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New technologies
provide more
options for sand-
prone, open-hole
Case studies on monobore expandable liner
extension, directional casing while drilling



As prospects get smaller,

contractors must deliver efficiency

Directional casing while drilling applied to improve

high-angle top-hole drilling from producing platform
By Graeme Dawson, Andrew Buchan, Ilen
Kardani, Schlumberger; Andrew Harris,
Lonnie Wercholuk, TESCO; Khairul Amir
Khazali, Abdul Halim Shariff, Keith Sisson,
Heru Hermawan, PETRONAS


Drilling (DCWD) using a rotary steer-
able system (RSS) or a steerable positive
displacement motor (PDM) is a recent
enabling technological application of
casing while drilling. It has been applied
in wells in the North Sea and the Middle
East using both RSS and PDMs. The
technology was recently used in a proj-
ect from a producing platform in the Figure 1 shows Well D4's actual inclination versus planned inclination. As the build-up
Asia Pacific region. The project was com- curve was established and the formation became more competent, the sliding percent-
pleted successfully in terms of increas- age was reduced, with a slight build tendency observed. Sliding was continued with
ing ROP and lowering the time and cost steady toolfaces being maintained and no hanging up.
to drill the top-hole section of the well.

Top-hole directional drilling of wells in

high-density locations, such as multi-well
producing platforms, require carefully
planned procedures and reliable tech-
niques. The procedure requires, in addi-
tion to directional capabilities, that the
well meet the demands of anti-collision
concerns within the torque and hydraulic
operating parameters of the formation.

The successful operation led to several


• World’s deepest 13 3/8-in. DCWD job;

• World’s highest-angle directional well
with 13 3/8-in. DCWD; Figure 2: Well D4 called for inclination to build from 8.43° to 36.15°, while turning the
• World’s fastest rate of penetration for azimuth from 125° to 115° then left to 126°. The planned dogleg severity was 2.5°/30m.
a 13 3/8-in. DCWD;
form, and wells D4 and D3 were chosen previous conventional drilling campaigns
• World’s first application of Gyro MWD for this application. with mixed results. Section times have
with DCWD. varied from between 5 hours to 24 hours.
The formations encountered while drill-
As a result of this project’s success, the ing the 17 ½-in. top-hole section, which The operator decided to use DCWD tech-
operator is deploying DCWD technology are soft and unconsolidated, have a his- nology to improve drilling performance
in another project in East Malaysia. tory of severe losses. At the same time, while mitigating risks traditionally
the focus was on increasing reservoir associated with the top-hole section.
BACKGROUND exposure while reducing the number of The DCWD technology to be used was a
wells and platforms required. retrievable bottomhole assembly (BHA),
The field selected for the introduction
and the objectives were:
of DCWD is located in the Malay Basin, This resulted in the wells becoming
about 100 miles off of the east coast of higher in angle to extend the reach of • Improve the safety and efficiency of
the Malaysian Peninsula, in water depths the platform drainage zone and to maxi- casing running and handling with a stab-
of approximately 70 m. It is the largest mize reservoir exposure. Due to these berless casing drive system (CDS);
integrated oil and gas development in developments, the inclination in the 17
Malaysia. ½-in. top-hole section has increased, • Prove the concept of batch casing drill-
which compounded existing problems by ing commercially and technically;
Currently, the field consist of one mother
degrading hole cleaning. • Enable casing drilling to become the
platform (A) and four satellite platforms
(B, C, D and E). DCWD technology was These hazards have been sustained in base case for drilling top-hole sections;
applied on D, a 16-slot, four-legged plat- the deviated 17 ½-in. top-hole sections in

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• Prove the directional capability of 13 modeling was conducted to determine

