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Proponent: Office of the AC of S for Education and Training, G8

Issued: ____________________







Philippine Army Manual 8-03 (PAM 8-03) dated 21 May 2014 is promulgated
on authority of the Commanding General, Philippine Army


Commanding General, Philippine Army






1. Purpose

This manual sets forth the procedures for the Philippine Army to
precisely plan, conduct, and sustain its training exercises.

2. Scope and Applicability

This manual encompasses fundamental training theories, the

determination of both training needs and relevant training exercises, the
observance of proper planning procedures, and the appropriate
implementation and supervision during the actual conduct of the ascertained
training exercise(s).

3. User Information

The proponent of this manual is Training Development Center, Training

and Doctrine Command, Philippine Army. Readers are encouraged to submit
their recommended changes in order to further improve the viability of this
manual. Comments should identify the area in which the change is
recommended, indicating exactly how a portion should be reworded.
Reasons should be provided for each comment in order to allow complete
evaluation. Comments may either be forwarded to Training Development
Center or Doctrine Center, TRADOC, PA, Camp O’Donnell, Capas, Tarlac.

4. References

The following references were used in this publication:

a) PAM 8-01 (Philippine Army Doctrine Development)

b) PAM 8-011 (Writers’ & Editors’ Guide for PAM Preparation)
c) PAM 3-0 (Operations Manual)
d) US Army FM 25-4 (How to Conduct Training Exercise)
e) US Army FM 7-0 (Training the Force)
f) US Army FM 25-101 (Battle Focused Training)
g) Commandant’s Paper on Proposed Manual of Philippine Army Unit
dtd 19 Oct 99.

5. Rescission

All publications, manuals and directives inconsistent with this manual

are hereby rescinded.

6. Gender

Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and

pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.






Title Page i
Promulgation Note iii
Preface v
Contents vii

Section Title Page



1-1 Training Management 1-1

1-2 Training Fundamentals 1-2
1-3 Training Exercises 1-12


2-1 Analysis 2-1

2-2 Selection 2-2
2-3 Consideration 2-3
2-4 Pre-Exercises Plans 2-6



3-1 Initial Considerations 3-1

3-2 Map Exercises 3-4
3-3 Tactical Exercises Without Troops 3-10
3-4 Command Post Exercises 3-16
3-5 Field Training Exercises 3-25
3-6 Command Field Exercises 3-31
3-7 Live-Fire Exercises 3-34
3-8 Fire Coordination 3-43
3-9 Joint Training Exercises 3-44
3-10 Combined Training Exercises 3-45











Section 1-1 Training Management

Commanders are responsible for all organizational training. They

evaluate soldier and unit proficiency. They identify the training objectives and
provide the necessary training guidance. They ensure that the training is
supported with the needed resources and that it is properly planned and
conducted. They then conduct and evaluate the training and obtain feedback.

Training management is the continuous process commanders use to

develop unit training programs. The goal of training management is the best
combination of resources, materials, guidance, and time to meet specific
training requirements. The training management functions depicted in Figure
1.1 apply equally to training exercises and to all training conducted in a unit.
All management functions in the process take place at the same time.
Training management and its applications are explained in detail in Annex A.





Figure 1.1 Training Management in Units.

1. Planning. Planning for training requires input from several sources.

Commanders and their planners must know the unit missions, goals, and
objectives and the guidance from higher headquarters. They evaluate unit and
soldier proficiency and obtain feedback from recent unit training activities.
Commanders add their knowledge and experience to this basic information
and develop training programs that specifically address unit and soldier
training requirements.

2. Resources. Training plans specify training events or activities that

require resources and support. To implement those plans, resource actions:



a. Identify.

b. Program.

c. Coordinate.

d. Obtain.

e. Provide the training support necessary.

Training events and activities identified during the planning phase

provide input for the assessment of resources required to conduct effective
training. Feedback on how well current and past training was supported with
resources is also essential input in preparation of the resource assessment.

During long-range planning, commanders and their staffs identify and

request resources that require long lead times. During short-range planning,
they identify and coordinate resources requiring shorter lead times. In the
near-term planning period, they make final arrangements and provide
resources to units.

3. Training. Training can be as simple as performance-oriented training

on a soldier’s manual task. It can also be as complex as a field training
exercise (FTX) using friendly forces and opposing forces (OPFORs). The
training phase requires guidance with appropriate resources based on long-
range, short-range, and near-term plans. Annex A provides directions and
examples for the conduct of training.

4. Evaluations. Evaluation is a continuous process. Commanders

continually evaluate planning and resource actions to ensure that they meet
unit needs and comply with guidance from higher headquarters. Higher
headquarters evaluate their own planning and resource actions, as well as
those of subordinate units to make sure that they are mutually supporting and
focus on the unit mission. Commanders at all echelons evaluate how leaders
and soldiers perform. Based upon their evaluations, commanders provide
feedback to the chain of command, to the trainers, and to those being trained.

Section 1-2 Training Fundamentals

1. Training Imperative. The Philippine Army exists to deter war or, if

deterrence fails, to reestablish peace through victory in combat wherever
Philippine interests are challenged. To accomplish this, the Philippine Army's
forces must be able to accomplish their assigned strategic roles. Moreover,
for deterrence to be effective, potential enemies must perceive that the
Philippine Army has the capability to mobilize, deploy, fight, and sustain
combat operations in unified action with other major services. Training,
therefore, is the process that melds human and material resources into these
required capabilities.



We train the way we intend to fight because our historical experiences

amply show the direct correlation between realistic training and success on
the battlefield. The Philippine Army has an obligation to the Filipino people to
ensure its soldiers go into battle with the assurance of success and survival.
This is an obligation that only rigorous and realistic training, conducted to
standard, can fulfill. The highest quality training is, therefore, essential at all

2. The Strategic Environment. In an era of complex national security

requirements, the Philippine Army’s strategic responsibilities now embrace a
wider range of missions that present even greater challenges in our training
environment. To “train the way we fight,” commanders and leaders at all
levels must conduct training with respect to a wide variety of operational
missions across the full spectrum of operations. These operations may
include combined arms, joint, multinational, and interagency considerations,
and span and entire breadth of terrain and environmental possibilities.
Commanders must strive to set the daily training conditions as closely as
possible to those expected for actual operations.



The operational missions of the Army include not only war, but also
military operations other than war (MOOTW). Operations may be conducted
as major combat operations, a small-scale contingency, or a peacetime
military engagement. Offensive and defensive operations normally dominate
military operations in war along with some small-scale contingency, or a
peacetime military engagement. Stability operations and support operations
dominate in MOOTW. Commanders at all echelons may combine different
types of operations simultaneously and sequentially to accomplish missions in
war and MOOTW. Throughout this document, we will emphasize the primary
function of the Army-to fight and win our Country’s wars. These missions also
require training; future conflict will likely involve a mix of combat and MOOTW,
often concurrently. The range of possible missions complicates training.
Army forces cannot train for every possible mission; they train for war and
prepare for specific missions as time and circumstances permit. The nature
of world crisis requires Army level, warfighting will encompass the full
spectrum of operations that the Philippine Army may be called upon to
execute. Warfighting in units is refined and focused on assigned wartime
missions or directed change of missions.

Units train to be ready for war based on the requirements of a

precise and specific mission; in the process, they develop a foundation of
combat skills, which can be refined based on the requirements of the
assigned mission. Upon alert, commanders assess and refine from this
foundation of skills. In the train, alert deploy process commanders use
whatever time the alert cycle provides to continue to refine mission-focused
training. Training continues during time available between alert notification
and deployment, between deployment and employment, and even during
employment as units adapt to the specific battlefield environment and
assimilate combat replacements.

Resources for training are not unconstrained and compete with other
missions and activities. Time is the inelastic resource, there is not enough
and it cannot be increased. We cannot do everything; we must forge and
sustain trained and ready forces. Training for the warfight, training to maintain
near-term readiness is the priority; compliance training and non-mission
activities are of lower priority. If training cannot be conducted, readiness
reports are the vehicle to inform the Philippine Army’s leadership of the risks
being assumed.

The key to winning on the battlefield is the understanding of ‘how we

fight’ and the demonstrated confidence, competence, and initiative of our
soldiers and leaders. Training is the means to achieve the tactical and
technical proficiency that soldiers, leaders, and units must have to enable
them to accomplish their missions. Training focuses on fighting and winning
battles. The proficiency derived from his training is the same required for
many MOOTW tasks. The ability to integrate and synchronize all available
assets to defeat any enemy tactically gives our Army great credibility and
respect that enhances our ability to accomplish all missions to include



Responsibility for success on the future battlefield rests on the

shoulders of today’s Army leaders at all levels. To ensure this success, all
leaders must focus training on warfighting skills, and make that training the

3. How the Army Trains the Army. Training is a team effort and the
entire Philippine Army—the institutional training base, units, and each
individual soldier—has a role that contributes to force readiness. The
Philippine Army is responsible for resourcing the Army to train. The
institutional Army including schools, training centers, and NCO academies, for
example, train soldiers and leaders to take their place in units in the Army by
teaching the doctrine and tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP). Units,
leaders, and individuals train to standard on their assigned missions, first as
an organic unit and then as an integrated component of team. Operational
deployments, and major training opportunities such as major training
exercises. Combat like training, and external evaluations (EXEVAL) provide
rigorous, realistic, and stressful training and operational experience under
actual or simulated combat and operational conditions to enhance unit
readiness and produce bold, innovative leaders. Simultaneously, individual
soldiers, NCOs, and officers are responsible for training themselves through
personal self development. Training is a continuous, lifelong endeavor that
produces competent, confident, disciplined, and adaptive soldiers and leaders
with the warrior ethos in our Army. Commanders have the ultimate
responsibility to train soldiers and develop leaders who can adjust to change
with confidence and exploit new situations, technology, and developments to
their advantage. Effective training produces the force-soldiers, leaders, and
units-that can successfully execute any assigned mission.

4. Ten (10) Principles of Training

a. Commanders are responsible for training.

Commanders are responsible for the training and

performance of their soldiers and unit. They are the primary training managers
and trainers for their organization, are actively engaged in the training
process, and adhere to the ten (10) principles of training. To accomplish their
training responsibility, commanders must:

1) Be present at training to maximum extent possible.

2) Base training on mission requirements.

3) Train to applicable Philippine Army standard.

4) Assess current level of proficiency.

5) Provide the required resources.

6) Develop and execute training plans that result in

proficient individuals, leaders, and unit.



Commanders delegate authority to NCOs in the support

channel as the primary trainers of individuals, crew, and small teams.
Commanders hold NCOs responsible for conducting standards-based,
performance-oriented, battle-focused training and provide feedback on
individual, crew, and team proficiency.

b. NCOs train individuals, crews, and small teams.

NCOs continue the soldier process of newly assigned

enlisted soldiers, and begin their professional development. NCOs are
responsible for conducting standards-based, performance oriented, battle-
focused training. They:

1) Identify specific individual, crew, and small team tasks

that support the unit’s collective mission essential tasks.

2) Plan, prepare, rehearse, and execute training.

3) Evaluate training and conduct AARs to provide feedback

to the commander on individual, crew, and small team proficiency.

Senior NCOs coach junior NCOs to master wide range of

individual tasks.

c. Train as Combined Arms Team.

The Army provides a force commander with trained and

ready force that expands the command’s range of military options in
operations. Commanders tailor and train forces to react quickly to any crisis.
Army forces provide a force commander the capability to:

1) Seize areas previously denied by the enemy.

2) Dominate land operations.

3) Provide support to civil authorities.

The fundamental basis fro the organization and operation

of Philippine Army forces is combined arms. Combined Arms is the integrated
application of several arms to achieve an effect on the enemy that is greater
than each arm was used against the enemy separately or in sequence.
Integration involves arrangement of battlefield actions in time, space, and
purpose to produce maximum relative effects of combat power at a decisive
place and time. Through forced tailored organizations, commanders and their
staffs integrate and synchronize the battlefield operating system (BOS) to
achieve combined arms effects and accomplish the mission.

Today’s doctrine requires teamwork at all echelons.

When committed to battle, each unit must be prepared to execute operations
without additional training and lengthy adjustment periods. Leaders must



regularly practice and constantly integrate combat arms, combat support,

combat service support capabilities on every training scenario. Teams can only
achieve combined arms proficiency and cohesiveness when they train
together. Similarly, peacetime relationships must mirror wartime task
organization to the greatest extent possible.

Commanders are responsible for training all war fighting

systems. The full integration of the combined arms team is attained through
the task organization approach to training management. Task organizing is a
temporary grouping of forces designed to accomplish a particular mission.
This approach acknowledges that the maneuver commander integrates and
synchronizes the BOS. In short, the maneuver commander, assisted by
higher echelon leaders, forges the combined arms team.

The commander of the task-organized force must

develop a training plan that addresses two complementary challenges. The
commander’s training plan must achieve combined arms proficiency and
ensure functional training proficiency of the combat arms, combat support,
and combat service support unit of the task force. Combined arms proficiency
requires effective integration of BOS functions. Effective integration of BOS
results in synchronization. Functional BOS proficiency is fundamental for
effective BOS integration. The commander’s training plan must integrate
combined arms and functional training events. Combined arms training is
standard-based however, independent training, functional tasks, and
combined arms tasks will not guarantee the desired effects of applying
combat power at a decisive place and time. The standard for effective
combined arms training requires a sequenced and continuous execution of
both functional and combined arms tasks in order to achieve an integrated
relative combat power at a decisive place and time.

The role of both commander and NCOs in combined

arms training cannot be overemphasized. Commanders have training
responsibilities that encompasses both BOS functional task proficiency and
special staff officers combined arms task proficiency. Likewise, NCOs have
similar training responsibilities to ensure BOS related individual and crew
functional task proficiency, as well as, individual and staff section related
combined arms task proficiency. Combined Arms training requires the active
involvement of both commander and NCOs during all phases of trai ning.

Functional proficiency requires expertise in a particular

BOS function, its capabilities, and its requirements. Organization that provides
elements of a specific BOS function, such as divisional engineer battalion and
field artillery battalion, must train to maintain their functional proficiency.
Integration involves expertise in coordination among functional troop unit
commanders and staffs, and other functional commanders and staff.

The combined arms training challenge is the same as for

all echelons of command. The complexity, however, increases at each higher
echelon of command. The tempo, scope, and scales of operations at higher
command echelons increase coordination requirements for planning and



executing staff, multinational, and interagency training. Commanders, at every

echelon, focus combined arms training on specific integration and
synchronization tasks based on their METL

d. Train for combat proficiency.

The goal of all trainings is to achieve the highest standard possible.

This develops and sustains combat capable warfighting organizations. To
achieve this, units must train in accordance to standard under realistic
conditions. Achieving standards requires hard work by commanders, staff
officers, unit leaders, and soldiers. Within the confines of safety and common
sense, commanders and leaders must be willing to accept less than perfect
results initially while balancing it with realism in training at the same instance.
They must integrate such realistic conditions as imperfect intelligence,
reduced communications, smoke, noise, rules of engagement, battlefield
debris, loss of key leaders, civilian on the battlefield, and varying extremes in
weather. They must seize every opportunity to move soldiers out of the
classroom and bring them into the field to fire weapons, maneuver as a
combined arms team and incorporate protective measures against enemy
action. Commanders can assess their METL proficiency and determine the
effectiveness of their training program.

1) Realistic. Tough, realistic, and intellectually & physically

challenging training excites and motivates soldiers & leaders. Realistic
training builds competence and confidence by developing & honing skills, and
inspires excellence by fostering initiative, enthusiasm, and eagerness to learn.
Successful completion of each training phase increases the capability &
motivation of individuals & units to transition to a more sophisticated and
challenging environment.

2) Performance-Oriented. Units become proficient in the

performance of critical tasks and missions by practicing the tasks and
missions. Soldiers learn best by doing, using an experiential, hands-on
approach. Commanders and subordinate leaders plan training that will
provide these opportunities. All training assets and resources, to include
training aids, devices, simulators, and simulations, must be included in the
unit’s training strategy.

e. Train to standard using appropriate doctrine.

Training must be done to the standard and conform to the

doctrines. If mission tasks involve emerging doctrine or non-standard tasks,
commander establish the tasks, conditions, and standards using mission
orders and guidance, lessons learned from similar operations, and their
professional judgment. The next higher commander approves the creation of
the standard for these tasks. PAM 3-0 provides the doctrinal foundations;
supporting doctrinal manuals describe common TTP that permit commanders
and organizations to adjust rapidly to changing situations. Doctrine provides a
basis for a common vocabulary across the force. In units, new soldiers will



have little time to learn non-standard procedures. Therefore, units must train
to the standards.

f. Train to adapt.

Commanders train and develop adaptive leaders and

units, and prepare their subordinates to operate in positions of increased
responsibility. Repetitive, standards-based training provides relevant
experience. Commanders intensify training experiences by varying training
conditions. Training experiences coupled with timely feedback builds
competence. Leaders build unit, staff and soldier confidence when they
consistently demonstrate competence. Competence, confidence, and
discipline promote initiative and enable leaders to adapt to changing situations
and conditions. They improvise with the resources at hand, exploit
opportunities and accomplish their assigned mission in the absence of orders.
Commanders at every echelon integrate training events in their training plans
to develop and train imaginative, adaptive leaders and units.

g. Train to maintain and sustain.

Soldiers and equipment maintenance is a vital part of

every training program. Soldiers and leaders are responsible for maintaining
all assigned equipment and supplies in a high state of readiness to support
training and operational missions. Units must be capable of fighting for
sustained periods of time with the equipment they are issued.

h. Train using multi-echelon techniques.

Multi-echelon training is the most effective and efficient

way of sustaining proficiency on mission essential tasks with limited time and
resources. Commanders use multi-echelon training to:

1) Train leaders, battle staffs, units, and individuals at each

echelon of the organization simultaneously.

2) Maximize use of allocated resources and available time.

3) Reduce the so-called “personnel turbulence” or confusion

that may arise when a certain unit attempts to assimilate its role in relation to
the over-all mission of HHQs.

Large-scale training events provide an excellent

opportunity for valuable individual, leader, crew, and small unit training. Multi-
echelon training can occur when an entire organization is training on one
single METL task or when different echelons of an organization conduct
training on related METL tasks simultaneously. All multi-echelon training



1) Require detailed planning and coordination by

commanders and leaders at each echelon.

2) Maintain battle focus by linking individual and collective

battle tasks with unit METL tasks, within large-scale training events METL

3) Habitually train at least two echelons simultaneously on

selected METL tasks.

i. Train to sustain proficiency.

Once individuals and units have rained to required level

of proficiency, leaders must structure individual and collective training plans to
retain critical tasks at the minimum frequency necessary to sustain
proficiency. Sustainment training is the key to maintaining unit proficiency
through personnel turbulence and operational deployments. Individual training
plans are tools to help achieve and sustain collective and individual
proficiency. Sustainment training must occur often enough to train new
soldiers and minimize skill decay. Units train to accomplish their missions by
frequent sustainment training on critical tasks. Infrequent “peaking” or non-
habitual observance to the highest standards of training per particular event
does not sustain wartime proficiency. Battle focused training is training on
wartime tasks. Many of the METL tasks that a unit trains on for its wartime
mission are the same as required for stability operation or support operation
that they might execute.

j. Train and develop leaders.

Commanders have a duty to execute a vital role in

leadership training and development. They teach subordinates how to fight
and how to train. They mentor, guide, listen to, and “think with” subordinates.
They train leaders to plan training in details, prepare for training thoroughly,
execute training aggressively, and evaluate short-term training proficiency in
terms of desired long-term results. Training and developing leaders is an
embedded component of every training event. Nothing is more important to
the Philippine Army than building confident, competent, adaptive leaders for

5. Commanders and Training. Effective training is the number one

priority of commanders. The commander is the primary trainer and
responsible for the wartime readiness of their formation. In wartime, training
continues with priority second only to combat or to the support of combat
operations. Commanders and senior leaders must extract the greatest training
value from every training opportunity. Effective training requires the
commanders’ continuous personal time and energy to accomplish the



a. Develop and communicate a clear vision. The senior leader's

training vision provides the direction, purpose, and motivation necessary to
prepare individuals and organizations to win in war. It is based on a
comprehensive understanding of the following:

1) Mission, doctrine, and history.

2) Enemy/threat capabilities.

3) Operational environment.

4) Organizational and personnel strengths and weaknesses.

5) Training environment.

b. Train one echelon below and evaluate two echelons below.

Commanders are responsible for training their own unit and one echelon
below. Commanders evaluate units two echelons below. For example,
brigade commanders train battalion and evaluate companies; battalion
commanders train companies and evaluate platoons.

c. Require subordinates to understand and perform their roles in

training. Since good training results from leader development, one of the
commander’s principal roles in training is to teach subordinate trainers how to
train and how to fight. The commander provides the continuing leadership that
focuses on the organization’s wartime mission. The commander assigns
officers the primary responsibility for collective training and NCOs the primary
responsibility of individual, crew, and small team training. The commander, as
the primary trainer, uses multi-echelon techniques to meld leader, battle staff,
and individual training requirements into collective training events, while
recognizing the overlap in training responsibilities. Commanders teach, coach,
and mentor subordinates throughout.

d. Train all elements to be proficient on their mission essential

tasks. Commanders must integrate and train to standard all BOS, within and
supporting their command, on their selected mission essential tasks. An
important requirement for all leaders is to project training plans far enough
into the future and to coordinate resources with sufficient lead time.

e. Develop subordinates. Competent and confident leaders build

cohesive organizations with a strong chain of command, high morale, and
good discipline. Therefore, commanders create leader development programs
that develop subordinates’ confidence and empower them to make
independent, situational-based decisions on the battlefield. Commanders
assist subordinates with a self-development program and share experienced
insights that encourage subordinates to study and learn their profession. They
train leaders to plan training in detail, prepare for training thoroughly, execute
aggressively, and evaluate short-term training proficiency in terms of desired
long-term results. Effective leader development programs will continuously
influence the Army as junior leader progress to higher levels of responsibility.



f. Involve themselves personally in planning, preparing, executing,

and assessing training. The senior commander resources training and
protects subordinate commanders’ training time. They are actively involved in
planning for future training. They create a sense of stability throughout the
organization by protecting approved training plans from training distracters.
Senior commanders protect the time of subordinate commanders allowing to
be present at training as much as possible. Subordinates commanders are
responsible for executing the approved training to the standard. Senior
commanders are present during the conduct of training as much as possible
and provide experienced feedback to all participants.

g. Demand training standards are achieved. Leaders anticipate

that some tasks will not be performed to standard. Therefore, they design time
into training events to allow additional training on tasks not performed to
standard. It is more important to train to standard on a limited number of
critical tasks, rather than attempting and failing to achieve the standard on too
many tasks, rationalizing that corrective action will occur during some later
training period. Soldiers will remember the enforced standard, not the one that
was discussed.

h. Ensure proper task and event discipline. Senior leaders ensure

junior leader plan the correct task-to-time ratio. Too many tasks guarantee
nothing will get trained to standard and no time is allocated for retraining. Too
many events result in improper preparation and recovery.

i. Foster a command climate that is conducive to good training.

