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MEDIA MACROMEDIA FLASH

PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA NASIONAL BERBASIS BAHASA LOKAL:


SALAH SATU UPAYA PELESTARIAN BAHASA
Triwati Rahayu, Pujiati Suyata, Roni Sulistiyono
Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
Triwati Rahayu @....................................
Abstract
The goal of this research is to create a medium of teaching the national language using a local
language, through the use of macromedia flash. Local languages are used in all areas of the country, yet
their speakers decrease year by year. We believe that the study of the national language based on local
languages for first grade students can remedy this problem. To realize this goal, we have done a research
project using the design of Research and Development. In year I the design of this unique method of
language teaching for first graders was validated. In year II, the media itself was created. The media was
then socialized and disseminated to all of Yogyakarta. The media was shown to first grade teachers in the
province who were able to use it with great success. The teachers felt assisted, the students studied with
pleasure and the local language was preserved.

Keywords: language teaching medium, macromedia flash, language preservation

1. Introduction

The role of language is very important in human life. Through language, human
communication is facilitated, as is life within society. Through language, people are able to
study, pursue knowledge and technological advancement, as well as work together towards
collective progress.

The national language of Indonesia is Bahasa Indonesia (i.e. Indonesian). This language is
the medium of instruction at all levels of education in the country. Thus, in the world of
education, Indonesian must be mastered for basic, secondary and college level.

Many languages are spoken in Indonesian besides Indonesian; 746 as of the year 2011,
such as Batak, Minangkabau, Jawa, Sunda, Madura, Bali, and Banjar. These languages are used
in daily life, especially in traditional ceremonies, and other events connected with culture. Most
children speak these local languages as their first language, especially in the rural areas.
In spite of this, research and studies have shown that use of these local language continues
to shrink year by year. The swift development of science and technology has demanded the use
of a national language, or indeed an international language. For young people who work in urban
areas, having left their villages behind, the use of the national language (or an international
language) is predominant. If this state of affairs continues, the use of local languages will
continue to shrink until they become extinct. No one wants to see this happen. These languages
are the product of centuries of rich cultural development and must be protected.

In the world of education, when a student first enters the first grade, especially in rural
areas, the language they speak best is the local language. Thus the teacher explains the subject in
that language. Afterwards, the same material is repeated in Indonesian, in accordance with the
principle that the national language must be used in all levels of education in Indonesia. Thus the
student must study at two levels, first the language of instruction, and second the content of the
instruction. This method of study is not effective.

And yet, Indonesian reading comprehension was an important part of the 2013 curriculum,
which was thematic integrative, because Indonesian literacy is a key to the other subjects. As
stated by Nunan (2006), reading involves the understanding of words, sentences and texts in their
entirety. A solution must be found which promotes the preservation of local languages while also
allowing for an educations that provides mastery of Indonesian.

One solution is the use of computer-based study media to teach Indonesian on the basis of
the local languages. The material would be presented in the form of text, pictures, graphics and
audios delivered through macromedia flash. This presentation would make the lesson more
interesting, interactive and effective. Besides that, one thing which must be noted here is that for
first grade students, the local language and culture are to be maintained. Nonetheless the
effectiveness of this solution is debatable. Given the potential benefits involved in this innovative
method, a study is necessary.

The questions we seek to answer are as follows:

1. What is the contrast between Javanese as a local language and Indonesian as a national
language?
2. What is the most appropriate design for language study materials using macromedia
flash, based on the contrast between Javanese and Indonesian, for first grade students?

3. How effective are these language study materials using macromedia flash, based on the
contrast between Javanese and Indonesian, for first grade students.

2. Theoretical Study
2.1 Local Language and National Language

Besides Indonesian, the national language, Indonesia boasts hundreds of local languages.
A source from 2011 states that there were then as many as 746 local languages, one of them
being Javanese, the language with the greatest number of speakers in Inodnesia. The amount
of these languages continues to decrease year by year, as science and technology continue to
develop (Tambunan, 2015; Sudaryanto, 2016). Nonetheless, these langauges are protected by
law, as they are keys to ethnic culture, local wisdom and noble traditional values which must
be preserved.

In the world of education, the law of Sisdiknas No.20 of 2003 states that in places where
using Indonesian as a means of instruction is difficult, local languages may be used in their
place. Nonetheless, this allowance results in a lower quality of education for the students. A
solution must be found whereby the use of local languages does not interfere with quality of
instruction.

2.2. Preservation of local languages

One of the ways of preserving language and local culture (in this case, Javanese) is the
method agreed upon by the governors of Central Java, Yogyakarta and East Java, i.e. to
include Javanese in the school curriculum.