/8-in. casing drilling assemblies; DCWD provided the advantage the predicted sliding dogleg capability
and rotary behavior of the various BHA
• Minimize flat times associated with that, if mud losses occurred, the designs.
conditioning and cleaning the hole in mud system could be switched
soft, unconsolidated directional top-hole As such, the final BHA used showed little
sections in the field; to seawater while continuing to discernible difference from what would
• Improve drilling performance in the
drill ahead with no time expend- be seen from a conventional motor BHA
on drill pipe.
top-hole formations though better hole ed trying to mitigate incurred
cleaning with 13 3/8-in. casing versus 5 losses. Another advantage is the • Mud/cement design: KCL/PHPA with
/8-in. drill pipe; 2% of radiagreen was designed for this
ability to retrieve the BHA while application. Because a basic cement plug
• Log the section with gamma, resistiv- leaving the casing in place, thus could not be used, it was decided to use
ity and annular pressure while casing a PDC-drillable cement retainer.
drilling; eliminating potential casing-
• Casing drill from the 26-in. conductor
running problems. • Drilling engineering: Use of DCWD
technology in these wells would signifi-
shoe to section TD in one run. cantly change the expected hydraulics
DCWD provided the additional advantage and torque and drag values from those
a total of 90,000 cycles on the casing.
that if mud losses occurred, the mud sys- of offset wells with conventional drilling
This was not anticipated to be problem-
tem could be switched to seawater while assemblies. Alterations in hydraulics
atic; however, the total number of revolu-
continuing to drill ahead with no time were largely due to the increased inter-
tions should be logged, and, if necessary,
expended trying to mitigate incurred nal diameter of the casing, compared
the surface rpm could be reduced.
losses. Another advantage is the ability with drill pipe, leading to a significantly
to retrieve the BHA while leaving the • BHA directional performance: This reduced standpipe pressure.
casing in place, thus eliminating poten- was a major challenge due to an almost
More importantly, the reduced annular
tial casing-running problems over the complete lack of offset data to determine
clearance between the casing and the
troublesome formations drilled. the BHA directional capabilities. Rotary
borehole wall would lead to an increase
steerable systems were given first con-
Two methods of BHA retrieval – wireline in annular velocity and, as a direct
sideration for use, but it was considered
or drill pipe – were available. With the result, ECD. Because the field had a his-
too risky to use a push-the-bit system
drill pipe method, which was used during tory of severe losses in the soft sedimen-
due to concerns with the shallow sedi-
these wells, a false rotary is required at tary formations in the top-hole sections,
mentary formations washing out and
the surface to run the drill pipe through accurate modeling of expected ECD
severely reducing the BHA’s achievable
the casing. The grapple-type latching values and limits was crucial to the proj-
dogleg severity. A point-the-bit RSS was
tool locks into the drill lock assembly ect’s success.
deemed to be the optimum engineer-
(DLA) and releases the dog locks when ing solution, but it was decided that Similarly, expected torque and drag
picked up, causing a bypass port to the relative expense of such a system values would be much higher than when
open through the seal cups in the DLA would reduce the economic viability of drilled with conventional assemblies due
that prevent swabbing during retrieval. the project. Additionally, it would not to the increased casing weight and addi-
The BHA is pulled through the casing at allow a direct comparison between the tional string borehole wall contact. This
nominal tripping speeds to the surface. performance of conventional drilling was critical to ensure that the additional
techniques and that of DCWD. torque would not exceed the torsional
PRE-JOB ENGINEERING Due to anticollision concerns in the top-
yield limits of the casing or the makeup
Extensive pre-job engineering was torque of the connections. Also, it was
hole section, a gyro MWD system was
required to ensure a successful opera- important to confirm that the axial load
used to reduce the risks and time associ-
tion. Challenges included: capabilities of the casing would not be
ated with the conventional wireline-con-
breached at any point.
veyed surface read-out single-shot gyro
• Rig requirements: Rig crews were
surveys. The operating principles of the To get actual values as close as possible
given extensive safety and technical
gyro required the tool to be stationary to predicted, extensive pre-job modeling
training prior to running DCWD. The
while initializing. If an RSS system had was conducted. Results were repeat-
casing drive system was used in running
been used to provide directional control, edly analyzed and compared. Accurate
13 3/8-in. and 9 5/8-in. casing in wells D3
it would have required all the directional modeling of ECD and torque and drag
and D4 prior to running the full DCWD
BHA (including RSS, MWD and gyro measurements would prove invaluable
MWD) to be situated below the mud to the success of the project by providing
• Casing design: 13 3/8-in. K-55 BTC with motor, which would have been located baseline measurements to gauge hole-
L-80 casing grade were used in this inside the casing string. cleaning effectiveness and to optimize
application. The makeup torque for this ROP to help evade excessive annular
Therefore, a conventional PDM assem-
casing is 13,000 ft-lbs, and torque rings loading, which would reduce the poten-
bly was used to provide the directional
were installed to increase the makeup tial for stuck pipe and excessive mud
control while allowing the collection of
torque to 63,000 ft-lbs. The maximum losses.
survey information, which were required
anticipated surface revolution was 50
due to anti-collision concerns. To ensure • Surveying and anti-collision: Because
rpm, and the maximum rotational hours
the BHA design met the unique challeng- the DCWD wells were to take place
was anticipated to be 30 hrs. This meant
es of these wells, extensive research and on a live producing offshore platform,