Commanders create a climate that rewards subordinates who are bold and
innovative trainers. They challenge the organization and each individual to
train to full potential. Patience and coaching are essential ingredients to
ultimate achievement of standard.

j. Eliminate training distractions. The commander who has

planned and resourced a training event is responsible to ensure participation
by the maximum number of soldiers. Administrative support burdens cannot
be ignored; however, they can be managed using an effective time
management system. Senior commanders must support subordinate
commanders’ efforts to train effectively by eliminating training distracters and
reinforcing the requirements for all assigned personnel to be present during

Section 1-3 Training Exercises

Training in units develops and sustains those individual and

collective skills that soldiers and units (including squads, crews, and sections)
need to accomplish their missions. To help soldiers' and leaders learn and
sustain their skills, commanders develop training programs that implement the
best mix of individual, leader, and collective training.



Training in units follows the hierarchy in Figure 1.2, which Annex B

discusses in detail. Annex B assists leaders and trainers to conduct training at
company level and below. Collective training involves the upper four levels of
the hierarchy. The training exercises described in this manual also apply to
these levels but concentrate on unit and combined arms and services






Figure 1.2 Training Hierarchy

1. Purposes. The diversity of organizations, equipment, and environment

inherent in air-land battles presents a major challenge to commanders. They
must train soldiers and leaders who can effectively integrate the unit's weapon
systems and doctrine to defeat an enemy that may be numerically superior.
Training exercises are an effective way to build the team-work necessary to
meet this challenge. All training exercises:

a. Sustain and reinforce individual and collective skills.

b. Develop and sustain command and control skills of commanders

and their staffs.

c. Support multi-echelon training.

2. Individual and Collective Skills.

Training exercises combine individual skills, leader skills, drills, and
weapon systems proficiency. Training exercises reinforce and sustain
proficiency in individual and collective skills in units. In addition, exercises
provide training on collective tasks found in Training and Evaluation Programs
(TEPs) and integrate all elements of the combined arms team. Training and
Evaluation Program tasks are modified as required to accommodate each
unit's METT.

3. Command and Control Skills.

Command and control training sustains skill proficiency for leaders,

staffs, and individual soldiers. It reinforces common skills and those particular



to duty positions. It trains each echelon to respond to the needs of higher,

lower, adjacent, and attached combat, combat support (CS), and combat
service support (CSS) units. Responding to subordinate units is particularly
important. Inexperienced commanders and staffs tend to orient themselves to
respond upward and overlook the needs of subordinate units. One of the
prime purposes of training exercises is to teach leaders to orient on the needs
of subordinate units in a sequence of timely troop-leading steps that allow
units to execute the mission properly.

Doctrine and training support materials for command and control

training include such items as scenarios, simulation models, and
recommended task lists. The unit can adapt these materials to address its
unique METT assessment. Command and control training packages prepared
by proponent service schools support MOS cross training and train-up and
sustainment training. These packages are for each echelon of the command,
including combat support and combat service support.

To win air-land battles, all elements of the combined arms and services
team must be integrated and need to function effectively on the battlefield.
Commanders must be competent in their command and control tasks. Battle
staffs must be proficient in executing staff planning responsibilities to achieve
full integration of supporting arms and services. Training that enhances these
skills should receive emphasis at battalion level and above. The three
categories of command and control training are battle staff training,
survivability training, and combined arms and services training.

a. Battle Staff Training. Battle staff training allows commanders

and their staffs to fight air-land battles in diverse command post configurations
under realistic combat conditions as smoothly functioning teams. This training
is vital to command and control of units. It develops the proficiency of
individual staff members and molds them into trained teams that can
effectively manage and coordinate all systems to support the command's
mission. Such training requires that individual staff members know the unit's
tactical SOPs (TSOPs) thoroughly. The TSOPs must be updated as
appropriate to address changes in unit operations. Battle staff training relies
heavily on simulations since they are often the only way to present many air-
land battle situations and tasks to enable the commander to train his staff.

b. Survivability Training. Survivability training ensures proficiency

during intense and continuous combat. It ensures that individual soldiers and
teams can operate effectively in a variety of situations. It involves those
routine tasks that units must perform well to ensure their survival. Examples

1) Operations in hostile electronic warfare (EW)


2) Operations using various command post (CP)




3) Operations required to feed, arm, fuel, and maintain the

units' command and control elements.

4) Procedures for succession of command.

5) Limited visibility operations.

6) Activation of alternate communication methods.

7) Activation of alternate command posts.

8) The hand-off between command posts (tactical CP to

main CP).

9) Passive air defense.

10) Local security, to include calls for indirect fire and close
air support.

Most survivability tasks are detailed in SOPs and provide

standardization within a unit. Thus, they can be practiced prior to exercises.
There is often no effective substitute, however, for full-scale exercises using
all assigned equipment and personnel in a simulated combat environment to
assess unit survivability proficiency in an environment that simultaneously
employs all systems to full capacity.

c. Combined Arms and Services Training. Proficiency in combined

arms and services training is required for units, staffs, and commanders to
fight and win air-land battles. Examples of systems required to be integrated
into the training are:

1) Fire support.

2) Intelligence.

3) Electronic warfare.

4) Passive & Active Air Defense Measures.

5) Ground maneuver.

6) Anti-armor.

7) Combat support.

8) Combat service support.

A single level of command and control first attains proficiency through

battle staff training and survivability training. Battle simulations are an
important means currently available for commanders and staffs to practice



combined arms integration. Once technical proficiency by the battle staff has
been achieved, it should be integrated with supporting, supported, and
adjacent units in full-scale exercises against a target array or OPFOR that
realistically represents the enemy. Although the battlefield cannot be
replicated completely, it should be represented accurately to include
electronic warfare, sensor, and electronic intelligence targeting. Training aids
such as emitters, transponders, jammers, and OPFOR vehicles / personnel to
represent the enemy formations allow the commander to train the unit to
operate under combat conditions.

4. Phases.

Training exercises contain three phases: pre-exercise, execution, and

post exercise.
The pre-exercise phase covers planning and preparation and ends
with the start of the execution phase (STARTEX). The 12-Planning steps
involved in the pre-exercise phase shall be discussed thoroughly on Chapter
2 (Exercise Planning), particularly at Section 2-4 (Pre-Exercise Plans).
The execution phase begins at STARTEX and concludes with the end
of the exercise (ENDEX).
During the execution phase, player units participate in the exercise,
which is controlled and evaluated according to plans developed during the
pre-exercise. Exercises that may be conducted involving this phase are
elaborated in detail at Chapter 3 (Conduct of Training Exercises).
The post exercise phase, beginning at ENDEX, covers reviews and
reports. All training events and exercises should conclude with after-action
reviews (AARs). These reviews provide training as substantive as the activity
itself. In AARs, commanders determine accomplishment of exercise
objectives based on input from staffs, controllers, evaluators, umpires, and
OPFORs, as appropriate. Participants should be encouraged to discuss what
happened and why. They should be encouraged to suggest solutions and
offer recommendations. To overcome short-comings, exercise participants
can make a valuable contribution to training evaluation efforts by gathering
information and analyzing the critical lessons learned. These lessons become
essential elements of information (EEI) for commanders and trainers in the
ongoing training management process. AARs must be conducted periodically
during the exercise to gain maximum training benefit.

AARs should be used at every echelon, and they should occur as often
as necessary to ensure that participants learn from the training conducted. If
the exercise divides into deployment, attack, and defense, for example, an
AAR should be conducted after each phase. If significant events, such as a
movement to initial positions and a deliberate river crossing, occur in a phase,
an AAR should likewise be held after each significant training event. Annex G
contains additional information on AARs.

Immediately after ENDEX and prior to leaving the exercise area,

controllers, umpires, and evaluators conduct an exit briefing for those players
with whom they were closely associated during the execution phase. The
exercise director prepares a formal after-action report for the unit commander.



This report, which is distributed through the chain of command, is based on

input from controllers, umpires, and evaluators. These reports and the AARs
that precede them summarize the exercise. Commanders use them both to
observe and evaluate staffs, leaders, and soldiers and to plan future training.
The best use of these evaluations is to apply lessons learned to training within
the near term (two to six weeks), rather than to file for review prior to the
execution of the next exercise.

TRADOC’s Land Warfare Center (LWC) systematizes the over-all

conduct of these exercise phases. They ensure that Philippine Army units
involved in these exercises from commencement (pre-exercise) to termination
(post-exercise) are observing the proper steps while imparting appropriate
comments / critiques whenever necessary. Furthermore, LWC conforms all
exercises—whether singly or in joint training with other allied nations—in
accordance to the lessons learned that were derived and compiled from our
years of extensive Counter-Insurgency Operations. This is to guarantee that
Philippine Army units develop the appropriate TTPs designed to rectify past
situations while in the performance of these exercises and not during the
actual conduct of combat operations.

Similarly, lessons learned from these exercises—either observed

directly or as a result of critiques that were brought out during the post-
exercise phase—are incorporated by LWC as telling references for
subsequent unit trainings. These lessons learned can help identify the type of
training needed or minimize glitches that may possibly arise during exercise
planning and execution.






Section 2-1 Analysis

During the planning phase of training management, commanders at

each echelon determine the need for training exercises and identify the types
that they shall use. The need for an exercise is based upon:

a. Higher headquarters' analysis of subordinate unit proficiency.

b. Higher headquarters' issuance of the missions, goals,

objectives, and guidance.

c. Commanders' evaluations of unit and soldier proficiency.

Higher headquarters employ the exercise planning steps explained in

this chapter when directing subordinate units to participate in training
exercises. Subordinate units also employ applicable planning steps based on
information and orders received from higher headquarters. When
commanders direct internal exercises, they must ensure that the exercises
meet unit training needs and objectives.

Commanders must first analyze soldier, leader, and unit training

proficiency. Then they select a particular type of training exercise. A training
analysis must first establish the training requirements and the priorities for unit
training programs, as described in Annex A. This analysis also determines the
training objectives, which are based on the individual and collective skills that
need initial or sustainment training. In so doing, the analysis must consider
the three categories of command and control training:

a. Battle staff training.

b. Survivability training.

c. Combined arms training.

One or more of these categories must be included in the unit training

objectives and integrated in the exercise. The exercise objectives should be
specific, relevant, realistically obtainable, measurable, and supportive of
exercise goals. Exercise objectives should be organized into functional areas
to highlight activities that need improvement. Properly stated objectives
provide players, controllers, umpires, and evaluators with a solid basis for
conducting their evaluation and AARs. When the exercise objectives are
established, the type of exercise to be conducted can be selected.

An exercise must never be conducted simply for its own sake. It must
always help attain training objectives which are tied to the unit’s mission.



Section 2-2 Selection

Once the initial analysis is completed, commanders determine the type

of exercises to be conducted. Comparing the objectives with the kind of
training that each exercise provides, they identify the proper exercise, within
resource constraints, that can best meet the objectives. Table 2.1 shows the
exercises that best fit the command and control training categories for each
echelon of command.



A – Battle Staff Training CFX – Command Field Exercise LFX – Live Fire Exercise
B – Survivability Training CPX – Command Post Exercise MAP EX – Map Exercise
C– Training System FCX – Fire Coordination Exercise FTX – Field Training Exercise
TEWT – Tactical Exercise Without Troops

Map exercises (MAPEXs) are employed to teach staff planning and

coordination, as well as preparation of estimates and operations orders. They
are not conducted below battalion level. Commanders employ tactical
exercises without troops (TEWTs) to teach the effective use of terrain to
subordinate leaders. TEWTs involve specific tactical problems, employing unit
and weapon systems. Command post exercises (CPXs) are effective in
training members of staffs, command posts, and communications systems
above company level. FTXs provide realistic survivability and combined arms
training for the total force. Battle staff sustainment training does occur in
FTXs. However, to preclude the delays and inefficient use of troop-leading
time that normally occur in the preliminary training of the staff, they should not
be selected solely for this purpose. Battle staff skills should be sharpened
through CPXs, TEWTs, and MAPEXs prior to an FTX. Table 2.2 aids in
selecting the appropriate exercise. It shows training exercises and some of
the systems and objectives that can be trained effectively. The "X" indicates
the exercise which best affords realistic training in the employment of the
system or attainment of the objective indicated. For example, the training
objective "Staff procedures" is shown only for the MAPEX, CPX, and CFX
since they are the most effective ways to train those objectives.





Use of Terrain X X X X
Actual Maneuver of Units X X X X
Staff Procedures X X X X
Weapons Em ployment X X X X X
Fire Support Planning and Coordination X X X X X
Combat Support X X X
Systems Integration X X X X X
Survivability X X X
Contingency Operations X X
Communications/electronics X X X
Intelligence/EW X X X
Direct and Indirect Fire Control
Air Defense X X X X
Engineer Systems* X X X X X
* Mobility, counter mobility, and survivability operations

Section 2-3 Consideration

1. Flexibility. The planning phase must recognize the value of flexibility

and the necessity for being thorough. Planners must plan for alternate types
of exercises in case weather or other constraints prohibit the originally
scheduled exercise. For example, if a brigade needs an FTX but there is a
chance of funds being reduced or the possibility of excessive maneuver
damage, contingency plans for a CPX should be prepared concurrently.

Exercises must be flexible. They should allow subordinate

commanders the freedom to innovate within the framework of new or existing
doctrine, tactics, techniques, and operating procedures. They should not
follow rigid timetables that inhibit training and learning. Instead, they should
establish schedules that provide sufficient time to correct mistakes and ensure
learning and AARs at all levels.

2. Resources. Once a headquarters decides to conduct a training

exercise, the needed resources must be identified as well as the procedures
necessary to obtain them, in accordance with the training management
procedures described in Annex A. If any area appears inadequate, the
commander must decide whether to proceed or consider an alternate training

3. Facilities and Land. Planners must consider the environment for the
exercise and the impact of weather. If inadequate land or facilities will
seriously degrade training, planners may have to alter the exercises. For
example, if an FTX has been selected but the available training areas are not
large enough to allow unit tactics to be realistically played, the planners may:



a. Reduce the number of units in the exercise.

b. Use a MAPEX or a CPX in place of an FTX.

c. Conduct the exercise at a lower echelon.

Range facilities in the Philippines usually limit LFXs to company

team level. The exemption is the 7th Infantry Division at Fort Ramon
Magsaysay, Nueva Ecija in which resources and distances permit LFXs at
battalion task force level. Except for scaled range training, range limitations
also restrict fire coordination exercises (FCX) to small units. Battle staff
training during FCXs is generally limited to:

a. Fire support coordination.

b. Fire control.

c. Preparation and issuance of plans and orders.

d. When exercises are conducted at privately owned land,

planners must task the maneuver damage control personnel to coordinate
and determine the possible damages that might be incurred for the duration of
the exercise.

4. Support. Training exercises require support. Some exercises consume

large quantities of allocated resources such as fuel, spare parts, flying hours,
and maneuver area time. The planners must ensure that the exercises can be
conducted within the resource levels and that the training received justifies the
resources expended.

Commanders and staffs ensure that internal and external support

equipment is sufficient. For example, communications and transportation for
players, controllers, umpires, and evaluators must be adequate. Player units,
including Headquarters, should use only organic transportation,
communications, and TOE equipment. Doing so teaches them to employ the
full capabilities of the unit. They should not rely on outside assistance to
replace systems that are not mission capable or to beef up the authorized
strength of the staff. Controller, umpire, and evaluator equipment must not
come from player units.

5. Time. The time allocated for each exercise must permit appropriate
troop-leading steps to be exercised, as well as develop tactical situations that
lead to logical and sound tactical employment of player units. The time should
also be allocated for conducting complete logistical support of tactical
operations, as well as for an appropriate AAR.

6. Participants. Planners must consider whether or not units or groups of

individuals to be trained are of the proper size or strength to benefit from the
type of exercise selected. For example, the soldiers of a tank platoon



consisting of two-man tank crews can be expected to gain very little from an
LFX. Personnel shortages might also cause commanders to conduct CFXs
rather than FTXs.

7. Battle Simulations. Battle simulations, both manual and computer-

supported or computer-assisted, provide effective training in many battle staff
skills. Battle simulations can be used with virtually any scenario. They are
readily adapted to specific local conditions and unit missions.

Simulations will not correct all command and control training problems
or substitute for field training. If properly used, they can provide a readily
acceptable means for exercising significant elements of the command and
control system.
Battle simulations have the following characteristics:

a. They are relatively inexpensive.

b. They do not require large training areas.

c. They save training time.

d. They reduce pre-exercise and post exercise requirements.

e. They are flexible and easily tailored to unique training


f. They can present situations that cannot be reproduced in other

training environments because of safety or expense.

Battle simulations encourage multi-echelon training. Higher and lower

echelons can be exercised simultaneously with a minimum expenditure of
valuable training resources. Simulations can portray joint service operations
involving the Philippine Air Force, and Philippine Navy, as well as the
combined elements of other nations. Battle simulations can also portray
various equipment mixes or degraded operations, allowing commanders and
staffs to exercise back-up systems and procedures.

Battle simulations provide realistic cues and feedback to the command

as a result of decisions made by higher, lower, and adjacent units. Each
command group executes and subsequently modifies its plans, based on the
situation. Simulations force command groups to adjust plans, organizations,
assets, and firepower to cope with changing battlefield situations. They may
also force adjustments in command post configurations and procedures to
deal effectively with unforeseen situations.

Battle simulations can create unique mixtures of organizations,

equipment, missions, and operational situations. They do this while
realistically portraying the unit’s METT.



8. Situational Training Exercises. The use of situational training

exercises (STXs) should be considered in the development of an exercise.
They teach the "best" or preferred way to accomplish a task and are a
standard way in which a task should be executed. They are developed by the
service schools to teach the doctrinally preferred way to perform a specific
mission.. STXs can facilitate training through the application of standardized
tactical formations and employment. Thus, they should be considered in
planning and preparing for an exercise, whenever appropriate.

Section 2-4 Pre-Exercise Plans

The pre-exercise is usually the longest of the three exercise phases.

The pre-exercise phase develops all the support plans that govern the
execution and post exercise phases.

Planning begins immediately after the decision has been made to

conduct an exercise. The planning steps listed below are used to prepare for
an exercise. Specific exercises may omit some. These steps are generally
sequential; however, some may be performed simultaneously.

a. Preparing an exercise directive.

b. Assigning responsibilities for planning.

c. Conducting research.

d. Preparing a supporting plan schedule.

e. Preparing an outline plan.

f. Conducting a reconnaissance.

g. Completing the exercise support plans.

h. Preparing the scenario.

i. Preparing and issuing the operations plan (OPLAN).

j. Publishing the letter of instruction (LOI).

k. Preparing the terrain.

l. Conducting a rehearsal.

The training objectives and the echelon at which the exercise is to be

conducted deter-mine how complex these steps will become. For example, at
battalion level there may be little or no need to conduct detailed research or to
write a planning schedule. Much of the planning can take place during training



meetings. However, at division level, research and written planning schedules

are necessary. They can be the key to a successful exercise.

1. Preparing an Exercise Directive. The headquarters requesting or

conducting the exercise issues an exercise directive. It starts the development

Before preparing the exercise directive, the exercise planner carefully

considers the purpose of the exercise, the objectives stated or implied by the
commander, and guidance from higher headquarters. The objectives are the
basis for planning and developing the exercise directive. An exercise directive

a. Name the exercise director and provide for a staff. These

personnel will plan the exercise.

b. Specify what type of exercise to conduct and state its specific

training objectives.

c. Indicate the time frame for the exercise, its physical location,
and the duration of its execution phase. The location, time, and duration must
be consistent with the type of exercise selected, the participating units, and
the training objectives.

d. Prescribe the type and number of participating units.

e. Identify the type and quantity of special equipment required.

f. Provide additional information such as funding, environment,

and any pertinent assumptions. Funding data should specify both fund
citations and fund limitations. Environmental information should describe the
strategic setting to be played during the exercise. It should describe the type
of exercise envisaged such as general or limited warfare or internal defense
operations. It should also include area and background studies pertinent to
the exercise site.

2. Assigning Responsibilities for Training. Planning and conducting a

large exercise requires the same attention to detail as an actual combat
operation. The exercise director and designated staff are responsible for
planning and conducting the exercise to meet the training objectives stated in
the exercise directive. See Figure 2.3 for a summary of planning staff duties
and coordination. Normally, the planning staff G3/S3 acts as the principal
coordinator for the exercise director.




