Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 31

Datos:


masa de vago vacio = 27000 Kg.
Vo = 4m/seg.
masa de vago cargado = 82000 Kg.
calcular :
a) velocidad despues del choque
b) ∆Ec de los 2 vagones despues del choque
c) rapidez debe rodar el vagon cargado hacia el vacio
para que el choque los detenga a ambos ?

Solucion:
0

[𝐦𝟏𝐯𝟏+𝐦𝟐𝐯𝟐=𝐦𝟏𝐯𝟏´+𝐦𝟐 𝐯𝟐´]

[27000∗4+0=27000𝑣1´+82000𝑣2´]

[108000=27000∗𝑣1´+82000∗𝑣2´]

Como se acoplan los 2 despues del choque tienen la misma velocidad osea

[𝒗𝟏´= 𝒗𝟐´]

[ 𝟏𝟎𝟖𝟎𝟎𝟎=𝟏𝟗𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎∗𝐯´ ]

a) [ ∆��������� = ������/������ ] = 0.5684 m/seg.

b) ∆Ec = 𝟏/𝟐 m 𝒗^𝟐 = �/� mtotal �^ � = � /� (82000 + 2700


〖 (𝟎.𝟓𝟔𝟖𝟒) 〗 ^� = 8884.6604 J

c) ∆Ec = 𝟏/𝟐 m 𝒗^𝟐 = �/� (82000) �^� = 8884.6604 J

Entonces velocidad del vago carcado seria = 0.10834


A

[𝐦𝟏𝐯𝟏+𝐦𝟐𝐯𝟐=𝐦𝟏𝐯𝟏´+𝐦𝟐 𝐯𝟐´]

[𝐦𝟏𝐯𝟏+𝟎=−𝐦𝟏𝐯𝟏´+𝐦𝟐 𝐯𝟐´]

[𝟏𝟓𝟎𝐊𝐠∗𝐯𝟏=𝟏𝟓𝟎 𝐊𝐠∗𝐯𝟏´+𝟐𝟒𝟎 𝐊𝐠∗ 𝐯𝟐´]

[𝐯𝟏=𝟏𝟓𝟎 𝐊𝐠∗𝐯𝟏´+𝟐𝟒𝟎 𝐊𝐠∗ 𝐯𝟐´] / (150 Kg.)----------ecu

cuando es casi elastico


e = 0.9 e = ( ��´+��
´)/𝒗𝟏

0.9 * v1 = ��´+�𝟐´

v1 = ( ��´+�𝟐´) / 0.9----------------ecuac. 02

Entonces se deduce ecuac. 1 y 2 :

[𝟏𝟓𝟎 𝐊𝐠∗𝐯𝟏´+𝟐𝟒𝟎 𝐊𝐠∗ 𝐯𝟐´] / (150 Kg.) = (��´+��´) / 0.9

[𝟏𝟓𝟎 𝐊𝐠∗𝐯𝟏´+𝟐𝟒𝟎 𝐊𝐠∗ 𝐯𝟐´] / (150 Kg.) = v1

(��´+��´) / 0.9 = v1
[𝐯𝟏´+𝟖/𝟓 𝐊𝐠∗ 𝐯𝟐´] =

(𝟏𝟎/𝟗 ��´+𝟏𝟎/𝟗 ��´)

………………………………………………………………………………………………

26/9 [��´] = v1 entonces : [��´] = 9/


tanto :

[��´] = 9/26 √(𝟐∗𝒈∗𝒉)

a)
[��´] = 9/26 √(𝟐∗𝟗.𝟖∗𝟎.𝟗) = 1.4538 m/seg

Se deduce lo siguiente :

m * [��´]" " ^𝟐 /2 = mgh1 = (𝟏 )/𝟐 〖 ( ��/�� " " √(�∗ ∗∗�∗�


)"
) " 〗 ^(𝟏/𝟐) = g*h1

por tanto =
h1 = ��/��� "
∗2∗h "

(" m " 〖 "(" 𝟐𝟗/𝟔𝟓 " " √(𝟐∗𝒈∗𝒉) " )" 〗 ^𝟐 "
" )/𝟐 = mg h1

b) tension maxima = EpG = m*g h = (240Kg)(9.8m/seg2)(0.9) = 2116.8 J :