54 July/August 2010 D R I L L I N G CONTRACTOR

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m with no returns at 1,100 gpm and 50

rpm. 30 bbls of KMC lift were pumped
every three joints to TD.

The switch to seawater meant that the

signal from the MWD was significantly
weakened. Different bit rates for the
MWD were tried with little improvement.
It was decided to take delayed surveys,
which meant that the MWD began send-
ing the survey after a specified time
interval once the pumps were restarted
after connection time. This improved the
Figure 3 shows the relationship between the ECD and standpipe pressure versus depth MWD signal significantly.
in Well D4. From the onset, the ECDs recorded by the MWD tool were not trending with
the plan. The ECD spiked at a maximum 12.5 ppg, typically between 2-3 ppg above the The casing drilling BHA drilled a total
of 815 m. Total bit time was 9.95 hrs for
mud weight.
an average ROP of 82m/hr while build-
ing inclination from 8.4° to 36.88°. A final
accurate wellbore surveying was criti- bend, float sub, 11-in. NM UG stab, 8-in. survey was made at 36.88°, and 100 bbls
cal to mitigate collision and HSE risks gyro MWD, MWD, resistivity logging tool of KCM lift were pumped into the hole
from surrounding wells on the drilling and an 8-in. pony non-magnetic drill col- and circulated, cleaning the hole four
template. This was a particular concern lar. times from the bottom up.
because MWD azimuthal measurements
are under external magnetic interfer- The BHA was shallow-tested at the rig The pump-down retrieval tool (PDRT)
ence for the shallow portions of each floor with the underreamer arms con- was launched and pressured up to 600
section. Further, there was difficulty firmed fully open at 300 gpm and 130 psi. psi to release the DLA. 5 7/8-in. drill
running and centralizing a conventional The assembly was racked back to the pipe was run to the top of the DLA and
wireline-conveyed gyro through the 13 derrick, and the top drive saver sub was latched into the PDRT. When it was con-
/8-in. casing and the BHA. removed. The assembly was run in the firmed that the BHA was engaged by the
hole and the slips set at the rotary. The drill pipe, it was pulled out of the hole.
Across the interval where MWD surveys elevator was changed to a 13 3/8-in. side
were under magnetic interference, it door elevator, the 13 3/8-in. shoe joint, Directional performance: The required
was proposed that a gyro MWD tool be pre-loaded with the 13 3/8-in. DLA and DLS of 2.5°/30 m was achieved at the
run below the MWD. This proved critical made up to the directional BHA. This start of the section using 100% sliding
in enabling the surveying and steer- was run in hole, and the slip joint was mode. As the build-up curve was estab-
ing of the DCWD sections. This project set on the pup joint above the casing lished and the formation became more
also became the world’s first successful profile nipple (CPN). competent, the sliding percentage was
application of gyro MWD with DCWD reduced, with a slight build tendency
operations. The CDS hydraulic service loop was observed. Sliding was continued with
hung at the derrick, and the 13 3/8-in. steady toolfaces being maintained and
CDS and PS-500 power slips were rigged
OPERATIONAL OVERVIEW, up. The assembly with 13 3/8-in. 54.5 lb/
no hanging up. Once at the inclination
required, the assembly showed a slight
RESULTS ft K-55 BTC was run to 190 m. The crew dropping tendency in rotary mode.