- Prepares the unit troop list, which identifies the units participating in the exercise and those of
the support structure.
- Prepares the manning table for the control organization
G3/S3 Note: If simulated units are to be portrayed, they are shown in the unit troop list for player
planning purposes. The organization and manning of the exercise planning staff and the
controller staff are included in the unit troop list. The final troop list should be established early
in the planning sequence, and the alteration should be avoided.
- Identifies controller requirements based on the input provided by the planning staff S3 and
chief cont roller.
G1/S1 - Has res ponsibility for the personnel portion of the exercise plan.
- Provide t he planning staff G3/S3 with the name, rank, and organization of the personnel who
have a part in conducting the ex ercise.
- Study the exercise order, appropriate references, and the scenario. In coordination with the
planning staff G3/S3, prepares a series of OPFOR to guide t he c onduct of exercise. The
planning staff G2/S2 should refer to Appendix D of this manual.
- Prepares the information concerning the enemy situation and the plan for disseminating it to
the players. Use of pre-exercise intelligence buildup allows the staff t o bec ome familiar with the
OPFOR Order of Battle and to prepare appropriat e intelligence estimates needed during the
initial phase of the exercise.
- Prepares the intelligence plan and intelligence annex to the OPLAN.
- Studies the exercise directive, appropriate references, and the scenario; consults with senior
logistic controllers and agencies that will support the exercise.
G4/S4 - Plans the logistic play of combat service support unit.
- Plans for the actual support of the exercise, to include the maneuver damage plan prepared in
coordination with the planning staff G7/S7.
- Studies the exercise order, appropriate references, and the scenario. In coordination with the
G6/S6 planning staff G3/S3, prepares a CE OI.
- Prepares the signal communication plan and signal annex to the OPLA N.
- Studies the exercise directive, appropriate references, and the scenario; prepares the civil-
military operation (CMO) plan.
- Coordinates with the planning staff G3/S3 to ensure that the CMO plan conforms to the
exercise OPLA N.
- Coordinates with planning staff G4/S4 to ensure an adequate logistic and administrative plan,
including provisions for maneuver damage payments.
- Consults with G1/S1, G2/S2, G3/S3 regarding civil affairs and psychologic al operations
(PSYOPS) requirements for controller personnel.

Planning Milestones

Developed early in the process, milestones will ensure full and timely
completion of the planning effort. Typical milestones for a brigade-size FTX
are shown in Table 2.4. Exercises that involve reserve units also require extra
planning and preparation time.




E-13 to 14 months Exercise inserted in the long-range planning calendar
E-120 days Training objectives and planning responsibilities assigned
E-115 Exercise selected
Exercise area selected (may be required sooner based
upon local maneuver area allocation requirements
E-100 Exercise directive published
Research completed and supporting plan schedule
E-75 Outline Plan developed
E-70 Reconnaissance conducted
E-60 LOI and scenario prepared
OPLAN and supporting plans and documents prepared
and issued
Terrain prepared and Controllers, Evaluators, and
Umpires trained; Players brifed
OPFOR, Controllers, Umpires, Evaluators, and
E-7 to E-13
communications rehearsed
E-2 Unit movement conducted
E to E+5 Exercise (STARTEX to ENDEX conducted
E+7 After-Action review conducted
E+12 After-Action report completed
*E = Exercise (the first day of maneuver or STARTEX)

3. Conducting Research. New missions spawn new tactical doctrine. In

turn, the new doctrine generates requirements for improved weapon systems,
equipment, and organizations. Thus, exercise planners must be thoroughly
familiar with doctrine, TOEs, and equipment requirements prior to
development of training exercises. Exercise planners must conduct
appropriate research to update controllers and participants prior to STARTEX.
The intelligence staff provides the information for making the OPFOR and the
combat environment realistic. Realism maintains the participants' interest and

Such research identifies appropriate and available training support or

training support materials. They should consult after-action reports and
lessons learned from previous exercises. Planners should also consult
administrative references. These ensure that the exercise planning is
consistent with policy governing the safety and welfare of the participants.
Post and garrison regulations, range regulations, and unit SOPs are always
pertinent and should be reviewed prior to the publication of exercise plans.



4. Preparing a Supporting Plan Schedule.

Training exercises must have complete, workable supporting plans.

Exercises may fail to accomplish all intended training objectives if planners
overlook guidance essential for conducting them. The supporting plan
schedule lists all the major plans required for the exercise. It also designates
the staff officer responsible for each plan and the time when it must be
submitted for the commander's approval. The amount of time required to
produce the plan will vary with the experience of the planning staff.

Exercise Name: _______________________________________________________________

Received Commander’s Exercise Concept: ________________________________________
Period Available for Support Plan Preparation: _______________________ Days: ________

1. Maneuver Damage
E- 50 E-30 G7
2. Information Plan E-50 E-31 G7
3. CMO Plan E-50 E-32 G7
4. Administrative /
E-50 E-32 G1 / G4
Logistic Plan
5. Communication Plan E-49 E-34 G6
6. Cont rol Plan E-45 E-35 G3 / G1
7. OPFOR Maneuver
E-60 E-50 G2/ G3
8. Intelligence Plans E-60 E-50 G2 / G3

Figure 2.1 Sample Exercise Support Plan Schedule.

For a battalion-level exercise, the S3 prepares a planning schedule. It

may be nothing more than a brief written set of milestones which identifies the
tasks to be trained. The first step in preparing this schedule is to determine
the data that will be used as a basis for the exercise. Using backward
planning as described in Annex A, the S3 sets completion dates for each
supporting plan based on its required publication date. The schedule allows
for timely planning and detailed coordination between appropriate staff

5. Preparing an Outline Plan.

The outline plan is the framework used to build the scenario—the story
of the exercise. The procedures for developing the outline plan depend on the
size of the unit involved. In small-unit exercises at company and battalion
levels, the reconnaissance phase and the outline planning considerations are
normally combined. For large-unit exercises, these two phases are separated.
Nonetheless, exercise directors and staffs take the same actions in preparing
outline plans for large-unit and small-unit exercises.


1. Determine what must be done by analyzing the exercise directive to ensure that the
Commander’s intended purpose is understood and that the proposed training objectives will
achieve it.
2. Select the general area (facilities or land) for the exercise.
3. Consider the general sequence of events.
4. Examine the training objectives to identify those factors that have a bearing on the course
of action.
5. Determine how the terrain will affect each sequence.
6. Select a feasible sequence of events that may be used to accomplish the training
7. Retain and compare all feasible combinations with one another.
8. Choose the best sequence. This becomes the recommended course of action.
9. Selecta actual locations and visualize combat situations at these locations. In doing so,
either of the two methods can be employed: Selecting a final objective and scheduling other
events by using the backward planning, or selecting a final objective and scheduling other
events starting from the initial assemble area.
10. Develop schedules as guides for completing objectives & keeping the combat situation
11. Develop control measures to guide the exercise. Control measures, such as boundaries
and phase line, are essentially the same as those for actual operation. Additionally, the
activities and status of notional units can be used to assist in the control of player units.
12. Anticipate problems that may prevent the exercise from progressing as outlined: the effects
of adverse weather on aviation activity, for example, of the unavailability of special
personnel or equipment. Develop alternate courses of action for such contingencies.

6. Conducting a Reconnaissance.

Planners should make the most efficient use of land allocated for
exercises. They should first study updated maps of the areas with updated
aerial photographs, if available. They should analyze the land to determine its
military features, including observation and fields of fire, cover and
concealment, obstacles, key terrain, and avenues of approach. For example,
if an exercise starts with the mission "deliberate attack," the planners should
first select the final objective. They then plan backward, choosing a possible
assault position, a line of departure, an assembly area, and other control
features normally used in the attack.

Planners must select locations for OPFOR activities or positions where

specific actions are to take place. They conduct intelligence preparation of the
battlefield (IPB) for each phase of the exercise, using potential adversary
doctrinal templates. Next, they select locations for roadblocks, road guards,
and control points. Then they determine the overall scheme of the operation
by visualizing the employment of the parent unit two command levels higher
than the participating unit. For battalion exercises, they must visualize the
employment of the entire division.

In selecting the locations, planners must remember that they are

limited to the areas designated for the exercise. In special cases where the
exercise may use land not owned by the military, they must get approval to
use such land and consider environmental impact during initial planning.



Plans must be developed that fully use the terrain but do not abuse it.
The use of legs, as illustrated in Figure 6, is one method of ensuring that
terrain does not suffer from excessive maneuver damage.

Defend Leg


Movement to Contact Leg

Attack Leg

Second, planners reconnoiter the ground to verify the tentative plan

prepared from maps and aerial photographs. Ground reconnaissance should
consider such points as:

a. The impact of tactical engagement simulations.

b. The effect of low visibility operations.

c. Maneuver damage and safety.

d. The impact of the equipment such as the APC as compared to

wheeled vehicles.

A ground reconnaissance validates the plan backward from the

objective. It verifies that the plan is appropriate for the participating units. At
the objective, the planners critically examine the terrain, as would an enemy
commander, to determine the most realistic locations for scheduled activities.
The planners then move through the remaining portion of the area and
determine the most realistic locations for other planned events. The planners
should change the original plan as necessary. Then they submit it to the
directing authority for approval before making any further plans. If the map
and aerial photographic reconnaissance has been thorough, the original plan
may require only minor changes.

6. Completing the Exercise Support Plans

For the training exercise to run smoothly and accomplish its objectives,
written support plans must contain practical guidance for the exercise
participants. The plans discussed in this section are distributed to the
appropriate controllers, umpires, evaluators; OPFORS, and players.





Intelligence Plans G2/G3
Control Plans Chief Controller
Administrative and Logis tic Plan G1/G4
Movement Plan G4
Maneuver Damage Plan G7
CMO Plan G7
Emergency or Readiness Measures G3
Orientation or AAR Plan G3
Information Plan G7/PAO
Claims Plan G7/SJA
Controller Plan Controller
Records and Report Plan G3/Exercise Director
Operations Plan G3
Evaluation Plan G3
Contingency Plan G3

PAO – Public Affairs Officer
SJA – Staff Judge Advocate

a. Intelligence Plans

The planning staff G2/S2 prepares the intelligence plan in coordination

with the planning staff G3/S3 and the chief controller. The plan should provide

1) OPFOR units to portray OPFOR tactics.

2) Realistic input of combat information.

3) Timely introduction of information into the exercise


Before writing an intelligence plan, the G2/S2 studies the directive and
the scenario. In coordination with the G3/S3 and designated OPFOR
commander, the G2/S2 prepares a series of OPFOR situations. These will
guide the exercise in a scenario that reflects the tactical doctrine, capability,
and vulnerability of the selected adversary. The G2/S2 then reconnoiters the
terrain to ensure that the OPFOR situations are feasible. The intelligence plan
and its support documents must be carefully coordinated with the control plan
and the operations plan.

(a) OPFOR Situation. This portion of the plan covers

the various enemy situations that must be portrayed by the OPFOR. To clarify
it, planners prepare a situation overlay for each phase. Given the OPFOR
situations and overlays, the OPFOR commander makes a detailed plan of
operations for the required tasks. This plan includes simulating OPFOR units
that are not physically portrayed.



The play of intelligence sources and agencies is

described. These include:

(1) Aerial surveillance and reconnaissance.

(2) Surveillance devices.

(3) Patrols.

(4) Signal intelligence.

(5) Electronic intelligence.

(6) Prisoners of war.

(7) Technical intelligence.

Counterintelligence, guerrilla activities, enemy propaganda,

counterpropaganda, and intelligence activities in rear areas are also
portrayed. Planners first determine what systems the player units have for
collecting this information. The types of intelligence portrayed by the OPFOR
must be varied enough to exercise all the intelligence collecting agencies of
the player unit.

Whenever possible, OPFOR capabilities should be represented by

replicating actual intelligence targets for friendly units to detect. This not only
refers to electronic warfare intelligence (EWI) activities, but applies across the
board for all systems. It is essential that exercises duplicate the tasks,
conditions, and standards that must be mastered to fight air-land battles in a
realistic environment.

Situations are developed for disseminating electronic warfare support

measures (ESM) information, current OPFOR electronic warfare order of
battle (OB), and recent OPFOR electronic warfare activities. OPFOR tactical
deception (TD) and counter-deception activities are standard parts of exercise
scenarios. They are necessary for realism. The TD story must be plausible,
complete, and consistent with previous, current, and anticipated OPFOR

Intelligence information released to friendly forces must depict both the

TD and the true exercise activities of the OPFOR, though not necessarily at
the same time. There should be enough information in both categories so that
friendly forces will have difficulty in reaching a quick decision about the
OPFOR. Information for bringing the play back to the intended path must also
be ready in the event that friendly forces accept the initial OPFOR TD activity
as the true picture. OPFOR counter deception activities should be realistic
and inhibit friendly development of TD activities. Planners always distinguish
between exercise and actual security and intelligence measures.



(b) Directive to OPFOR Commander. The planning

staff G2/S2 prepares a directive outlining the OPFOR commander's
responsibilities. It cites the training objectives, announces the exercise dates,
and specifies the suspense date for the OPFOR commander's operation plan.
The directive also defines the command relationship between the OPFOR
commander and the exercise director or chief controller.

(c) Special Instructions to the OPFOR. These

instructions are an enclosure to the OPFOR commander's directive and
outline matters of interest to the entire OPFOR unit. At a minimum, these
instructions cover:

(1) The composition and identity of the OPFOR.

(2) OPFOR uniforms and equipment.

(3) Provisions for an orientation of OPFOR key


(4) Guidance for conducting OPFOR training.

(5) Pre-exercise training area allocation.

(6) A rehearsal schedule for OPFORs.

Rehearsals may be MAPEXs, terrain walks, CPXs, FTXs, or a combination of

(7) OPFOR conduct during the exercise. This

includes actions taken with prisoners of war (POWs) and as POWs.

Annex C is a detailed discussion of the OPFOR, its use, and the

training it requires.

(d) Intelligence Information Distribution. This plan

provides the scheme of intelligence play before and during the tactical play of
the exercise. It includes the information to be released, guidelines on how to
release it, and a schedule for its distribution. The intelligence information
released falls into two categories:

(1) What the unit receives automatically

through command channels.

(2) What the unit receives only when it takes

the proper action to obtain it.

The most realistic method of starting intelligence play in large-unit

exercises is for the next higher tactical headquarters to disseminate
intelligence to the participating unit early in the exercise. Disseminating area
analysis and intelligence summaries and reports provides the necessary
background to initiate intelligence play. The OPFOR plan and situation and



the intelligence information distribution scheme are carefully coordinated to

ensure synchronization. They also introduce events designed to see how the
friendly force will react to air-land battles. The reactions of friendly units
become key points of discussion for the AAR.

b. Control Plans

Control plans provide instructions for controlling and evaluating the

exercise and organizing the control group. To build a control group, the
planning staff G3/S3 prepares the control plan based on the exercise scenario
and appropriate references. Instructions for the control group must conform to
the scenario and the intelligence plan. The success of the exercise depends
largely on how thorough these plans are and how well they are executed.

1) Safety Instructions. The effort to attain maximum realism

may cause hazardous conditions and situations to arise. These hazards could
have an adverse effect on the progress of the exercise, as well as on the
individual participants and the local civilian communities. To minimize
accidents and injuries, planners must prepare and issue specific safety
instructions to all units well in advance of the exercise. The control personnel
in the exercise area are responsible for implementing these instructions. This
in no way, however, lessens the command responsibility within the player
units for issuing, clarifying, and enforcing safety rules. Safety instructions

(a) Objectives and responsibilities.

(b) Accident causes and preventive measures.

(c) Accident reporting. Spot reports, as well as formal

accident reporting and investigative procedures, are prescribed.

Because current equipment is very mobile, command instructions must

emphasize its safe operation during training exercises and under
administrative conditions during day, night, and reduced visibility.

2) Uniform Markings, Color Control, and Exercise Rules.

This portion of the control plan prescribes:

(a) Uniform markings for OPFOR, controller,

evaluator, umpire, and observer personnel.

(b) Markings for vehicles, aircraft, and equipment.

(c) Pyrotechnics, munitions, and lasers permitted in

the exercise and instructions for their use.

(d) Flag-signaling devices allowed and instructions for

their use.



(e) Funding authorization and source of supply.

(f) Controller rules.

(g) Guidance concerning the use of civilians (or

military personnel disguised as civilians) in exercise play, their identification,
and treatment.

(h) Guidance for civil-military relationships. The plan

must be closely coordinated with the exercise G7/S7 and the public and unit
information programs and activities. Additionally, it will include procedures for
identifying and treating civilians who reside in or near the exercise area but
who do not participate.

Umpires, personnel, vehicles, and installations participating in

combined land exercises with other nations must be marked in accordance
with standard agreement.

3) Controller, Umpire, and Evaluator Assignments.

Controllers, umpires, and evaluators are essential for the effective and
efficient operation of training exercises. Controllers ensure that events occur
at the appropriate times and places according to the exercise scenario and
schedule of events. Controllers represent all headquarters and units not
physically present as players. Evaluators observe the activities of players and
player units to determine whether they perform tasks to predetermined
standards. Evaluators provide input to the AARs. Umpires determine the
outcome of battle engagements and the effects of fires, obstacles, and
support activities. They report the results both to player units and the control
organization. The planning staff G1/S1 coordinates with appropriate staff
members to recommend sources of personnel and selection criteria to the
exercise director. Members of the control group should be taken from non
playing units because playing units should be at full strength. During any one
exercise, controller, evaluator, and umpire duties are normally assigned to
separate individuals. However, the exercise director may have to assign two
or more of these functions to the same person due to shortages of qualified

Each controller, evaluator, and umpire is assigned to a specific section

for the duration of the exercise. The chief controller determines these specific
assignments based on the scope of the exercise and the available personnel
and required equipment. If possible, personnel assigned as evaluators should
have experience in the position being evaluated. Whenever feasible,
commanders should evaluate commanders. For a description of the duties of
umpires, controllers, and evaluators, refer to specific exercises in Chapter 3
and to Annex E.

4) Controller, Umpire, and Evaluator Communication and

Transportation. To control and coordinate exercises, good communications
are essential. A large-unit FTX may operate over extended distances and
require highly mobile controllers, umpires, and evaluators. In such a case,



obstacles to continuous and efficient communication are numerous. The

G4/S4, the special security officer (SSO), and the signal officer assist the
planning staff G3/S3 to coordinate communication and transportation needs.
Since the player units require their organic communication equipment and
vehicles during the exercise, the G3/S3, G4/S4, and G6/S6 should acquire
this equipment from other sources.

5) Schedule of Controller, Umpire, and Evaluator Training.

Controllers, umpires, and evaluators must be trained to execute their
assignments. The amount of training depends on the backgrounds and
experience of these individuals as well as the scale of the exercise. The
schedule provides for:

(a) A detailed orientation to the exercise, including the

training objectives, the methods for attaining the objectives, the scenario, and
the supporting plans.

(b) A detailed reconnaissance of the exercise area.

(c) Schooling that emphasizes duties, use of control

equipment, map reading, and tactics.

(d) Rehearsals or MAPEXs to ensure complete

understanding of the exercise.

(e) Orientation on the conduct of the AAR.

Annex E describes controller, evaluator, and umpire training.

6) Controller Reports. The chief controller prepares a guide

for reports. It lists required reports, provides the format for those reports, and
designates special areas of interest for evaluation during each part of the

c. Administrative and Logistics Plans

The administrative and logistics plan provides for actual combat service
support of the exercises. The planning staff G4/S4 coordinates with the
G1/S1, G7/S7, and appropriate special staff officers regarding CSS. The
G4/S4 determines the availability of essential supplies and maintenance
support and plans for medical evacuation and traffic control.

The administrative and logistics plan must match the scenario and
operation plan. It contains instructions for the realistic play of CSS for both
OPFOR and friendly units. It also provides for the concurrent training of the
CSS elements involved. Logistic support must conform to the logistic policies
of the exercise. The planning staff G4/S4 coordinates closely with the G1/S1
and G7/S7 to prepare the plan, which covers all phases of the exercise.



Appendices to the administrative and logistics plan pertaining to CSS


1) Establish a list of mandatory supply items to be brought

to the exercise area by supporting troops.

2) Describe the procedures for obtaining and maintaining

training supplies.

3) Establish available supply rates for all types of munitions.

Planners estimate the required types and quantities of these various

supply items early in the planning phase to ensure that the appendixes will
contain all this information.

d. Movement Plan

The number of player units, OPFOR, and control personnel involved in

a large-unit field exercise requires the planning staff G4/S4 to prepare a
detailed movement plan. This plan coordinates transportation assets and
controls traffic. When the exercise is conducted off military controlled land,
this plan must be coordinated with appropriate civil authorities. Failure to do
so may result in military and civilian traffic problems that could interfere with
the exercise time schedule.

e. Maneuver Damage Control Plan

The maneuver damage control plan is closely related to the claims plan
described later in this chapter. The maneuver damage control plan prescribes:

1) General policies.

2) Responsibilities of commanders and units.

3) Areas of responsibility.

4) Training and orientation of troops, claims personnel, and

repair teams.

5) Restrictions, limitations, and precautions to be observed.

These include rules governing vehicle travel, use of airstrips and railroads,
communications, command post sites, and wire and cable-laying.

6) The organization and duties of maneuver damage control


7) Participation of umpire and control personnel.

8) Pre-exercise reports, spot damage reports, player and

support unit location reports, and post exercise repair reports.



If possible, aerial and other photographs of the exercise area should be

made prior to and immediately after the exercise. They will assist with cleanup
and resolution of maneuver damage claims.

f. Civil-Military Operations Plan

The CMO plan, prepared by the planning staff G7/S7, establishes the
scope and objectives of CMO play in the exercise. It may cover the
employment of civil affairs units and staffs during the exercise, as well as
those portions of the PSYOP plan consolidating PSYOP activities in support
of the civil affairs plan.

g. Emergency or Readiness Measures Plan

Since forces involved in an exercise may be required for actual

operations, an emergency deployment plan is prepared. Multiple and secure
notification means are provided for this purpose. The planning staff G3/S3
prepares this plan.

