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LTE/SAE System Overview STUDENT BOOK LZT1238828 R15A LZT1238828 R15A

LTE/SAE System Overview

STUDENT BOOK LZT1238828 R15A

LZT1238828 R15A

DISCLAIMER LTE/SAE System Overview This book is a training document and contains simplifications. Therefore, it

DISCLAIMER

LTE/SAE System Overview

This book is a training document and contains simplifications. Therefore, it must not be considered as a specification of the system.

The contents of this document are subject to revision without notice due to ongoing progress in methodology, design and manufacturing.

Ericsson shall have no liability for any error or damage of any kind resulting from the use of this document.

This document is not intended to replace the technical documentation that was shipped with your system. Always refer to that technical documentation during operation and maintenance.

© Ericsson AB 2017

This document was produced by Ericsson.

The book is to be used for training purposes only and it is strictly prohibited to copy, reproduce, disclose or distribute it in any manner without the express written consent from Ericsson.

This Student Book, LZT1238828, R15A supports course number

LZU1087020.

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents

1 LTE/SAE INTRODUCTION

Table of Contents Table of Contents 1 LTE/SAE INTRODUCTION 11 1 INTRODUCTION 12 1.1 LTE BASIC

11

1

INTRODUCTION

12

1.1

LTE BASIC REQUIREMENTS (REL 8)

16

1.1.1

TARGET RATES FOR USER THROUGHPUT

17

1.1.2

TARGETS FOR SPECTRUM EFFICIENCY

18

1.2

OVERALL EVOLVED PACKET SYSTEM (EPS)

ARCHITECTURE

19

2 LTE RADIO INTERFACE

22

3 PROTOCOL STATES AND MOBILITY

24

4 QOS HANDLING

25

5 SUMMARY

28

2 EPC ARCHITECTURE

29

1

EPC ARCHITECTURE

30

1.1

ERICSSON VOLTE ARCHITECTURE

31

1.2

MOBILITY MANAGEMENT ENTITY (MME)

31

1.2.1

MKVIII

32

1.2.2

MKX

 

34

1.2.3

VIRTUAL SGSN-MME

36

1.3

VSGSN-MME

ARCHITECTURE

36

1.4

POLICY AND CHARGING RULES FUNCTION (PCRF)

38

1.5

HOME SUBSCRIBER SERVER (HSS)

39

1.6

SERVING GATEWAY (SGW)

39

1.7

PACKET DATA NETWORK GATEWAY (PGW)

40

2

MME AND S-GW POOLING

43

3

OVERVIEW SAE/LTE INTERFACES

45

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LTE/SAE System Overview 3.1 UU INTERFACE 47 3.2 S1 INTERFACE 47 3.3 X2 INTERFACE 49

LTE/SAE System Overview

3.1

UU INTERFACE

47

3.2

S1 INTERFACE

47

3.3

X2 INTERFACE

49

3.4

OTHER EPS INTERFACES

49

4

EVOLVED IP NETWORK SOLUTION

52

5

SUMMARY

54

3 E-UTRAN ARCHITECTURE

57

1

INTRODUCTION

58

1.1

ENB FUNCTIONALITY

58

2

LTE AIR INTERFACE

61

2.1

OFDMA/SC-FDMA FREQUENCY DOMAIN

61

2.2

OFDMA/SC-FDMA

TIME DOMAIN

63

2.3

ADAPTIVE

MODULATION

65

2.4

ADAPTIVE CODING

66

2.5

MULTIPLE INPUT MULTIPLE OUTPUT (MIMO)

67

2.6

LTE SCHEDULING

68

2.7

DOWNLINK PHYSICAL BIT RATES

68

2.8

CARRIER AGGREGATION

70

2.9

UPLINK PHYSICAL BIT RATES

74

2.10

CARRIER AGGREGATION IN UPLINK

74

2.11

REFERENCE SIGNALS

74

2.12

LEAN CARRIER

76

2.13

UE CATEGORIES

76

2.14

LTE FREQUENCY BANDS

79

2.15

TDD OPERATION

81

3 LTE-ADVANCED

 

82

4 ERICSSON RADIO SYSTEM

89

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents 4.1 SITE TYPES 92 4.1.1 SERIES 93 4.2 RADIO NODES 100 4.2.1 RADIO

4.1

SITE TYPES

92

4.1.1

SERIES

93

4.2

RADIO NODES

100

4.2.1

RADIO MODULES

101

4.2.2

SMAL CELLS

 

104

4.2.3

BASEBAND MODULES

109

4.3

TRANSPORT

114

4.3.1

ERICSSON

BACKHAUL

115

4.3.2

ERICSSON

FRONTHAUL

116

4.4

ENCLOSURE

117

4.4.1

ENCLOSURE NEW FAMILY

119

4.4.2

POWER PRODUCTS

120

5

SYNCHRONIZATION IN LTE

121

5.1

WHY AND WHEN SYNCHRONIZATION IS NEEDED

121

5.2

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF

SYNCHRONIZATION

 

123

5.3

WHAT ARE THE SOLUTIONS FOR SYNCHRONIZATION?

123

5.4

ERICSSONS SYNCHRONIZATION ALTERNATIVES

124

6

SECURITY IN LTE

126

6.1

INTEGRATED SECURITY CONTROL

127

6.2

AIR INTERFACE SECURITY

128

6.3

TRANSPORT

NETWORK SECURITY

128

6.4

TRANSPORT AND AIR INTERFACE SECURITY

129

6.5

SMALL CELL AUTO INTEGRATION ON UNTRUSTED

BACKHAUL

 

130

6.6 DIGITAL CERTIFICATE AND PKI INFRASTRUCTURE

132

6.7 REAL TIME SECURITY EVENT LOGGING

133

6.8 NODE HARDENING

134

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LTE/SAE System Overview 6.9 SECURE EXECUTION ENVIRONMENT 134 7 SUMMARY 136 4 KEY LTE SOLUTIONS

LTE/SAE System Overview

6.9

SECURE EXECUTION ENVIRONMENT

134

7

SUMMARY

136

4 KEY LTE SOLUTIONS

137

1

VOICE AND LTE

 

138

1.1

CS FALLBACK

139

1.1.1

EMERGENCY CALL HANDLING

140

1.2

VOLTE (IMS BASED MMTEL)

141

1.2.1

IMS AND STANDARDIZATION

141

1.2.2

MMTEL BASIC SERVICE

143

1.2.3

THE MMTEL SERVICE PLATFORM

144

1.2.4

ERICSSON

IMS

PORTFOLIO OVERVIEW

145

1.2.5

ERICSSON IMS

NODES

146

1.3

PORTFOLIO RELATED TO IMS

150

1.3.1

INTERWORKING

 

150

1.3.2

SUPPORT SYSTEMS

151

1.3.3

ERICSSON ENRICHED COMMUNICATION SERVICES

155

1.3.4

VOLTE ARCHITECTURE

156

1.3.5

IMS ARCHITECTURE

157

1.3.6

MOBILITY - SINGLE RADIO VOICE CALL CONTINUITY

(SRVCC)

 

161

1.4

WI-FI CALLING

 

163

2

LTE BROADCAST

166

2.1

LTE BROADCAST NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

167

2.2

SERVICES AND MBSFN PRINCIPLE

168

3

LOCATION SERVICES

 

170

3.1

GATEWAY MOBILE POSITIONING CENTER (GMPC)

FUNCTIONAL OVERVIEW

 

171

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents 3.2 SERVING MOBILE POSITIONING CENTER (SMPC) FUNCTIONAL OVERVIEW 172 4 SUMMARY 173 5

3.2 SERVING MOBILE POSITIONING CENTER (SMPC)

FUNCTIONAL OVERVIEW

172

4

SUMMARY

173

5 LTE MOBILITY

175

1

INTRODUCTION

176

2

IDLE MODE MOBILITY

177

2.1

PERIODIC TAU

177

3

CONNECTED MODE MOBILITY

179

3.1

INTRA LTE INTRA FREQUENCY HANDOVER

181

3.1.1

INTRA-LTE HANDOVER TYPES

182

3.2

POOR COVERAGE HANDLING

183

3.2.1

SESSION CONTINUITY, INTER-FREQUENCY AND IRAT

HANDOVER

184

3.2.2

LTE AND WI-FI MOBILITY

185

4

SUMMARY

186

6 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE IN LTE RAN

187

1

OVERVIEW

188

2

O&M ARCHITECTURE IN LTE RAN

194

2.1

OSS-RC AND ENM

194

2.2

G1 RBS (MACRO, MICRO) O&M ARCHITECTURE

196

2.3

PICO RBS (RBS 6402) O&M ARCHITECTURE

197

2.4

G2 RBS (BASEBAND 52XX) O&M ARCHITECTURE

197

3

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE (O&M) AREAS

198

3.1

CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT

198

3.2

FAULT MANAGEMENT

200

3.3

SECURITY MANAGEMENT

203

3.4

SOFTWARE MANAGEMENT

203

3.5

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

205

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LTE/SAE System Overview 4 SON CONCEPTS   208 4.1 INTRODUCTION: 208 4.2 SON RELATED FEATURES

LTE/SAE System Overview

4

SON CONCEPTS

 

208

4.1

INTRODUCTION:

208

4.2

SON RELATED

FEATURES

210

4.2.1

AUTOMATED NEIGHBOR RELATIONS (ANR)

210

4.2.2

AUTOMATED

MOBILITY

OPTIMIZATION

215

4.2.3

AUTOINTEGRATION OF

RBS (AUTO PROVISIONING)

216

4.2.4

AUTOMATIC PCI ASSIGNMENT

218

4.2.5

ADVANCED CELL SUPERVISION

220

4.2.6

INTER-CELL INTERFACE COORDINATION

221

4.2.7

SON OPTIMIZATION MANAGER

222

5

HARDWARE MANAGEMENT FEATURES

225

5.1

MULTI-CABINET CONTROL

 

225

5.2

ANTENNA

SYSTEM MONITORING

225

6

OTHER LTE RBS KEY O&M FEATURES

228

6.1

FAULT CORRELATION RULE ENGINE

228

6.2

PLUG AND

PLAY OF HARDWARE

229

6.3

CO-SITING

AND MIXED MODE SUPPORT

229

6.4

DIRECT READING OF KPIS

 

229

6.5

SHARED NETWORK SUPPORT

230

6.6

MINIMIZATION OF DRIVE TESTS

230

7

SERVICES

232

7.1

PROACTIVE SUPPORT SERVICES

232

8

SUMMARY

233

7 THE ROAD TO 5G

235

1

5G BACKGROUND AND CONCEPTS

236

1.1

MOBILE SUBSCRIPTIONS GROWTH

236

1.2

5G IMPACT ON NETWORK SOCIETY

238

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents 1.3 5G IMPACT ON ICT – INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY 239 1.3.1 NEW

1.3 5G IMPACT ON ICT – INFORMATION AND

COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

239

1.3.1

NEW PRACTICES NEEDED

239

2

THE STANDARDIZATION

241

2.1

3GPP

242

2.2

METIS

243

3

EVOLUTION OF MOBILE BROADBAND

246

3.1

5G USES

CASES

247

3.1.1

SMART

GRID

248

3.2

VIRTUALIZATION

249

3.2.1

NFV AND SDN

250

3.2.2

ERICSSON HDS

252

4

NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

254

4.1

LTE REFERENCE ARCHITECTURE

254

4.1.1

INTERFACES

254

4.2

SIMILAR LOGICAL NETWORK

255

4.3

COMMON NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

255

4.4

RADIO ACCESS

257

4.4.1

MASSIVE MIMO

260

4.4.2

ERICSSON RADIO SYSTEM

261

5

SUMMARY

262

8 INDEX

263

9 TABLE OF FIGURES

269

10 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

273

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LTE/SAE System Overview

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LTE/SAE Introduction

LTE/SAE Introduction 1 LTE/SAE Introduction Objectives On completion of this chapter the students will be able

1 LTE/SAE Introduction

Objectives

On completion of this chapter the students will be able to:

1

Explain the background and architecture of E-UTRAN and EPC

1.1

Describe the evolution of cellular networks

1.2

Summarize the evolution of 3GPP releases, from release 99 to release 14

1.3

Explain the logical architecture of EPS and the interworking with other

technologies

1.4 Explain the EPS bearer concept and give an overview of the LTE QoS

framework

Figure 1-1: Objectives of Chapter 1

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1 LTE/SAE System Overview INTRODUCTION This course describes the Long Term Evolution (LTE) and System

1

LTE/SAE System Overview

INTRODUCTION

This course describes the Long Term Evolution (LTE) and System Architecture Evolution (SAE) for third generation cellular networks as in Release 8 of 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project). The focus is on the system from a Mobile Broadband (MBB) service point of view. Voice service is briefly discussed in the IMS chapter.