Well D4 commenced casing drilling at 190 m with The slide/rotate ratio on this well was
600-700 gpm drilling fluid at 50 rpm. The approximately 50/50 to build trajectory
The 26-in. conductor pipe was driven angle built from 8.15° to 11.72° at 247 with the motor assembly.
to TD at 186 m. A clean-out assembly m. Flow rate was increased to 700-1,050
using a 17 in.-by-23 in. bicenter bit was gpm, and drilling continued, with slid- Drag trend: The drag trend charts indi-
run into the hole, tagged the mud line at ing as required, to 623 m. An inclination cated that, at 521 m, the drags began to
180 m, then drilled to 190 m, 4 m below of 37.9° was reached at 508 m, with a deviate from the trend, caused by cut-
the conductor shoe. 100 bbls of KMC tangent section being drilled from that tings build-up in the annulus with 2-3 cm
lift were pumped into the hole, and the point. clay balls. At 631 m, it was decided to cir-
clean-out assembly was pulled out of the culate the hole clean. Drilling continued
hole. High drag was noticed at 623 m, so 60 to 751 m. The drags were higher than
bbls of KMC lift were pumped and circu- planned, yet appeared to be trending
The well plan called for the inclination lated out. The radiagreen was increased with the planned values. At 751 m, total
to build from 8.43° to 36.15° while turn- from 2% to 3% by volume. Casing drilling losses were encountered, and the well
ing the azimuth from 125° to 115°, then operations continued to 752 m with a was completed with seawater, at which
left to 126°. The planned dogleg severity flow rate of 1,050 gpm at 50 rpm and 30 point the drags began trending down-
(DLS) was 2.5°/30 m. bbl of KMC lift pumped every five joints. ward as the clay balls were dispersed.
Following a pre-job safety meeting Total losses occurred at 752 m. The Torque trend: Torque increased at
(PJSM), the 13 3/8-in. directional casing decision was made to pump 80 bbl of 521 m, the same point where the drags
drilling BHA was made up. The BHA loss control material (LCM) to regain deviated from the plan. High break-
consisted of a 12 ¼-in. mill tooth bit, 12 returns. The attempt was unsuccessful, over torque was experienced after the
¼ in.-by-17 ½ in. underreamer, 9 5/8-in. and it was decided to switch to seawater. connections, indicating some sort of
motor with a 12 1/8-in. stabilizer and 1.5° The crew drilled ahead to a TD of 1,005

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Extensive pre-planning on both

wells ensured the successful
implementation of directional
casing drilling operations. The rig
crew was able to adapt to a “dif-
ferent way” of drilling, assisted
by job safety analyses and tool-
box talks. No modifications to the
Figure 4 (above) shows Well D3's actual versus planned inclination while Figure 5 rig were necessary to implement
(below) shows the well's actual versus planned azimuth. The plan for this well called directional casing while drilling.
for the inclination to build from 11.6° to 58.11° and turn azimuth from 186° to 196°. The
planned DLS was 2.5°/30 m. This well was drilled with seawater from the outset, and
ROP performance: The initial ROP of 60
no directional control issues were reported with the seawater.
m/hr increased to a maximum 195 m/hr
over the section. The average ROP slid-
ing was 96 m/hr and 106 m/hr rotating.
The average on bottom ROP was 100 m/
hr over the 1,011m casing drilled. This
well had consistently higher average
ROP, due in part to the lessons learned
from the first well.