A situation may require implementation of operation or alert plans and

warrant the immediate termination of the exercise. If so, the exercise director
transmits a duly authenticated, pre-selected code word. In turn, the code word
is transmitted by each player and control echelon taking part in the exercise,
and the exercise is terminated. All communication circuits are cleared for
emergency traffic. Circuits out of action due to exercise play are restored

Planners make careful distinctions between exercise instructions and

the actual instructions for an operation or alert plan. Before leaving their
garrisons, all units are told the locations and availability of live ammunition in
case play is terminated and execution of a contingency plan is ordered. Live
ammunition to be carried during the exercise is loaded according to local
SOP. Coordinating and arranging for convoy routes from the exercise location
to deployment positions must occur during the planning phase. If the exercise
area is an unreasonable distance from the planned deployment position,
contingency plans must be developed prior to the exercise.

h. Orientation and After-Action Review Plan

The planning staff G3/S3 prepares this plan. It contains detailed

instructions for orientation before the exercise and for the AAR.

The pre-exercise orientation is essential to ensure that all personnel

start with the same information and carry out their duties with interest and
enthusiasm. The orientation develops an understanding of the training
objectives and how to attain them. Key personnel are designated to attend the
orientation to ensure that player units receive the necessary information. A
briefing schedule is published and a rehearsal conducted.



AARs occur as soon as practicable following major events, exercise

phases, or ENDEX. Effective AARs are as brief and concise as possible
considering the amount of information to be covered. At a minimum, AARs
include commanders and staff. If possible, they include participating soldiers.
Players discuss their reasons for taking actions. Controllers, umpires, and
evaluators make their observations. The OPFOR should give its view of the
exercise. In scheduling AARs, planners should consider the physical condition
of the soldiers and the locations of units. They also need to consider the time
needed to collect, collate, and evaluate reports from controllers, evaluators,
umpires, and OPFORs. For larger scale exercises, the G3/S3 should
schedule multi-echelon AARs, as described in Appendix G.

i. Information Plan

The planning staff information officer coordinates with all staff sections
to prepare a public information plan that will develop public support of the
Philippine Army's mission. The scope and objectives of the exercise
determine the extent of this plan. In the interest of sound public relations, the
exercise director should prepare the local population for any unusual or
inconvenient situations that may arise.

All exercises have certain security, political, and public relations

implications. Planners weigh these implications carefully and formulate a
basic concept for publicity for each exercise. They determine a suitable press
release date in advance. It takes into consideration the requirements for
security, public relations, and items of international and political interest. They
weigh the release of detailed information concerning the nature and location
of the exercise and the participating forces in relation to security and political
implications. Invitations to the press are prepared by information officers and
cleared by Security Safety Officers. The invitations may request that the
exercise be given no publicity until a predetermined date.

When publicity is not desired, planners establish policies for handling

press inquiries. The information plan also provides for:

1) Initial releases announcing the exercise.

2) The extent of hometown press releases.

3) Radio, television, and other news media coverage.

4) The extent of press coverage and the invitations to be


5) Support of news media representatives.

6) Briefings to be given and courtesies to be extended.

7) Unit orientation.



8) Exercise news publications or other news features.

j. Claims Plan

When a large-unit field exercise uses privately owned land, buildings,

or equipment, the planning staff G4/S4 must prepare a claims plan. This plan
is prepared in coordination with the G1/S1, staff judge advocate, engineer
officer, G7/S7, and G3/S3. The plan designates:

1) A claims officer, who is appointed early to execute the

leases for the property required. The same officer is responsible for settling
any claims arising from the exercise.

2) The amount of land, equipment, or building space


3) A rental procedure, to include the length of time that

facilities or land will be required.

4) The limitations imposed on the use of all leased property.

5) The means for issuing these instructions to all units.

6) A means of processing claims.

7) The procedure for obtaining claims releases.

8) Off-limits areas.

k. Comptroller Plan

For funding purposes, large field exercises normally require the

assignment of a comptroller to the planning staff. Comptroller activities in
support of the exercise include:

1) Preparing the comptroller plan.

2) Monitoring the exercise expenditures.

3) Advising the planning staff on financial matters.

l. Records and Reports Plan

The planning staff G3/S3 formulates a plan for required records and
reports based on the exercise director's guidance. At a minimum, it requires
an AAR upon completion of the exercise. The plan designates the
commanders who must conduct AARs and prescribes the format, number of
copies, and suspense date for after-action reports. All reports are tabulated to
show the:



1) Proper title.

2) Basic references.

3) Submitting unit.

4) Time interval covered.

5) Suspense date.

6) Format.

7) Number of copies required.

8) Method of transmission.

m. Preparing the Scenario

Once the exercise director has approved the outline plan, the primary
planning staff (G3/S3 and G2/S2), along with other staff participation,
complete the scenario. Scenarios are stories for training exercises. They list
the events that lead up to the points requiring player units to execute their
operation orders (OPORDs) and thus begin the exercises. These lists include
the facts necessary to place player units in the desired tactical settings prior to
STARTEX. Scenarios guide umpire, controller, and evaluator personnel so
that the exercise will progress according to predetermined plans. Although
scenarios are normally in narrative form, overlay scenarios may be used for
small exercises with limited objectives. Scenarios portray a series of tactical
situations. They are supported by OPLANs to include the annexes and
overlays necessary to meet the command objectives.

Each free-play scenario presents an initial situation and provides

sufficient detail and guidance so the player can prepare an OPLAN, annexes,
and overlays. After STARTEX, higher headquarters and the player
commander control the activities, based on METT and a realistic enemy.
Using this type of scenario, a player is free, within doctrine and the higher unit
OPORD, to initiate activity. Each controlled-play scenario presents detailed
situations and events created to accomplish a specific exercise objective. It is
normally keyed to a rigid schedule of events with a predetermined message
release list.

The two scenarios differ in purpose. Free-play scenarios allow

commanders maximum latitude in executing missions. Conversely, controlled-
play scenarios cause commanders to take specific actions in response to pre-
determined events.

Controlled-play scenarios are best used when exercise objectives are

to train on specific battle staff, survivability, or combined arms and services
tasks under specific conditions. Examples include operations in deliberate
river-crossing operations, and military operations on urbanized terrain



(MOUT). Controlled-play scenarios are best supported by schedules of events

that ensure the timely insertion of incidents.

Free-play scenarios are best used when the exercise objective is to

integrate systems, survivability, and battle staff training in the most realistic,
full-threat environment possible. Free-play scenarios can use battle
simulations such as TACOPS, and VECTOR.

Scenarios contain the following elements:

1) A general situation that provides the participants with the

background information normally available in a combat situation.

2) An initial situation that starts the action by the player unit

and causes the commander to issue orders committing units.

3) A subsequent situation that continues the exercise and

causes controllers, umpires, and evaluators to maintain control. It includes all
major events necessary to accomplish the exercise objectives within the
allotted time.

Considerable guidance is required from player unit commanders

regarding the pace of the exercise. The scenario developers must plan
thoroughly to balance the number and types of requirements placed on the
players and the time allocated to complete them. The planners must not
attempt to do too much in too little time. It is better to conduct a few events to
standard and have time for conducting good AARs and for repeating any
events as necessary, rather than to attempt more events than can be
executed using the appropriate troop-leading procedures.

n. General Situation

At a minimum, the general situation includes:

1) A general statement describing the events that

precipitated the current situation causing the commitment of Philippine Army

2) The strategic and tactical situation, to include friendly

forces two echelons higher.

3) A description of the OPFOR situation, to include the

disposition of their forces two echelons higher.

4) An analysis of the area of operations.

In developing the general situation, planners should establish the troop

list of the next higher echelon and the time frame for the execution phase of
the exercise. Adjustments can be made as the training and support situations
change; however, major revisions should be avoided.



o. Initial Situation

The initial situation places the player unit in a tactical situation before
STARTEX. If a pre exercise phase is used to prepare an OPLAN, the
prepared OPLAN is converted to an OPORD at, or prior to, STARTEX by a
fragmentary order (FRAGO). However, if a pre exercise phase is not used, an
OPLAN is developed during the initial phase. It provides the basis for
subsequent operations. The requirements for the initial situation will depend
on when the player OPLAN is developed. In any case, the controllers should
review the OPLAN for format and content, since the preparation,
dissemination, and supervision of plans, orders, and estimates are normally
prime objectives of any exercise. The annotated OPORD should be used as a
model format.

The OPORD causes the player to execute the mission assigned by

higher headquarters. The OPORD clearly expresses the way the player unit
commander visualizes the flow of the battle. If the player's OPORD does not
comply with higher headquarters' directives or if execution of the order would
create a serious safety hazard, the order should be returned for correction.

The initial situation should cause the G2/S2 to begin IPB. Through
careful analysis of the terrain, avenues of approach, and adversary doctrinal
templating, the player unit can determine the most dangerous avenue of
approach and the most likely enemy configuration. At STARTEX, the player
unit should have sufficient enemy intelligence information as would
realistically be available in wartime. This information should be provided
through player channels to the lowest level to ensure a consistent portrayal of
the enemy situation. Failure to disseminate intelligence to subordinate units
should be addressed in the AAR.

p. Subsequent Situations

Exercise planners develop the subsequent situations by creating a list

of events that:

1) Ensures a logical flow for the exercise.

2) Obtains a realistic time estimate for the entire exercise.

3) Ensures all training objectives are achieved.

Events are concise written statements of tactical activities. Planners list

them in chronological order and estimate when they will occur. They may
cross reference events and their scheduled times by arranging both in column
format. Such a list will help the exercise flow to a logical conclusion. Once
they prepare the list of events, planners develop corresponding incidents with
execution times, if appropriate, that provide controllers, umpires, evaluators,
and OPFORs with a way of realistically presenting each event to the player.
The list should indicate:



1) Where each event or incident takes place.

2) Who is involved in each?

3) How each is initiated.

The events, incidents, and additional information become a schedule of

events and an enclosure to the scenario. The enclosure is an abbreviated
publication arranged chronologically in column format. It provides a ready
index to the time, place, soldiers or units involved, and the activity planned for
a given situation. It also estimates the time required to conduct the exercise,
including the time for troop orientation before STARTEX and for an AAR after
each exercise phase or at ENDEX. Planners should adjust this time estimate
after the exercise is rehearsed. For free-play scenarios, the schedule of
events will be much less detailed than for a controlled-play scenario. Items on
the schedule of events cause specific actions or reactions by the players
within or among various systems. The schedule of events should provide
sufficient information to allow follow-up and observations by controller and
umpire personnel. These events, actions, and reactions become topics of
discussion in the AAR.

7. Prepare and Issue an Operations Plan (OPLAN)

The exercise scenario is the basis for the OPLAN. The OPLAN is the
responsibility of the planning staff G3/S3. However, all members of the
planning staff must share in developing the OPLAN to produce the various
supporting annexes and overlays that it requires.

The complexity of the OPLAN may vary with the scope of the exercise.
For example, the OPLAN for a battalion-level exercise may be issued as a
verbal order. Warning orders and FRAGOs to initiate continue, change, or halt
operations are often prepared in advance in support of exercises conducted
for the purpose of evaluating or testing multiple units under like conditions.

8. Publishing a Letter of Instruction (LOI)

The LOI provides exercise information to all participants. It may include

references to information such as the maneuver damage plan or the safety
SOP, already published in other sources.

The LOI is prepared in a format that is easy to use and provides all the
necessary information. If the exercise is very large or complex, annexes to the
LOI may address specific subjects.
The first draft of the LOI is published far enough in advance of
STARTEX to allow all concerned agencies, major subordinate commands,
and special staff members to respond and submit comments. The final
version of the LOI is published only when these comments have been
considered and incorporated.



Those who plan and participate in exercises must be kept well

informed throughout the planning process. The LOI should not be used as the
sole method of providing information. Briefings, updates, fact sheets, or in-
process reviews (IPRs) may also be used, as appropriate or whenever
important changes occur that will influence the exercise development.

9. Preparing a Contingency Plan

The planning staff G3/S3 is responsible for preparing the contingency

plan. It stipulates what actions are to be taken in the event of adverse
weather, actual war, or other factors limiting exercise. If the plan calls for an
alternate exercise, then the planning process for it must be given the same
consideration as the original exercise, including the appropriate support plan.

10. Preparing the Terrain

Preparation of the terrain may be necessary to provide a realistic

environment, to protect the terrain from excessive maneuver damage, and to
ensure troop safety while employing high mobility systems. For example, in a
live-fire exercise, electronically or mechanically controlled targets may be
installed in foxholes or bunkers to represent the OPFOR. Dug-in, remotely
controlled machine gun simulators may represent OPFOR fire from the
objective. Barbed wire obstacles on the objective, demolition pits along the
routes of approach, enemy fighting positions, and simulated gun
emplacements can all add realism. Safety devices to facilitate control and
safe operation should be installed whenever demolitions or live fire exercises
are incorporated in the training exercise.



SUBJ ECT: Letter of Instruction for Battalion FTX_______


1. PURPOSE. This paragraph states what the LOI I designed to do; for
example, “To provide direction for planning, conducting, and controlling

2. GENERAL. This paragraph provides general background information on

why the exercise is being conducted, who is involved, and what will be

3. OBJ ECTIVES. Each objective of the exercise should be specific and

keyed to task/unit mission and individual and collective tasks. The objective
should be listed in subparagraphs.

4. CONCEPT OF OPERATION. This paragraph is either a narrative

description or a general listing of major e vents that will occur. Overlay
annexes are included.

5. RESPONSIBILITIES. Specific responsibilities of the staff and major

subordinate commands are listed in subparagraphs.


instruction that will apply to two or more units or staff sections.




Figure 2.2 Sample Letter of Instruction.

11. Conducting a Rehearsal

As a final check on planning, the exercise is rehearsed. This rehearsal

does not include players. It occurs far enough in advance of the exercise for
planners to correct errors and adjust the schedule. Controllers, umpires,
evaluators, and OPFORs should rehearse so that they are all thoroughly
familiar with their duties. For large exercises, it is critical to rehearse
communications. The agency or individual who originally directed the exercise
should be represented at the rehearsal in order to make necessary changes
and to approve the exercise.




Section 3-1 Initial Considerations

The training exercises described in this chapter provide the preferred

methods to teach, sustain, and reinforce individual and collective skills. They
provide training methods to develop, sustain, and evaluate command and
control skills. They are essential team building tools, in as much as they teach
the employment of the internal and external systems necessary to coordinate
and integrate combined arms and services teamwork in order to fight and win
air-land battles.

Training exercises are a vital part of the spectrum of training.

Commanders use them to train individual, leader, and collective skills in battle
staff, survivability, and combined arms training. Commanders select a
particular training exercise or combination of exercises based on specific
training objectives and on available resources. They select the specific
training exercise that will best attain their objectives and expend the fewest

1. Command and Control Proficiency. In order to conduct successful

maneuvers or FTXs at battalion level, commanders and their staffs must
already be proficient in fundamental command and control skills. The
exercises described in this chapter train staffs to issue orders in a timely
sequence so that the available combat power can be committed at the right
place and time. Exercises allow commanders to train their staffs:

a. To prepare orders to maneuver or move units.

b. To plan and coordinate fire support.

c. To integrate all supporting systems.

Engineer barrier plans, for example, must be coordinated with final

protecting fires. Battalion battle positions and natural obstacles must be tied to
engineer tank obstacles. Where appropriate, exercises should use automated
data information to teach operators to support staff requirements. Moreover,
scenarios should be intense enough to stretch processing in providing timely

2. Active Involvement. Commanders must caution their staffs to

recognize that reality is the basis for decision making. Operations centers,
current situation maps, and data processing printouts are not reality. They are
no more accurate than the fragmentary information fed into the tactical
operations center (TOC). Decision making must ultimately rely upon the
commander's judgment based upon his personal observation of the battlefield.
The purpose of the staff training through simulations, TEWTs, and ultimately



major exercises is to teach unit teamwork and the proper preparation of

estimates and orders in support of the commander.

The well-trained staff assists the commander in recognizing the critical

actions unfolding on the battlefield. The commander positions himself behind
the main effort to encourage his soldiers, to see the battle develop, and to be
in position to make the critical decisions that will determine the outcome of the
battle. The staff members take the commander's decisions and use their
communications and their teamwork to make maximum combat power
available to implement his decisions. Exercises teach the unit to achieve this
vital teamwork that enables the commander to translate his decisions into
actions that produce a decisive advantage at the critical period of the battle.

3. Autonomy. The commander teaches his staff to operate without him.

Inasmuch as he can seldom be at the TOC except to receive a periodic
update during periods of reduced activity, the commander uses a series of
exercises to train the staff. He ensures they are capable of continuous
operations by insisting upon designation and observance of working shifts.
The next war is unlikely to be a short war. Consequently, the commander
must teach the staff to make operations routine, allowing personnel to be
rested and alert for their tour of duty. To avoid a break in duty personnel
thoroughly abreast of the tactical situation, officer and NCO shifts should not

The commander should receive an update briefing from the staff upon
his return to the TOC. This practice requires the staff to maintain an estimate
of the situation, which is continually updated during the course of their duties.
TOC operators brief their replacements when relieved at the end of their tour
of duty. The update briefing for the commander normally takes one of two
forms: a formal briefing attended by the senior shift personnel or individual
updates for the commander at each staff section.

The commander uses the update to ensure his estimate of the situation
is current, to evaluate the staff estimate, and to train the staff. Normally the
commander, who has observed the major actions of the unit and visited his
subordinate commanders, will have more current information than does his
staff. The staff update will often show that subordinate units have failed to
report essential information that SOP requires them to report. This experience
teaches the staff to insist upon prompt and continuous reporting. During the
update briefing, the commander coaches the staff on the proper formulation of
estimates, a disciplined thought process developed over time.

Through the conduct of austere exercises, the commander trains his

commanders and the staff so that they are prepared to perform their duties
during maneuvers or the conduct of combat operations. During a MAPEX or
CPX, the commander can observe individual staff sections and critique
specific actions, such as:

a. Posting situation maps.



b. Using radio telephone procedures.

c. Preparing estimates and orders.

d. Exchanging information within the staff.

e. Arranging the TOC to facilitate coordination.

The commander must emphasize coordination and information flow

since they are essential to an efficient operation. He must insist that
information be disseminated down the chain, as well as to higher and
adjacent units. Each echelon can become a filter of essential information
unless the staff continually works at information sharing. Recognition that the
staff serves the lower units, as well as the commander, is a profound concept-
-a mark of professional staff organization.

Mastery of troop leading procedures allows subordinates adequate

time to issue warning orders, to conduct reconnaissance, and to prepare and
issue timely orders. Such mastery is a key training objective of the
commander. This objective can be achieved only through practice. The time
for mistakes and omissions is during training exercises that do not involve
troops. The AAR should highlight this important dimension of command and
control, upon which successful operations are predicated. Once the
commander's concept of operations is provided to his commanders and
detailed orders are published, a shared understanding of operations is
established. It can become the basis for verbal FRAGOs to adjust to the
changing tactical situation. The compression of time in the troop-leading steps
for the use of a FRAGO is made possible by the previous employment of full
troop leading steps. These ensure a common understanding of the enemy,
mission and friendly situation, current control measures, and detailed
reconnaissance (map or ground) of the operational area. The teamwork of a
trained staff facilitates this process. Staff proficiency and teamwork are
developed over time through the exercises discussed in this chapter.

Who will be trained?

What are the training objectives?

Which, if any, of the training exercises are most suitable to

accomplish each objective?

What are the available resources (time, training areas, or


Which of the training exercises or combination of them will help

meet the training objectives within the available training

Figure 3.1 Key Questions in Selecting Exercises.



Section 3-2 Map Exercises

1. Description.

MAPEXs are low-cost, low-overhead training exercises that portray

military situations on maps and overlays that may be supplemented with, or
replaced by, terrain models and sand tables. MAPEXs allow commanders to
train their staffs to perform essential integrating and control functions to
support their decisions under simulated wartime conditions. MAPEXs may be
employed by commanders to train the staffs at any echelon:

a. To function as effective teams.

b. To exchange information.

c. To prepare estimates.

d. To give appraisals.

e. To make recommendations and decisions.

f. To prepare plans.

g. To issue orders.

h. To be proficient in integration of all branch elements of the


MAPEXs are suitable for command and control training from battalion
through brigade levels. They are especially useful for multi-echelon staff
training when commanders want to involve the minimum number of soldiers
while fully exercising staff procedures and techniques at multiple echelons.
MAPEXs are relatively inexpensive. Their scenarios derive from event
schedules or from battle simulations, depending upon the resources available.

MAPEXs can provide survivability training through the practice of

continuous operations, operations in a mission oriented protection posture
environment passing control to alternate operations centers and jump CPs, as
well as practice in operation in a dispersed posture.

2. Characteristics.

MAPEXs should attempt to portray the battlefield as realistically as

possible. They portray exercise administrative and logistical situations
realistically to integrate all aspects of the battle. They portray EW realistically
to allow participants to achieve proficiency in working through jamming and in
exercising appropriate countermeasures.



Controllers must consider how the information they input affects player
staff sections under actual battle conditions. These inputs should make
players aware of the tactical and logistical situations, both friendly and enemy,
as well as of the impact of the civilian situation upon tactical operations. The
control group must render prompt and logical rulings for all tactical and
logistical situations that arise. When player and enemy forces make contact,
controllers allow the situation to develop until a tactical ruling is indicated or
required. The control group assesses casualties and damage and announces
engagement results. The company players use this information to paint the
battlefield picture to battalion headquarters. Since MAPEXs are training
vehicles, players, and controllers must not reveal information unavailable in a
real situation.