In this connection, there was a question as to what type of Javanese was to be included.
The government decided upon using the Sala-Jogja version of Javanese as the standard
version. Yet, as established by the research of Pujiati (2007), the two dialects (Sala and Jogja)
are quite different. At the moment, Yogyakarta uses Jogja Javanese while Sala uses Sala
Javanese.
2.3. The Contrast Between Javanese and Indonesian: an Analysis of Linguistic
Characteristics

A contrastive linguistic analysis shows that Inodnesian is different from Javanese,


although the two are from the same sub-group, Western Malayo-Polynesian (Bellwood, 1995
dalam Pujiati Suyata, 2006). Indonesian is a product of a mixture of many langauges, both
local and foreign (such as Sanskrit, Dutch, Portuguese and English).

An understanding of the contrast between the two languages, Javanese and Indonesian,
will make it easier for first grade students to learn the latter. This contrast can be presented in
the form of interesting computer-based media. Macromedia flash can be used for this purpose.

2.4. Contrast Between Indonesian and Javanese.

Contrastive Linguistics, a branch of Comparative Lingusitics, is means of studying


differences between languages. Suhardi and Pujiati (2009) did such a study in regard to
Indonesian and Javanese, using the fundamentals of Contrastive Lingusitic Theory, which
focuses on interference and transfer, for the study of Indonesian.

In addition, a survey done by Triwati (2016) also explored the contrast between the two
langugages. In terms of phonology, the phoneme /a/ in Indonesian, becomes /e/ in JAvanese.
For example the word /pagar/ in Indonesian, becomes /pager/ in Javanese, /atap/ becomes
/atep/, /arang/ becomes /areng/, and /pedas/ becomes /pedes/.

Another contrast occurs at the sentence level. The Javanese sentence “ Iki bukune sapa?”
would become “ Ini bukunya siapa?” in Indonesian. But in proper Indonesian it would be “Ini
buku siapa?” The contrast between “ne” and “nya” in the two languages can be used as a
basis of studying Indonesian for students whose first language is Javanese. This is in keeping
with Bachore (2014) who (speaking in the context of Ethiopian languages) found that the
mother tongue plays an important role in the study of a second language. This is also in line
with UNESCO’s statement that the language which spoken best by the student is effective as
a medium of learning.

2.5. Strategy of Language Learning

One of the goals of language learning is to enable students to read. There are quite a few
theories connected with elementary reading, including the theory of Thombury (2002) which
states that the mastery of vocabulary at the basic level is knowing form and meaning. In line
with this is the bottom up model (Brown, 2007). This model begins with the smallest elements
of language, the phoneme, the word, the sentence until reaching a comprehensive
understanding of the text. The bottom up model appears appropriate for students who study
Indonesian as a second language at the beginning level.

In accordance with the theory of contrastive analysis, they will learn to distinguish
phonemes, words, and sentence structure in the first and second language. Then a
comprehensive understanding of the text can be accomplished. This strategy is also employed
in the book Tematik Terpadu Kurikulum 2013 (Kemendikbud, 2016). This is distinct from the
situation of a more advanced learner who needs a specific reading strategy which stresses
grasping the entire meaning, both literal and inferential.

Writing and speaking are productive skills in language teaching. They are nonetheless
quite distinct, and require different competencies from the language learner. Writing is done
by assigning visual symbols to represent the language one is studying. Thus, learning to write
for a beginner requires working with letters. This involves preparatory stages such as sitting,
holding a pencil and using one’s eyes (Tematik Terpadu Kurikulum 2013). After this is
accomplished, one may then begin to form letters. The media of study must be designed to
take these factors into account.

2.6. The Media of Language Study

In understanding a text, one needs a good grasp of vocabulary (Richard & Renandya,
2002). The more words one understands, the greater the potential for understanding the text. This
is especially the case for beginning readers.

Additionally, the success of a reader is also determined by the media of study. By this we
refer to the means by which the lesson is conveyed. With the appropriate media, learning can be
administered far more effectively (Chun, 2016). Media itself can include both printed material
and modern technology.

Effective study media has a number of benefits. It can make the learning process more
interesting, interactive, time effective and less boring. With the right media, once passive
students can become active participants in the learning process.
2.7. Computer-Based Media

Alongside the development of knowledge and techonology, computer-based media has


become a means of enhancing effective learning. As pointed out by Cilesiz (2009), computers
can be used in teacher training activities. They can incorporate a number of features such as text,
graphics, audio, images, movements and colors. All of the study material can be presented with
the help of computer technology (Egbert, 2005). Nkenlifack (2011) adds that the development of
technology-based media has been been proven to have had a concrete effect in the teaching of
the national language in Cameroon.

In connection with the choice of media, one must consider factors such as appropriateness
with the aims of study, harmony with the contents of the lesson, ease of obtaining the media, the
ability of the teacher to use it and the students’ level of comprehension (Sudjana & Rivai, 2010).
Besides that, the media must be artistic and attractive to attract the attention of the students.
These factors must be considered in the choice of the media of study.