Drag trend: Because this well was

drilled with seawater from the outset,
the drag charts indicated no problems
while directionally drilling and building
the section to 58° inclination.

Torque trend: The actual torques were

differential pressure sticking, possibly WELL D3 significantly more consistent with the
caused by the higher equivalent circulat- planned torques compared with the seg-
In this well, the plan called for the incli-
ing densities (ECD). Once casing drilling ment of Well D4 drilled with mud. No
nation to build from 11.6° to 58.11° and
with seawater commenced, the torques high breakover torque was experienced
turn azimuth from 186° to 196°. The
trended per plan, and there were no in this well.
planned DLS was 2.5°/30m.
significant break-over torques to regain
rotation after connection. The deviated 26-in. conductor pipe was ECD: ECD trends were very close to the
driven and cleaned out as in the previ- plan, with all spikes corresponding to
ECD: ECDs recorded by the MWD tool the 30-bbl high-viscosity sweeps every
ous well. Similarly, the BHA was made
showed that, from the onset, the actual third joint. The cuttings size and vol-
up along with the CDS hydraulic service
values did not trend with the plan. After umes at the shakers were dramatically
loop and tested. With all components
sliding without rotation at up to 100 m/ lower compared with those recorded
successfully tested, the assembly was
hr instantaneous ROP, cuttings were over the same interval in Well D4 while
run in hole.
loading up the annulus. Cuttings com- drilling with mud. Well D3 required
ing over the shakers were typically 3-4 Drilling commenced with reduced flow about 50% sliding to achieve the trajec-
cm clay balls while casing drilling with rates and 100% sliding to gain the tory. However, using seawater, which
mud. The ECD spiked at a maximum required DLS in the soft formation. At disperses the clays, there were consider-
12.5 ppg, typically 2-3 ppg above the mud 789-m MD, the required inclination and ably less cuttings through the section.
weight. The peaks also corresponded to azimuth were achieved, and a tangent
the 30-bbl high-viscosity sweeps pumped was drilled from that point. The operator plans to use seawater to
every third joint. At 751 m, where circu- casing drill the 17 ½-in. top-hole sections
lation was lost, the ECD dropped signifi- The section was drilled to TD at 1,201 m during future operations. Depending on
cantly, and the trend flattened out for the with approximately 1,000 to 1,100 gpm at the rig, the sweeps could be optimized
remainder of the section drilled. 50 rpm with a 30-bbl high-viscosity pill so that 10 bbl are pumped every joint
pumped every third joint. Total bit time instead of every third joint, which would
ROP performance: This well was drilled was 10.05 hrs for an average ROP of 100 reduce the peak ECDs experienced.
with 9.2-ppg KCL PHPA mud with a m/hr. The final survey indicated an incli-
30-bbl high-viscosity sweep every third nation of 58°. PROJECT HIGHLIGHTS
joint. The ROP was initially 30 m/hr and
increased up to 180 m/hr. Average sliding Directional control: There were no Extensive pre-planning on both wells
ROP was 63 m/hr, and 119 m/hr rotating. issues sliding with seawater. The rotary/ ensured the successful implementation
The average on-bottom ROP was 82 m/hr slide ratio was 51/49. The assembly had of directional casing drilling operations.
over the 815 m casing drilled. a reduced drop rate at a higher inclina- The rig crew was able to adapt to a “dif-
tion of 0.9°/30m. ferent way” of drilling, assisted by job

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ing drilling for surveys and collision

avoidance, nor with running LWD with
real-time gamma, resistivity and pres-
sure while drilling. Monitoring torque
and drag trends while casing drilling is
essential for success.

