Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

International Conference

Nuclear Energy in Central Europe 2000


Golf Hotel, Bled, Slovenia, September 11-14, 2000

ADVANTAGES OF ULTRASONIC TIME OF FLIGHT


DIFFRACTION (TOFD) TECHNIQUE AND R6 STRUCTURAL
INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE FOR NUCLEAR
POWER PLANT COMPONENTS

Predrag Dukić, Ines Dukić


IQA, d.o.o.
B.Cerjakov 36, 8250 Brežice, Slovenia
p.dukic@siol.net

ABSTRACT

In service inspection (ISI) of aged power plant parts has a delicate task to provide
information on presence, position, orientation and size of defects in material. As far as results
of ISI are just a starting point for elaborate procedure of structural integrity assessment, the
accuracy and reliability of these results are particularly important.

Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) technique is regarded as superior ultrasonic


technique capable to fulfil required goals [1]. In Slovenia TOFD is approved in nowadays
routine inspection of components of conventional power plants [2-14].

As there were no practical use of TOFD in Slovenian NPP yet, some experience from
Slovenian conventional thermal power plants are presented. Results of TOFD inspections of
turbine rotor and turbine inlet casing are shown [11, 12].

Simplified integrity assessment procedure (Nuclear Electric R6 procedure[15]) can


satisfy needs for assessing integrity of components in conventional PP, instead of detailed 3-D
finite element simulation. Example of application of R6 procedure in conventional PP is
shown in this paper [14]. Although R6 results are relatively conservative, this relatively
simple to use procedure could meet requirements for assessing safety margins in domestic
Nuclear power plant too.

1 INTRODUCTION

Maintaining of aged power plants is very common problem in Slovenia, since many
plants are older than 30 years. Structural integrity assessment of components of these plants
usually do not follow known procedures, like R6, R5 or BS 7910 [16, 17], neither detailed
3 – D finite element method analyses, but rely on experts opinion, based on experience and
results of simple NDT or material properties testing results.
Predrag Dukić, Ines Dukić page 2 of 8
ADVANTAGES OF ULTRASONIC TIME OF FLIGHT …

Such praxis could follow to wrong conclusions, and making decisions without well
defined acceptance criteria disables reproducibility of assessment.

Examples of inspection using TOFD on vital conventional Power Plants components


(rotor casing, and rotor shaft) and example of using R6 procedure in evaluating structural
integrity has been shown.

Application of this techniques which advantages were also approved in NESC I project
would probably improve safety and quality assurance in domestic Nuclear Power Plant.

2 INTRODUCTION TO TOFD ULTRASONIC TECHNIQUE

Technique is based on diffraction effect which occurs on every defect in the material
when it is »illuminated« by ultrasonic waves. Tip of the crack acts as a transmitter of new
ultrasonic wave, which radiates spherically from the tip. Two probes are scanning over defect
containing sample. Transmitter probe T is emitting the ultrasonic waves, whilst receiver probe
R collects all signals that appear in the area of beam coverage. In A scan view (classical
display of ultrasonic signals), two reference signals are obtained: lateral signal (L) and back-
wall echo (BWE), defining the area of interest on time axis. That means that signals of defects
are expected to be placed between L and BWE. The position of signal depends of its time of
flight, i.e. of length of path it traveled.

Advanced equipment developed for routine performing of TOFD inspection allows


presentation of inspection results in B-scan display. Selected section of A-scan is digitized
and averaged, amplitude of the signal being presented as certain level on gray scale. When
data is collected as the probes scan over the sample, the averaged A-scans are recorded at
regular intervals along the scan. The data is then presented in 2 dimensions as B-scan display.
X axis shows the length of the scan, while time axis oriented as y axis correlates with depth.

The difference between A-scan and B-scan display can be seen on Figure 1, showing
clearly the advantages of B-scan regarding detection ability, resolution etc.

Proceedings of the International Conference Nuclear Energy in Central Europe, Bled, Slovenia, Sept. 11-14, 2000
Predrag Dukić, Ines Dukić page 3 of 8
ADVANTAGES OF ULTRASONIC TIME OF FLIGHT …

Figure 1 Diffraction signals of same defects in A-scan view and B-scan view

3 TOFD INSPECTION OF TURBINE CASING

Examination and testing of 28MW turbine inlet casing is described. It was designed as a
pressure vessel and has a thick-wall section that is more prone to thermal fatigue. It has 6
steam outlets, leading to steam governor valves, every outlet surrounded by 8 bolt-holes. Due
to geometry of the component and stress-strain conditions, the most interesting is the area
between the pairs of bolt-holes between outlets.