The term “generation” regarding cellular network evolution is sometimes misleading and not always accurate. However, many people often refer to “2G”, “3G” or even “4G” when it comes to the different generations of the mobile telecommunications systems.

The following historical overview is based on conventional and informal terms in the mobile industry, media and press.

First generation (1G) of modern cellular networks includes e.g. NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephony), AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service) and TACS (Total Access Communication System). These systems all have in common that the user traffic, which is voice, is transmitted with analogue FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) radio techniques. NMT was developed during the seventies and launched 1981.

Second generation (2G) includes systems like GSM (Global System for Mobile communications), D-AMPS (Dual-mode AMPS), PDC (Personal Digital Communications) and IS-95. The new thing with these systems was that they supported both voice and data traffic with digital TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) or CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) circuit switched radio techniques. GSM standardization started in 1982 and it was launched 1991.

Enhancements of 2G, like the introduction of packet data GPRS (General Packet Radio Service), is often referred to as 2.5G. Further enhancements, like EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM and TDMA Evolution), is referred to as 2.75G.

In 1986, the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) started to work on the IMT-2000 standard, which is a guideline for every Third generation (3G) standard. In 1992, the World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC) identified the radio frequency bands 1885-2025 and 2110-2200 MHz as the common worldwide spectrum for 3G systems.

In January 1998, European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) reached a consensus where WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) and TD-CDMA (Time Division- Code Division Multiple Access) were chosen as multiple access methods for the FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) and TDD (Time Division Duplex) mode of UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System), respectively. UMTS is the term used in Europe for 3G systems. 3G was commercially launched 2001 in Japan and 2003 in Europe.

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LTE/SAE Introduction

LTE/SAE Introduction Figure 1-2: History briefly summarizes the history of cellular technologies. › 1G FDMA (NMT,

Figure 1-2: History briefly summarizes the history of cellular technologies.

1G FDMA (NMT, AMPS, TACS)

80’s

-

Voice (analog traffic, digital signaling)

- Voice (analog traffic, digital signaling)

2G TDMA (GSM, D-AMPS, PDC) and CDMA (IS-95)

90’s

- Voice, SMS, CS data transfer ~ 9.6 kbit/s (50 kbit/s HSCSD)

2.5G TDMA (GPRS)

00’s

-

PS data transfer ~ 50 kbit/s

2.75G TDMA (GPRS+EDGE)

 

00’s

-

PS data ~ 500kbit/s

- PS data ~ 500kbit/s

3-3.5G WCDMA (UMTS) and CDMA 2000

00’s

- PS & CS data transfer ~ 14-84 Mbit/s (HSPA/HSPA+), Voice, SMS

› 3.9G OFDMA (LTE/SAE) - PS Data and Voice (VoIP) for LTE ~ 300 Mbit/s
› 3.9G OFDMA (LTE/SAE)
- PS Data and Voice (VoIP) for LTE ~ 300 Mbit/s

4G OFDMA (LTE Advanced/Pro)

IMT Advanced (3GPP Rel 10-13)

Higher spectrum efficiency, ~ 1 Gbit/s

5G OFDMA (5G, 5E, 5X…)

IMT 2020 (3GPP Rel 14- )

Lower latency, flexibility, energy efficiency,… ~10 Gbit/s

Figure 1-2: History

2010 2015 2020
2010
2015
2020

The 3 rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaboration agreement that was established in December 1998. The collaboration agreement brings together a number of telecommunications standards bodies, e.g. ARIB, CCSA, ETSI, TTA and TTC.

The original scope of 3GPP was to produce globally applicable Technical Specifications and Technical Reports for a 3rd Generation Mobile System based on evolved GSM core networks and the radio access technologies that they support (i.e., Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) both Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) modes). The scope was subsequently amended to include the maintenance and development of the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) Technical Specifications and Technical Reports including evolved radio access technologies (e.g. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE)). See www.3gpp.org for further information.

The first practically implemented 3GPP specification for WCDMA was released and frozen 1999 and is called Release 99.

WCDMA Release 99 supports both circuit switched (CS) and packet switched (PS) traffic up to a theoretical rate 2 Mbps.

The evolution of 3G called HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access, specified in Release 5 - 2002) and HSUPA (High Speed Uplink Packet Access, specified in Release 6 – 2004) increase the maximum downlink (DL) bit rate to 14 Mbps and the uplink (UL) rate to maximum 5.76 Mbps. HSDPA and HSUPA is referred to as HSPA (High Speed Packet Access). HSUPA is also called EUL (Enhanced Uplink).

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LTE/SAE System Overview The next step for WCDMA, called HSPA evolution or HSPA+, is currently

LTE/SAE System Overview

The next step for WCDMA, called HSPA evolution or HSPA+, is currently ongoing (specified in Release 7 and 8) and aims to increase the maximum bit rates even further (up to 42 Mbps in DL). This is accomplished using e.g. MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) antenna solutions and Higher Order Modulation (HOM).

In September 2007 the 3GPP family was extended with yet another member, the Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN). The work with creating the concept was officially started in the summer of 2006 when the study phase was successfully completed and the 3GPP work item “3G Long Term Evolution – Evolved Packet System RAN” (LTE) commenced. More than 50 companies and research institutes are participating in the largest joint standardization effort ever to specify the new world wide radio access and the evolved core network technology.

Ericsson is playing a key role as an important and visual driver in this process.

3G R99 Rel 4 Rel 5 Rel 6 WCDMA WCDMA/HSPA HSUPA HSDPA MBMS
3G
R99
Rel 4
Rel 5
Rel 6
WCDMA
WCDMA/HSPA
HSUPA
HSDPA
MBMS

HSPA / HSPA +

Rel 7 Rel 8 HSPA Evolution MIMO HOM Further enhancements 4G 5G CPC Rel 9
Rel 7
Rel 8
HSPA Evolution
MIMO
HOM
Further
enhancements
4G
5G
CPC
Rel 9
Rel 10-13
Rel 14-
LTE
LTE
Dual Band support
LTE
Evolution
Advanced
IRAT Enhancements
& NR
Pro
MIMO, MTC, LAA and
D2D enhancements

gradually improved performance at a low additional cost.

LTE

improved performance in a wide range of spectrum allocations with increased simplicity and reduced cost.

Figure 1-3: 3G Evolution

The standard development in 3GPP is grouped into two work items, where Long Term Evolution (LTE) targets the radio network evolution and System Architecture Evolution (SAE) targets the evolution of the packet core network. Common to both LTE and SAE is that only a Packet Switched (PS) domain will be specified. The result of these work items are the Evolved UTRAN (E- UTRAN) and the Evolved Packet Core (EPC). These together (E-UTRAN+EPC) builds the Evolved Packet System (EPS).

LTE/SAE is specified from Release 8.

Note that LTE and SAE refer to the work items in 3GPP. The name of the actual Radio Access Network (RAN) is E-UTRAN and the name of the Core Network (CN) is EPC.

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LTE/SAE Introduction A parallel Partnership Project was also established - "3GPP2," which, quite similar to its

A parallel Partnership Project was also established - "3GPP2," which, quite similar to its sister project 3GPP, also standardizes International Telecommunication Union's (ITU) International Mobile Telecommunications "IMT-2000" based networks. 3GPP2 focuses on the evolution of cdmaOne with cdma2000 and EV-DO (HRPD) while 3GPP focuses on the evolution of GSM, WCDMA, HSPA and LTE. 3GPP2 is divided into four Technical specification groups comprised of representatives from the Project's Individual Member companies.

The TSGs are:

- TSG-A for Access Network Interfaces

- TSG-C for cdma2000

- TSG-S Services and Systems Aspects

- TSG-X Core Networks

GSM Track (3GPP) GSM WCDMA HSPA/HSPA+ LTE TD-SCDMA LTE - FDD FDD and TDD CDMA
GSM Track (3GPP)
GSM
WCDMA
HSPA/HSPA+
LTE
TD-SCDMA
LTE
-
FDD
FDD and TDD
CDMA Track (3GPP2)
- TDD
CDMA One
EVDO Rev A
2001 2005
2008
2010

LTE is the Global standard for Mobile Broadband in high speed - FDD and TDD

Figure 1-4: Mobile System Evolution

The E-UTRAN standard is based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) downlink operation and Single Carrier Frequency Domain Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) uplink operation. These choices support great spectrum flexibility with a number of possible deployments from 1.4 MHz up to 20 MHz spectrum allocations. It will support both FDD and TDD mode of operation and targets both a paired spectrum allocation with uplink and downlink separated in frequency, and unpaired spectrum with uplink and downlink operating on the same frequency.

Furthermore, E-UTRAN supports use of different MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) multiple antenna configurations. This increases the data rates and spectrum efficiency.

LTE is sometimes referred to as 3.9G. Why not 4G? Well, ITU has defined IMT Advanced, which is the follower to IMT2000. IMT Advanced is regarded as 4G and is meant to support theoretical bitrates up to approximately 1Gbit/s and may be deployed with LTE Advanced as a foundation.

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LTE/SAE System Overview The first commercial LTE networks based on Release 8 was implemented in

LTE/SAE System Overview

The first commercial LTE networks based on Release 8 was implemented in

2009.

EPS in Release 8 is based on a simplified network architecture compared to Release 6. The number of user-plane nodes is reduced from four in Release 6 (NodeB, RNC, SGSN and GGSN) to only two (e-NodeB and SAE-GW) in EPS. The SAE-GW can be divided into a Serving GW (S-GW) and a Packet Data GW (P-GW), but often resides in the same physical node, referred to as SAE-GW or P/S-GW. A control plane node called MME (Mobility Management Entity) is also part of EPC.

1.1 LTE Basic Requirements (Rel 8)

The performance of LTE as specified in Release 8 shall fulfill a number of requirements regarding throughput and latency listed below. This seems to be quite easily achieved, thanks to, among other improvements, the simplified network architecture. Data rates of more than 300 Mbps in DL seems to be possible to reach.

Also, it is a requirement that E-UTRAN architecture should reduce the cost of future network deployment whilst enabling the usage of existing site locations. It is expected that the reduction of the number of nodes and interfaces contributes to this overall goal.

Furthermore, should all specified interfaces be open for multi-vendor equipment interoperability. There are two identified interfaces that will be standardized, S1 and X2. For them no major problems regarding multi-vendor interoperability have been identified during the study item phase.

E-UTRA should support significantly increased instantaneous peak data rates. The supported peak data rate should scale according to size of the spectrum allocation.

Note that the peak data rates may depend on the numbers of transmit and receive antennas (MIMO configuration) at the UE (User Equipment). The targets for DL and UL peak data rates are specified in terms of a reference UE configuration comprising:

a) Downlink capability: 2 receive antennas at UE

b) Uplink capability: 1 transmit antenna at UE

For this baseline configuration, the system should support an instantaneous downlink peak data rate of 100Mbps within a 20 MHz downlink spectrum allocation (5 bps/Hz) and an instantaneous uplink peak data rate of 50Mbps (2.5 bps/Hz) within a 20MHz uplink spectrum allocation. The peak data rates should then scale linearly with the size of the spectrum allocation.

In case of spectrum shared between downlink and uplink transmission, E-UTRA does not need to support the above instantaneous peak data rates simultaneously.

