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# Mechanical Design of Machine Elements

## Worksheet 2: Stress Concentration Factors

Suppose you have a 4340 steel plate in static loading on the exterior of the James Webb Telescope
(JWST). To allow electronic cables to pass through the plate, it has a transverse hole. The plate must
be able to withstand the minimum operating temperature of JWST. The plate is 1⁄4” thick, 2” high,
and 5” long. The hole is in the center of the plate, and is 1/4“ in diameter. The plate is loaded in
tension, with a load F = 5000 lbf. See the ductile to brittle transition temperature chart and stress
concentration factor chart on the next page.
1) What is the maximum stress in this component in orbit during operation of JWST? Hint: Google
the operating temperature of JWST.
2) What would the maximum stress in the component be in storage at room temperature on earth?

5.00“

+ F
2.00“

1.00“

0.25“ 2.50“

Assumptions:
Isotropic, homogenous, F is axial centric load, neglecting weight of bar.

Thoughts:
• Force F creates an axial tensile stress.
• Minimum operating temperature of JWST on orbit is -225 C.
• The on orbit temperature is well below the ductile to brittle transition temperature for 4340, and
therefore the steel bar will behave in a brittle manner on orbit
• For calculating stresses in the bar on orbit, as the material is behaving in a brittle manner, a stress
concentration factor must be used
• Room temperature is around 21 C, which is well above the ductile to brittle transition temperature
• For calculating stresses in the bar in storage at room temperature, the material is behaving in a
ductile manner, and a stress concentration factor is not necessary.

Analysis:
1) At operating temperature of -225 C
σnom = F/A, A = [t(w-d)]
σnom = 5000lbf/[0.25in*(2in-0.25in)] = 11,428 psi = 11.4 ksi
d/w = 0.25in/2in= 0.125
Kt = 2.65
σmax= Kt*snom = (2.65* 11.4 ksi) = 30.2 ksi
Mechanical Design of Machine Elements
Complete after watching Module 21: Stress Concentration Factors

## Worksheet 2: Stress Concentration Factors

Suppose you have a 4340 steel plate in static loading on the exterior of the James Webb Telescope
(JWST). To allow electronic cables to pass through the plate, it has a transverse hole. The plate must
be able to withstand the minimum operating temperature of JWST. The plate is 1⁄4” thick, 2” high,
and 5” long. The hole is in the center of the plate, and is 1/4“ in diameter. The plate is loaded in
tension, with a load F = 5000 lbf. See the ductile to brittle transition temperature chart and stress
concentration factor chart on the next page.
1) What is the maximum stress in this component in orbit during operation of JWST? Hint: Google
the operating temperature of JWST.
2) What would the maximum stress in the component be in storage at room temperature on earth?

5.00“

+ F
2.00“

1.00“

0.25“ 2.50“

Analysis:
2) At storage temperature of 21 C
σmax = F/A, A = [t(w-d)]
σmax = 5000lbf/[0.25in*(2in-0.25in)] = 11,428 psi = 11.4 ksi
Ductile to Brittle Transition Temperature 4340 Steel

Recreated using data from: Enrico Lucon, NIST Technical Note 1858 ‘Impact Characterization of
4340 and T200 Steels By Means of Standard, Sub Size and Miniaturized Charpy Specimens’, Feb
2015. http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/TechnicalNotes/NIST.TN.1858.pdf

## By Cdang [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AKt_plaque_percee_symetrique_traction.svg