The idea was to collect the crack size data, by performing repeated inspection by the
ultrasonic TOFD method over a certain period, hoping that the reproducibility and accuracy
of the method would be good enough to show the crack propagation. That would lead to an
estimate of the flaw growth rate during service.

TOFD examination of the inlet casing upper plate was performed manually, due to
geometry and space available on the object. Results were collected in two consecutive years:
1997 and 98. Examination variables were the same.

In this paper, B scans for pass between bolt-holes 4 and 5 are shown on Figure 2, since
they are typical for this casing. Second scan revealed presence of many new defects as well as
propagation of some known defect tips. Detailed analysis was performed, resulting in
numerical data, showing location of the defects or defect groups.

Proceedings of the International Conference Nuclear Energy in Central Europe, Bled, Slovenia, Sept. 11-14, 2000
Predrag Dukić, Ines Dukić page 4 of 8
ADVANTAGES OF ULTRASONIC TIME OF FLIGHT …

Figure 2 Consecutive inspection of inlet casing shoved propagation of the defects

4 TOFD INSPECTION OF TURBINE ROTOR

The journal of bored turbine rotor shaft was inspected, after the pulse-echo examination
revealed presence of many defects with signals equivalent to 5mm FBH. In TOFD
examination, the surface was scanned manually with two 2 MHz shock wave probes, their
position monitored by encoder. Special consideration was given to precise marking of every
start position of the probes, in order to obtain complete but not overlapping array of scanned
areas on the journal Figure 3.

Figure 3 Scanning areas and directions on rotor shaft journal

The obtained scans formed a kind of map where individual defects were marked. The
map shoved that besides many single defects, most of them were aligned in axial direction.
Repeated scanning along this path resulted in B-scan shown on Figure 4 showing large
125mm long echo from a long planar crack, with through-wall extent of 24mm.

Proceedings of the International Conference Nuclear Energy in Central Europe, Bled, Slovenia, Sept. 11-14, 2000
Predrag Dukić, Ines Dukić page 5 of 8
ADVANTAGES OF ULTRASONIC TIME OF FLIGHT …

Figure 4 B-scan of the long planar defect in the rotor shaft

5 STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT OF TURBINE CASING USING R6


PROCEDURE

Inlet casing was manufactured of the cast as declared in documentation 21 CrMoV 511.

In microstructure of the material, there was no evidence of creep degradation. The


microstructure is inhomogenous considering grain size and microconstituents.

Mechanical properties were below the level required for quoted material, while
dispersion of charpy toughness and/or fracture toughness results confirms conclusion on
inhomogenity of the material.

Stress state in the area of revealed cracks depends essentialy on screw tightening force.
The same force influences strongly inlet casing degradation. Plasticaly deformed threads
confirm that.

Failure assessment according to R6 gives the following conclusion: considering present


cracks, stress condition caused by normal exploitation parameters and measured material
properties, result is hardly but stil in safe area.

Sensitivity analisys of load show that only 10% varying load cause crack.Sensitivity
study of material property influence shows that in case of normal/required mechanical
properties it would not come to the failure, even with load variation of more than 20%

Proceedings of the International Conference Nuclear Energy in Central Europe, Bled, Slovenia, Sept. 11-14, 2000
Predrag Dukić, Ines Dukić page 6 of 8
ADVANTAGES OF ULTRASONIC TIME OF FLIGHT …

Figure 5 Failure assessment diagram showing sensitivity analisys of load, for degraded
material

Figure 6 Failure assessment diagram showing sensitivity analisys of load, for


appropriate material

Proceedings of the International Conference Nuclear Energy in Central Europe, Bled, Slovenia, Sept. 11-14, 2000
Predrag Dukić, Ines Dukić page 7 of 8
ADVANTAGES OF ULTRASONIC TIME OF FLIGHT …

The condition of casing upper plate is caused with inhomogeneous material whose
mechanical properties are below required level for quoted material at normal as well as high
temperatures.

Inhomogeneous microstructure, reflected in broad dispersion of fracture toughness


results, obviously being consequence of casting technology, can not endure stresses enlarged
by additional loads caused by inadequate screw tightening.

6 CONCLUSIONS

Based on our own experiences in using TOFD in Slovenian conventional Power Plants,
which are in accordance with conclusions made in NESC I project we can make next
conclusions:

1. TOFD is very helpful and useful ultrasonic technique, in inspection castings, forgines and
welds. Advantages of technique are its accuracy, reliability, fastness, and its very good
reproducibility.
2. Nuclear Electric R6 Structural integrity assessment procedure is fast and relatively simple
to use, conservative, and it is in accordance with British Standard PD 6493 (Now BS
7910), and European Commission Brite Euram SINTAP (Structural INTegrity
Assessment Procedure) procedure, which are proposals to European Standard.