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LTE/SAE Introduction

LTE/SAE Introduction The control plane latency should be lower than 100ms. The control plane latency is

The control plane latency should be lower than 100ms. The control plane latency is here defined as the transition time from ECM-IDLE to ECM-CONNECTED state (see later in this chapter for definition of these states).

Also, the one-way user plane latency shall not exceed 5 ms in an unloaded situation for small IP-packets.

High data rates

Downlink: >100 Mbps

Uplink: >50 Mbps

Cell-edge data rates 2-3 x HSPA Rel. 6 (@ 2006)

Low delay/latency

User plane RTT: < 10 ms RAN RTT

Channel set-up: < 100 ms idle-to-active

High spectral efficiency

Targeting 3 X HSPA Rel. 6 (@ 2006 )

Spectrum flexibility

Cost-effective migration from current/future 3G systems

State-of-the-art towards 4G

Focus on services from the packet-switched domain

Operation in a wide-range of spectrum allocations, new and existing

Wide range of Bandwidth: 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz, FDD and TDD

Simplicity – Less signaling, Auto Configuration e-NodeB

– ”PnP”, ”Simple as an Apple”

e-NodeB – ”PnP”, ”Simple as an Apple” Figure 1-5: LTE 3GPP Rel 8 Targets 1.1.1 Target

Figure 1-5: LTE 3GPP Rel 8 Targets

1.1.1 Target rates for user throughput

Downlink

- Target for user throughput per MHz at the 5 % point of the C.D.F., 2 to 3 times Release 6 HSDPA.

- Target for averaged user throughput per MHz, 3 to 4 times Release 6 HSDPA

Both targets should be achieved assuming Release 6 reference performance is based on a single Tx antenna at the Node B with enhanced performance type 1 receiver in UE whilst the E-UTRA may use a maximum of 2 Tx antennas at the

Node B and 2 Rx antennas at the UE.

- The supported user throughput should scale with the spectrum bandwidth.

Uplink

- Target for user throughput per MHz at the 5 % point of the C.D.F., 2 to 3 times Release 6 Enhanced Uplink (deployed with a single Tx antenna at the UE and 2 Rx antennas at the Node B).

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LTE/SAE System Overview - Target for averaged user throughput per MHz, 2 to 3 times

LTE/SAE System Overview

- Target for averaged user throughput per MHz, 2 to 3 times Release 6 Enhanced Uplink (deployed with a single Tx antenna at the UE and 2 Rx antennas at the Node B).

- Both should be achievable by the E-UTRA using a maximum of a single Tx

antenna at the UE and 2 Rx antennas at the Node B. Greater user throughput

should be achievable using multiple Tx antennas at the UE.

- The user throughput should scale with the spectrum bandwidth provided that the maximum transmit power is also scaled.

1.1.2 Targets for spectrum efficiency

E-UTRA should deliver significantly improved spectrum efficiency and increased cell edge bit rate whilst maintaining the same site locations as deployed today.

Spectrum efficiency needs to be significantly increased as following:

Downlink

In a loaded network, target for spectrum efficiency (bits/sec/Hz/site), 3 to 4 times Release 6 HSDPA This should be achieved assuming Release 6 reference performance is based on a single Tx antenna at the Node B with enhanced performance type 1 receiver in UE whilst the E-UTRA may use a maximum of 2 Tx antennas at the Node B and 2 Rx antennas at the UE.

Uplink

In a loaded network, target for spectrum efficiency (bits/sec/Hz/site), 2 to 3 times Release 6 Enhanced Uplink (deployed with a single Tx antenna at the UE and 2 Rx antennas at the Node B). This should be achievable by the E-UTRA using a maximum of a single Tx antenna at the UE and 2Rx antennas at the Node B.

The 3GPP releases 9-12 will be highlighted in chapter 3, E-UTRAN Architecture.

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LTE/SAE Introduction

LTE/SAE Introduction 1.2 Overall Evolved Packet System (EPS) Architecture This part contains a description of the

1.2 Overall Evolved Packet System (EPS) Architecture

This part contains a description of the overall Evolved Packet Core (EPC) and E- UTRAN architecture, and how other 3GPP systems are integrated into this architecture. We further provide a description of the main functions provided by the different interfaces and nodes.

Overview EPS Architecture

Figure 1-6: EPS Architecture shows a simplified picture of the EPS architecture. The EPS system is made up of the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) and the E- UTRAN. The EPC provides access to external data networks (e.g., Internet, Corporate Networks) and operator services (e.g., MMS, MBMS). It also performs functions related to security (authentication, key agreement), subscriber information, charging and inter-access mobility (GERAN/UTRAN/E-UTRAN/I- WLAN/CDMA2000 etc.). The CN also tracks the mobility of inactive terminals (i.e., terminals in power saving state).

E-UTRAN performs all radio related functions for active terminals (i.e. terminals sending data).

Between the EPC and E-UTRAN there is an interface called S1 and between the eNBs there is an interface called X2.

Packet Switched Networks EPS (Evolved Packet System) SGi EPC (Evolved Packet Core) Gx 2G/3G Core
Packet
Switched
Networks
EPS (Evolved Packet System)
SGi
EPC (Evolved
Packet Core)
Gx
2G/3G Core Network
HSS
PGW
PCRF
S6a
S5/S8
MME
S10
SGs
MSC-S
S11
S3
MME
SGW
S4
SGSN
S1-C
S1-U
E-UTRAN
X2
(Evolved
UMTS
Terrestrial
eNodeB
eNodeB
WCDMA/GSM
Radio
RAN
Access
X2
X2
Network )
eNodeB

Figure 1-6: EPS Architecture

SAE

(System

Architecture

Evolution)

LTE

(Long Term

Evolution)

An E-UTRA capable terminal is connected directly to E-UTRAN. However some parts of the terminal control-plane protocol stack is also terminated in the EPC.

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LTE/SAE System Overview Similar to UMTS, EPS supports a bearer concept for supporting end-user data

LTE/SAE System Overview

Similar to UMTS, EPS supports a bearer concept for supporting end-user data services. The EPS Bearer (similar to a PDP context of previous 3GPP releases) is defined between the User Equipment (UE) and the P-GW node in the EPC (which provide the end users IP point of presence towards external networks). The EPS bearer is further sub-divided into an E-UTRAN Radio Access Bearer (E-RAB) over the radio interface and S1 between the UE and S-GW, and an S5/S8 bearer between S-GW and P-GW (S8 when S-GW and P-GW belong to different operators).

End-to-end services (e.g. IP services) are multiplexed on different EPS Bearers. There is a many-to-one relation between End-to-end services and EPS Bearers.

relation between End-to-end services and EPS Bearers. Figure 1-7: EPS Bearer Concept An UL TFT (Traffic

Figure 1-7: EPS Bearer Concept

An UL TFT (Traffic Flow Template) in the UE binds an SDF (Service Data Flow) to an EPS bearer in the uplink direction. Multiple SDFs can be multiplexed onto the same EPS bearer by including multiple uplink packet filters in the UL TFT.

A DL TFT in the PDN GW binds an SDF to an EPS bearer in the downlink direction. Multiple SDFs can be multiplexed onto the same EPS bearer by including multiple downlink packet filters in the DL TFT.

An E-RAB transports the packets of an EPS bearer between the UE and the EPC. When an E-RAB exists there is a one-to-one mapping between this E-RAB and an EPS bearer.

A data radio bearer transports the packets of an EPS bearer between a UE and an eNB. When a data radio bearer exists there is a one-to-one mapping between this data radio bearer and the EPS bearer/E-RAB.

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LTE/SAE Introduction

LTE/SAE Introduction An S1 bearer transports the packets of an E-RAB between an eNodeB and a

An S1 bearer transports the packets of an E-RAB between an eNodeB and a Serving GW.

An S5/S8 bearer transports the packets of an EPS bearer between a Serving GW and a PDN GW.

A UE stores a mapping between an uplink packet filter and a data radio bearer to

create the binding between an SDF , Service Data Flow, and a data radio bearer

in the uplink.

A PDN GW stores a mapping between a downlink packet filter and an S5/S8a

bearer to create the binding between an SDF and an S5/S8a bearer in the

downlink.

An eNB stores a one-to-one mapping between a data radio bearer and an S1 bearer to create the binding between a data radio bearer and an S1 bearer in both the uplink and downlink.

A Serving GW stores a one-to-one mapping between an S1 bearer and an S5/S8a

bearer to create the binding between an S1 bearer and an S5/S8a bearer in both the uplink and downlink.

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LTE/SAE System Overview 2 LTE RADIO INTERFACE The LTE radio interface is based on OFDM

LTE/SAE System Overview

2 LTE RADIO INTERFACE

The LTE radio interface is based on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex) in DL and SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access) in UL. These techniques are well suited for flexible bandwidth operation. This enables operators to deploy LTE in different regions with different frequency bands and bandwidths available.

OFDM also shows very good performance in highly time dispersive radio environments (i.e. many delayed and strong multipath reflexes). That is because the data stream is distributed over many subcarriers. Each subcarrier will thus have a slow symbol rate and correspondingly, a long symbol time. This means that the Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) is reduced.

The uplink transmission technique, SC-FDMA, is realized in a similar manner as for the downlink (OFDM) and is also called DFTS-OFDM (Discrete Fourier Transform Spread – OFDM). The time domain structure is also similar in uplink and downlink. SC-FDMA has much lower PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio) than OFDM. This is one of the reasons for the choice of SC-FDMA for the uplink since the power amplifier in the UE can be manufactured at a lower cost then.

In addition to that, both FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) and TDD (Time

Division Duplex) is supported, which opens up for deployment in both the paired

and unpaired spectrum. In FDD different frequency bands are used for UL and DL. In TDD the UL and DL transmissions are separated in time. There are pros and cons with both methods. TDD has some more overhead and latency due to the frequent switching in time. On the other hand, the TDD mode enables radio channel reciprocity, which means that UL measurements can be used for DL transmissions and vice versa. The TTD mode is also simpler to deploy in areas with limited available spectrum since it can utilize unpaired frequency bands.

A

half-duplex FDD mode (HD-FDD) is also defined, where the UE does not have

to

transmit at the same time as it receives. Therefore, more cost effective UEs can

be manufactured since a duplex filter is not needed.

The radio resources are defined in the time- and frequency domains and divided into so called resource blocks. Dynamic channel dependent scheduling allocates a number of these time- and frequency resources to different users at different times.

Link adaptation adapts the modulation scheme and coding rate to the varying radio channel condition.

HARQ (Hybrid Automatic Repeat and Request) caters for very quick layer 2 retransmission functionality. In addition, ordinary ARQ is implemented in the RLC layer.

The LTE radio transmissions are based on a very short TTI (Transmission Time Interval) of 1ms, which speeds up the operation of all of the above functions. The short TTI also reduces the radio interface latency, which is one of the main concerns in LTE development.

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LTE/SAE Introduction

LTE/SAE Introduction The figure below summarizes the main goals of the first LTE release (Rel 8):

The figure below summarizes the main goals of the first LTE release (Rel 8):

User #1 scheduled

goals of the first LTE release (Rel 8): User #1 scheduled Δ f=15kHz User #2 scheduled

Δf=15kHz

User #2 scheduled

Downlink: Adaptive OFDM

User #3 scheduled
User #3
scheduled

Channel-dependent scheduling and link adaptation in time and frequency domain

Uplink: SC-FDMA with dynamic bandwidth (Pre-coded OFDM)

frequency

180 kHz

Low PAPR Higher power efficiency

Reduced uplink interference (enables intra-cell orthogonality )

uplink interference (enables intra-cell orthogonality ) › Multi-Antennas, both RBS and terminal – MIMO,

Multi-Antennas, both RBS and terminal

MIMO, antenna beams, TX- and RX diversity, interference rejection

High bit rates and high capacity

frequency TX RX
frequency
TX
RX

Flexible bandwidth

Possible to deploy in 6 different bandwidths up to 20 MHz

Harmonized FDD and TDD concept

bandwidths up to 20 MHz › Harmonized FDD and TDD concept 1.4 3 5 10 15

1.4

3

5

10

15

20 MHz

Maximum commonality between FDD and TDD

Minimum UE capability: BW = 20 MHz

FDD-only Half-duplex FDD TDD-only f DL f DL f DL/UL
FDD-only
Half-duplex FDD
TDD-only
f DL
f DL
f DL/UL
MHz FDD-only Half-duplex FDD TDD-only f DL f DL f DL/UL f UL f UL Figure

f UL

Half-duplex FDD TDD-only f DL f DL f DL/UL f UL f UL Figure 1-8: LTE

f UL

Figure 1-8: LTE Physical Layer

In contrary to WCDMA the uplink transmissions in LTE are well separated within a cell (intra-cell orthogonality) thanks to the SC-FDMA solution. This leads to a less extensive power control operation.