MAPEXs require the controllers to avoid influencing exercise play

artificially since doing so creates other artificial situations later. Controllers
should not interfere with player personnel even though they may be allowed
free access to player facilities so they can perform their assigned duties.
Controllers should provide their insights and suggestions during periodic
AARs to assist players in maximizing lessons learned through the exercise.

3. Personnel.

The player personnel for MAPEXs should include representatives from

all elements of the combat team. MAPEXs require control teams to regulate
the exercise and cause play to flow to a logical conclusion. The chief
controller supervises the entire controller facility and acts as the director of
controller personnel. The assistant chief controller acts as the chief battle map
(terrain model) controller. He is responsible for the battle portrayal on the
map, to include battle damage assessment. The assistant battle map
controllers ensure that players report to higher headquarters only what they
could observe in an actual tactical situation. They ensure that maneuver, fire
support, CS, and CSS functions are realistically portrayed by both friendly
personnel and threat controllers. They also arbitrate all points of disagreement
concerning battle map play.

The threat controllers ensure that enemy actions are portrayed

according to threat doctrine and the exercise order of battle. They begin the
exercise by displaying the initial threat situation prepared by the exercise
planning group. They continue exercise play by interacting with the player
commanders and by continually presenting realistic situations using threat
tactics. The damage assessment controllers assess personnel and equipment
loss and determine when damaged equipment and wounded personnel can
be returned to action. Controllers must not usurp player functions. For
example, medical personnel of the player unit should be required to determine
when or if wounded personnel can return to the battle.

The number of control personnel required depends upon the size of the
player organization and the scope of the exercise scenario. If a simulation
drives the MAPEX, the instructions contained in the simulation package will
provide guidance for developing controller manning tables.



Both controller and player personnel must understand the specific job
positions and command echelons represented by members of the control
group. The control group represents all persons and units except those
specifically represented by the player units.

4. Equipment and Facilities

MAPEXs require only minimal equipment. It may consist of the


a. Exercise maps sufficient in number to meet the demands of the

exercise objectives. Terrain models or sand tables that are exact replicas of
the maps may be used in conjunction with the maps or alone. If they are used,
they should be large enough to allow all player and controller personnel to
observe and to perform as assigned.

b. General purpose items such as office supplies, overlay

production material, message and journal logs, report forms, unit SOPs, and
appropriate reference materials.

c. Simple point-to-point wire communications to permit simulation

of communication links to be practiced during the exercise. If radio or wire
links are employed in an operational environment, players should not be
permitted to make face-to-face communication with other players.

Requiring little communications equipment and a minimum number of

support personnel, MAPEXs may be conducted in permanent or temporary
locations. Planners must provide buildings or tents large enough to house
both player and control functions. The work area should be relatively
uncrowded. Planners must make provisions for security, visitor reception and
briefing, food service, and vehicle parking, as appropriate. If the MAPEX is
conducted away from the unit's cantonment area, planners must arrange
transportation and medical support. If the MAPEX is to last longer than one
day, they must arrange for billeting.

5. Phases

a. Pre-exercise.

Prior to selecting the MAPEX training mode, commanders

must ensure that staff members and leaders are familiar with the individual
skills of their duty positions and the collective skills of their staff section or
command group. Full proficiency is not required for participation, inasmuch as
the purpose of the MAPEX is to build proficiency.

Planners must consider the planning steps discussed in

Chapter 2. Commanders and staffs at battalion level plan and conduct
MAPEXs for their own units. At higher echelons, planning staffs and controller
teams plan, prepare, conduct, and review the exercise. Once the objectives,



scope, troop list, exercise area, and outline are approved, the player unit
commander and selected unit personnel should be briefed on the exercise.
The commander of the player unit uses the MAPEX LOI as the basis for
providing exercise information to subordinates. The planning staff also uses
the LOI to brief controllers, umpires, and evaluators.

Normally 24 to 48 hours before STARTEX, the controllers

train the players in the conduct of the MAPEX. Players who receive battlefield
information directly from controllers must have additional training on how to
translate it into usable and recognizable formats. These formats include spot
reports, situation reports, shell reports, and others.

S3 Plans / Operations Maps S2 Maps

Plans / Operations S3 S2 T


S1 / S4 Maps FSO / TACP Maps

FSO – Fire Support Officer TACP – Tactical Air Control Party
T – Telephone to Player Counterpart XO – Executive Officer

Note: This is a sample Brigade TOC. Planners should ensure that all members of the
combat team are represented as dictated by wartime task organization.

Figure 3.2 Sample Brigade TOC for Brigade MAPEX.

Controller and player training prior to a MAPEX involve the


1) Purpose and scope.

2) Training objectives.

3) Participating units.

4) Enemy situation.

5) Control organization.



6) Communications plan.

7) Casualty and damage assessment.

8) Time delays in message transmission.

9) Controller records and reports.

10) Intelligence play.

11) War-game procedures.

12) Information flow.

13) In-progress and after action reviews.

14) Controller duties.

b. Execution.

The LOI for the MAPEX will include instructions for

moving to the exercise site, if appropriate. Time must be set aside and
personnel assigned prior to STARTEX to install any necessary point-to-point
wire communications, to set up the player and controller TOC, and to prepare
maps, sand tables, or terrain models.

Prior to STARTEX, the chief controller gives the player

commander a commander's update briefing. This briefing includes any
changes to the LOI not already announced or any items requiring reiteration.
The chief controller may assume the role of the player unit's higher
commander, unless the commander elects to play this role himself in the
training of his subordinates. At this point, the chief controller is briefed by
controllers representing staff members. This briefing sets the stage for the
remainder of the exercise and imparts realism. The chief controller, acti ng as
the higher commander, converts the exercise OPLAN to an OPORD and
announces that staff members are available for coordination with their player
counterparts. This normally constitutes STARTEX.

S3 Plans / Operations Maps FSO S2 Maps

Plans / Operations S3 T T


Admin / Logistics Maps
Note: This is a sample Battalion TOC. Planners should ensure that all members of the
combat team are represented as dictated by wartime task organization.

Figure 3.3 Sample Brigade TOC for Brigade MAPEX.


Opns Controller FSE ADA

Intel Controller

Threat Di v
Assis tant Battle Map Controller
1 FSE 2 Maneuver

Battle Map
Battle Damage Chief Chief
Battle Controller
Assessment Controller T

Assis tant
Assis tant Logistics Admin Battle Map
Battle Map Controller T Controller Controller

ADA – Air Defense Artillery Tx – Telephone to Bn X used by players
FSE – Fire Support Element T – Telephone to Brigade counterpart
X – Player Company Commander, XO, FIST Chief – Threat
O – Controller

Note: This is a sample only. Planners should ensure that all members of the combat team
are represented as dictated by wartime task organization.

Figure 3.4 Brigade MAPEX Control Facility.

The brigade-level MAPEX functions as follows:

1) The players are presented with a general and a special


2) The players react to the situation and provide information

and reports to higher, lower, and adjacent units, as appropriate.

3) The control group, in its role as higher headquarters,

evaluates the player orders for mission accomplishment, fights its portion of
the air-land battles, and responds to player requests for support, as
appropriate. At the same time, company commanders gather around the
battle map and fight the battle according to battalion orders.

4) The results of battle board actions are relayed to the

player battalion headquarters in the form of reports and requests. These
portray the battle and create new situations requiring additional player actions



or reactions. Battalion TOCs, in turn, feed information, reports, and requests

to the brigade.

5) The players react to the new situations as they normally

would in combat. This forces the brigade and battalions to alter battle plans,
issue FRAGOs, and place demands on CS and CSS units.

6) This process continues until the MAPEX ends.

c. Post-exercise.

At ENDEX, the chief controller holds an immediate AAR so that

all players and controllers gain the maximum training benefit from the
exercise. At a minimum, the AAR should:

1) Provide an opportunity for the players and controllers to

exchange information, ideas, and lessons learned.

2) Allow the threat controllers to explain their battle plans,

battle outcomes, and strength at ENDEX. An assessment of future threat
capabilities should also be presented.

Appendix G contains a complete discussion of the AAR

and after-action reports.

Section 3-3 Tactical Exercises without Troops

1. Description

TEWTs are low-cost, low-overhead exercises conducted in the field on

actual terrain suitable for training units for specific missions. Using few
support troops, TEWTs are used by commanders to train subordinate leaders
and battle staffs at any echelon:

a. To analyze terrain.

b. To employ units according to terrain analysis.

c. To emplace weapon systems to best support the unit's mission.

d. To plan conduct of the unit mission.

e. To coach subordinates on the best use of terrain and proper

employment of all combat arms (CA), CS, and CSS assets.

Unit personnel participate in a TEWT as members of small groups. The

commander or his S3 orients them on the terrain, pointing out prominent
features and their importance to the exercise. The commander then-presents



the special situation--an extension of the general situation that was issued in
advance of the TEWT--followed by the initial requirement. Group members
then solve each requirement individually and prepare to present their
solutions. Next, the group discusses individual solutions and develops a group
solution. The commander critiques the group and presents his solution.
Discussion of individual solutions generates interest and understanding of
tactics and optimum use of the terrain. By allowing group leaders to explain
unit dispositions for a given operation, TEWTs create a favorable environment
for a professionally challenging and informative class on subjects that impact
directly upon the unit mission.

2. Characteristics

For a successful TEWT, the commander must select the proper terrain
and reconnoiter it. This process is vital since the TEWT teaches tactics by
using actual terrain. The general area is selected from a map reconnaissance
and then followed up with an on-the-ground reconnaissance. Sites pre-
selected should be appropriate for the training objectives and flexible enough
to portray more than one practical solution. The various locations selected for
specific events during the reconnaissance become training sites for specific
situations. The time schedule identifies these locations by six-digit grid

3. Personnel

The personnel participating in a TEWT are subordinate commanders,

leaders, and staffs selected by the unit commander. Commanders or S3s
from direct support organizations may supply advice on situations concerning
their own specialties. Based on their participation, the TEWT can provide
combat team training. The participants from supporting organizations should
be consulted during the preparation of the exercise and be available during its
The procedures involved in the TEWT can also be applied to achieve battle
staff and combined arms training in:

a. MOUT.

b. Deployment planning.

c. Mobilization planning.

d. Amphibious operations.

e. Combat and field trains establishment and operations.

f. Intelligence-gathering techniques.



4. Equipment and Facilities

Equipment required for a TEWT depends on the amount of time to be

spent on the exercise and the objectives of the exercise. TEWTs are always
conducted in the field on terrain suitable for training the units to perform in
specific missions.

5. Phases

a. Pre-exercise.

Prior to selecting the TEWT training mode, commanders

determine whether subordinate leaders and staff members are proficient in
the individual and leader skills their duty positions require. Although a TEWT
may be the best way to teach tactical principles on the ground, it does not
emphasize time and distance factors and their significance for effective troop-
leading procedures. Before conducting other exercises with soldiers,
commanders should recognize these limitations and provide appropriate
emphasis to ensure that participants recognize how important time, distance,
and light conditions are to actual operations. Planners must consider the
planning steps discussed in Chapter 2.

The exercise directive for a TEWT can be as simple as a

warning order from the commander that states:

1) Why the TEWT is being conducted.

2) Who will participate?

3) What equipment is required?

4) When and where the TEWT will be conducted.

5) What the special instructions are.

Plans for a TEWT are normally formatted by the unit staff

and should include the tasking of assistant trainers, if required.

Research for a TEWT consists of:

1) Reviewing missions, weapons capabilities, and tactics.

2) Reviewing appropriate laws, regulations, and SOPs

pertinent to the use of a particular piece of land.

During the preliminary reconnaissance of the terrain, the


1) Walk the terrain, making a careful inspection of the entire

area to ensure that the military aspects of the terrain are fully appreciated.



The commander normally makes this reconnaissance and selects teaching

points that support his mission, as well as his training objectives.

2) Take notes at each training site concerning the problem

to be presented and its solution.

3) Select the initial rendezvous point for all personnel.

4) Choose vehicle parking areas, if required.

5) Confirm routes and movement times from vehicle parking

areas to each training site and between training sites.

6) Select an area for meals, if necessary.

If the TEWT is to be conducted off a military reservation,

planners must contact landowners to get permission to use the land.

After the first reconnaissance, planners prepare a draft of

the exercise with situation narratives for each requirement and solution. They
may have to visit each training site several times to finalize details of the
situation and to check the proposed solutions. Doing so is particularly
important if the solutions will become the bases for subsequent situations and

Once the commander approves the tactical problems and

solutions, a scenario is developed. The scenario includes a general situation,
initial situation and requirement, subsequent situations and requirements, and
a time schedule. The general situation describes the friendly and enemy units
involved, their locations on the ground, and the significant activities for the
previous 24 hours. Subsequent situations and requirements are derived from
the training objectives.

The time schedule should indicate the estimated time

needed for presenting each situation and requirement at each training site.
The schedule helps ensure that no one spends too much time on any one
requirement or at any one location. Figure 12 shows a time schedule for a
single training objective covered at two different locations.

Once the time schedule is developed, the scenario is

checked to ensure that it fits the terrain selected. During this check all likely
responses to situations and requirements should be war-gamed.

Narratives covering the subsequent situations should

create a realistic battlefield picture. They should be as short as possible, be
compatible with the exercise, and contain only the information players need to
weigh relevant factors and produce an acceptable solution. Narratives should
cover the composition of forces and the air situation. Participants are
expected to know the TOE and weapon capabilities; consequently, the
problem is normally in the form of orders and appropriate graphics. Short



verbal orders to introduce new situations will not only save time, but also give
subordinate commanders and staffs practice in working from verbal orders.

Introduction 5 minutes
General Situation 2 minutes
Situation & Requirements 120 minutes
Travel 15 minutes
Situation and Requirements 120 minutes
Summary 15 minutes___
TOTAL 4 Hrs 37 mins

Figure 3.5 Sample Time Schedule.

The LOI includes:

1) Administrative instructions (mess, transportation,


2) Maneuver damage procedures.

3) Actual time and duration of the TEWT.

4) Training objectives.

5) Personnel to be trained.

6) Pre-exercise training requirements.

The OPORD for the TEWT should be issued at least 24

hours prior to STARTEX. It is written in the five-paragraph field order format
with annexes, as appropriate. It contains information developed from the
general and initial situations and the first requirement.

b. Execution.

For a battalion-level TEWT, the battalion commander

begins at the first training site by explaining the purpose of the exercise and
the tasks to be covered. The commander then presents the general situation,
the initial situation, and the first requirement.



General Situation: 70th Infantry Battalion has recently been

conducting offensive operations against the 13th
Motorized Rifle Regiment. Due to heavy casualties,
the Battalion has been temporarily forced into
defense. Your Company, Alfa Company, is the
Battalion’s left flank with 71st Infantry Battalion on
its left flank and Charlie Company on its right.
During the exercise, you will be the Alfa Company

Initial Situation: 70th IB is temporarily going into defense to await

replacements. The mission is to defend by 1000H
today. The Company defensive sector is indicated
in the overlay.

Requirements: Conduct a reconnaissance to select platoon

positions and prepare a five-paragraph field order
for the conduct of defense. Be prepared to present
your order in one hour.

Figure 3.6 Sample Situations.

After giving the first requirement, the commander:

1) Allows time for players to develop solutions.

2) Selects one leader to present a solution.

3) Selects other leaders to present their solutions.

4) Guides a discussion of the various solutions.

5) Presents a solution and the reasons for it.

6) Guides a discussion of all solutions for the requirement

and explains the preferred solution.

7) Gives instructions and time limits for proceeding to the

next training site.



This procedure occur at all subsequent training sites until the

TEWT is completed.

Subsequent Situation: The enemy situation remains unchanged.

The Alfa Company is deployed on the map in
front of you. Charlie Company has received the
attachment of an infantry platoon and an
engineer platoon.

Requirements: Alfa Company will conduct an attack

commencing at BMNT to seize high ground
dominating the approaches to river-crossing
sites required for the 70th IB to continue the
attack in the sector. Charlie Company will
initiate the attack to secure objective KANDULI
from GC TH 123456 to GC TH 654321.
Conduct your reconnaissance and prepare a
five paragraph field order. Be prepared to
present your order in two hours. I will meet you
at GC TH 341265 at 1300H to discuss your

Figure 3.7 Sample Situations.

c. Post-exercise.

Inasmuch as the TEWT is a formal part of the officer

development program of the unit, the lessons learned should provide a
foundation for subsequent instruction. Materials compiled during preparation
and conduct of the TEWT may be retained for reference on future TEWTs.
Some service schools offer additional information and examples of TEWTs
through their instructional materials. Planners should consult these
instructional materials to determine the suitability and availability of
appropriate supporting materials.

Section 3-4 Command Post Exercises

1. Description.

CPXs are medium-cost, medium-overhead training exercises that may

be conducted at garrison locations or in the field. In garrison, CPXs are
expanded MAPEXs using tactical communications systems and personnel in
a command post environment. Normal battle-field distances between the CPs



are usually reduced, and CPs do not need to exercise all tactical

The most effective CPXs are conducted in the field. In field operations,
time and distance should realistically reflect Air Land Battle doctrine.
Operations should be continuous and use all organic and supporting
communications equipment. Commanders practice combined arms integration
and tactical emplacement and displacement of CPs. Each headquarters
should practice survivability operations such as dispersion, camouflage, and

Commanders use CPXs to train subordinate leaders and staffs at all


a. To function as effective teams and build cohesion.

b. To exchange information.

c. To prepare estimates.

d. To give appraisals.

e. To prepare plans.

f. To issue orders.

g. To reconnoiter, select, and tactically occupy CP locations.

h. To establish and employ communications.

i. To displace headquarters and command posts.

CPXs also provide commanders with valuable training experiences in

planning and executing CS and CSS activities. Troops other than
headquarters and communications personnel are normally represented by
controllers. CPXs may be driven either by master schedules of events or
battle simulations.

2. Characteristics

Successful CPXs are conducted under battlefield conditions.

Administrative and logistical situations are portrayed and played realistically
so that player commanders and staffs realize their effects on all aspects of the
battle. EW should be portrayed to show how important it is to all elements and
how it hinders commanders and staff officers who are not prepared for it.

Controllers should avoid influencing exercise play artificially since

doing so creates other artificial situations later. When inputting information,
controllers consider which player staff section would be most affected under
actual battle conditions. Inputs should make the player personnel aware of the



tactical and logistical situations and cause player action. Field CPXs should
force the player units at all echelons to emplace and displace their TOC. TOC
displacement teaches the units to use tactical and main CPs, to perform
continuous operations and reconnaissance, and to set up organic and
supporting communications systems. It also provides realistic time and
distance experience.

The control group renders prompt and logical rulings for all tactical and
logistical situations that arise during exercise play. When player and threat
forces make contact, controllers allow the situation to develop until a tactical
ruling is indicated or required. Rulings are based on results obtained from
war-gaming, based on player-directed actions. The control group assesses
casualties and damage and announces engagement rulings. The company
players use this information to paint the battlefield picture to the battalion
headquarters. Controllers are allowed free access to player facilities to
perform their assigned duties, but they do not interfere with player personnel.

3. Personnel

In addition to the commander, staff, and subordinate commanders and

staffs of the player units, CPXs require controllers and evaluators. The
controllers, directed by the chief controller, manage the exercise and cause
play to flow to a logical conclusion. The evaluators observe player activities to
determine if tasks are performed to pre established standards at each
echelon. The number of evaluators and their qualifications depend on the
scope of the exercise and the tasks or procedures to be evaluated. If an
external evaluation has been directed, the chief evaluator will form evaluator

It is essential that both controller and player personnel understand the

specific job positions and command echelons represented by the control
group. The control group represents all persons and units except the job
positions and functions specifically represented by the player units.
The exercise control center (ECC) functions as the player unit higher
headquarters. One of the functions of the ECC is to monitor the player
actions, situations, and plans. ECC personnel also:

a. Maintain controllers' battle maps.

b. Portray the threat force.

c. Insert incidents and messages.

d. Assess equipment and personnel losses.

The chief controller is in charge of the ECC and all subordinate

controllers, umpires, and evaluators. Additionally, the chief controller acts as
the higher commander. Staff controllers act as the higher HQ staff. In support
of the chief controller, they fight the air-land battles. They prepare orders,
request information, and receive and act on reports and requests from the



players. The assistant chief controller acts as the chief controller when
necessary and performs as the higher HQ chief of staff for the player units.

The service support controller supervises the activities of the service

support staff controllers. They prepare orders, request information, and act on
requests and messages from players.

OPFOR controllers are responsible for enemy actions according to

threat doctrine and order of battle. They show the initial threat situation
prepared by the exercise planning group. They also interact with the player
company commanders and continually present them with realistic situations
using threat tactics.

Damage assessment controllers assess personnel and equipment

losses and determine when damaged equipment and wounded personnel can
be returned to the player for use in the CPX. They do not circumvent actions
taken by the players. For example, medical personnel in the exercise
determine when wounded personnel can be returned to action.
Player personnel include the company commanders, Ex Os, and FIST chiefs
from the battalions. They execute the battalion OPORD and fight the battle
according to orders received. Since the exercise is a training vehicle for the
battalion, they do not reveal information unavailable in a real situation.

4. Equipment and Facilities

The equipment required for a CPX consists of:

a. Communications equipment to replicate the higher headquarters

of the player unit.

b. General purpose items such as office supplies, overlay

production material, message and journal logs, report forms, unit SOPs, and
appropriate reference material.

c. Equipment required to replicate the TOC of the player units'

higher headquarters if the CPX is to be conducted in a field environment.

d. Appropriate military references (PAMs, STs).

e. Equipment necessary to identify participants and provide

security for the TOC (ID badges, signs).

