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Task 1 : Learning Task for Learning Activity 1 (M2 LA 1)

Analyze the generic structures of the three text ! and are sure that the three texts are categorized into descriptive text ? Elaborate your answer!

1. Generic Structur e of Descriptive Text.

Text 1. EIFFEL TOWER


The Eiffel Tower is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris,
France. It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and
(General
built the tower. Constructed from 1887–89 as the entrance to the 1889 World's Fair, it
identification:
IDENTIFICATION was initially criticized by some of France's leading artists and intellectuals for its design,
where, who, when,
but it has become a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognisable
and what)
structures in the world. The Eiffel Tower is the most-visited paid monument in the
world; 6.91 million people ascended it in 2015.
The tower is 324 metres (1,063 ft) tall, about the same height as an 81-storey
building, and the tallest structure in Paris. Its base is square, measuring 125 metres
(410 ft) on each side. During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the
Important Detail 1 Washington Monument tobecome the tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it
(The heigh) held for 41 years until the Chrysler Building in New York City was finished in 1930. Due
to the addition of a broadcasting aerial at the top of the tower in 1957, it is now taller
than the Chrysler Building by 5.2 metres (17 ft). Excluding transmitters, the
DESCRIPTION Eiffel Tower is the second tallest structure in France after the Millau Viaduct.
The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the first and second
levels. The top level's upper platform is 276 m (906 ft) above the ground – the highest
observation deck accessible to the public in the European Union. Tickets can be
Important Detail – 2
purchased to ascend by stairs or lift (elevator) to the first and second levels. The climb
(The heigh)
from ground level to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the climb from the first level
to the second. Although there is a staircase to the top level, it is usually accessible only
by lift.
Text 2. DEMOCRACY
Democracy, in modern usage, is a system of government in which the citizens
(General
exercise power directly or elect representatives from among themselves to form a
identification:
IDENTIFICATION governing body, such as a parliament. Democracy is sometimes referred to as "rule of
where, who, when,
the majority". Democracy is a system of processing conflicts in which outcomes depend
and what)
on what participants do, but no single force controls what occurs and its outcomes.
The uncertainty of outcomes is inherent in democracy, which makes all forces
struggle repeatedly for the realization of their interests, being the devolution of power
from a group of people to a set of rules. Western democracy, as distinct from that which
Important Detail 1:
existed in pre-modern societies, is generally considered to have originated in city states
The origin of
such as Classical Athens and the Roman Republic, where various schemes and
democracy
degrees of enfranchisement of the free male population were observed before the form
disappeared in the West at the beginning of late antiquity. The English word dates to
the 16th century, from the older Middle French and Middle Latin equivalents.
According to political scientist Larry Diamond, democracy consists of four key
Important Detail 2 elements: a political system for choosing and replacing the government through free
Four key elements in and fair elections; the active participation of the people, as citizens, in politics and civic
DESCRIPTION democracy life; protection of the human rights of all citizens; a rule of law, in which the laws and
procedures apply equally to all citizens.
The term appeared in the 5th century BC, to denote the political systems then
existing in Greek city-states, notably Athens, to mean "rule of the people", in contrast
to aristocracy (ἀριστοκρατία, aristokratía), meaning "rule of an elite". While theoretically
Important Detail 3:
these definitions are in opposition, in practice the distinction has been blurred
History of democracy
historically. The political system of Classical Athens, for example, granted democratic
and democracy with
citizenship to free men and excluded slaves and women from political participation. In
other forms of
virtually all democratic governments throughout ancient and modern history,
government.
democratic citizenship consisted of an elite class until full enfranchisement was won for
all adult citizens in most modern democracies through the suffrage movements of the
19th and 20th centuries.
Text 3. ENCYCLOPEDIA of LANGUAGE and EDUCATION
This is one of ten volumes of the Encyclopedia of Language and Education published
(General
by Springer. The Encyclopedia bears testimony to the dynamism and evolution of the
identification:
IDENTIFICATION language and education field, as it confronts the ever-burgeoning and irrepressible
where, who, when,
linguistic diversity and ongoing pressures and expectations placed on education around
and what)
the world.
This interdisciplinary and internationalizing impetus has been immeasurably enhanced
by the advice and support of the editorial advisory board members, several of whom
served as volume editors in the Encyclopedia’s first edition (designated here with*), and
Important Detail 1:
all of whom I acknowledge here with gratitude: Neville Alexander (South Africa), Colin
Interdisciplinary and
Baker (Wales), Marilda Cavalcanti (Brazil), Caroline Clapham* (Britain), Bronwyn
internationalizing
Davies* (Australia), Viv Edwards* (Britain), Frederick Erickson (USA), Joseph Lo
impetus of
Bianco (Australia), Luis Enrique Lopez (Bolivia and Peru), Allan Luke (Singapore and
encyclopedia
Australia), Tove Skutnabb-Kangas (Denmark), Bernard Spolsky (Israel), G. Richard
Tucker* (USA), Leo van Lier* (USA), Terrence G. Wiley (USA), Ruth Wodak* (Austria),
and Ana Celia Zentella (USA).
In conceptualizing an encyclopedic approach to a field, there is always the challenge
Important Detail 2 of the hierarchical structure of themes, topics, and subjects to be covered. In this
DESCRIPTION
the challenge of the Encyclopedia of Language and Education, the stated topics in each volume’s table of
hierarchical structure contents are complemented by several cross-cutting thematic strands recurring across
of themes, topics, and the volumes, including the classroom/pedagogic side of language and education;
subjects to be issues of identity in language and education; language ideology and education;
covered. computer technology and language education; and language rights in relation to
education.
Important Detail 3:
The explanation of
volume editors’
Paragraph 5, 6, 7 and 8
discplinary and
interdisciplinary
interest

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