In order to increase the spectrum efficiency, capacity and overall data rates the use of multiple antennas, MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) are included in the standard. With these multiple antennas and advanced signal processing such as spatial multiplexing, the radio channel can be separated into several layers, or “data pipes”. Up to four layers can be utilized. This corresponds to up to four times higher data rates for a given bandwidth.

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LTE/SAE System Overview 3 PROTOCOL STATES AND MOBILITY One of the major simplifications comparing with

LTE/SAE System Overview

3 PROTOCOL STATES AND MOBILITY

One of the major simplifications comparing with Rel 6 WCDMA that are made in EPS are in the area of protocol states. While in WCDMA there are four different RRC States defined while being connected (Cell_DCH, Cell_FACH, URA_PCH and Cell_PCH) in LTE there is only one and that is RRC_Connected. As

Figure 1-9: Protocol States and Mobility illustrates there are only two RRC States: IDLE and CONNECTED. On the EPC side UE can be either EMM_DEREGISTERED or EMM_REGISTERED.

MME Tracking Area Update (TAU) Handover eNB Tracking Area (TA) UE position known on TA
MME
Tracking Area Update
(TAU)
Handover
eNB
Tracking Area (TA)
UE position known on TA level in MME
UE position known on Cell level
in eNodeB
Detach, Attach reject,
TAU reject
Signaling
connection
establishment
UE position
not known
in network
ECM- IDLE
ECM-CONNECTED
RRC_IDLE
RRC_IDLE
RRC_CONNECTED
PLMN
Signaling
EMM-
selection
EMM-
connection
DEREGISTERED
release
REGISTERED

Attach accept,

TAU accept

Figure 1-9: Protocol States and Mobility

ECM: EPS Connection Management

EMM: EPS Mobility Management

RRC: Radio Resource Control

In EPS cells are grouped in Tracking Area (TA) comparing with WCDMA where cells are grouped into Routing Areas (RAs) Location Areas (Las) and UMTS Registration Areas (URAs). Further a single UE can be known on TA list level decreasing signaling load.

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LTE/SAE Introduction

4 QOS HANDLING

LTE/SAE Introduction 4 QOS HANDLING The LTE Quality of Service (QoS) Handling coordinates and assigns the

The LTE Quality of Service (QoS) Handling coordinates and assigns the appropriate QoS to other functions in LTE RAN. The RBS maps QCIs (Quality of Service Class Indicators) to priorities for different Data Radio Bearers (DRBs) in the LTE radio interface and different data flows in the transport network.

The LTE QoS Handling complies with the 3GPP Rel 8 QoS concept. It provides service differentiation per user equipment by support of multiple parallel bearers. To provide service differentiation in the uplink, traffic separation must be ensured between the different data flows within the user equipment. This is done by offering an operator-configurable mapping between QCIs and LCGs (Logical Channel Groups, also sometimes referred to as radio bearer groups).

Moreover, service differentiation is enabled by mapping of QCIs to priorities as defined in 3GPP TS 23.203.

In the uplink, these priorities will serve as a basis for the user equipment to establish differentiation/prioritization between its logical channels.

Signalling Radio Bearers (SRBs) are assigned higher priority than Data Radio Bearers (DRBs). SRB1 has higher priority than SRB2.

For the UL, the transport network benefits from QoS by mapping QCI to DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) in the RBS. This enables the transport network to prioritize between its different data flows over the S1 interface in the uplink and over the X2 interface for the downlink data in case of Packet Forwarding.

For the DL, a similar mapping is performed in the S-GW for the S1 DL data.

All QoS class identifiers defined by 3GPP are accepted.

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LTE/SAE System Overview The figure below shows an overview of the QoS implementation in LTE:

LTE/SAE System Overview

The figure below shows an overview of the QoS implementation in LTE:

below shows an overview of the QoS implementation in LTE: Radio Network QoS Traffic assigned QCI

Radio Network QoS

Traffic assigned QCI related scheduling priority (1 10)

QCI Priority LCG DSCP Pbit 1 2 2 46 5 2 4 1 36 4
QCI
Priority
LCG
DSCP
Pbit
1
2
2
46
5
2
4
1
36
4
IP connectivity
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
9
9
3
:
0
PGW
10-256
10
3
12
0
IP connectivity
SGW
IP connectivity
eNodeB
10 3 12 0 IP connectivity SGW IP connectivity eNodeB Traffic mapped to one of 4

Traffic mapped to one of 4 LCGs

Transport Network QoS

DSCP IP Header
DSCP
IP Header
Ethernet Header

Ethernet Header

Ethernet Header

Pbits

Ethernet Header Pbits
Ethernet Header Pbits

QCI mapped to DSCP and Pbits

Figure 1-10: LTE QoS Implementation

QoS Handling is based on mapping QCIs received from the core network to RBS-specific parameters. This makes it possible to have different priorities and DSCP values.

The Scheduler is an essential QoS enabler. In the downlink, the Scheduler operates on individual logical channels, with scheduling priorities based on a Round Robin or Proportional Fair scheduling strategy. In the uplink, the scheduling in the RBS operates on Logical Channel Groups (LCGs) using similar scheduling strategies as in the downlink to grant resources.

In uplink, the distribution of the granted resources is done per logical channel internally within the user equipment using the rate control function. The RBS maps the QCI to LCG and informs the user equipment about the association of a logical channel to an LCG and the logical channel priority for each logical channel.

In the Transport Network the QCI is used to define the Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) value that is used in the IP header which in turn is mapped to the Ethernet Priority bit (Pbit) value in the Ethernet frame header. DSCP is used to provide QoS separation in any IP routers in the transport network while Ethernet Pbit is used for QoS separation in Ethernet switches.

All this mapping is controlled by the Operator by means of Network parameters

Standardized QCIs (1-9) are used according to 3GPP TS 23.203.

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LTE/SAE Introduction

LTE/SAE Introduction Non-standardized QCIs (10-256) are all given the same priority, which shall be lower compared

Non-standardized QCIs (10-256) are all given the same priority, which shall be lower compared to priorities for the standardized QCIs. The priority settings enable traffic separation of the different data flows in the RBS. For the uplink, the priorities are sent to the UE, which may differentiate/prioritize between its logical channels.

Mapping QCIs to Logical Channel Groups (LCGs) can be configured in OSS-RC and enables traffic separation in the uplink. There are three LCGs (1-3) available. By default, LCG 1 is assigned to all QCIs.

Non-standardized QCIs are all given the same configurable DSCP value.

From OSS-RC it is possible to control the scheduling strategy (proportional fair or resource fair) per RBS.

Multiple RBSs can be configured in parallel from OSS-RC.

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5 SUMMARY LTE/SAE System Overview The students should now be able to: 1 Explain the

5

SUMMARY

LTE/SAE System Overview

The students should now be able to:

1

Explain the background and architecture of E-UTRAN and EPC

1.1

Describe the evolution of cellular networks

1.2

Summarize the evolution of 3GPP releases, from release 99 to release 14

1.3

Explain the logical architecture of EPS and the interworking with other

technologies

1.4 Explain the EPS bearer concept and give an overview of the LTE QoS

framework

Figure 1-11: Summary of Chapter 1

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EPC Architecture

EPC Architecture 2 EPC Architecture Objectives On completion of this chapter the students will be able

2 EPC Architecture

Objectives

On completion of this chapter the students will be able to:

2

Describe the EPC Architecture

2.1

Describe the interfaces in EPS

2.2

Describe the Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

2.3

Describe the role of the MME, S-GW and PDN-GW

2.4

Describe the S1 (and X2) protocol stacks

Figure 2-1: Objectives of Chapter 2

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1 EPC ARCHITECTURE LTE/SAE System Overview The responsibilities of the Mobility Management Entity (MME), Home

1

EPC ARCHITECTURE

LTE/SAE System Overview

The responsibilities of the Mobility Management Entity (MME), Home Subscriber Server (HSS), Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF), Serving Gateway (SGW) and Packet Data Network Gateway (PGW) EPC nodes are illustrated in the figure below.

HSS Responsibilities: PGW Responsibilities: • User subscription details • QoS Policy Control and Enforcement •
HSS Responsibilities:
PGW Responsibilities:
• User subscription details
• QoS Policy Control and Enforcement
• User registration management
• Packet Filtering
• Storage of UE security parameters
• Charging
• Maintain knowledge of used PGW
• IP PoP
Gn
HSS
Gx
HSS
PGW
PCRF
SAPC
S10
SG6
S5/S8
PCRF:
SGSN-
MME
S11
SGW
EPG
Deploys a set of
operator-created
business rules
MME
S1-MME
S1-U
SGW Responsibilities:
MME Responsibilities:
• Local anchor for mobility
• UE attach/detach handling
• Network routing information
• NAS Security
• Charging for roaming users
• EPS Bearer Handling
eNodeB
• Lawful Intercept
• Mobility Management for Idle Mode UEs
• GW Selection
• Paging

Figure 2-2: Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

The figure above also illustrated the hardware that supports these EPC nodes.

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EPC Architecture

EPC Architecture 1.1 Ericsson VoLTE Architecture The figure below illustrates the nodes and networks that represents

1.1 Ericsson VoLTE Architecture

The figure below illustrates the nodes and networks that represents the Ericsson implementation of the VoLTE architecture. This is the architecture which is further described in this book.

Relevant nodes and interfaces are shown as defined in 3GPP.

the EPC/LTE network can be in either in the Home or Visited network

the MMTel services are always executed in the Home network.

the SBG/P-CSCF nodes can be in the visited network for IMS roaming

• the same HSS is used in both MMTel and LTE/EPC Serving Network Home Network
• the same HSS is used in both MMTel and LTE/EPC
Serving Network
Home Network
S6a
Sh
MME
HSS
MMTel AS
PCRF
S11
S1-MME
Gx
Rx
ISC
Cx
e-Uu
S1-U
SGi
Mw
IR.92
S&P
I-/S-
P-CSCF/
eNodeB
CSCF
GW
IMS AGw
LTE
Gm
P-CSCF
Mb
IMS AGw
Ut
E-UTRAN
EPC, Evolved
Packet Core

EPS, Evolved Packet System

IMS

EPC, Evolved Packet Core EPS, Evolved Packet System IMS VoLTE, Voice over LTE Figure 2-3: LTE/EPC/IMS

VoLTE, Voice over LTE

Figure 2-3: LTE/EPC/IMS Architecture

1.2 Mobility Management Entity (MME)

The MME handles the mobility and session management functions listed below:

UE attach/detach handling This allows UE to register and de-register to the network.

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LTE/SAE System Overview Security The MME implements functions for Authentication and Authorization to verify users’

LTE/SAE System Overview

Security The MME implements functions for Authentication and Authorization to verify users’ identities grant access to the network and track users’ activities, respectively. In addition, the MME performs ciphering and integrity protection of NAS message signaling.

EPS Bearer Handling The MME manages the setting up, modification and tearing down of EPS Bearers. It is assumed that a UE in E-UTRAN will always have one default EPS Bearer established at the time of attachment to the network.

Mobility Management for Idle Mode UEs The MME manages mobility of idle mode UEs. Idle mode UEs are tracked with the granularity of Tracking Areas (see mobility chapter).

There two types of native SGSN-MME hardware supported at the current release. MkVIII and MkX.