Based on our first two conclusions, and recommendations for TOFD given in
conclusions of NESC I we suggest practical application of TOFD and R6 in domestic
Nuclear Power Plant too.

7 REFERENCES

[1] Bass, R.., Wintle, J., and Hurst, R..C., 27-28 March 2000. ESC-1 Project Overview,
pre-print issued at the NESC-1 seminar,

[2] Dukić, I., Dukić, P., 24-25. April 1997. Advantages of ultrasonic diffraction technique
in estimating the remaining life of critical components in machanical engineering. In:
Grum, J., Conference proceedings of the 4th international conference of slovenian
society for nondestructive testing, Slovenian Society for Nondestructive Testing Faculty
of Mechanical, Ljubljana, Slovenia, pp. 41-49.

[3] Dukić, I., Dukić, P., Dejanovič, B., Brščič, A.., 28.-.30. maj 1997. Importance of Time
of Flight Diffraction Technique (TOFD) in integrity assessment of critical components
in Power Plants. In: Dejanovič, B., Ribarič-Lastnik, C., Proc. 1. International
Conference Sanation of Thermal Power Plants, Društvo energetikov Šoštanj, Rogaška
Slatina, Slovenia, pp. 160-164.

[4] Dukić, P., Dukić, I., Švegelj, R., Godec, P., 27.-28. Maj, 1997. Modern Methods for
assessment of safety and reliability of Hydro Power Plants, In: IMK, Proc. Of
Conference 3th Slovenian days of steel construction, Pregl, M., Ljubljana, Slovenia, pp.
220-228.

[5] Dukić, I., Dukić, P., 1998. Results of In Service Ultrasonic Time of Flight Examination
of Generator Rotor Schaft. In: Edwards, J.H., Flewitt, P. E. J., Gasper, B. C., McLarty,
K. A., Stanley, P., Tomkins, B., Fourth International Conference Engineering Structural
Integrity Assessment, Churchill College, Cambridge, UK, pp. 103-108.

Proceedings of the International Conference Nuclear Energy in Central Europe, Bled, Slovenia, Sept. 11-14, 2000
Predrag Dukić, Ines Dukić page 8 of 8
ADVANTAGES OF ULTRASONIC TIME OF FLIGHT …

[6] Dukić, I., Dukić, P., 2000. Containment for a 15th World Conference on Non-
Destructive Testing, Advantages and Limitations of TOFD Technique in Casting
Inspection., Roma, to appear.

[7] Dukić, P., Dukić, I., Kmetič, D., 1998. Detection of Small Failures in Forging Peaces
and Casting by Time of Flight Diffraction Technique. In: Vodopivec, F., IMT,
Ljubljana, Metals Alloys Technologies, IMT, Ljubljana, Slovenia, pp. 111-113.

[8] Dukić, P., NDT on 75MW, LP Turbine, blok3, TE Šoštanj, MATKONERG report Nr.
MTN.U.06.92, June,1992.

[9] Dukić, P., NDT on 30MW Turbine, LP, blok2, TE Šoštanj, MATKONERG report Nr.
B2. NT.DL.1/93, January, 1993.

[10] Dukić ,P., TOFD Inspection of Shrunk – on disks on LP Turbine 65 MW,


MATKONERG Report Nr. MTN.I.Z.005.95.0, 1995.

[11] Dukić, P., TOFD Inspection of Inlet Casing on 28 MW Turbine, TE-TO Ljubljana,
MATKONERG Report Nr.MTN.I.Z.005.97.0, 1997.

[12] Dukić, P., NDT on TA2 Turbine, TE Brestanica, MATKONERG Report Nr.
MTN.I.Z.006.97.0., June 1997

[13] Dukić, P., NDT of 345 MW Turbine, TE Šoštanj, October 1999.

[14] P.Dukić, Integrity assessment of Inlet Casing, 28 MW, TE-TO Ljubljana, report
Nr.Z99-010. December 1999.

[15] R6 Assessment of the Integrity of Structures containing Defects: Nuclear Electric –


Confidential, October 1998.

[16] R5 Assessment procedure for the high temperature response of structures: Nuclear
Electric – In confidence, June 1998.

[17] BS 7910, British Standards Institution, London, UK, December 1999.

Proceedings of the International Conference Nuclear Energy in Central Europe, Bled, Slovenia, Sept. 11-14, 2000