Casing drilling with mud resulted in no

MWD signal issues. With seawater, how-
ever, detection issues were encountered
for surveys and real-time data retrieval.
In future wells, the modulator gap should
be reduced in order to increase the pulse
Figure 6 (left) shows cuttings from Well D4, which initially used KCL PHPA mud with size for drilling with seawater. Reducing
the pulsation dampener pressure to
2% lubricant. 3-4 cm clay balls were observed at the shakers while directional casing
improve signal detection on the surface
drilling. Figure 7: Cuttings problems were mitigated on Well D3 drilling with seawater.
should be examined. Operators should
challenge the need for real-time gamma
safety analyses and toolbox talks. No during the remedial work required to
and resistivity data for the sake of faster
modifications to the rig were necessary recover the slot. While the problem was
connection times.
to implement directional casing while not the fault of the casing drilling opera-
drilling. Well D4 was casing drilled to tor, it is a part of the overall system. As The directional assembly should be mod-
37.9°, the highest angle ever achieved a result, the wells were considered tech- eled to reduce or eliminate the dropping
with 13 3/8-in. casing. Well D3 bested that nical successes only. tendency during rotary drilling.
record, achieving an inclination of 58°.
On Well D3, failure to properly set the Retrievable BHA
Gyro MWD was successfully deployed DLA on surface required the BHA to be
for collision avoidance. Casing drilling round-tripped to change out the DLA, On both wells, the PDRT was success-
resulted in superior hole-cleaning versus resulting in a 12.5-hr nonproductive time fully deployed to unlock the DLA, then
conventional drilling operations with event. Additionally, using seawater as swallow the BHA and wash the casing
drill pipe. Casing drilling with seawater the drilling fluid with 30-bbl high-viscos- hanger into the wellhead. On both wells
with 30-bbl high-viscosity sweeps was ity sweeps every third joint caused prob- the PDRT was volumetrically displaced
effective, with no issues on hole-cleaning lems with MWD detection, and time was using a pump efficiency of 97%. On both
or directional performance. All direc- lost at connections with missed surveys. occasions, the tool landed early. In the
tional objectives were met while drilling This was rectified by delaying the survey future, a 100% pump efficiency for dis-
with 13 3/8-in. casing. transmission to surface, thus allowing placement calculations should be used.
the mud system to stabilize and improv-
Record ROPs were achieved on the two Unusual wear to the top and bottom
ing the signal-to-noise ratio.
wells, reaching an average ROP of 82 m/ packer cups occurred on jobs where the
hr for the first well and 100 m/hr for the PDRT was used. It may be consistent
second. LESSONS LEARNED with washing over the BHA with the
Directional casing drilling casing. On Well D3, the casing had to be
The pump-down retrieval tool (PDRT) rotated. In the future, all packer cups
was successfully deployed to hydrauli- Alignment with other service provid- will be drilled to ensure no pressure lock
cally unlock the DLA and swallow the ers on the job regarding the directional between the cups.
BHA with the casing and wash the hang- objectives and drilling performance prior
er into the wellhead. The crew success- to and during the job was essential. Pre- A dropped-object incident occurred while
fully hung casing in the wellhead on both phase meetings ensured that directional loading the PDRT into the casing stump
wells. Total time savings versus AFE drillers understand the objective, which on Well D4. The C-plate used to land the
was 3.9 days for the two-well batch set. was ROP performance. PDRT in the casing stump fell from a
height of approximately 2 m. A lock bar
There were no issues with directional was then incorporated.
PROJECT LOWLIGHTS control during the job, with the driller
Well D4 was initially drilled with a KCL able to build and turn the well trajecto- On Well D3, the BHA was made up on the
PHPA mud, inhibiting clay dispersal. 3-4 ries to 36° on Well D4 and 58° on Well D3, rig floor where the DLA was loaded into
cm balls of clay were observed at the which was the world’s first directional the casing and set with the mechanical
shakers, with instantaneous penetration casing drilling well to reach that angle setting tool (MST). All indications on
rates of more than 120 m/hr. Extensive with 13 3/8-in. casing. surface were that the DLA was properly
sliding meant that the hole was loaded set. The assembly was run in hole and at
with cuttings. Eventually, the ECD spiked Casing drilling with a motor assembly the conductor shoe. On breaking circula-
at 12.4 ppg, the formation was broken experienced dropping tendencies in soft tion, there was no pressure. In future
down, and losses were taken. formations. Steady toolfaces were expe- operations, the DLA will be checked
rienced while sliding, with no hang-ups visually and with flow.
Failure occurred when cementing in either well from 36° to 58° with 13 3/8-
through the composite retainer. This in. casing. The MST should not be used for lock-
led to a fish being left in the hole. The ing the DLA. The DLA will be manually
time and cost savings accrued during There were no issues with the first locked using the locking cap, allowing
the implementation (3 ½ days) was lost implementation of gyro MWD in cas- operators to see at the rig floor that the