MkVIII

(5th generation HW)

MkX

(6th generation HW)

IBENv4 GEP3 GEP5 IBTEv4 GEP3-HDD/SDD GEP5-SSD IBAS/IBACv4 SCXB2 SMXB IBS7v4 CMXB3 FSBv4 APP PEBv4/v5
IBENv4
GEP3
GEP5
IBTEv4
GEP3-HDD/SDD
GEP5-SSD
IBAS/IBACv4
SCXB2
SMXB
IBS7v4
CMXB3
FSBv4
APP
PEBv4/v5
GEP3-SS7
(optional)

vSGSN-MME

(High level architecture)

GEP3-SS7 (optional) vSGSN-MME (High level architecture) Figure 2-4: Ericsson SGSN-MME Hardware evolution overview

Figure 2-4: Ericsson SGSN-MME Hardware evolution overview

1.2.1

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MKVIII

The SGSN-MME MkVIII hardware consists of a cabinet housing one, two, or three magazines where they house various Plug-In Units (PIUs). At the bottom of the cabinet are two Active Patch Panels (APPs), from where the internal cabling connects to all switches in the magazines. All components are accessible and maintained from the front of the cabinet

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EPC Architecture

EPC Architecture Figure below shows the characteristic of the Ericsson SGSN-MME MkVIII. Processing blades (GEP3, GEP5)

Figure below shows the characteristic of the Ericsson SGSN-MME MkVIII.

shows the characteristic of the Ericsson SGSN-MME MkVIII. Processing blades (GEP3, GEP5) Ethernet switches (SCXB2 and

Processing blades (GEP3, GEP5)

Ethernet switches (SCXB2 and CMXB3)

WDH: 60*40*180 cm

Footprint 0.24 m 2

Volume 0.43 m 3

Active Patch Panels (APPs) for external Ethernet connectivity

Cabinet (BYB 501)

Subracks (EGEM2)

Power & Fan Modules (PFMs)

(BYB 501) Subracks (EGEM2) Power & Fan Modules (PFMs) Figure 2-5: MkVIII hardware The EGEM2 (Evolved

Figure 2-5: MkVIII hardware

The EGEM2 (Evolved Generic Ericson Magazine 2) houses a high performance backplane for interconnectivity of all the components for the MkVIII hardware.

The backplane in an EGEM2 magazine provides the following dual redundant features:

Power distribution to all slots

1 GbE connections to each slot from the System Control Switch Boards (SCXBs)

10 GbE connections to slot 1–24 from the Component Main Switch Boards (CMXBs)

Intelligent Platform Management Bus (IPMB) used for supervision and management between PIUs.

Each magazine contains two 1 GbE switches (SCXBs) and two 10 GbE switches (CMXBs) that interconnects the slots in the backplane. Processing PIUs, such as the GEP3s are connected to both types of switches through the backplane. All switches are also connected to each other for synchronization purposes.

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LTE/SAE System Overview The SGSN-MME hardware incorporates functionality for redundancy, hot swap capabilities, and

LTE/SAE System Overview

The SGSN-MME hardware incorporates functionality for redundancy, hot swap capabilities, and two-step distribution of power. It also complies to worldwide telecom approvals such as for electromagnetic compatibility, earthquake protection, and safety features. Ericsson-standard building practices are applied for easy installation and maintenance.

The SGSN-MME 13A on MkVIII hardware provides triple access for GSM, WCDMA and LTE access types. The new hardware platform MkVIII enables scalability from entry level to 10M+ SAU in a single node, to efficiently handle strong market growth of smart phones, mobile broadband and M2M connected devices.

1.2.2

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MkX

The SGSN-MME MkX hardware consists of a cabinet housing which houses up to three magazines. A magazine contains various Plug-In Units (PIUs). All components are accessible and maintained from the front of the cabinet.

are accessible and maintained from the front of the cabinet. Increased performance and scalability Increased

Increased performance and scalability

Increased functionality and flexibility

Cloud evolution and migration

functionality and flexibility Cloud evolution and migration Figure 2-6: SGSN-MME MkX © Ericsson AB 2017 LZT1238828

Figure 2-6: SGSN-MME MkX

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EPC Architecture

EPC Architecture Figure below shows the characteristic of the Ericsson SGSN-MME MkX. Ericsson Blade System (EBS)

Figure below shows the characteristic of the Ericsson SGSN-MME MkX.

Ericsson Blade System (EBS) Processing and storage blades Cabinet (BYB 501) (GEP5) Subracks (EGEM2) Ethernet
Ericsson Blade System
(EBS)
Processing and
storage blades
Cabinet (BYB 501)
(GEP5)
Subracks (EGEM2)
Ethernet switch blades
(SMXB)
WDH: 60*40*180 cm
 Footprint 0.24 m 2
 Volume 0.43 m 3
Power & Fan Modules
(PFMs)

Figure 2-7: SGSN-MME MkX Hardware Architecture

The MkX hardware, introduced in the release SGSN-MME 15A, has increased performance and scalability. It provides triple access for GSM, WCDMA and LTE access types. It supports the new GEP5 processing blade introduced instead of the GEP3 processing blade used by MkVIII. It has increased functionality and flexibility. It offers enhanced routing solution enabling new functionality and improved characteristics. SGSN-MME MkX supports cloud evolution and enables the migration to cloud. It is possible to have pool interworking with virtual SGSN-MMEs and it supports a common feature set across native & virtual nodes.

Both the MkVIII and MkX platforms are all-IP and only support IP connectivity.

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1.2.3 LTE/SAE System Overview Virtual SGSN-MME Ericsson’s virtual SGSN-MME is an evolution of the SGSN-MME

1.2.3

LTE/SAE System Overview

Virtual SGSN-MME

Ericsson’s virtual SGSN-MME is an evolution of the SGSN-MME for native networks. In addition to deployment on purpose built HW (MkVIII or MkX), it is possible to deploy SGSN-MME 16A in a cloud environment.

SGSN Pool Proxy NFV (including Gb/FRGb/IP) High performance PNF High performance VNF  SGSN-MME MkX
SGSN Pool
Proxy
NFV
(including
Gb/FRGb/IP)
High performance PNF
High performance VNF
 SGSN-MME MkX
 vSGSN-MME
 Common feature set and development across native & virtual
SGSN-MMEs,including support for all access types LTE/3G/2G
 Pool interworking between native & virtual SGSN-MMEs
 Smooth and secure migration / transformation to NFV
while leveraging previous investments in native nodes

Figure 2-8: vSGSN-MME

The virtual SGSN-MME is based on the same architecture as the physical SGSN- MME, including middleware and application software. This provides a common feature set for both physical and virtual SGSN-MME. It also assures interworking between virtual SGSN-MME, physical SGSN-MME, and related peer network elements

1.3

vSGSN-MME Architecture

The virtual SGSN-MME is executed in a cloud environment, which consists of the following components:

Cloud infrastructure: The Ericsson CEE or a third-party cloud infrastructure, providing Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), where the virtual SGSN-MME executes on a cluster of VMs. The CEE supports Ericsson or third-party COTS hardware for compute, storage, and networking. The ECEE is based on OpenStack components, the Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) hypervisor, and the high performance Ericsson Virtual Switch (EVS) based on Open vSwitch (OVS).

Cloud management system: the Ericsson ECM or a third-party cloud management system, providing management and orchestration of the virtual resources. The ECM provides

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EPC Architecture

EPC Architecture management and orchestration of services running on virtualized resources. It is possible that one

management and orchestration of services running on virtualized resources. It is possible that one ECM serves multiple tenants and applications sharing infrastructure. The ECM supports onboarding and instantiation of virtual applications using the Open Virtualization Format (OVF) package standard. The ECM also supports general-purpose VNF life cycle management, which depending on the use case can substitute or complement parts of the OSS-RC/ENM VNFM functionality.

Ericsson OSS-RC or Ericsson Network Manager (ENM):

providing network and element management of the Ericsson Physical Network Functions (PNFs) and Virtual Network Functions (VNFs). Also, providing a Virtual Network Function Manager (VNFM) for the Ericsson VNFs. It is a Element Manager for both the physical and the virtual SGSN-MME. The virtual SGSN-MME has the same northbound interfaces to OSS-RC/ENM as the physical SGSN-MME. Therefore, both the physical and the virtual SGSN-MME can be managed together in a seamless way, with equal support from OSS- RC/ENM

Legacy OSS/BSS systems of the operator

Virtual SGSN-MME is deployed in the cloud infrastructure as a cluster of VMs. The VM roles, number of VMs, VM sizes, and VM images are described in the following sections.

Example: vGP guest VM Guest 2G/3G only + Software configurable Traffic Mix Optimization for LTE/3G/2G
Example: vGP guest VM
Guest
2G/3G only
+ Software configurable
Traffic Mix Optimization
for LTE/3G/2G
SCTP
CP
UP
SS7
SGSN-MME middleware
2 vNICs per
vGP guest VM
for node internal
connectivity
Linux + Fast Path Networking
Using para-virtualized
drivers for networking
and disk access
(e.g. virtio, vmxnet3)
(DPDK accelerated)
Virtual Switch (e.g. OVS)
Cloud Infrastructure SW
(e.g. OpenStack, libvirt etc)
Linux / KVM or VMware® ESXi™
Virtual Switch
performance and
characteristics of great
importance to the VNFs
Host
Hardware (x86 CPU(s), NICs, etc)
Usually 2-4 x 10G pNICs
per host machine
assigned to LAN and/or
SAN, plus redundancy
(HW+cloud dependent)

Figure 2-9: vSGSN-MME High level architectural

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LTE/SAE System Overview 1.4 Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) The PCRF is a server

LTE/SAE System Overview

1.4 Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF)

The PCRF is a server that deploys a set of operator-created business rules. These rules define how Network resources should be allocated to subscribers and applications and under what conditions. The PCRF communicates with the PGW over the Gx interface to manage subscriber and network information according to the established rules. The Ericsson Service-Aware Policy Controller (SAPC) supports the PCRF functionality in the EPC.

The SAPC application runs on top of Ericsson Telecom Server Platform (TSP 6.0) platform. The TSP 6.0 platform is supported by Ericsson Network Server Platform (NSP) hardware using BYB 501 cabinets.

PCRF supported by Ericsson SAPC

HSS and SAPC can be built on Native solutions like TSP and BSP or Virtualized within Ericsson Cloud System solution.

TSP is high availability platform (99.99% availability target)

NSP/BSP hardware using BYB 501

Support for VoLTE and two-sided business models

Network Function Virtualization

Figure 2-10: PCRF and HSS Nodes

Function Virtualization Figure 2-10: PCRF and HSS Nodes BSP 8100 / GEP5 In addition to the
Function Virtualization Figure 2-10: PCRF and HSS Nodes BSP 8100 / GEP5 In addition to the

BSP 8100 / GEP5

In addition to the classic SAPC development on TSP platform (features above), there is now a parallel track, called eSAPC. The eSAPC is delivered on a new software platform based on the Common Components and supports both EBS and COTS, Commercial-off-the-shelf hardware.

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EPC Architecture

EPC Architecture The vSAPC is a SW-only product, capable of being deployed in Ericsson BSP 8100

The vSAPC is a SW-only product, capable of being deployed in Ericsson BSP 8100, 3P HW or Cloud Data Centers

SAPC 14A, 14B and 15B are based on TSP/NSP.

vSAPC 15A and vSAPC 16A are based on a virtualized architecture. vSAPC 15A can be deployed in non-cloud (node-based) or cloud environments (VNF-based). COTS/EBS HW is supported.

vSAPC 16A is a SW only product that can be deployed either on certified Blade Server Platform (BSP) or validated Commercial Off-The- Shelf (COTS) HW configurations.

SAPC 16B can be based on NSP 6.1 or BSP8100.

vSAPC16B supports both Ericsson (EBS) and COTS HW.

Figure 2-11: SAPC Classical and Virtual releases

1.5 Home Subscriber Server (HSS)

The HSS is the database that holds the subscription information for UE subscribing to the EPS network. The HSS stores, for example, the location of the UE (on MME node level), and authentication parameters. The HSS is an evolution of the Home Location Register (HLR).The HSS application also runs on top of the Ericsson Telecom Server Platform (TSP 6.0) platform.

