. Lit Per. 2

01 February 2019

Annotated Bibliographies

“CDC Features.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease

Control and Prevention, 5 Feb. 2018, www.cdc.gov/features/students-


In this article, the CDC talk about how important it is to get sleep especially for

students in school who need to be at their best, providing different ways to help student

get the sleep they need to succeed. The CDC analyzed the Youth Risk Behavior

Surveys where they concluded that 57.8% of middle school students, and 72.7% of high

school students don’t get enough sleep. Only nine states were included in the study for

middle school students, while for high school student it was a national sample. Overall,

they present facts about how students in school do not get the sleep they need to be

able to fully function in school and instead of targeting schools, they target the parents

instead. The CDC gives suggestions to parents on how to help their children like a

consistent sleep schedule, or limiting their use of technology. This will help to give me

some better insight on how many students across the nation sleep in class. More

importantly, it gives me some possible solutions I can present to students who find

themselves constantly sleeping in class.

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Trudeau, Michelle. “High Schools Starting Later to Help Sleepy Teens.” NPR, NPR, 18

Jan. 2007, www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=6896471.

In this article, Michelle Trudeau talks about how school start times cause

students to lose sleep and choose to sleep at school, or just simply can’t help but to nod

off during class. To prove her idea, she used research from an educational researcher,

Kyla Wahlstrom from the University of Minnesota, who studied the effects of a later start

time for school. According to her studies, students were less depressed, and that they

were more focused and ready for learning, as well as being more emotionally stable.

Trudeau’s article is a great representation of what happens to students when they aren’t

able to get enough sleep due to early school start times. The morning is crucial for the

students to be able to be fully functional in class, and they need the extra time for a

better chance at success. I used this source because it gives me an idea of typically

what times do students get affected by fatigue due to a lack of sleep. Also, I get another

cause as to why students choose to sleep in class, and potential ways to avoid it.

Wang, Amy X., and Amy X. Wang. “Let University Students Sleep in. Science Suggests

They Might Learn Better.” Quartz, Quartz, 13 Apr. 2017,



Amy Wang presents that argument that in order to better learning for students,

school shouldn’t start early as it prevents them from reaching their full potential. Ina

study that was published in the journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, it was

described that students need to wake up nearly two hours later than the average start

time for school according to their body’s biological clock. This clock tells the body when
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it has gotten enough sleep and is ready to start the day. Wang is informing the audience

about the drawbacks of schools starting early, which is only a detriment to a students

health. She explains how this is a major cause as to why students are tired in class and

want to sleep to recover the sleep they lost. This directly relates to how I want to use

this source: as a way to prove different things that cause students to sleep in class. In

my short story, I need these different causes to create a background on the problems

my protagonist will have to deal with.

Yilmaz, Kutluhan, et al. "Understanding Sleep Habits and Associated Factors can Help

to Improve Sleep in High School Adolescents." The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics,

vol. 53, no. 4, 2011, pp. 430-6. ProQuest,


In this article from The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics, Dr. Yılmaz Kutluhan

describes how, through a questionnaire, adolescents rarely ever get the proper amount

of sleep that they need. They seeked to understand the poor sleeping patterns and

habits, so, in turn, they can learn how to better help students improve their sleeping

habits. The results of their questionnaire, given to 3,441 high school students in

Gaziantep, Turkey, showed that students need an average of 10.4 hours of sleep to feel

their best, however they were only getting an average of 7.42 hours on school nights

and 9.4 on non-school nights. Through the results, Dr. Kutluhan leaves it for an open-

ended discussion on how there can be ways to keep a lack of sleep from stunting a

students growth, both physically and mentally. In the article, they describe the various

ways that a lack of sleep can affect you, and, along with performing poorly in school, I

can use this to show how my protagonist’s life is negatively affected. This helps me with
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an idea that I had that my protagonist will be struggling and I needed to find different

ways to show it without explicitly saying it.

Zambrycki, Emma. “Early Classes May Lead to Poor Performance.” The Daily

Toreador, 24 Sept. 2014, www.dailytoreador.com/news/early-classes-may-lead-


Emma Zambrycki introduces a similar idea to Amy Wang’s, which is that if

students are forced to go to school earlier they cannot perform at a higher level. Using

research done on circadian rhythms, done by Jason Van Allen and Roman Taraban,

this can vary from person to person and can change their sleep-wake cycles. With this

information they concluded that, these circadian rhythms, combined with poor habits

from the person, can lead to students losing focus and being less alert. Zambrycki’s

idea, backed by research, is essentially that circadian rhythms can add on to the early

school start times which causes much more fatigue in students. Ultimately, this just

another cause to the list as to how lack of sleep can affect a student’s performance. I

wanted this source because it can add validity to claims I will likely make in my short

story. Furthermore, I can present this idea as another cause for my protagonist to be a

frequent sleeper in class, and give it an actual scientific background.

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