F= 60 dinas ∆t = 12 seg.

m = 10 g.
Vo del cuerpo = 60 cm/seg

W = F*d*cosα
A)
W =(60E-5)( 0.005) =
Unidades:
1dina = 1.0E-05

B)

Ec1 = 1/2 * (0.01) 3.60E-07


〖 (0.06) 〗 ^2 =

Ec2 = 1/2 * m 1/2( (60∗10−5 Kg.m/seg2 *12seg*∆v/m)^2 :


𝑉^2 = m)
F = m*a
(�=�.�)=60∗10−5 N = m* ∆�/∆� = m * ∆𝑣/12𝑠𝑒�

∆Ec = (3.60-2.49)*10-7 = 1.01E-07

Potencia desarrollada

potencia = 𝑤(𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑏𝑎𝑗𝑜)/𝑡𝑖𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑜 = (3∗10−6 𝐽)/12𝑆𝑒� = 2.5E-7


watt = 3.35 E-10 HP
potencia = 𝑤(𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑏𝑎𝑗𝑜)/𝑡𝑖𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑜 = (3∗10−6 𝐽)/12𝑆𝑒� = 2.5E-7
watt = 3.35 E-10 HP
Conversion:

1 Watt = 0.001341022 HP

N(normal)

(𝑚1=50 𝐾�.)

F tension
W2(peso)









a)

3
7
°
]
w1(peso)

Uk Del bloque de
m2 T2-Uk1*N* mgcos37° = m*a

T2-Uk1*N* gcos37° = *a

Usando cinematica para hallar la aceleracion :


vf = vo*t +(1/2)a*t^2 dato :

(210N - Uk(980Kg*m/seg^2)*(9.8m/seg^2)(0.8) = (0.5 m/seg

uK = 0.027
Uk Del bloque de
m1
F - Uk*N = T F De rozamiento = Uk*N

(m*a) -Uk(490N) = 210N

(50Kg)(0.5Kg*m/seg2) - Uk(490N) = 210N

25N + 490*Uk = 210N

185N = 490*Uk

0.3776 = Uk

b)

∆Ec = 1/2 * ∆m 𝑉^2 = 1/2∗(100-50)Kg * (∆𝑥/∆𝑡) ^2 = 1/2*50Kg * (a*∆t)^2 = 1/2*


Antes del choque :

vago Vo = 4 m/seg vago


vacio cargado

Durante el choque:

vago vago
vacio cargado

Despues del choque:


Se acoplan los 2 vagos

misma velocidad osea

����� ] = 0.5684 m/seg.

mtotal ^�= �/� (82000 + 27000)


884.6604 J

(82000) ^� = 8884.6604 J

vago carcado seria = 0.10834 m /seg.


150 Kg

90 cm

r = 60 cm

B
240 Kg

+𝐦𝟐 𝐯𝟐´]

𝐦𝟐 𝐯𝟐´]

∗𝐯𝟏´+𝟐𝟒𝟎 𝐊𝐠∗ 𝐯𝟐´]

𝟎 𝐊𝐠∗ 𝐯𝟐´] / (150 Kg.)----------ecuac. 01

�𝟐´) / 0.9----------------ecuac. 02

Kg.) = (��´+��´) / 0.9

𝐯𝟐´] / (150 Kg.) = v1

= v1
∗ 𝐯𝟐´] = v1 ………………..… * (( 10)/9)

𝟗 ��´) = v1 .………………...

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

= v1 entonces : [��´] = 9/26 [�𝟏] por lo [�𝟏´] = 29/65


[�𝟏]

[�𝟏´] = 𝟐𝟗/𝟔𝟓
√(𝟐∗𝒈∗𝒉)

∗𝟎.𝟗) = 1.4538 m/seg

〖 ( ��/�� " " √(�∗ ∗∗�∗�


)"

deduciendo : h2 = …… respuesta c)
���/���� "
∗h "

m/seg2)(0.9) = 2116.8 J : 2.1168E+03 J


en la misma direccion dela fuerza

o del cuerpo = 60 cm/seg

vo = ∆𝑥/∆𝑡 = (60cm/seg)(1m/100cm)

entonces:
3.0E-06 J
∆x = (0.06m/seg)(12seg) = 0.005 metros.