1.6 Serving Gateway (SGW)

The SGW routes the user plane communication from the UE to the PGW. The UE is attached to the same SGW during the complete session. The SGW has the following responsibilities:

Local anchor for mobility The SGW acts as a local anchor to support the mobility of UEs between eNodeBs within the SGW service area.

Network routing information The SGW is responsible for routing the user plane data to the correct PGW when the UE is attached to the network.

Charging for roaming users The SGW is responsible for charging roaming users, the is users connected to another PGW. The user is charged for traffic according to the rate that applies for a particular service, subscription, etc.

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LTE/SAE System Overview Lawful Intercept This function enables communications to be electronically intercepted, or

LTE/SAE System Overview

Lawful Intercept This function enables communications to be electronically intercepted, or eavesdropped, by law enforcement agencies, should it be authorized by judicial or regulatory mandates.

The SGW is only changed when the UE moves to a new SGW pool area while the PGW is normally kept as long as the UE is attached to the network.

1.7 Packet Data Network Gateway (PGW)

The PGW is the gateway between the internal EPS network and external IP Networks, for example, the Internet or a corporate LAN. The UE can be connected to several PGWs simultaneously to access multiple Packet Data Networks. The PGW has the following responsibilities:

QoS Policy Control and Enforcement To simplify bearer requests from an application point of view, increase operator’s control over its network resources and limit the potential for abuse by users, EPS QoS is network controlled.

The policy control and enforcement functions associate users’ traffic flows with appropriate QoS classes and executes rate policing to prohibit users or flows from exceeding the QoS limits specified in users’ subscription agreements. Downlink (DL) traffic is policed in the PGW whereas Uplink (UL) traffic is policed in the eNodeB.

Packet Filtering Filtering of IP packets to/from the external IP Networks.

Charging The charging function is responsible for charging the user for its traffic according to the rate that applies for a particular service, subscription, etc.

The SGW and the PGW functions can also be shared with the GGSN hardware on the Juniper M-120/M-320 platform. This is referred to as Evolved Packet Gateway (EPG) and allows one node to support GGSN, SGW and PGW functionality. The SGW and PGW functionality is supported from the GGSN- MPG 2010A software release onwards.

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EPC Architecture

EPC Architecture Some characteristics of the EPG node are given in the figure below. The Evolved

Some characteristics of the EPG node are given in the figure below.

The Evolved Packet Gateway 16B software can be deployed both as native node on SSR
The Evolved Packet Gateway 16B software can be deployed both
as native node on SSR 8020 and 8010 hardware and as Virtual
Network Function as part of Ericsson virtual Evolved Packet Core
solutions

Common components

Common, modular Ericsson IP Operating System

Common switch fabric cards, line cards, service cards

Common route processor and alarm cards

Reduced costs

Maintenance

Sparing

Integration

Reduced costs › › Maintenance › Sparing Integration SSC performance enhancement › Capacity increase › User

SSC performance enhancement

Capacity increase

User performance support of

LTE Advanced

1x100GbE Line Card (SSR)

BACKPLANE CAPACITY (HALF-DX)
BACKPLANE CAPACITY (HALF-DX)
SSR 8020 SSR 8010
SSR 8020
SSR 8010

UP TO 8 TBPS

UP TO 16 TBPS

PER-SLOT CAPACIY (FULL-DX)
PER-SLOT CAPACIY (FULL-DX)

100 and 400 GBPS

HEIGHT (RU)
HEIGHT (RU)

21

38

Figure 2-12: EPG 16B platform support

EPG is supported on both the M120/M320 and SSR platforms. Both platforms shall have the same mobile gateway features and all standardized interfaces preserved.

Smart Services Router provides superior performance, 10 times better performance such as in throughput, signaling, number of sessions handled, etc. compared to EPG on Juniper.

GERAN AND UTRAN ARCHITECTURE

Figure 2-13: Typical Implementation of combined SGSN/MME shows a standardization view on how GERAN, UTRAN and E-UTRAN are integrated into the SAE CN. It should however be noted that the SGSN and MME shares a lot of common functionality. It is also required that the CN protocols, Session Management (SM) and Mobility Management (MM), used in 2G/3G are compatible with the respective protocols used in EPS meaning that the SGSN and MME share a common evolution in the 3GPP standard.

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LTE/SAE System Overview In a typical implementation/deployment view, it is likely that the 2G/3G SGSN

LTE/SAE System Overview

In a typical implementation/deployment view, it is likely that the 2G/3G SGSN and the MME are merged into one node.

This will make it possible to support intra SGSN/MME and inter P/S-GW/GGSN node mobility between the different accesses.

MME- SGSN Gr Uu S4 WCDMA/GSM HSS SGSN RAN S4 S6a S12 Gn Gn S-GW
MME-
SGSN
Gr
Uu
S4
WCDMA/GSM
HSS
SGSN
RAN
S4
S6a
S12
Gn
Gn
S-GW
S6
PCRF
OCS
MME
S1-
Gx
Gy
S11
MME
EPG
PDN
Uu
LTE
S1-U
SGi
S5
RAN
PDN-
S-GW
GW
S12
s2a
Trusted
non-3GPP access
S-GW
TWAN - Trusted
WLAN Access Network
(TWAN)

Figure 2-13: Typical Implementation of combined SGSN/MME

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EPC Architecture

EPC Architecture 2 MME AND S-GW POOLING It is possible to pool a number of MME

2 MME AND S-GW POOLING

It is possible to pool a number of MME and S-GW nodes together in order to eliminate the risk that one node failure will cause parts of the network to be out of service. This is possible since there is a many-to-many relation interface between eNBs and EPC nodes where each eNB is associated with a set of MME and S-GW called an MME and S-GW pool. The resulting network is non- hierarchical. Independent pooling MME and S-GW are supported, it is however not possible to change a S-GW without involving the MME.

An operator may pool MMEs and S-GWs into one or several pools depending on organization, regulatory requirements, transport providers etc. (This is illustrated in Figure 2-14). The flexibility of the pooling concept makes it possible to enable partial sharing of networks; i.e., to use only a part of the operator’s network as a shared network.

The individual pooled MMEs and S-GWs do not have to be located on the same physical site, but can be distributed in the network. All pools of a particular operator are assumed to be interconnected by means of an interface similar to the S3/S4/S10/S11 interface.

When a UE attaches to the network, it is assigned to one of the MMEs that belong to the MME pool associated with the eNB through which the UE is attaching, the MME then selects an S-GW in the S-GW pool. No change of MME or S-GW is required while the UE moves around among eNBs belonging to the same MME or S-GW pool. If the UE moves out of the pools coverage it is reassigned to an MME or S-GW in the pool associated with the new eNB.

The P-GW who performs charging, policy enforcement and UE’s IP PoP (Point of Presence) is not changed when the S-GW is relocated. The main purpose of the S-GW is to act as a local mobility anchor and to buffer packets during E-UTRAN paging. In Ericsson view S-GW will be rare and in most case the S-GW and P- GW is performed by the same physical node. MME relocation may be more motivated since there may be limits on how many eNBs the MME is connected to.

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LTE/SAE System Overview Figure 2-14 below shows an example of when pooling is used. Before:

LTE/SAE System Overview

Figure 2-14 below shows an example of when pooling is used.

Before: S+P-GW After: P-GW only S-GW MME MME MME MME MME S10 MME MME MME
Before: S+P-GW
After: P-GW only
S-GW
MME
MME
MME
MME
MME
S10
MME
MME MME
MME MME
IP PoP
PGW
S5
SGW
SGW
SGW
SGW
SGW
SGW
SGW
SGW
2
1

MME relocation occurs primarily only when moving between MME Pool Areas.

With well-designed MME Pool Areas, this is a rare case.

With a 1:1 relation with MME Pool : SGW Service area the same applies to SGW Relocation

The IP Point of Presence (IP PoP) is fixed in the originally selected PDN GW

At Inter-pool/SGW Service Area mobility => two GWs in the user plane (SGW & PGW)

Figure 2-14: MME Pooling - Moving between pools

Partially overlapping pools will also be supported. Overlapping pools may have some benefits since it makes it possible to avoid some of the negative effects of hard pool borders, however it comes with extra complexity.

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EPC Architecture

EPC Architecture 3 OVERVIEW SAE/LTE INTERFACES This section contains a brief overview of the SAE/LTE interfaces.

3 OVERVIEW SAE/LTE INTERFACES

This section contains a brief overview of the SAE/LTE interfaces.

 
   
 
UE
UE
Uu
Uu
UE Uu S1-M   MME   S11   S-GW   S5/S8 PDN-GW
S1-M
S1-M
 

MME

 
S11
S11
 

S-GW

 
S5/S8
S5/S8

PDN-GW

                 
               
   

eNodeB

     

NAS

     

NAS

Relay
Relay
     
Relay
Relay
     

RRC

   

RRC

Relay
Relay

S1-AP

   

S1-AP

GTPv2-C

   

GTPv2-C

GTPv2-C

   

GTPv2-C

PDPC

   

PDPC

SCTP

   

SCTP

UDP

UDP

UDP

 

UDP

RLC

   

RLC

IP

   

IP

IP

   

IP

IP

     

IP

MAC

MAC

L2

 

L2

L2

 

L2

L2

 

L2

L1

   

L1

L1

     

L1

L1

     

L1

L1

     

L1

Figure 2-15: LTE/EPC Control Plane

Uu S1-U S-GW S5/S8 PDN-GW SGi UE eNodeB Application IP IP Relay Relay PDPC PDPC
Uu
S1-U
S-GW
S5/S8
PDN-GW
SGi
UE
eNodeB
Application
IP
IP
Relay
Relay
PDPC
PDPC
GTPv1-U
GTPv1-U
GTPv1-U
GTPv1-U
RLC
RLC
UDP/IP
UDP/IP
UDP/IP
UDP/IP
MAC
MAC
L2
L2
L2
L2
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1

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LTE/SAE System Overview PDN GW SAPC Gx (PCEF) (PCRF) Diameter Diameter TCP TCP IP IP

LTE/SAE System Overview

PDN GW SAPC Gx (PCEF) (PCRF) Diameter Diameter TCP TCP IP IP L2 L2 L1
PDN GW
SAPC
Gx
(PCEF)
(PCRF)
Diameter
Diameter
TCP
TCP
IP
IP
L2
L2
L1
L1

Figure 2-17: Basic EPC architecture –

Gx interface

The figures below contain a brief overview of the SAE/LTE interfaces.

below contain a brief overview of the SAE/LTE interfaces. - 46 - Figure 2-18: Basic EPC

- 46 -

Figure 2-18: Basic EPC architecture –

Rx interface

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EPC Architecture

SBG/ PDN-GW SGi P-CSCF SIP UDP/TCP UDP/TCP UDP/TCPUDP/TCP UDP/TCP IP IP L2 L2 L1 L1
SBG/
PDN-GW
SGi
P-CSCF
SIP
UDP/TCP UDP/TCP
UDP/TCPUDP/TCP UDP/TCP
IP
IP
L2
L2
L1
L1

Figure 2-19: Basic EPC architecture –

IP L2 L2 L1 L1 Figure 2-19: Basic EPC architecture – PDN-GW   SBG/    

PDN-GW

 

SBG/

 
 
SGi
SGi

P-CSCF

   

User Data

   

RTP

 
   

UDP/TCP UDP

 

UDP/TCPUDP UDP/TCP

   

IP

IP

L2

 

L2

 
   

L1

L1

SGi interface

   
Gm
Gm
   
 
     
   
UE
UE
Uu
Uu
UE Uu S1-U     S-GW   S5/S8 PDN-GW   SGi SBG/
S1-U
S1-U
   

S-GW

 
S5/S8
S5/S8

PDN-GW

 
SGi
SGi

SBG/

                   

P-CSCF

   

eNodeB

         

SIP

           

SIP

UDP/IP

   

UDP/IP

     

PDPC

   

PDPC

Relay
Relay

GTPv1-U

   

GTPv1-U

Relay
Relay

GTPv1-U

   

GTPv1-U

UDP/IP

UDP/IP

               

RLC

RLC

UDP/IP

UDP/IP

UDP/IP

UDP/IP

   

MAC

MAC

L2

L2

 

L2

L2

L2

L2

L1

   

L1

L1

   

L1

 

L1

   

L1

L1

   

L1

Figure 2-20: Basic MMTel architecture –

3.1 Uu Interface

Gm interface

Uu is the interface between the UE and the eNodeB. The control plane signaling is covered by the RRC protocol (Radio Resource Management). RRC can also carry NAS messages (signaling messages between the UE and the MME). RRC is carried by PDCP, RLC and MAC. The user plane is carried by PDCP, RLC and MAC.