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tool is locked properly into the profile ft/lbs were required to begin rotation. attempted. The problem occurred dur-
nipple. Drags deviated from the trend, requir- ing this operation, and the running tool
ing the crew to stop and circulate. The became stuck. The crew backed out of
The MST worked as per operating pro- formation eventually broke down when the running tool stinger, and the fish
cedures, and the DLA was successfully ECDs spiked at 12.4 ppg. Initially, the was left in the hole.
locked into the casing profile nipple at crew attempted to cure the losses. In
depth. The mechanical retrieve pulling the future, if losses exceed 200 bbl/hr, A “poor boy” cement job was performed
tools and the mechanical pulling tool mud should be switched out with sea- on Well D3 by under-displacing the
were used to successfully recover the water. cement and dropping the top plug only.
BHAs. Installation of the 13 3/8-in. torque Pressure was held for 5 ½ hrs. The crew
rings at the well site was challenging. In Well D3, seawater was used as the pumped 50% excess, with no returns
This should be done at the shore base fluid from the outset. There were no slid- to the surface. The cement bond log
if possible. On future wells, it is recom- ing issues, and ROP reached 100 m/hr. indicated good cement to 200 m, 14 m
mended to continue the use of the PDRT below the conductor. Cement was drilled
to unlock the BHAs at TD. ECDs were 1.5 ppg over the mud weight. out with the 12 ¼-in. rotary steerable
At TD, the mud was displaced to 9.2 ppg; assembly and the required forma-
Drilling fluids however, the crew encountered differen- tion integrity test until 13.2 ppg was
tial sticking issues trying to run the cas- obtained.
Casing drilling was performed on Well ing hanger. Switching back to seawater
D4 with 9.2-ppg to 9.4-ppg KCL PHPA mitigated sticking, and there were no On future wells, it is recommended to
mud with 2% lubricant. The mud inhib- other issues. use the poor boy cement method and
ited reaction with clays as the crew explore cementing offline in batch-
observed 3-4 cm clay balls at the shak- Cementing drilling mode. Procedures for composite
ers while directional casing drilling. retainer cementation jobs should be
Casing drilling with the motor assembly On Well D4, the composite cement
retainer was used to perform the inner- reviewed if this method is planned to be
requires a slide/rotary ratio of 51/49 to used, including the use of inverter cup
achieve trajectory. ROP with conven- string cement job. The wellhead pack-
off was not run prior to attempting testers, psi tests, etc.
tional drilling methods was 60 m/hr, com-
pared with 82 m/hr during directional the pressure test. The inverted packer OTC 20880, “Directional Casing While Drilling
casing drilling operations. cup tester was not used, and the crew (DCwD) Heralds a Step Change in Drilling
had to pull out of hole to rectify the Efficiency from a Producing Platform,” was
ECDs were 2-3 ppg over the mud weight. situation. The hole packed off prior presented at the 2010 Offshore Technology
Conference, 3-6 May 2010, Houston.
High break-over torques of up to 35,000 to cementing, and a squeeze job was

D R I L L I N G CONTRACTOR July/August 2010 61

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