CPXs conducted in garrison require separate buildings or tents large

enough to house the control team and player units. The available space
should be adequate for the unit's TOC. Provisions should be made for
security, visitor reception and briefing, feeding, and vehicle parking. If the
exercises are conducted away from the unit's immediate cantonment area,
transportation and medical support must also be arranged. Exercises lasting
longer than one day require billeting arrangements.



For CPXs conducted in the field, maneuver areas must be large

enough for player headquarters to disperse realistically. The control
headquarters will ensure good radio and/or wire communications with player
units and subordinate control elements. The control headquarters should be
located to obtain the best possible communications and to facilitate travel to
and from player headquarters. Facilities to support the control headquarters
must also be planned. They provide:

a. Security.

b. Visitor reception and briefing.

c. Food service.

d. Medical aid.

e. Maintenance.

f. Hygiene.

The amount of outside support required for the control organization

depends on the scope and duration of the exercise. Assistance from outside
agencies may be required in the following areas:

a. Prepackaged battle simulations.

b. Additional communications.

c. Additional map coverage.

d. Maneuver area clearances.

e. Billeting.

f. Medical support.

g. Food service.

Sample brigade CPX controller facility configurations and

relationships are shown in the following diagrams. These can be tailored or
augmented for used in CPXs conducted at other echelons. These diagrams
do not portray specific vehicles or buildings. They are presented to show the
personnel, elements, and equipment required and their physical relationships.
Controller and player relationships are as shown. The brigade command
structure extending through the battalion, field artillery battalion (FABn), and
brigade support to the battalions should function as it would in a tactical
situation. These echelons inject realism by forcing units to respond to higher
and lower unit needs.







5. Phases

a. Pre-exercise.

Prior to selecting the CPX training mode, the commander

should determine whether the personnel chosen to participate are proficient in
the individual and collective skills required by their duty positions and
assigned units. Planners must consider the steps listed in Chapter 2.



Sufficient time must be allocated to allow for thorough

planning and preparation. The size and length of the exercise impacts on the
time required for these functions.

Normally 24 to 48 hours before STARTEX, the controllers

train the players in the conduct of the CPX. Players who receive battlefield
information directly from controllers must be given additional training on how
to convert that information into usable and recognizable formats. These
formats include spot reports, situation reports, shell reports, and others.

For controller and player training prior to a CPX, planners

should consider the following subjects, as appropriate:

1) Purpose and scope of the exercise.

2) Training objectives.

3) Maneuver area rights and restrictions.

4) Participating units.

5) Enemy situation.

6) Control organization.

7) Communications plan for the exercise.

8) Controller duties.

9) Casualty and damage assessment.

10) Use of time delays in message transmission.

11) Controller records and reports.

12) Intelligence play.

13) War-game procedures.

14) Information flow.

15) Controller communications check.

16) Controller reconnaissance of exercise area.

17) After-action reviews.

A CPX at the battalion level is normally conceived,

planned, and conducted by the commander and his staff. At higher echelons,
planning staffs and controller teams are normally formed to plan, prepare,



conduct, and review the exercise. The commander directing the CPX first
approves the objectives, scope, troop list, exercise area, and outline plan of
the CPX. Then the player unit commander and selected personnel should be
briefed by the controllers.

The planning staff completes the exercise LOI and sends

it to the player unit for use in planning for the exercise. The planning staff also
uses the LOI to brief controllers, umpires, and evaluators. The LOI for the
CPX includes instructions for movement to the exercise site, if appropriate.
Time must be set aside and personnel assigned prior STARTEX to install
necessary communications equipment, set up the controller TOC, and
prepare maps.

b. Execution.

Immediately prior to STARTEX, the chief controller and

staff give the player commander and staff a commander's update briefing.
Included in this briefing are any changes to the Letter of Instruction which
have not already been announced or any items requiring reiteration. When
this portion of the briefing is completed, the chief controller assumes the role
of the players' higher commander and is briefed by controllers, who represent
the staff. This briefing sets the stage for the exercise and imparts realism to it.
At this point the chief controller, in the role of higher commander, first converts
the exercise OPLAN to an OPORD. Then he announces that the staff is
available for coordination with player counterparts. This is normally

The brigade level CPX functions as follows:

1) The players are presented with a general and a special


2) The players react to the situation and provide information

and reports, as appropriate, to higher, lower, and adjacent units.

3) The control group, in its role as the brigade, evaluates the

player orders for mission accomplishment, fights its own portion of the air-land
battle, and responds to player requests for support, as appropriate. At the
same time, company commanders gathered around the battle map in each
battalion battle facility fight the battle according to battalion orders. The results
of engagements are relayed to the player headquarters as reports and
requests that combine to create new situations and continue to portray the

4) The players react to the new situations as they would in

combat. This forces battalions to alter battle plans, issue FRAGOs, and place
demands on CS and CSS units.

5) The process continues until the CPX is terminated.



c. Post-exercise.

At ENDEX, the chief controller holds an immediate AAR

for all players and controllers, in order to gain the maximum training benefit
from the exercise. At a minimum, the AAR:

1) Provides an opportunity for the players and controllers to

exchange information, ideas, and lessons learned.

2) Allows the threat controllers to explain their battle plans,

battle outcomes, and strength at ENDEX. An assessment of future threat
capabilities is also presented.

Exercises conducted at brigade level offer an excellent

opportunity to conduct a multi echelon AAR. For example, a brigade CPX
AAR could involve the following:

3) A battalion-level AAR conducted by battalion controllers

for the battalion commander, staff, company commanders, and threat
controllers from the brigade battle facility.

Following the brigade level AAR, individual sessions may

be held for functional areas: intelligence, maneuver, fire support, logistics, and
communications. These discuss the action and interaction of each staff
function in detail. Annex G contains a complete description of the AAR and
after-action report.

Section 3-5 Field Training Exercises

1. Description

FTXs are high-cost, high-overhead exercises conducted under

simulated combat conditions in the field. They exercise command and control
of all echelons in battle functions -- intelligence, combat support, combat
service support, maneuver, and communications--against an actual or
simulated OPFOR. They are conducted in a realistic environment using the
full combined arms teams. They provide both intersystem and intra-systems
training to fight air land battles, using all unit personnel and equipment. FTXs
must include all attached units.

FTXs provide the most realistic environment of all training exercises.

FTXs allow participants to appreciate real time and distance factors. FTXs
involve several tactical situations in which one or more units participate. They
may require movement and communications over long distances. FTXs do not
use live fire.

FTXs are used to train the commander, staff, and subordinate units:



a. To move and/or maneuver units realistically.

b. To employ organic weapon systems effectively.

c. To build teamwork and cohesion.

d. To plan and coordinate supporting fires.

e. To plan and coordinate logistical activities to support tactical


FTXs are the only exercises that fully integrate the total force in a
realistic combat environment. They involve combat, CS, and CSS units to
include battle staff, survivability, and combined arms training. FTXs
encompass battle drills, crew drills, situational training exercises, and other
types of training to reinforce individual and collective task integration.

2. Characteristics

FTXs are executed under battlefield conditions. They provide

opportunities to practice both offensive and defensive operations. Thus, they
enhance the ability of soldiers and leaders to fight and survive on an
integrated battlefield. Such training builds teamwork under conditions likely to
prevail in time of war and impresses players, commanders, and staffs with the
magnitude and scope of planning and operations.

FTXs portray administrative and logistical situations realistically so that

player commanders and staffs experience their impact on all aspects of the
battle. FTXs should also integrate EW warfare into exercise play. Doing so
familiarizes commanders and staffs with the capabilities, availability, and
employment doctrine of EW assets. When properly employed, EW assets
become a combat multiplier that extends a unit's tactical capability. They
provide commanders with non lethal means, which can accomplish desired
results and conserve combat capability. POW play should be realistic. Trained
personnel should act as POWs so that interrogators and capturing units get
realistic training.

FTX controllers, umpires, or evaluators must consider how players will

be affected by the information they input. These inputs should make the
players aware of the tactical and logistical situations. The inputs present
situations and requirements that will cause players to act.

Controllers must not influence play artificially. The control group must
render prompt and logical rulings in all tactical and logistical situations that
arise. When the players and OPFOR controllers make contact, the control
group allows the situation to develop until a tactical ruling is indicated or
required. The control group assesses casualties and damage. It announces
rulings in a manner that provides as much realism as possible. These rulings
are based on observation of the player units, as well as on results from war-
gaming, player-directed actions. Controllers have free access to player



facilities so they can perform their assigned duties. However, they do not
interfere with the players.

3. Personnel

Player unit personnel perform their assigned functions and duties.

Controllers guide the exercise through OPFOR actions. To do so they create
tactical situations which achieve exercise objectives and cause the play to
flow to a logical conclusion. Evaluators observe player and OPFOR unit
activities and determine whether tasks are performed to predetermined
standards. Umpires determine the results of battle engagements, fires and
obstacles, and support activities. They report the results to players,
evaluators, and controllers. OPFORs replicate enemy forces in the
appropriate size and strength to portray the threat activities realistically at
specific times and places on the battlefield. The number of controller, umpire,
evaluator, and OPFOR personnel that will be required depends upon the size
of the player organization and the objectives of the exercise.

4. Equipment and Facilities

The equipment required for an FTX consists of:

a. Communications equipment that will portray the higher

headquarters of the player unit.

b. General purpose items such as office supplies, overlay

production materials, message and journal logs, report forms, unit SOPs, and
appropriate reference materials.

c. Equipment that player units at all echelons need to operate in

the field for a sustained period.

d. Appropriate military reference materials.

The exercise area should be large enough to allow realistic dispersion

of all player units according to Air Land Battle doctrine. The site for the control
headquarters should ensure good communications. The control headquarters
should be located where it will support the exercise and allow for easy travel
to and from player headquarters. Facilities in support of the control
headquarters include:

a. Security.

b. Visitor reception and briefing.

c. Food service.

d. Medical service.

e. Maintenance.



f. Hygiene facilities.

The amount of outside support required will also depend on the scope
and duration of the exercise. Assistance from outside agencies may be
required in the following areas:

a. Additional communications capability.

b. Additional map coverage.

c. Maneuver area clearances.

d. Billeting.

e. Medical service.

f. Food service.

5. Phases

a. Pre-Exercise.

Prior to selecting the FTX training mode, commanders

must determine that subordinate commanders, leaders, and soldiers are
proficient in the individual, leader, and collective skills required by their duty
positions. Commanders will also ensure that all squads, platoons, and
companies have attained basic proficiency in appropriate tasks and missions.
This must be done to obtain the appropriate training benefit from maneuvering
tactical units while conducting a battalion-or brigade-level FTX. Planners must
consider the steps discussed in Chapter 2.

Normally within 72 hours before STARTEX, the planners

of the exercise train the controllers and umpires. Controller, evaluator,
OPFOR, and umpire training for an FTX involves some or all of the following:

1) Purpose and scope.

2) Training objectives.

3) Maneuver area rights and restrictions.

4) Participating units.

5) Enemy situation.

6) OPFOR organization.

7) Rules of engagement.



8) Communications plan.

9) Controller duties.

10) Casualty and damage assessment.

11) Controller records and reports.

12) Intelligence play.

13) Information flow.

14) Controller communications checks.

15) Controller reconnaissance of exercise.

16) After-action review.

The chief controller first trains his staff in supporting

umpires/controllers. Then the controllers brief the player unit commanders
and selected personnel on the exercise.

b. Execution.

The LOI should include instructions for moving to the

exercise site. Time should be set aside and personnel assigned prior to
STARTEX to install the necessary controller communications equipment, to
set up the controller TOC, and to prepare maps and overlays.

The controller manning tables for a brigade FTX in

Appendix D can be used as guidelines for manning the ECC. Manning tables
should be modified to fit the echelon at which the FTX is being conducted. For
example, battalion ECCs needs fewer personnel than brigade ECCs, and their
functions are narrower.

Immediately prior to STARTEX, the chief controller and

controller staff give the player commander and staff a commander's update
briefing. This briefing includes any changes to the LOI not already announced
or items that require reiteration. Then the chief controller assumes the role of
the players' higher commander. He is briefed by the controllers, who
represent the staff. This briefing sets the stage for the exercise and imparts
realism. At this time, the chief controller, as the higher commander, converts
the exercise OPLAN to an OPORD. He then announces that the command
staff is available for coordination with their player counterparts. This normally
constitutes STARTEX.

The battalion FTX functions as follows:

1) Player units with their respective evaluators and umpires,

controller elements, and OPFOR personnel with their controllers and umpires



move to initial field positions for STARTEX. They receive an orientation on

administrative requirements and exercise objectives. The general and initial
situations are issued to players.

2) OPFOR personnel are briefed separately and in a

different location. They execute their role in the FTX, using pre designated
incidents from the schedule of events to trigger player actions.

3) Players fight the battle according to the initial OPORD.

OPFOR actions are used to build intelligence estimates, which require
players' staffs to make estimates and commanders to issue guidance and
make decisions. FRAGOs are issued as needed in order to continue the

4) Players provide reports to higher headquarters, request

support, and allocate or apply combat power, as appropriate.

5) Umpires determine the results of maneuver engagements

and the effects of fire support. They assess losses accordingly.

6) Controllers guide battle play in order to accomplish the

exercise objectives and to keep the exercise within the limits prescribed by
the scenario.

7) Evaluators judge units and soldiers according to

established standards in soldiers’ manuals.

8) This process continues until the FTX ends. The player

commander in coordination with the chief controller should monitor the
attainment of the exercise objectives. If necessary, the exercise may be
halted to reorient either the OPFOR or the player units in order to accomplish
the exercise objectives.

All unit leaders and controllers must stress safety. They

ensure that all participants follow the established procedures for preventing
injuries and keeping incidents caused by carelessness or overly aggressive
personnel from interrupting the exercise. These include:

1) Stand-off distances between troops and vehicles to

prevent physical contact.

2) Safety procedures for firing blanks and using


3) Search procedures for captured personnel.

4) Procedures for returning captured personnel to their own

units as quickly as possible so the soldiers can continue FTX training.

5) Safety procedures to halt all exercise activity.



6) Safety requirements for vehicle movement at night or in

limited visibility.

FTXs must be thoroughly planned and executed, or

extensive maneuver damage can result. Great care must be taken to prevent
water pollution or damage to roads, fields, crops, trees, animals, or man-made

c. Post-exercise.

At ENDEX, the chief controller holds an immediate AAR

for all players and controllers in order to obtain the maximum training benefit
from the exercise. This AAR will:

1) Provide an opportunity for the players and controllers to

exchange information, ideas, and lessons learned.

2) Allow the OPFOR controllers to explain their battle plans,

the battle results, and their strength at ENDEX. They should also present an
assessment of future OPFOR capabilities. Annex G contains a full description
of the AAR and after-action reports.

Section 3-6 Command Field Exercises

1. Description

CFXs lie on a scale between CPXs and FTXs. Available resources--

money, time, personnel, equipment--determine where CFXs fall on the scale.
CFXs can also be used as backups for FTXs in the event that maneuver
damage or other factors such as changes in the weather prohibit the planned




Figure 3.8 CFX Continuum.



The CFX is an FTX with reduced combat unit and vehicle density, but
with full command and control, CS, and CSS elements. For example, the
platoon leader in his combat vehicle represents the entire platoon. The battery
headquarters, the fire direction center (FDC), and the base piece represent
the artillery firing battery. The CFX allows the full-up employment of certain
assets such as the signal battalion, and the target acquisition battery (TAB).
CFXs are not simply scaled-down FTXs. They are, in fact, excellent vehicles
for training commanders and staffs with certain full-up systems to gather
information, to provide communication links, and to develop intelligence.
CFXs provide real-time operations over actual distances with appropriate
logistical support. They are driven by schedules of events or by controlled
OPFORs operating under the exercise director.

2. Characteristics

CFXs are less expensive than FTXs. Yet they provide equal training
value for training of the staff. They may be the single best way to train inter-
systems linkages for full-up integration of all brigade and above assets.
Commanders should use CFXs to sharpen unit skills in such areas as:

a. Fire support.

b. Re-supply procedures.

c. Rear area combat operations

d. Electronic warfare intelligence collection interpretation and

dissemination procedures.

3. Personnel

Personnel requirements are similar to those in the FTX with fewer

controllers/umpires needed at lower levels.

4. Equipment and Facilities

Because CFXs use fewer soldiers than FTXs, they need less logistical
support. The support should be sufficient for the personnel and equipment
actually employed. The maneuver area required for a CFX is the same as for
an FTX at the same echelon. However, because the CFX uses fewer
vehicles, maneuver damage is considerably less.

5. Phases

a. Pre-exercise.

CFXs follow the same planning steps as FTXs. Prior to

selecting the CFX training mode, commanders should determine if



subordinate commanders, leaders, and soldiers are proficient in the individual,

leader, and collective skills required by their duty positions. Preliminary
training through TEWTs, MAPEXs, and CPXs can ensure that participants are
sufficiently trained to justify the use of the CFX. Planners must consider the
steps discussed in Chapter 2. The complexity of each step depends upon the
desires of the commander directing the exercise and the echelon at which the
exercise is con-ducted. Planning and preparation must be thorough. The size
and length of the exercise impacts on the time required for preparation.

Normally within 72 hours before STARTEX, the

controllers train the players in the conduct of the CFX. Controller, evaluator,
OPFOR, and umpire training is similar to the training requirements in
preparation for an FTX. The chief controller trains his umpires and controllers.
Then they brief the player unit commanders and selected personnel on the
exercise. The planning staff completes the LOI and sends it to the players for
preparing for the exercise. The planning staff also uses the LOI to brief
controllers, umpires, OPFORs, and evaluators.

b. Execution.

Control requirements are approximately the same as for

an FTX. Additional control input is required when more realism is added and
more systems integrated. Moreover, additional controller input will be required
to simulate enemy activity, EW, or fire support as troop participation

Basic umpire functions in a CFX are the same as those

required in an FTX, as described in Appendix D. Umpires base their decisions
on the orders and actions of player unit commanders, as understood and
executed by the lowest echelon player head-quarters. Umpires visualize how
the units would actually be employed based on the detailed plans and orders
of the participating units.

Umpires are even more critical to successful CFXs than

to FTXs. They must see the concept of the exercise through the eyes of unit
commanders. They must make decisions critical to exercise control and unit
evaluation. They must be present when company OPLANs, OPORDs, and
FRAGOs are issued. They must observe each platoon leader brief a
simulated platoon to ensure that they have detailed pictures of unit
deployment when they meet with OPFOR umpires to determine the results of
unit engagements.

Once platoon leaders have had sufficient time to simulate

deployment, they should walk over the terrain with the umpires or evaluators
and explain the deployment. In turn, umpires must be able to explain the
disposition and maneuver of their player units to the OPFOR umpires, so that
they can work together to resolve the outcome of each engagement
accurately and professionally. This coordination takes place before the
OPFOR and friendly units make contact. To do so, player and OPFOR



umpires, who know unit disposition and activities in detail, should meet at a
vantage point to umpire the ensuing action.

Platoon umpires stay with their units and maintain radio

contact with their company umpires. The company umpires assess damage
and casualties and consider reports from platoon umpires as fire and
maneuver take place on the battlefield. Platoon umpires relay the decisions of
the company umpires to the unit commanders. When platoons or companies
do not physically participate, the umpires and their player counterparts
exchange plans, developments, and directed actions to war-game
engagements and assess the outcome of the action.

c. Post exercise.

A face-to-face exchange between company umpires and

their player counterparts is required at the conclusion of each engagement.
The CFX is executed and an AAR is conducted, as previously described for
the FTX.

Section 3-7 Live-Fire Exercises

1. Description

LFXs are high-cost, resource-intensive exercises in which player units

move or maneuver and employ organic and sup-porting weapon systems
using full-service ammunition with attendant integration of all CA, CS, and

The extensive range and ammunition requirements for LFXs usually

limit them to platoon and company team levels. Consequently, unit and
weapon systems integration at the company team level is the principal focus
of the exercise.

LFXs can provide maximum training benefits through multiple

iterations. These iterations, each including an AAR, normally occur in the
following sequence:

a. A dry run conducted to review the unit SOP and battle drills.

b. An AAR to discuss actions on this dry run.

c. A second run with a reduced amount of ammunition to show the

complexities of fire and maneuver coordination.

d. An AAR to discuss actions on this second run.

e. A third run with full ammunition to reinforce previous training and

to build confidence.



a. An AAR to discuss actions on the third run.

f. A fourth iteration, preferably with ammunition, conducted at night

or during limited visibility.

g. Other iterations using ammunition saved by crews/units to

sustain and attain proficiency for new or unqualified crews/units.

2. Characteristics

LFXs are executed under simulated battlefield conditions. They are

employed by commanders to train integration of fire and maneuver or
movement against a realistic target array. They train squads, crews, and
sections to employ their weapons in a tactical environment. They permit
evaluation of tactical employment and precise measurement of the
effectiveness of fire employed against target arrays.

3. Personnel

LFXs require commanders, leaders, and soldiers from the participating

units. They also require controllers, evaluators, umpires, and range support
personnel. The control team, developed by the chief controller, manages the
exercise and causes exercise play to flow to a logical conclusion.

Evaluators and umpires observe the activities of the players and player
units to assess the results of fires and determine whether tasks are performed
to standard. Range support personnel include an officer in charge (OIC) and a
chief safety officer. An ammunition detail is necessary to handle, secure, and
account for ammunition. A guard detail controls traffic adjacent to and
entering the range. If targets are left in place overnight, additional guards are
required. A target detail checks targets after each unit run. Demolition
personnel emplace and detonate the explosives in demolition pits. Moving
target operators, if applicable, activate the appropriate targets at the
appropriate time in the scenario. Administrative personnel assist the range
OIC and chief safety officer in operating radios and telephones and in
tabulating scores. Medical personnel and a litter-carrying vehicle stand by.