3.2 S1 Interface

S1

S1 is the interface between eNBs and MME and S-GW. In the user plane this interface will be based on GTP User Data Tunneling (GTP-U) (similar to today’s Iu and Gn interface). In the control plane the interface is more similar to Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP), with some simplifications and changes due to the different functional split and mobility within EPS.

It has been agreed to split the S1 interface into a S1-CP (control) and S1-UP part (user plane). The signaling transport on S1-CP will be based on SCTP (Streaming Control Transmission Protocol). The signaling protocol for S1 is called S1-AP (Application Protocol).

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S1-AP protocol has the following functions: LTE/SAE System Overview EPS Bearer management function This overall

S1-AP protocol has the following functions:

LTE/SAE System Overview

EPS Bearer management function This overall functionality is responsible for setting up, modifying and releasing EPS bearers, which are triggered by the MME The release of EPS bearers may be triggered by the eNB as well.

Initial Context Transfer function This functionality is used to establish an S1UE context in the eNB, to setup the default IP connectivity, to setup one or more SAE bearer(s) if requested by the MME, and to transfer NAS signaling related information to the eNB if needed.

Mobility Functions for UEs in LTE_ACTIVE in order to enable

- a change of eNBs within SAE/LTE (Inter MME/S-GW Handovers) via the S1 interface (with EPC involvement).

- a change of RAN nodes between different RATs (Inter-3GPP-RAT Handovers) via the S1 interface (with EPC involvement).

Paging:

This functionality provides the EPC the capability to page the UE.

S1 interface management functions:

- Reset functionality to ensure a well-defined initialization on the S1 interface.

- Error Indication functionality to allow a proper error reporting/handling in cases where no failure messages are defined.

- Overload function to indicate the load situation in the control plane of the S1 interface.

NAS Signaling transport function between the UE and the MME is used:

- to transfer NAS signaling related information and to establish the S1 UE context in the eNB.

- to transfer NAS signaling related information when the S1 UE context in the eNB is already established.

S1 UE context Release function This functionality is responsible to manage the release of UE specific context in the eNB and the MME.

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S1 is a many-to-many interface.

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EPC Architecture

3.3 X2 Interface

EPC Architecture 3.3 X2 Interface X2 is the interface between eNBs. The interface is mainly used

X2 is the interface between eNBs. The interface is mainly used to support active mode UE mobility (Packet Forwarding). This interface may also be used for multi-cell Radio Resource Management (RRM) functions. The X2-CP interface consists of a signaling protocol called X2-AP on top of SCTP. The X2-UP interface is based on GTP-U. The X2-UP interface is used to support loss-less mobility (packet forwarding).

The X2-AP protocol provides the following functions:

Mobility Management. This function allows the eNB to move the responsibility of a certain UE to another eNB. Forwarding of user plane data is a part of the mobility management.

Load Management. This function eNBs to indicate overload and traffic load to each other.

Reporting of General Error Situations. This function allows reporting of general error situations, for which function specific error messages have not been defined.

The X2 interface is a many-to-many interface.

3.4 Other EPS Interfaces

Gi Gi is the interface to external packet data networks (e.g., Internet) and contains the end-user’s IP point of presence. All user- and control-plane functions that use the Gi interface are handled above the end-user’s IP layer. All terminal mobility within 3GPP will be handled below the Gi interface.

S3

S3 is a control interface between the MME and 2G/3G SGSNs. The interface is based on Gn/GTP-C (SGSN-SGSN), possibly with some new functionality to support signaling free idle mode mobility between E-UTRAN and UTRAN/GERAN. S3 will not support packet forwarding; instead this will be supported on the S4 interface.

S3 is a many-to-many interface.

The S3 interface is similar to the S10 interface between MMEs which will be used for intra-LTE mobility between two MME pool areas.

S4

S4 is the interface between the P-GW and 2G/3G SGSNs. The interface is based on Gn/GTP (SGSN-GGSN). The user plane interface is based on GTP-U (same as S1-UP and Iu-UP) and the control plane is based on GTP-C (similar to S11).

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LTE/SAE System Overview The S4 interface is backwards compatible with the Gn interface. S6 S6a

LTE/SAE System Overview

The S4 interface is backwards compatible with the Gn interface.

S6

S6a enables transfer of subscription and authentication data for authenticating/authorizing user access to the evolved system (AAA interface) between MME and HSS. S6d is between the SGSN and the HSS. S6 is based on Diameter.

S5/S8

S5/S8 is the interface between the S-GW and P-GW. In principle S5 and S8 is the same interface, the difference being that S8 is used when roaming between different operators while S5 is network internal. The S5 / S8 interface will exist in two flavors one based on Gn/GTP (SGSN-GGSN) and the other will use the IETF specified Proxy Mobile IP (PMIP) for mobility control with additional mechanism to handle QoS.

The usage of PMIP or GTP on S5/S8 will not be visible over the S1 interface or in the terminal. In the non roaming case the S-GW and P-GW functions can be performed in one physical node.

It has been agreed in 3GPP that the usage of PMIP or GTP on S5 and S8 should not impact RAN behavior or impact the terminals.

S5 / S8 is a many-to-many interface.

In the roaming case S8 is providing user and control plane between the Serving GW in the VPLMN and the PDN GW in the HPLMN. S8 is the inter PLMN variant of S5.

S9

S9 provides transfer of (QoS) policy and charging control information between the Home PCRF and the Visited PCRF in order to support local breakout function.

S10

S10 is a control interface between the MMEs which will be very similar to the S3 interface between the SGSN and MME. The interface is based on Gn/GTP-C (SGSN-SGSN) with additional functionality.

S10 is a many-to-many interface.

S11

S11 is the interface between the MME and S-GW. The interface is based on Gn/GTP-Control (GTP-C) (interface between SGSN-GGSN) with some additional functions for paging coordination, mobility compared to the legacy Gn/GTP-C (SGSN-GGSN) interface.

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S11 is a many-to-many interface.

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EPC Architecture

EPC Architecture S12 S12 is the interface between UTRAN and Serving GW for user plane tunneling

S12

S12 is the interface between UTRAN and Serving GW for user plane tunneling when Direct Tunnel is established. It is based on the Iu-u/Gn-u reference point using the GTP-U protocol as defined between SGSN and UTRAN or respectively between SGSN and GGSN. Usage of S12 is an operator configuration option.

S13

S13 enables UE identity check procedure between MME and EIR.

SGi SGi is the interface between the PDN GW and the packet data network. Packet data network may be an operator external public or private packet data network or an intra operator packet data network, e.g. for provision of IMS services. This interface corresponds to Gi for 3GPP accesses.

Sx Sx in an Ericsson interface which interconnects MME and SAPC (PCRF in Ericsson). It allows to introduce Mobility Based Policy decreasing the signaling load in EPC.

Rx Rx is the interface between the application server and the PCRF

Gx Gx provides transfer of (QoS) policy and charging rules from PCRF to Policy and Charging Enforcement Function (PCEF) in the PDN GW.

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LTE/SAE System Overview 4 EVOLVED IP NETWORK SOLUTION Ericsson offers EIN to smoothly interconnect the

LTE/SAE System Overview

4 EVOLVED IP NETWORK SOLUTION

Ericsson offers EIN to smoothly interconnect the network nodes. EIN Provides the IP transport solution Including IP security, synchronization, Quality of Service etc.

The Evolved IP Network solution (EIN) provides an IP transport foundation for multi-service broadband offerings. It is based on Ericsson’s broad portfolio of IP, microwave and optical and network management products. It’s continually developed and enhanced, and supported by Ericsson Global Services.

and enhanced, and supported by Ericsson Global Services. Figure 2-21: Evolved IP network solution composition IP

Figure 2-21: Evolved IP network solution composition

IP transport infrastructure plays a key role in meeting subscriber expectations for reliability and superior performance. An effective end-to-end network will keep up with rapidly evolving technology and standards, new user devices and demanding subscriber requirements.

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EPC Architecture

EPC Architecture At the same time, an operator requires IP network flexibility to facilitate multiservice capabilities,

At the same time, an operator requires IP network flexibility to facilitate multiservice capabilities, continued capacity and coverage expansion, and to deliver attractive and cost-effective new services.

Multi-access Multimedia traffic High Availability 2G 3G 4G WiFi Video Network Management Gaming Mobile
Multi-access
Multimedia traffic
High Availability
2G
3G
4G
WiFi
Video
Network Management
Gaming
Mobile
Performance Management
Residential
QoS
Security
WWW
Enterprise
Synchronization
Voice
telephony
Mobility

End-to-End solution attributes

Figure 2-22: EIN solution Attributes

Music

End-to-End means providing IP/MPLS transport from the access networks to the packet gateway connections to external networks

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5 SUMMARY LTE/SAE System Overview The students should now be able to: 2 Describe the

5

SUMMARY

LTE/SAE System Overview

The students should now be able to:

2

Describe the EPC Architecture

2.1

Describe the interfaces in EPS

2.2

Describe the Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

2.3

Describe the role of the MME, S-GW and PDN-GW

2.4

Describe the S1 (and X2) protocol stacks

Figure 2-23: Summary of chapter 2

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EPC Architecture

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E-UTRAN Architecture

E-UTRAN Architecture 3 E-UTRAN Architecture Objectives On completion of this chapter the students will be able

3 E-UTRAN Architecture

Objectives

On completion of this chapter the students will be able to:

3

Describe the E-UTRAN Architecture

3.1

List the functionality of the eNodeB

3.2

Describe the radio interface techniques, OFDM/SC-FDMA and the

physical bit rates

3.3 Discuss Link Adaption in LTE

3.4 Describe the basic principles of MIMO

3.5 Explain the concept of Advanced Carrier Aggregation

3.6 Describe the RBS 6000 Hardware for LTE

3.7 Describe the Ericsson Radio System

3.8 Explain Heterogeneous Network

3.9 Outline on overview level the security in LTE

3.10 Describe the different type of synch in LTE

Figure 3-1: Objectives of Chapter 3

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1 LTE/SAE System Overview INTRODUCTION The radio interface in LTE is developed according to the

1

LTE/SAE System Overview

INTRODUCTION

The radio interface in LTE is developed according to the requirements of spectrum flexibility, spectrum efficiency, cost effectiveness etc. Robustness against time dispersion has influenced the choice of transmission technique in both UL and DL.

Spectrum flexibility incorporates the possibility of using both paired and unpaired spectrum, i.e. LTE should support both FDD- and TDD-based duplex arrangements, respectively. Also, the support for operation in six different bandwidths, 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz, plays an important role in the spectrum flexibility part in the standardization of the radio interface. Actually, the LTE radio interface implementation supports operation in any bandwidth between 1.4 and 20 MHz in steps of one resource block, which corresponds to 12 subcarriers or 180 kHz.

A high spectrum efficiency is achieved by the use of higher order modulation schemes, like 16-QAM, 64-QAM and 256-QAM and advanced antenna solutions, including transmit- and receiver diversity, beam forming and spatial multiplexing (MIMO).

Furthermore, the Inter-symbol Interference (ISI) is reduced by the choice of OFDM in the DL and SC-FDMA in UL. Both of these methods results in a long symbol time and thus a reduced ISI, which increases the performance in highly time dispersive radio environments.

The UL and DL have a similar time-domain structure.