From the point of view of quality, computer-based study media must fulfill various criteria,
both in terms of content, program design, and appearance. In terms of content, this must include
clear formulations of the goal objectives, knowledge, appearance and attitude in accordance with
the components of the unit, easily understandable language, the presence of practice work and
assignments in accordance with the unit, and assessments with easily understandable intructions.

Alessi and Trollip (2005) have characterized the criteria of media in terms of software
desaign, as being connected with introduction, learner control, presentation of information,
providing help, and ending a program. Mishra and Sharmax (2005) have said that software must
be easily usable and presentable in various forms.

There are various computer-based media models, including macromedia flash. In this
model, the study material is put in flash, and the teacher conveys the material by computer and
LCD. This method appears practical and practicable in teaching first graders. Another model is
Android-based. In this model, the material is installed in a handphone, and the student studies
independently using the cellphone. This model seems inappropriate for first grade students as
they are not allowed by their teachers to bring handphones to class.

2.9. Bahasa Lokal dalam media Macromeedia Flash untuk Pembelajaran Bahasa Nasional
Macromedia flash media can be compiled on the basis of the local language particularly for
students whose first language is the local language. The results of contrastive analysis between
the local and national language can be used for this. Media can be compiled using the bottom up
strategy. Thus, macromedia flash media for the teaching of Indonesian to first graders can be
compiled on the basis of the Javanese language.

The comprehensive thematic curriculum book for 2013 has 4 themes for first grade
students: 1) Myself 2) My interests 3) My hobbies and 4) My family. Lessons are undertaken
based on the Kompetensi Inti (KI) dan Kompetensi Dasar (KD). Each theme has 4 sub-themes
and each sub-theme is taught over a period of 6 days. Thus every theme is taught in a period of
24 days or one month, and 4 themes occupy 4 months.

Macromedia flash, the subject of this research, is compiled with different specifications,
while still referring to Curriculum K-13 with 4 themes of “Myself,” “my interests,” “my
hobbies,” and “my family.” The media is included in 6 meetings. The class ends with an
assessment of competence.

3. Metode Penelitian Method of Research

This research uses the method of Research and Development (R & D). The steps are 1)
needs assessment survey concerning the use of Javanese in the teaching of Indonesian among
first grade students in the province of Yogyakarta 2) a study of the literature concerning the
differences between Indonesian and Javanese 3) plans for preparing “Media for Studying
Indonesian Based on Javanese language, for first grade students, using Macromedia Flash:
Supplement Curriculum 13.” 4) Focus Group Discussion (FGD) on the plans for the Macromedia
Flash media. The experts consist of macromedia flash experts, education experts, and experts on
study materials. The users are the school principal, the first grade teacher and a supervisor.

The instruments used are 1) questionnaire and observation guidance for the needs
assessment survey 2) a list of 500 Indonesian vocabulary words, compiled in a “network
system,” and translated into Javanese. The informants consist of 27 people, men and women,
between the ages of 40-60, who have lived in the same area for two generations. They are
elementary or junior high school educated, and work as farmers, housewives, entrepreneurs, and
rarely leave their hometowns. Finally we use an open questionnaire and observance guidance for
the results of the FGD.

The data is analyzed descriptively, qualitatively and quantitatively. The locations of the
research are SD Negeri Kalidadap, Imogiri, Bantul, SD Negeri Wiloso, Panggang, Gunungkidul,
and SD Negeri Rejosari, Tnjungsari, Gunungkidul, Provinsi DIY, as well as Universitas Ahmad
Dahlan.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1 Result of Research

1. Javanese, like many local languages, is used in first grade education. A survey
concerning the contrast between Javanese as a local language and Indonesian as a
national language has resulted in the following results: 1) the phoneme /a/ in
Indonesian becomes /e/ in Javanese 2) the phoneme /h/ at the the beginning of an
Indonesian word is dropped in Javanese 3) the phoneme /b/ in Indonesian is doubled in
Javanese. Sometimes it becomes a /w/ or remains /b/. 4) the phoneme /ai/ in Indonesian
becomes /e/ in Javanese. 5) the phoneme /au/ in Indonesian becomes /o/ in Javanese 6)
the phoneme /e/ in Indonesian becomes /o/ in Javanese. 7) Indonesian and Javanese as
part of the western Austronesian family follow the RGH sound system. 8) as members
of the western Malayo-Polynesian both Javanese and Indonesian follow the RDL sound
system.