4. Equipment and Facilities

Player units are expected to have assigned TOE equipment on hand.

LFXs are con-ducted according to local range regulations and SOPs. Target
arrays should adequately display the appearance and characteristics of the
threat force targets. Communications equipment must be available for range
operations (according to the range SOP) and for controller/evaluator

Transportation, food service, ammunition, and administrative support

for the LFXs are dictated by the level and scope of the exercise. LFXs for
maneuver elements also require the following materials:



a. Target engagement chart.

b. Target description chart.

c. Target maps.

d. Demolition pit map.

e. Fire support plan.

f. Ammunition amounts, by type.

Table 3.1 Sample Target Engagement Chart.


1 1 A1
2 2, 3 A2, A3
3 Mo ving Target
4 4, 5 A4, A5
5 6, 7, 8 A6, A7, A8
6 9, 10, 11 B1, B2, B3
7 12, 13, 14, 15 B4, B5, B6
16, 17
18, 19, 20, 21 B7, B8, C1
22, 23
24, 25, 26, 27 C2
28 C4
29 C5
30 C6
8 46, 45, 44 D1, C8, C7
9 Mo ving Target
10 Mo ving Target
11 43, 42, 41 D4, D3, D2
12 40, 39 D6, D5
38, 37, 36, 35, 34 E8, E7, E6, E5, E4
33, 32, 31 E3, E2, E1

Note: Targets will appear for a maximum of 60 secs. As soon as that time
is up, they will be pulled down whet her or not they have been engaged.
Vehicular targets should be equipped with smoke to indicate when t he
target has been destroy ed.



Table 3.2 Target Description Chart.


1 F 33 59
2 E 34 59
3 Hind 35 F
4 E 36 F
5 44 37 59
6 E 38 E
7 44 39 E
8 E 40 E
9 44 41 44
10 E 42 44
11 E 43 44
12 F 44 Huey
13 F 45 Huey
14 F 46 Huey
15 F M-1 59
16 F
17 F
18 F
19 F
20 F
21 F
22 F
23 F
24 F
25 F
26 F
27 F
28 59
29 59
30 59
31 F
32 F

Note: The target description chart links the type of target to be portrayed with
the target number on the target engagement chart.



Figure 3.9 Target Map.



Figure 3.10 Demolition Pit Map.

The target engagement chart describes the manner and sequence in

which targets will be displayed. It keys the target display to events from the
scenario. Before the LFX starts, controller personnel must receive instructions
from range personnel on using the scenario, chart, and target system.



The target map is normally in strip map format and shows where each
target, by number, is located on the range. The demolition pit map shows the
location of each demolition pit on the range, displaying its number.

Fire support information details the weapons and ammunition that can
be fired and specifies when they can be fired. It provides special instructions
to the players and controllers. Approved overlays of all firing points and the
weapons and ammunition from them must be developed and approved by
range control. Information concerning ammunition requirements must be

Table 3.3 Ammunition Requirements for Platoon LFX.

Ctg Ball 5.56……………………………………………………… 1,800
Ctg Ball 5.56 Tracer………………………………………………….180
Ctg Ball 7.62 4/1 Tracer MLB……………………………………….700
Ctg Ball .50 cal 4/1 Tracer MLB …………………………………….500
Rocket Practice 60mm LAW………………………………………… 6
Ctg TP T 40-mm………………………………………………………..18
Ctg Smoke 40-mm……………………………………………………...6


Ctg 81-mm HE with PDF……………………………………………277
Ctg 81-mm WP with PDF…………………………………………......3
Charge Demolition Block TNT (1/4 lb)…………………………......75
Cap Blasting Electrical Special………………………………………85
Grenade Hand Smoke HC……………………………………………. 7
Grenade Hand Smoke Green…………………………………………3
Grenade Hand Smoke Red……………………………………………3
Grenade Hand Smoke Yellow………………………………………...3
Signal Ground Star Cluster White…………………………………….1
Signal Ground Star Cluster Green……………………………………1
Signal Ground Star Cluster Red……………………………………...1
Booby Trap Simulat or…………………………………………………. 1

5. Phases

a. Pre-exercise.

Before selecting the LFX training mode, commanders

must ensure that subordinate commanders, leaders, and soldiers are



proficient in the individual and collective skills required for maneuvering or

moving and for employing weapons and weapon systems in tactical
environments. Planners must consider the steps discussed in Chapter 2.

Scenarios for LFXs differ from those described in Chapter

2, because of the specific control measures dictated by safety requirements.
Scenarios are normally modified to fit the range on which the LFX is
conducted. Scenarios should precisely define the sequence of events in terms
of the types of targets and the time that specific target arrays are displayed.

Scenarios must be flexible enough to allow the

commander and other leaders to decide how to use the terrain. They must
also be extensive enough to facilitate training and evaluation of unit tasks
executed in accordance with the commander's concept for the operation,
which is formulated through a METT assessment. They must be varied
enough to allow leaders to engage the proper targets with the right weapons
at the appropriate times. Sample scenarios for offense in a platoon LFX is
shown in Figure 18. The battalion commander and company commanders
normally plan LFXs, and battle simulations are not used.

1 Platoon moves into assembly area GC XP 906127
2 Orders are issued, ammunition uploaded, and all troop loading procedure conducted.
3 Platoon Leader reconnoiters primary and alternate positions.
4 Platoon moves tactically to first defensive position, vicinity GC XP 912128
5 Platoon has time to establish the position tactically, and then it receive enemy pressure.
6 Platoon fires engagement 8
7 Platoon fires engagement 9 with 90RR
8 Platoon fires engagement 10 with 90RR
9 Platoon fires engagement 11
10 Platoon fires engagement 12
11 Platoon receives order to occupy alternate position vicinity GC XP918126
12 Platoon withdraws from defensive position and establish hasty defense at alternate
13 Platoon receives enemy pressure
14 Platoon fires engagement 4
15 Platoon fires engagement 5
16 Platoon fires engagement 6
17 Platoon fires engagement 7
18 Platoon received order to move to alternate position, vicinity GC XP 925130
19 Platoon withdraws from defensive position and establish hasty defense at alternate
20 Platoon fires engagement 2 with 90RR
21 Platoon fires engagement 3 with 90RR
22 Platoon withdraws from position and moves to control center for an AAR.

Note: Platoon’s initial defensive position is on the objective. Engagement 8 through 11 are on the target
arrays normally forward of the position. The alternate position is directly north on the target map. Ranges
and target types for target number 4 through 30 will be staked forward of this position. The second
alternate position is the vicinity of phase line (PL) 2, and from this location targets 2 and 3 will be

Figure 3.11 Sample Offensive Scenario.

The OPORD issued to the player unit for an LFX is in the form of a
standard five-paragraph field order. It contains enough detail to ensure that



the player unit deploys properly to begin the exercise and to allow the LFX to
flow smoothly.

The commander directing the LFX approves its objectives, scope, troop
list, exercise area, and outline plan. Then the player unit commander and
selected personnel, such as controllers, umpires, and evaluators, must be
briefed on the exercise. The company commander uses the exercise LOI as a
basis for providing instructions to subordinates.

Before the unit occupies the range, each OIC, controller, umpire, and
evaluator must be briefed by range control personnel. Briefings are scheduled
with range control operations and conducted at least 24 hours before
STARTEX. These briefings include a terrain walk of the entire range area. It
familiarizes evaluators and safety personnel with all the safety requirements.

Controller, evaluator, and umpire training for an LFX include the


1) Purpose and scope.

2) Training objectives.

3) Range regulations and restrictions.

4) Participating units.

5) Enemy situation and its relationship to the target array.

6) Control measures.

7) Communications plan.

8) Controller duties.

9) Casualty and damage assessment.

10) Controller, evaluator, and umpire records and reports.

11) Intelligence play.

12) Safety during live fire.

13) Medical treatment and evacuation procedures.

b. Execution.

The unit moves to and tactically occupies an assembly

area. The assembly area may be task force size with other teams depicted as
notional units. At this time, live ammunition is issued but not loaded in



Final briefings occur at the task force command post in

the vicinity. The task force commander and staff brief the team commander
and selected key personnel on the immediate enemy situation. They also give
any last minute administrative and safety instructions. Leaders conduct a
reconnaissance under the supervision of the range OIC. The team
commander prepares plans and gives a briefing to the task force commander
and staff. The team commander then briefs his subordinates.

The team conducts a tactical move to the attack position,

which is close to the line of departure/line of contact (LD/LC). Here the live
ammunition is loaded in the weapons, and the safeties are locked. The
controller gives the order to begin the attack. Once the team is across the
LD/LC, it may begin live firing. The exercise then continues until the scenario
is completed.

After the exercise, participants clear all weapons, and

controllers immediately collect all the live ammunition. Safety personnel check
and clear all weapons before the unit moves off the range. The company
returns tactically to the assembly area where it receives an AAR.

c. Post-exercise.

The chief controller and commander conduct the AAR. It

should include range control personnel and evaluators who lead a discussion
of the unit's performance in relation to:

1) Troop-leading procedures.

2) Maneuver.

3) Close support.

4) Weapons employment.

5) Communication of orders and directives.

6) Combined arms integration.

Section 3-8 Fire Coordination Exercises

FCXs are medium-cost, reduced-scale exercises that can be

conducted at platoon, company/team, and battalion/task force levels. The
purpose of FCXs is to exercise the command and control skills of the
leadership of the unit through the integration of all organic weapon systems,
as well as indirect and supporting fires. Sub caliber devices are substituted for
service ammunition to permit fire planning and simulated employment of all
weapon systems available to support the commander in the execution of his



assigned mission. FCXs should stress target acquisition. FCXs present target
arrays and target information to player units, placing commanders and leaders
in realistic battle-field situations. Targets controlled mechanically and
electronically appear at the appropriate places and times according to the
scenario. Commanders employ FCXs to train subordinate leaders to integrate
and distribute direct and indirect fire systems so that the optimum weapons
engage the targets at optimum ranges as they become vulnerable to

FCXs should be fast moving, with several weapon systems engaging

multiple targets simultaneously as targets enter optimum engagement ranges.
FCXs should challenge the skills of commanders, subordinate leaders, crews
of direct fire weapons, FDC personnel and forward observers. They facilitate
training in the effective use of organic weapon systems, employment of
supporting weapon systems, and target acquisition systems. FCXs require
players to react to fluid battlefield situations by promptly applying supporting
and organic fires against changing target arrays.

Section 3-9 Joint Training Exercises

Joint training exercises (JTXs) involve two or more major services of

the Armed Forces of the Philippines. A JTX at brigade level and higher may
be a:


b. CPX.

c. CFX.

d. FTX.

The planning steps for JTXs are similar to those employed in

preparation for the conduct of other types of exercises. The planning staff
includes representatives from all the services involved. Each service must
have adequate time to plan, staff, and approve its exercise support plans.
Special accountability arrangements may be required for logistics support to
accommodate the elements of each service. For example, if the Philippine
Army provides all the fuel, it must establish an accounting system for the fuel
consumed by other services.

In pre-exercise training, participants review each major service's

tactical SOP and joint training regulations. Umpires study the capabilities of
the various weapon systems used by each major service. They prepare
appropriate effects tables to assess weapon effects and battle casualties.



The following considerations are essential to the success of JTXs.

They must receive detailed attention during the planning, execution, and
evaluation phases:

a. Command and control relationships.

b. Interoperability of weapon and support systems.

c. Communication and electronics compatibility and procedures.

d. Map compatibility.

e. Administrative and logistics arrangements.

During the planning phase, services must be advised of AAR

procedures and the necessity for their participation. Representatives from
each service must actively participate in the AAR.

Section 3-10 Combined Training Exercises

Combined training exercises (CTXs) involve armed forces from two or

more nations. CTXs may be in the form of any of the training exercises
previously described. The planning steps for CTXs are the same as those
discussed in Chapter 2.

Language differences among participants must be addressed and

practical steps taken to ensure effective two-way communication. CTX
planners must also consider differences in doctrine, organization, logistics,
and customs. The unified commander of the multinational armed forces
involved in a CTX must establish an exercise planning group to ensure these
matters is considered. This group must include planning staff representatives
from all the armed forces elements involved. The group's primary goal
throughout the planning, execution, and evaluation phases is interoperability
of both equipment and methods of operations. Interoperability allows
multinational armed forces to work smoothly and effectively together.

The following considerations are vital to successful CTXs and

must receive detailed attention during the planning process:

a. Common objectives. Multinational armed forces participating in

a CTX must agree upon training objectives.

b. Command and control relationships. CTXs should exercise the

wartime operational command structure as established by international



c. Standing operating procedures. For effective operations, the

nations involved will exchange SOPs and translations of commonly used

d. Coordination. Because boundaries between multinational armed

forces are particularly vulnerable, areas adjacent to them require detailed
coordination. Operational procedures must be established to ensure mutually
supporting and responsive employment of all direct and indirect fire to include
close air support (CAS).

e. Communications. Communications equipment and language

training must permit interoperability in the nets of the armed forces elements

f. Language. Interpreter-translators will be required in key

positions to allow commanders to communicate effectively with adjacent,
supporting, and supported units.

g. Liaison. Liaison teams must be bilingual and know the

organization, procedures, and equipment of the armed forces with which they
will be operating.

h. Plans and orders. Commanders must take differences in tactics,

terminology, graphics, and language into consideration when issuing orders.
Personal contact among commanders and liaison teams is necessary to
ensure mutually agreed upon and supporting actions during the exercise.

During the planning phase, all national armed forces must be advised
of AAR procedures and the necessity for their participation. Representatives
from each-national force should participate actively in the AAR.



Training Management in Unit

1. Responsibilities in Training.

Training provides knowledge and skills that soldiers and leaders need
to carry out their assigned mission. It prepares them to perform their tasks to
the level of standards set by their organization. Training also ensures that
they fight as a unit while giving them the confidence to defeat the enemy.
This enables them to readily accomplish the tasks and/or mission given to
them. It also promotes esprit de corps and professionalism among leaders
and soldiers. The Army’s philosophy of training is constantly changing, so,
leaders at all echelons must know how to conduct and evaluate training in
accordance to established standards.

The commander is responsible for the training of his unit. The

commander plans training activities and events. He arranges for support,
ensures that training is conducted, and evaluates soldier and unit proficiency,
training, and training management. The commander identifies training
objectives, provides guidance, and ensures that the necessary resources are
available. He also evaluates soldier and unit performance, training sessions,
and unit training management procedures. Commanders develop overall unit
training programs based on the best combination of resources, materials,
guidance and time to meet specific training needs. They must coach and
critique subordinates on an individual basis in order to help them achieve their

Commanders at all levels are responsible for the training and proper
training management employment of their subordinates. Commanders must
hold their subordinate leaders accountable for preparing and implementing
effective training programs. For example, platoon leaders, platoon sergeants,
and squad or section leaders provide information (feedback) to the company
commander to help him plan the unit training program. They are accountable
to the company commander for the training and evaluation of their assigned
soldiers, just as the company commander is accountable to the battalion.

The role of the officer is to command and lead in the execution of tasks
to train his men and manage his resources of his unit. These roles are
mutually supporting and embody a single but balanced unit or team. The
commander retains the overall responsibility for the mission, training and unit
leadership by guiding, supervising, inspecting, and evaluating duties
conducted by his subordinates. The chain of command supervises and
evaluates training. Leaders are directly responsible for the training their
immediate subordinates. They are expected to know the training the unit
needs, and the training their soldiers need. They are also expected to have
the proper motivation and influence on their soldiers to serve as a role models
for subordinates, and to be responsible to develop a skilled and trained unit.



2. Phases of Training Management.

Training management is a continuous process. For example, as

training for the next year or next quarter is being planned, resources for the
next month’s training are acquired and distributed. At the same time, actual
training is being conducted and evaluated. Evaluations provide feedback to
commanders, training managers, trainers, soldiers, and appropriate support
agencies. Feedback affects future plans, resource actions, and current unit






a. Planning Phase.

Planning is the extension of the battle focus concept that links

organizational METL with the subsequent execution and evaluation of
training. A relatively centralized process, planning develops mutually
supporting METL-based training at all levels within an organization.

The commander provides two principal inputs at the start of the

planning process: the METL and the training assessment. Commanders
analyze the application tasks and select for training only those tasks essential
to accomplish their wartime mission. This selection process reduces the
number of tasks the organization must train. The compilation of tasks critical
for wartime mission accomplishment is the organization’s METL. The training
assessment compares the organization’s current levels of training proficiency
with the desired level of warfighting proficiency.

Leaders determine current training proficiency levels by

analyzing all available training evaluations. However, each evaluation applies
only to a portion of the total proficiency of an organization at a specific time.
Therefore, leaders must use all available evaluation data to develop and
assessment of the organization’s overall capability to accomplish each
mission essential task. In addition to the past training evaluations, other
information about future events influences the assessment.



The commander, assisted by the staff, develops the strategy to

accomplish each training requirement. This includes improving proficiency on
some tasks and sustaining performance on others. Through the training
strategy, the commander establishes training priorities by determining the
minimum frequency each mission essential task will be performed during the
upcoming planning period. The strategy includes the broad guidance that links
the METL with upcoming major training events. The initial guidance includes
the commander’s guidance that starts the detailed planning process.

Missi on
Essential Training Commander’s Training
Task Li st Asse ssment Guidance Plans

- Training vision
- Goals
- Priorities

The training assessment of each separate mission essential

task enables the commander to develop his training vision. The key elements,
which shape a commander’s training vision, are a thorough understanding of
training and operations doctrine, his assessment of METL proficiency levels,
and knowledge of potential enemy capabilities. The commander’s training
vision is supported by organizational goals that provide common direction for
all of the commander’s program and system.

Through the training planning process, the commander’s

guidance (training vision, goals, and priorities) welded together with the METL
and the training assessment into manageable training plans.

b. Identification and Updating of Unit Mission. The first step in

designing a training program is to identify unit missions. Each unit has a
mission statement in its TOE. Most of these missions are further described in
PAM and other publications. However, specific military missions are not
always addressed because unit contingency plans vary. Therefore, other
sources must be consulted to complete the mission list. Plans that indicate
unit reorganizations, new equipment issue, or the introduction of new tactics
may result in a transition training requirement for the unit. For planning
purposes, all significant administrative and peacetime requirements should be
considered missions.

There are four categories of missions. These are as follows:

1) Combat or tactical missions are those that the unit will be

expected to perform in war, including missions performed by combat support
and combat service support elements.



2) Supplemental missions are those that the unit will be

expected to perform in conjunction with some or all of its combat/tactical
missions. Examples are obstacle breaching, OPSEC, river crossing and other

3) Support missions are those that support installation

activities or other units, such as major exercise or a summer camp.

4) Requirements and administrative missions are those that

include mandatory training, guard duty, parade reviews, and police details.

Some missions are more difficult to identify and may not

be known until after long-range plans have been issued and resources
requested. An existing mission that is not identified will later disrupt the
training program. Consequently, all information on organizational activities
should be evaluated for possible impact on training plans.

Missions can be derived from any of the following:

1) Military operations and contingency plans.

2) Military training and evaluation program including

missions of supported/supporting elements and supplemental missions.

3) Current activation or reorganization general order.

4) Higher headquarters operational plans.

5) Mobilization plans

6) Operation plans including civil disturbance directives.

7) Higher headquarters directives, training notes, and


8) Requirements of supported units.

9) Local installation directives.

The mission list is never final or complete; frequent

updates are necessary. The staff can make valuable contributions to the
mission file because they can become familiar with administrative
publications, documents, and requirements in the normal conduct of their
duties. Subordinate commanders can provide information about current
individual and collective proficiency. Commanders of attached units can
provide information on the missions and capabilities of their units.

c. Review of Unit Proficiency. Staff and subordinate leaders,

especially junior officers and NCOs, are another source of input. Since they
are in the best position to know the proficiency of their soldiers, teams, and



units, their recommendation will help influences the training program.

Commanders can obtain subordinate leader input by holding frequent training
meetings or through daily contact. Another method is to have subordinates
record their observations and recommendations on a unit proficiency work
sheet. This work sheet may include the missions and tasks for several
echelons. Leaders can use it to record how well their unit performs each
mission or task. However, any other assessment form or rating system
suitable to the unit needs may be used.

Commanders review recent training records such as

weapons qualification. Job proficiency, which is identified by commander’s
and recorded in job books, can also be reviewed. In addition, commanders
can review the common task test and skill qualification test results and other
written resources in the assessment of unit proficiency. This assessment
helps identify specific strong and weak areas in training and indicates new
direction for training.

When reviewing the sources of the unit proficiency

evaluation, the commander considers the following:

1) When the Inspections, evaluations, or exercises were

held. The unit may have already corrected shortfalls previously found or it
may have lost proficiency.

2) How the training or evaluation was conducted. There are

several methods to train and evaluate soldiers and units. The commander
considers such factors as sample size, quality of evaluators, and environment
so that he can assign relative weight to the evaluations, inspections, or

3) What the strong and weak areas of performance are. A

training program should emphasize sustaining strengths while correcting

Personnel outside the unit may provide other insights to a

unit status. For example, direct support maintenance personnel can tell a
commander about the equality of his maintenance training program and
effectiveness of unit maintenance. Personnel managers should provide
essential information concerning experience levels of key personnel,
shortages that impact on training, turnover rates, and recent personnel

When determining which missions and tasks the

individuals, leaders, and units can or cannot do, the commander should
attempt to find out why. He should consider the factors that resulted in good
performance and apply them to other solutions. In cases of poor performance,
a common solution is thought to be the conduct of more training. However,
training alone is often not the way to correct poor performance.