1.1 eNB functionality

E-UTRAN consists solely of the evolved Node B (eNB), which is responsible for all radio interface functionality.

eNB is the RAN node in the EPS architecture that is responsible for radio transmission to and reception from UEs in one or more cells. The eNB is connected to EPC nodes by means of an S1 interface. The eNB is also connected to its neighbor eNBs by means of the X2 interface. Some significant changes have been made to the eNB functional allocation compared to UTRAN. Most Rel-6 RNC functionality has been moved to the E-UTRAN eNB.

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E-UTRAN Architecture

E-UTRAN Architecture A description of the functionality provided by eNB is given in Figure 3-2 below.

A description of the functionality provided by eNB is given in Figure 3-2 below.

eNodeB Responsibilities: › Cell control and MME pool support › Mobility control › Control and
eNodeB Responsibilities:
› Cell control and MME pool support
› Mobility control
› Control and User Plane security
› Shared Channel handling
› Segmentation/Concatenation
› HARQ
› Scheduling
› Multiplexing and Mapping
› Physical layer functionality
› Measurements and reporting
S1-C
S1-U
X2
eNodeB
eNodeB
LTE Uu
EUTRAN
UE
S1-C S1-U X2 eNodeB eNodeB LTE Uu EUTRAN UE RBS 6000 Figure 3-2: Evolved UTRAN (EUTRAN)

RBS 6000

Figure 3-2: Evolved UTRAN (EUTRAN)

Cell control and MME pool support eNB owns and controls the radio resources of its own cells. Cell resources are requested by and granted to MMEs in an ordered fashion. This arrangement supports the MME pooling concept. S-GW pooling is managed by the MMEs and

is not really seen in the eNB.

Mobility control The eNB is responsible for controlling the mobility for terminals in active state. This is done by ordering the UE to perform measurement and then performing handover when necessary.

Control and User Plane security The ciphering of user plane data over the radio interface is terminated in the eNB. Also the ciphering and integrity protection of RRC signaling is terminated in the eNB.

Shared Channel handling Since the eNB owns the cell resources, the eNB also handles the shared and random access channels used for signaling and initial access.

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LTE/SAE System Overview Segmentation/Concatenation Radio Link Control (RLC) Service Data Units (SDUs) received from the

LTE/SAE System Overview

Segmentation/Concatenation Radio Link Control (RLC) Service Data Units (SDUs) received from the Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) layer consist of whole IP packets and may be larger than the transport block size provided by the physical layer. Thus, the RLC layer must support segmentation and concatenation to adapt the payload to the transport block size.

HARQ A Medium Access Control (MAC) Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (HARQ) layer with fast feedback provides a means for quickly correcting most errors from the radio channel. To achieve low delay and efficient use of radio resources the HARQ operates with a native error rate which is sufficient only for services with moderate error rate requirements such as, for instance, VoIP. Lower error rates are achieved by letting an outer Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) layer in the eNB handle the HARQ errors.

Scheduling A scheduling with support for QoS provides for efficient scheduling of UP and CP data.

Multiplexing and Mapping The eNB performs mapping of logical channels on to transport channels.

Physical layer functionality The eNB handles the physical layer such as scrambling, Tx diversity, beam forming processing and OFDM modulation. The eNB also handles layer one functions like link adaptation and power control.

Measurements and reporting eNB provides functions for configuring and making measurements on the radio environment and eNB-internal variables and conditions. The collected data is used internally for RRM but can be reported for the purpose of multi-cell RRM.

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E-UTRAN Architecture

2 LTE AIR INTERFACE

E-UTRAN Architecture 2 LTE AIR INTERFACE The 3GPP has chosen Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM) as

The 3GPP has chosen Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM) as the air interface for downlink (eNodeB to UE) and Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) for the uplink (UE to eNodeB). Both of these access techniques use a combination of frequency and time division multiple access.

2.1 OFDMA/SC-FDMA Frequency Domain

As in all data communications the bitrate is proportional to the bandwidth and Signal to Noise ratio (S/N). For a fixed bandwidth the higher the S/N the higher is the possible throughput. The S/N ratio across the RF spectrum as seen by each UE can be quite different. In this example the S/N is high for one user and low for the other on the same frequency, in reality the S/N for Ue:s has no such dependency. The figure below highlights the OFDM symbol in the time and frequency grid and the OFDMA access. In the uplink we have SC-FDMA.

User #1 scheduled User #2 scheduled Δf=15kHz › Downlink: Adaptive OFDM/OFDMA User #3 scheduled –
User #1 scheduled
User #2 scheduled
Δf=15kHz
› Downlink: Adaptive OFDM/OFDMA
User #3
scheduled
– Channel-dependent scheduling and link adaptation
in time and frequency domain
OFDMA
180 kHz
frequency

Uplink: SC-FDMA with dynamic bandwidth (Pre-coded OFDM)

Low PAPR Higher power efficiency

Reduced uplink interference (enables intra-cell orthogonality )

Channel-dependent scheduling and link adaptation in time and frequency domain

scheduling and link adaptation in time and frequency domain frequency OFDM Figure 3-3: LTE Physical Layer

frequency

OFDM

link adaptation in time and frequency domain frequency OFDM Figure 3-3: LTE Physical Layer With OFDMA

Figure 3-3: LTE Physical Layer

With OFDMA and SC-FDMA the RF spectrum is divided up into 15 kHz sub- carriers as illustrated above. These are allocated to UEs in groups of 12 known as Resource Blocks (RBs).

The LTE specifications support a number of Channel Bandwidths ranging from 1.4 to 20 MHz.

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This is illustrated in the figure below. LTE/SAE System Overview Channel Bandwidth [MHz] Transmission Bandwidth

This is illustrated in the figure below.

LTE/SAE System Overview

Channel Bandwidth [MHz] Transmission Bandwidth Configuration [RB] Transmission Bandwidth [RB] DC carrier (downlink
Channel Bandwidth [MHz]
Transmission Bandwidth Configuration [RB]
Transmission
Bandwidth [RB]
DC carrier (downlink only)
Active Resource Blocks
Channel Bandwidth [MHz]
1.4
3
5
10
15
20
Number of Resource Blocks
6
15
25
50
75
100
Channel edge
Resource block
Channel edge

Figure 3-4: LTE Channel Bandwidth

The Direct Current (DC) carrier in the centre of the bandwidth along with a number at the channel edge are not used leaving the number of active RBs ranging from 6 to 100 as illustrated in the figure above. The highest LTE is achieved with the 100 RBs available using 20 MHz Channel Bandwidth.

The fact that there are several LTE Channel Bandwidths supported makes the deployment of LTE possible in areas of limited RF spectrum.

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E-UTRAN Architecture

E-UTRAN Architecture 2.2 OFDMA/SC-FDMA Time Domain All radio transmissions are subjected to multiple reflections,

2.2 OFDMA/SC-FDMA Time Domain

All radio transmissions are subjected to multiple reflections, diffractions and attenuations caused by natural objects
All radio transmissions are subjected to multiple reflections, diffractions and
attenuations caused by natural objects (buildings, hills etc) resulting in what is
known as ‘Multipath Propagation’ as illustrated in Figure 3-5 below.
RRC_
CONNECTED

‘Delay Spread’ is 1-2 µs in urban/suburban and up to 20 µs in hilly areas

Symbol duration < Delay Spread => Inter Symbol Interference (ISI)

Overcome with RAKE Receiver or Equalizer in WCDMA and GSM

LTE Symbol duration >Delay Spread and Cyclic Prefix (CP) is used

Figure 3-5: RF Multipath Propagation

The energy for a single symbol (or bit) is split between the various paths and arrives at different time intervals. The delay between these various arrivals, known as ‘Delay Spread’ is typically 1-2 µs in urban and suburban areas and up to 20 µs in hilly areas as illustrated in Figure 3-5 above. If the symbol duration is less than the delay spread late arrival of previous symbols causes what is known as ‘Inter Symbol Interference’ (ISI). In WCDMA and GSM this is overcome using sophisticated receiver techniques like the RAKE receiver and equalizer. To keep the cost of LTE terminals low it was decided to use a symbol duration greater than the Delay Spread and to include something known as a ‘Cyclic Prefix’ (CP).

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LTE/SAE System Overview LTE uses the same 10 msec Radio Frame duration as WCDMA sub-divided

LTE/SAE System Overview

LTE uses the same 10 msec Radio Frame duration as WCDMA sub-divided into ten 1 msec sub-frames with each of these further sub-divided into 14 symbols as illustrated in Figure 3-6 below.

10 msec Radio Frame Resource Block 1 msec Sub-fame carries 14 symbols Sub-carrier #1
10 msec Radio Frame
Resource
Block
1 msec Sub-fame
carries 14 symbols
Sub-carrier
#1
Block 1 msec Sub-fame carries 14 symbols Sub-carrier #1 ≈ 71.4 µs CP Symbol ≈ 4.7
≈ 71.4 µs
≈ 71.4 µs
CP Symbol ≈ 4.7 µs ≈ 66.7 µs
CP
Symbol
≈ 4.7 µs
≈ 66.7 µs

Sub-carrier

#12

A CP > Delay Spread will completely remove ISI as the receiver sees each reflection is seen as the same symbol

Figure 3-6: OFDMA/SC-FDMA (Time Domain)

A closer look at each symbol which has a duration approximately 71.4 µs shows

that the symbol itself is actually only 66.7 µs which is still much longer than the greatest delay spread expected for LTE. This leaves approximately 4.7 µs which

is used for the Cyclic Prefix (CP) which is copy of the last part of the symbol as

illustrated in Figure 3-6 above. Having the CP longer than the delay spread will completely remove ISI since each reflection is seen by the receiver as the same symbol. This normal CP of 4.7 µs will completely remove ISI in urban and suburban environments. There are also extended CPs of 16.7 μs and 33.3 μs specified by the 3GPP to cope with greater delay spreads in other environments.

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E-UTRAN Architecture

2.3 Adaptive Modulation

E-UTRAN Architecture 2.3 Adaptive Modulation The type of modulation used in LTE depends on the radio

The type of modulation used in LTE depends on the radio environment. The UE estimates the quality in the downlink and signals it back to the eNodeB in the Channel Quality Indicator (CQI). The uplink reference signals that are embedded into the uplink transmission are used by the eNodeB to estimate the quality in the uplink. The eNodeB decides which modulation technique should be used based on the quality of the downlink and uplink radio environment.

LTE supports the following modulation techniques in the downlink and uplink.

256 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (256 QAM) which uses 256 different quadrature and amplitude combinations to carry 8 bits per symbol (DL only)

64 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (64 QAM) which uses 64 different quadrature and amplitude combinations to carry 6 bits per symbol

16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16 QAM) which uses 16 different quadrature and amplitude combinations to carry 4 bits per symbol

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) which used 4 different quadratures to send 2 bits per symbol.

Adaptive modulation is illustrated below in the figure below:

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Radio Environment: Poor RRC_ RRC_ CONNECTED CONNECTED
Radio Environment:
Poor
RRC_
RRC_
CONNECTED
CONNECTED

Good

RRC_ CONNECTED QPSK 16 QAM 64 QAM 256-QAM (2 bits/symbol) (4 bits/symbol) (6 bits/symbol) 8
RRC_
CONNECTED
QPSK
16 QAM
64 QAM
256-QAM
(2 bits/symbol)
(4 bits/symbol)
(6 bits/symbol)
8 bits/symbol

eNodeB

Figure 3-7: Adaptive Modulation

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LTE/SAE System Overview As illustrated in the figure above QPSK modulation is used in poor

LTE/SAE System Overview

As illustrated in the figure above QPSK modulation is used in poor radio environments yielding the lowest throughput. As the environment improves 16 or 64 QAM may be used increasing the throughput and finally in a good radio environment 256 QAM may be used yielding the highest throughput.

2.4 Adaptive Coding

To check if the data has been received correctly the transmitter adds a 24-bit CRC to each block of user data before it is passed through a Turbo Coder. The Turbo Coder adds extra ‘parity bits’ to enable the receiver to recover bit errors introduced by the a