2. The results of the FGD about the media design for teaching Indonesian using Javanese
for first grade students is as follows:

Generally, the design is of good quality and is acceptable. Nonetheless, small revisions
are needed; the picture of the cat and buffalo must be adjusted for size, the head of the
buffalo and goat must be better defined. Some words need to be changed for ease of
understanding, such as using “kue” or “roti” rather than “jajan.” The media experts felt
that the media was put together well, especially the music and intermezzo.
The Macromedia flash was appropriate for the first grade students rather than the
Android models (as students cannot bring handphones to school). The material experts
felt that the material was in line with the first grade curriculum while the study experts
felt the media could easily be used in schools. The opinion of the supervisor, teacher
and principal were generally that the plans were well put together and were ready to be
implemented in class.

It can thus be stated that the plans for the macromedia flash we have designed have
been validated by experts of media, materials, and education, as well as the users (the
teacher, principal and supervisor).

3. The media of language learning with macromedia flash, based on the contrast
between Javanese and Indonesian, is effective for first grade students. This is clear
from the validation of the aforementioned experts and users. The prepared media
was accompanied by a guidebook which was validated by the users and which can be
used by the teacher in putting the media to use.

4. Finally the media was disseminated to the entire province of Yogyakarta. The results of
the dissemination showed that the first grade teachers are able to use the media well.
The teachers felt supported, the students studied with pleasrue while the local language
remains protected.

3.2 Discussion

Javanese, like many local languages, is used in first grade education. Indonesian is only
used by the teacher in particular lessons. Students often cannot understand it well. The teacher
must often repeat the lesson in Javanese. As a result, teaching is not effective, learning is
hindered and education suffers.

This can be understood considering that the everyday language of the students is
Javanese. In addition, teachers often prefer to use Javanese as a way of preserving the language,
which is seen as a cultural heritage. Indonesian teaching media based on the Javanese language is
a solution for this problem. With interesting computer-based media, complete with sound,
pictures, and interesting colors, students will be able to learn their national language with much
more enthusiasm.
The results of the survey about the contrast between Javanese and Indonesian have shown
that the two languages are indeed different. Based on the contrasting elements of the two
languages, appropriate teaching media can be designed, which are appropriate for learners whose
mother tongue is Javanese. By following the points of difference between the two languages,
learners will find it easier to learn Indonesian. Differences in sound which occur between the
languages, and which happen regularly can be a beneficial starting point for language learning.

In connection with computer-based media there is the possibility that the absence of
school facilities, such as electric capacity, computers and LCD, may be a form barrier to
implementation. This has not happened in Yogyakarta but may happen in other provinces.

The result of the FGD concerning the plans for the macromedia flash media were well-
received. Nonetheless, small revisions are necessary in regard to the shape of the pictures, color
of the letters and terms used. The media experts felt that the macromedia flash based media was
more appropriate for first graders than Android-based ones (as students can’t bring handphones
to class). The material and study experts also approved of the media plans, as did the teacher,
principal and supervisor. They all felt the plans were well done and could be implemented in
class. Thus plans for implementation can be considered.

Language teaching media using macromedia flash, based on the contrast between
Javanese and Indonesian have proved effective for first-graders. The results of study using this
media have been successful. This is not surprising given that the plans have been validated by
both experts and users. For ease of use, the media is accompanied by a guidebook. This book
has been validated by users and can be used in implementing the media in class.

4. Conclusion

Following the above discussion, the following conclusions can be made.

1. Javanese, like many local languages, is used in first grade education. A survey
concerning the contrast between Javanese as a local language and Indonesian as a
national language has resulted in the following results: 1) the phoneme /a/ in
Indonesian becomes /e/ in Javanese 2) the phoneme /h/ at the the beginning of an
Indonesian word is dropped in Javanese 3) the phoneme /b/ in Indonesian is doubled in
Javanese. Sometimes it becomes a /w/ or remains /b/. 4) the phoneme /ai/ in Indonesian
becomes /e/ in Javanese. 5) the phoneme /au/ in Indonesian becomes /o/ in Javanese 6)
the phoneme /e/ in Indonesian becomes /o/ in Javanese. 7) Indonesian and Javanese as
part of the western Austronesian family follow the RGH sound system. 8) as members
of the western Malayo-Polynesian both Javanese and Indonesian follow the RDL sound
system.

2. Generally, the design is of good quality and is acceptable. Nonetheless, small revisions
are needed; the picture of the cat and buffalo must be adjusted for size, the head of the
buffalo and goat must be better defined. Some words need to be changed for ease of
understanding, such as using “kue” or “roti” rather than “jajan.” The media experts felt
that the media was well done, especially the music and intermezzo.
3. The plans for the macromedia flash we have designed has been validated by experts of
media, materials, and education, as well as the users (the teacher, principal and
supervisor).

4. Media for studying language with macromedia flash, based on the difference between
Indonesian and Javanese is effective for first graders, as indicated by the validation of the
media by both experts and users.

5. Media for studying the national language on the basis of the local language with macromedia
flash is one way of preserving language and local culture. With this media, language study can
proceed unimpeded while the local language is preserved as well.
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