m/seg2 *12seg*∆v/m)^2 : 2.59E-07 J

* ∆�/∆� = m * ∆𝑣/12𝑠𝑒�

𝑜 = (3∗10−6 𝐽)/12𝑆𝑒� = 2.5E-7


𝑜 = (3∗10−6 𝐽)/12𝑆𝑒� = 2.5E-7

Tension N(normal)

(𝑚2=100 𝐾�.)
[


37°







3
7
°
]

angulo de 37°
F rozamiento1 = Uk1*N

gcos37° = m*a
F rozamiento2 = U2*N

a = 0.5m/seg^2 N = W(Peso) = (100*9.8)= 980 N


T = 210N

)*(9.8m/seg^2)(0.8) = (0.5 m/seg^2)


De rozamiento = Uk*N

^2 = 1/2*50Kg * (a*∆t)^2 = 1/2*50Kg * [(0.5m/seg^2 )*(5seg)]^2 = 156.25 J


m/100cm)

) = 0.005 metros.

F = 200N
N

………… ……………………60°…

m = 40Kg

∑▒ 〖
〖� =0

B) 〗

Uk*(40*9.8)-200N*Sen(60°) = 0

(Uk*392N)-200N*√3/2 = 0

Uk = 0.44

Frozamiento = Uk *N = 0.44*40*9.8 = 173.205 N

bomba Vo =270 Km/hora = m/seg


⑭ de 10kg

100m
1Km/hora = (1000m/1km)(1hora/3600seg) = 0.28 m/seg

〖 � 〖� 〗
^2= 〖
〖��〗

Vf = (7.67*10^3 m2/s

ℎ=𝑉𝑜∗𝑡−1/2∗g∗𝑡^2 =

N Vo = 5m/seg

Fsen(α)

f ROZAMIENTO

Pto.Inicial
α

36metros
w

v𝑓=𝑉𝑜+g∗t = (5m/seg) +(9.8𝑚/𝑠𝑒�2)(∆𝑥/∆𝑣) = (5m/seg

ƩX = 0

Uk *N - F1*Sen(α) =0

Uk*N = F1

Uk* N = F 1

Entonces :

uK = 𝐹1/𝑊= (𝑚∗𝑎)/(𝑚∗�) = (5m/seg)/(7.2seg) /


(9.8m/seg2) = 0.071

N
⑯ v= cte

F
m = 30 kg

Uk = 0.25

W=m.g

a)
[𝐹𝑟−𝑈𝑘∗𝑁=𝑚∗𝑎 ] = m*(∆𝑣/∆𝑡) = m*(∆𝑥/∆𝑡2)=entonce

Fr-2.45 = a

Fr =u.N = (0.25)(294)=73.5

a = 73.5-2.45 = 71.05 m/seg2

F = m*a = 71.05*30 =2131.5 N


Fr =u.N = (0.25)(294)=73.5

a = 73.5-2.45 = 71.05 m/seg2

F = m*a = 71.05*30 =2131.5 N

Wcaja = ("F *" ∆" x" )= 2131.5*4.5 = 9.59*10^3 J

Wfriccion sobre la caja = ("(mg ) x" )= (30Kg)(9.8)(4.5)Cos270°=


0

Wnormal sobre la caja = (𝑁∗𝑐𝑜𝑠90°)=0

Wgravedad = (𝑚.�.ℎ)=(30𝑘�)(9.8)(0) = 0

w total =
9.59*10^3 J
Fuerza de Rozamiento
entre la caja y la superficie

5m

A) w(trabajo= F*d*cos60° = (200N*5m)*(1/2) = 500 J

N*Sen(60°) = 0

N*√3/2 = 0

*40*9.8 = 173.205 N

a) Ec bomba , en este caso la velocidad dela bomba es iguala ala velocidad del avion . Por consecuencia :

Ec = 1/2 * m 𝑉^2 = = 1/2 * 10Kg* 〖 (270∗0.28) 〗 ^2 = 28125 J = 28.125


KJ

b)EpG Inicial dela bomba es :

EpG = m *g * h = (10kg)(9.8m/seg2)(100m) = 9.8*10^3 J = 9.8 KJ


c) Energia Mecanica total = 28.125 KJ + 9.8 KJ = 37.925 KJ

d) velocidad al llegar al suelo

〖 � 〖� 〗
^2= 〖
〖��〗 ^2+2�ℎ= (270*0.28)^2 + (2*9.8m/seg^2*100m) = 7.67*10^3 m2/seg^2

Vf = (7.67*10^3 m2/seg^2)^1/2 = 87.58 m/seg.

e) EpG = m *g * h = (10kg)(9.8m/seg2)(31.5m)= 3.087 KJ

ℎ=𝑉𝑜∗𝑡−1/2∗g∗𝑡^2 = (270*0.28)-1/2∗(9.8)∗ 〖 (3𝑠𝑒�) 〗 ^2 = 31.5m

Ec = 1/2 * m 𝑉^2 = = 1/2 * 10Kg* (∆𝑥/∆𝑡 )^2 = 1/2 * 10Kg* (100𝑚/3𝑠𝑒� )^2
= 5.555 KJ

Aquí se detiene
(9.8𝑚/𝑠𝑒�2)(∆𝑥/∆𝑣) = (5m/seg) +(9.8�/���2)(36𝑚)/(5𝑚/𝑠𝑒�) = 75.56 m/seg.

velocidad = distancia : (36m)(5m/seg) : 7.2 seg.


tiempo

tiempo = distancia
velocidad

4.5metros

*(∆𝑣/∆𝑡) = m*(∆𝑥/∆𝑡2)=entonces :Fr−(0.25)(30∗9.8)/30=a

.5

/seg2

31.5 N
.5

/seg2

31.5 N

5*4.5 = 9.59*10^3 J

g ) x" )= (30Kg)(9.8)(4.5)Cos270°=

𝑜𝑠90°)=0

(9.8)(0) = 0
^2

N
v= 0.4m/seg

m = 30 kg

2m

W=m.g 45°

Wfriccion = (FR cos180) *∆x

W friccion = Fcos45°*cos180° * 2m =

F = m*a = (30kg)(Vf-Vo) /∆t = (30)(0.4)(1.56) =18.78 N

𝒉=𝑽𝒐∗𝒕−𝟏/𝟐∗𝐠∗𝒕^𝟐

entonces :

1/2∗g/ℎ=�^2 t =(( 1/2*(9.8)/2 )^1/2 = 1.565seg.

m = 8kg.
W=m.g

b) Ec = 1/2 * m 𝑉^2 = = 1/2 * 8Kg* 〖 (24𝑚/𝑠𝑒�) 〗 ^2 = 4608 J

a) 𝒉=𝑽𝒐∗𝒕−𝟏/𝟐∗𝐠∗𝒕^𝟐
entonces :
h =(24)(3)-�/�∗(𝟗.𝟖)∗� ^� = 27.9 metros

𝒉=𝑽𝒐∗𝒕−𝟏/𝟐∗𝐚∗𝒕^𝟐

entonces :
h =(24)(3)-�/�∗(𝟖)∗� ^� = 36 metros

v𝑓=𝑉𝑜∗𝑎𝑡=(F /m)cos30 = 2.5


F =m*a*cos30 =
R cos180) *∆x

os45°*cos180° * 2m = -18.78√2 J

56) =18.78 N

𝐠∗𝒕^𝟐

=(( 1/2*(9.8)/2 )^1/2 = 1.565seg.

v= 24m/seg
45°

t = x/v = 24/8 = 3 seg


^2 = 4608 J

F =m*a*cos45 = (8)(0.7071)(8) = 45.25 N

a = v/t = 24/3 = 8 m/seg2

c)

F =m*a*cos30 = (8)(0.866)(8) = 55.42 N

a = v/t = 24/3 = 8 m/seg2

vo= 1.5m/seg Uk = 0.25 vf= 2.5 m/seg

W=m.g 30° C

v𝑓=𝑉𝑜∗𝑎𝑡=(F /m)cos30 = 2.5


Fr/m =2.889

uN/m = 2.889

0.25*N /m =2.889

11.56 J = N