If after a need analysis is performed and poor

performance is attributed to deficiencies in training subsystem, then one or
more of the following areas must be considered:

1) Knowledge and skills

2) Authority

3) Training environment (weather, site, and resources)

4) Teamwork

When soldiers not having the required knowledge or skills

cause poor performance, more training is the answer. However, training
alone is not the solution when poor performance is caused of lack of
motivation, ineffective use of authority, or inadequate training environment.
When motivation is poor, leaders may need to make training and activities
more interesting and challenging. Offering suitable incentives and retraining
or replacing incompetent junior leader can do this. Performance problems
may be caused by ineffective use of authority, chain of command, poor
communication, or conflicting instructions. To correct this, the leader must
coach subordinates in the proper use of the chain and exercise of authority
while accepting responsibility for subordinate training performance. When the
training environment is inadequate, actions must be taken to improve training
facilities. Provide suitable resources, and effectively schedule them. Problem
in teamwork suggest the need for repetitive training and practice in the
performance of drills. Performance problem are often unique and require a
different combination of training, motivation, authority, teamwork, and training
environment factors to solve them.

d. Identifying Unit Training Needs. The training needs of the units

are determined from the analysis of the mission, the evaluation of the unit
proficiency and feedback. Unit mission are analyzed to determine the
individual, leader, and collective tasks needed to sustain and enhance the unit
combat readiness. The evaluation of unit proficiency will in turn determine
what skills and levels of training should be improved or retained.

The needs of the unit for training are derived from the
mission analysis through the listing of essential tasks that the individual,
leaders, and unit should accomplish in the performance of their mission. This
is provided through the development of the mission essential task list (METL).

A task list of specific individual, leader, and collective

tasks for each mission is extremely useful in the analysis. If properly prepared
and maintained, the task list can simplify management actions and reduce the
time needed to plan the training and evaluation of events. The task list of each

1) List individual, leader, and collective tasks that are

essential for mission accomplishment.



2) Display the relationships among tasks. Knowledge of how

tasks are related helps in grouping and sequencing them for training and

3) Highlight tasks that are components of more than one

mission. The risk of duplicating previously conducted training is reduced if
leaders know which tasks are common to more than one mission.

4) Highlight tasks that are components of more than one

mission. The risk of duplicating previously conducted training is reduced if
leaders know which tasks are common to more than one mission.

Leaders can prepare tasks lists for unit missions in

several ways to determine their training needs. Commanders must analyze
each mission and obtain approval from higher headquarters on the specified
and implied tasks required to accomplish the mission. This is the most
important aspect in preparing the task list. A sample procedure can be:

1) Step 1. Review and determine unit missions and tasks.

2) Step 2. Identify critical tasks. List the tasks by major

groups, by mission or by unit performing the tasks.

3) Step 3. Identify all collective tasks, which make up the

mission and define how they are related.

4) Step 4. Identify and list leaders and soldiers tasks for

each collective or group tasks.

5) Step 5. Review for tasks that have the same meaning

but are worded differently.

6) Step 6. Identify tasks that are repeated within a mission

or among missions.



Be prepared for these other collective tasks






When individual tasks appear in more than one collective

task, the initial training priority may be higher. However, once soldiers
become proficient in these tasks, the training priority may be reduced.
Proficiency can then be sustained by performing them as part of the collective
tasks, which they support.

e. Setting/Updating Unit Goals. Goals are clear statements of what

commanders want their organization to accomplish. Commanders establish
or update goals using feedback and training principles. These goals are
based upon the commander’s knowledge of unit missions and the unit-training
environment. Considering what the unit can realistically accomplish while
meeting operational commitments, commanders determine training priorities.
These priorities serve as the goals for the remaining training management
actions. Commanders at all levels prepare and issue goals to direct the
efforts of subordinates in accomplishing numerous missions and
responsibilities. Goals set a broad direction and establish a focus for the
effort of subordinate. Commanders of higher headquarters must recognize
that goals should not be specified in such finite detail that they infringe upon
the command prerogative of subordinate commanders. Goals published by
brigade and higher level commanders are more general than those of
battalion or separate company commanders. Subordinates commanders add
details based on their knowledge of the units’ current situation and the tasks
that must be performed to support the established goals.

Not everything commanders want should surface as

goals. Commanders’ goals should provide the minimum detail that will move



training program in the desired direction. The amount of detail in goals

depends upon

1) The echelon that prepares them.

2) The emphasis and priority they are given.

3) The training management echelon that converts them into

training program.

Commanders should set a realistic number of achievable

training goals. Too many will overwhelm the subordinate chain of command
and seriously hamper their own programs. To ensure broad understanding
and support for goals, commanders should involve their subordinate in
developing and revising them.

Later in the planning process, goals will be supported by

specific objectives. Objectives describe detailed actions that are to be taken
to accomplish goals. Therefore, the goals should be part of a larger package
of command guidance that describes the resources, time, and other support

There are fours steps in drafting goals

1) Step 1. Analyze the unit’s military mission.

2) Step 2. Review the higher commander’s goals and

guidance. Commanders at all levels must implements guidance and goals
from their higher chain of command. CS/CSS unit commanders also support
the goals of supported units.

3) Step 3. Draft unit goals and desired results. The

commander should make a rough draft of unit goals that support higher
headquarters goals and also address the needs of his own echelon. For each
goal, the commander states the results he will accept from subordinate

4) Step 4. Sort and revise the goals and associated results.

This step should eliminate ambiguous and repetitive goals.

Goals should have the following characteristics:

1) Broad. Goals should contain the minimum guidance that

will cause subordinate to implement them.

2) Sustainable. Given appropriate time and resources, they

should be achievable.

3) Specific. Subordinates can derive specific performances

from goals. This will help them how or when the goal is achieved.



4) Pertinent. Goals should contribute to the unit’s ability to

accomplish its missions, which includes improving the quality of life for other

f. Setting of internal priorities. Setting training priorities involves

comparing unit missions with current proficiency and goals and then
determining the relative training emphasis each mission should receive.
Recent training events may require that changes to existing priorities be
made. Priorities are reviewed periodically to determine if they are still valid
and will help accomplish command goals. Reviewing priorities allows:

1) Effective allocation of training resources, including time;

2) The best training for missions or tasks; and,

3) Optimum use of available resources.

Subordinate commanders build their training priorities

around requirements established by the chain of command. The following
questions are considered when determining priorities/

1) Does this training event fulfill critical mission

requirements? Training events that fulfill critical operational requirements
should have a higher priority than those that do not. For example, an airborne
unit may have a stormy weather contingency mission or may be scheduled for
a stormy weather exercise. In this case, stormy weather survival training
would have a higher unit priority than jungle training.

2) How well can the subordinate units perform this mission?

Training requirements of equal importance that subordinate units can perform
deserve a lower training priority than those they cannot. For example, an
engineering unit that is highly proficient in constructing minefields would give
lower priority in minefield construction training. It would give a higher priority
to an area where a weakness exists, such as constructing obstacles.

3) How many other missions depend on this mission?

Training events that support several missions is often more productive and
efficient than training of those that support only one. Therefore, training that
support multiple missions usually deserves a higher priority. For example, the
infantry platoon movement-to-contact supports other events such as platoon
hasty attacks and deliberate attacks. Therefore, training on movement-to-
contact would get higher priority than a mission not contained in the unit battle

4) Can some training events be delayed? Missions that can

be delayed should receive lower priorities than those that cannot. Bold
commanders place emphasis on essential tasks required to execute the
operational mission. Risk is entailed in placing selected missions in a lower
priority for training. However, this may be necessary to ensure a high degree



of proficiency in the performance of critical tasks in the unit battle plan. For
example, an infantry battalion that is assigned a defensive sector without
significant water obstacles would assign a lower priority to training river-
crossing operations. Approval to delay training of a critical task should be
obtained from the next higher commander.

While establishing training priorities, commanders also

decide how often certain types of training should occur. The frequency of
selected training events or activities is based on what is needed to correct
training deficiencies and what is required to sustain current readiness levels.
The following sources may be used to assist commanders in determining
training frequencies:

1) Higher headquarters commander and staff who are

familiar with command-unique requirements.

2) Service schools, which prepare training materials and

help train units through the use of mobile training teams.

3) Training publications that list training frequencies.

4) Internal or external evaluation results.

5) Tasks or missions. Complex tasks with many steps may

require more frequent training. Tasks deemed critical by the command may
also require more training. Tasks performed routinely usually require less
scheduled training.

6) Leader and staff experience. Selected key events may

cause leaders to recommend additional training. These events could include
the turnover rate of key personnel, the introduction of new or different
equipment, or the observation of skill decay over a period of time.

Establishing training priorities for tasks and missions

should be done at the lowest echelon that can effectively plan, provide
resources, and train those missions and tasks. Ultimately, commanders will
develop training priorities to emphasize collective missions and tasks that
include the entire unit. Because of current soldier, leader, or unit proficiency,
commanders may set training priorities that first emphasize selected drills or
small unit training. After a required level of proficiency has been achieved in
executing fundamental small unit missions, more complex missions or tasks
can be emphasized.

Assigning training priorities may require that some

individual training tasks be given higher priorities. This is especially true to
newly activated units, units with highly technical MOS, or units with high
personnel turbulence. In such cases, individual tasks should be prioritized
and integrated into the training program. Integrated training of individual tasks
should be accomplished in a multi-echelon approach to take full advantage of



available training time. When assigning training priorities for individual

training, the commander should consider:

1) Critical individual tasks that relate to unit missions.

2) All other individual tasks for MOS proficiency at the

soldier’s skill level and officer’s specialty code.

3) Cross training for selected soldiers

4) Train-up training for certain individual anticipating


5) Individual training for possible contingency plan.

6) Multi-echelon training.

After training priorities are assigned, they are numbered

or listed in sequence. Therefore, a final review is made to align them with unit

g. Development of training program.

Before developing a new training program, commanders

review their own training programs and those of higher headquarters, using
lessons learned to improve the current program. When the existing training
goals, policies and methods work well, they are not changed but are simply
adapted to fit the new program. The current training program includes:

1) Goals. As goals are obtained, they are replaced with

goals that are focus on new priorities. Remaining goals that are still valid
should be continued into the new long-ranged planning period. After
reviewing goals, the previous calendar is reviewed to identify specific events,
strategies and scheduling techniques that should be repeated when the new
calendar is prepared.

2) Resource Actions. Lessons learned during the resource

actions of the last fiscal year should be used to improve planning calendars,
input to budget cycles, and resource guidance to subordinates.

3) Guidance. Training guidance will be updated routinely.

Updates may be in the form of regulations, circulars, and unit SOPs,
supplemented by memoranda, bulletins, training notes, and verbal

After reviewing the training program, commanders

develop strategies to train their units. These strategies are the plans
prepared by the commanders to achieve mission proficiency through the mix
of individual, leader, and collective training that will best improve and maintain
unit proficiency while utilizing resources effectively and efficiently. Except for



their internal headquarters training, Division Headquarters and above develop

general strategies while leaving details to subordinate commanders. Widely
varying training environments and the unique needs of each subordinate unit
require broad strategies at higher echelon.

Commander’s knowledge of their organization is key to

strategy development. This knowledge includes:

1) Unit mission and their relative priority

2) Unit goals

3) Individual, leader and unit proficiency and any corrective

action required.

4) Training environment

5) Current training program review

6) Higher headquarters’ command guidance

In developing command strategy, commanders select

events and activities that can focus on specific unit training needs such as
transition training. Considering various alternatives of training events and
exercise, commanders also review the training support available to the unit
such as training materials, services and other resources. A planned
sequence of training exercises and activities is then developed and may be
initially drafted on the long-ranged calendar. This results in a logical plan of
how the unit will improve or maintain individual, leader and unit proficiency to
achieve command goals. As the unit strategy develops, specific training
needs or, Army programs will tend to lose their individual identity and become
part of the unit’s training program. For example, a unit’s need for MOS
training, merger training, cross training, or train-up training will be woven
together so that each need is addressed. However, these needs may not be
recognizable as separate and distinct programs as outlined in the MOS
training plan of the trainers guide.

Decentralized training is the preferred method of training.

It is done at the lowest echelon that has control of its soldiers and can provide
the resources and trainer skills. Decentralized training causes leaders at
each echelon to do their own jobs. This results in soldiers being trained by
their immediate leaders, building better leaders and teams. However,
decentralized training works only if officers and NCOs know their jobs as
leaders, possess trainer skills, and know the skills their soldiers are expected
to use.

There may be times when training is centralized.

Centralized training is when soldiers are trained at higher echelons (unit
schools) or by personnel other than their immediate leaders (mobile training
teams). This may be required because resources constraints, lack of



technical expertise at lower echelons, or assigned low-density MOS.

Centralized training does not relieve the chain of command of responsibility
for training.

3. Resources Phase.

Training is a primary consumer of resource such as time, funds,

personnel, and equipment. This being the case, unit commanders and
commanders of training units shall be responsible that appropriate measures
used to implement training shall provide the most economical and efficient
use of this resources. Commanders are responsible for all organizational
training. They evaluate soldiers and unit efficiency. They identify the training
objectives and provide the necessary training guidance. They ensure that the
training is supported with the needed resources, that it is properly planned
and conducted. They conduct and evaluate the training and obtain feedback.
This is where training management comes in. The goal of training
management is the best combination of resources, materials, guidance and
time to meet specific training requirements.

Long-range, short-range, and near-term plans identify specific training

events or activities that require a variety of resources or support. Resources
include time, personnel, facilities, ammunition, training aids, devices,
equipment, and fuel. The training support necessary to implement unit training
plans must also be obtained. To implement those plans, the following
resources actions are applied:

b. Identify

c. Program

d. Coordinate

e. Obtain

f. Provide the necessary training support

Training events and activities identified during the planning phase

provide input for the assessment of resources required to conduct effective
training. Feedback on how well current and past training was supported with
resources is also essential input in preparation of the resource assessment.

To determine what resources will be needed, leaders must know what

training events and activities are scheduled during the planning stage. They
must evaluate the resources and support of current and past training. They
must also consider what support alternatives are available. These include the
use of simulators, simulation, miniaturization, and other resources-conserving
training support materials. If improved soldier, leader, or unit proficiency can
be achieved using these alternatives and they are efficient and effective
substitution to other training options, then they should be included in the unit-
training program.



Training support includes general resources and services, as well as

support materials, such as aids and audio visual materials, publication, and
training devices. General resources are not always unique to training. Many of
these are used in the unit’s day-to-day operations. On the other hand,
services include a broad category of training assistance that does not take the
form of products. Higher headquarters and other external agencies provide
training assistance to unit commander. Training teams developed to meet
specific needs usually provide this assistance. They include Mobile Training
Teams (MTT) and those contracted from the outside for training support.
Leaders must consider what resources and facilities are available and
determine if additional facilities, equipment, or material can reasonably be
expected. They may have to scale down plans, get outside help, or develop
field expedients. In many cases, commanders will have already arranged for
facilities before ordering the preparation of training. These facilities might
include ranges, maneuver areas, or indoor facilities, specialized trainers,
evaluators, or aggressors, and special equipment.

Identification of resource needs

There are resource considerations that should be considered in

identifying resource needs. Resources that normally require long lead times
are funds, ammunition, training facilities including range, and land. Usually,
units are required to provide input to the management systems that programs
funds and ammunition. Long-range planning allows budget and ammunition
estimates to be based on the training desired by the unit commander. Such
planning precludes shortage, waste, and crisis management. The actions
required to obtain funds and ammunition begin far in advance of the actual
training event sometimes two or more years in advance. Buying or leasing
land or building facilities can also take years of lead-time. Allocating existing
land or facilities requires less lead-time but still must be done as part of long-
range planning.

As specific training objectives for upcoming training events and

activities are identified or developed, specific resources to support that
training must also be considered. Some resources, such as training aids and
devices, will be unique to the training process. Others, such as fuel and
ammunition, will be part of a unit’s resource allocations requested during long-
range planning. The resource process in the short-range period has two main

a. Allocating resources requested during long-range planning, such

as funds, ammunition, facilities, and land. Long-range resource requests
must be reviewed for accuracy and updated. Short-range planning gives
commanders a clear idea of upcoming training events and specific training
objectives, which enable them to better identify the unit’s resource needs.
These needs can then be matched with actual allocations received instead of
those estimated and requested during long-range planning.



b. Requesting other resources requiring shorter lead times such as

training aids and devices and personnel support. Managing these types of
resources during short-range planning ensures that the appropriate types and
quantities of resour5ces are available for training. Often, within division and
below, requests for materials, facilities, equipment, ammunition, and fuel must
be submitted to supporting agencies or higher units (HPA or GHQ) two to six
months ahead of the planned training event to confirm their availability for use
in training. Unit commanders and staff should continually coordinate with
higher headquarters counterparts to ensure that resources are available when
required. Resource actions in the near term ensure that the resources
programmed in the long range and allocated in the short range get to the
trainers. There are set procedures established at installation level and above
for issuing, accounting for, storing, transportation handling and turning in
supplies equipment, and support materials used in training. Similar
procedures exist for the assignment and use of facilities and training sites.
Commanders that control these types of resources should streamline
administrative policies to that they complement and support the training effort.
Local policies should be characterized by:

1) Availability. The items are serviceable, complete with all

components, presents for issue, and readily obtainable upon request.
Commanders at all echelons should ensure that their subordinates are aware
of the supplies and training support materials available for their use during
training. New item acquisitions should also be publicized.

2) Economy. Local policies should encourage economical

use of resources. For example, issue or turn-in procedures should be
simplified, whenever possible. Ammunition and other materials should be
issued in smaller quantities than bulk lots. Resource cost should be
publicized, efficient use should be rewarded, and trainers should be allowed
to use leftover resources at a later time. In addition to preparing the trainers
and the soldiers or units to be trained, leaders must also manage the
preparation of resources, such as:

(a) Training facilities and sites. Agencies that control

these resources should assign them based on their suitability for the type of
training or number of personnel to be trained. Leaders should coordinate with
the agency that controls the facility or site and visit the facility or site prior to
using it. At times, training facilities or assigned sites will influence the
selection of support and supply materials.

(b) Training support materials, equipment, and

supplies. These resources should be checked to ensure that adequate
quantities are on hand, that needed accessories and supplies are present,
and that they are serviceable and complete. Rehearsals are used to ensure
that training support, supplies, materials, and equipment are present and

After the commander integrates different types of training into a logical

program, that program must be adequately supported. In other words, the



right resources must be available at the right time. These resources include
manpower, facilities, equipment, ammunition, money, land, fuel, training time,
and know-how. Periodic follow-up is required to ensure that all resources
requested and allocated will support those tasks to be trained. Availability of
such items as ranges, ammunition, and training-support devices must be
confirmed well in advance. If vital resources are not available, it may be
necessary to omit or scale down the training schedule. Carefully planned and
rehearsed training will ensure that equipment, facilities, and materials are
available and operational at the training site. The following are the different
kinds of training resources:

3) Human Resources. This covers the personnel available

to conduct the training. It includes the trainers, evaluators, aggressors, and
the support personnel necessary to conduct the training. Commanders and
subordinate leaders, including first-line supervisors are all trainers. Proper
preparation gives them confidence in their ability to train. They must prepare
their presentations and review the activities to be covered during training.
Trainers themselves must be able to perform the tasks before trying to teach
others. Trainers must know how to operate the equipment and perform any
needed maintenance. The factors for evaluating personnel to conduct the
training include the number of available trainers, the qualifications of the
instructor personnel, and the expected gains and losses.

4) Material and Financial Resources. This includes

ammunition, equipment, training aids, training materials and funds.
Equipment for training is prepared in accordance with the unit SOP. Checks
must be made to ensure all needed actions have been taken cared of to make
the equipment available at the training site. Vehicles, for example, must be
dispatched properly, and audiovisual equipment must be tested before
training. Communications equipment are likewise tested and made sure that
they are available for the conduct of the training. Specifically, ammunition
management is the most critical aspect in maintaining individual, crew, and
unit weapons proficiency. This covers the type and number of ammunitions
needed for the conduct of the training.

(a) Equipment covers all the necessary gears needed

during the conduct of training. They must be inventoried to be sure that all
components are present and operable. Some equipment requires supporting
equipment or supplies. A chalkboard, for example, requires chalk and eraser,
while a projector requires a spare bulb, screen, and possibly an extension
cord. Radios require batteries and other items. Trainers must use the
equipment during rehearsals to become familiar with them and to identify the
necessary supporting items. The factors to be considered include the
availability, maintenance, and procurement of authorized equipment. Primary
consideration is given to the availability and condition of weapons, vehicles
and communications equipment. If required, special equipment must also be

(b) Materials are those items expended during

training, such as chemicals, fuel, ammunition and paper products. Trainers



must follow unit supply guidelines when accounting and ordering for these
materials. To order materials properly, order far enough ahead of the training
to ensure having the proper materials when needed. Receive and check out
ahead of time the materials that will used during training. Ammunition, fuel,
and other sensitive or perishable materials must be stored in a approved
manner. Plan for moving materials to the training site. Arrange also for
unpacking, preparing, issuing, and using the materials. There are many
materials that can be used to the present training. Each product has its uses.
Trainers must decide which product, or combination of products, is best for
each training situation.

(c) Training aids include audiovisual materials, charts,

sand table, models, and others. Prepared products such as films and TV
tapes may be used. Sand tables are used to build terrain models for
demonstrating terrain use and techniques and for describing tactical
principles. Soldiers can frequently get a better view of the situation at a sand
table than from the actual terrain. Sand tables, however, should not be used
a s substitute for performing the task on actual terrain in the mission area or
close to the garrison. The factors to be considered here is the type and
number of training aids required, the availability, suitability, and problems of
procurement, control and storage. Also included, as training aids are doctrinal
and training publications, and training devices.

(d) Financial resources include the money or funds to

support all the other components of the training. Money is needed to procure
all the necessary materials and equipment needed and in the maintenance
and support of the training to be conducted.

5) Organizational Resources. This includes the training

area, facilities and time.

(a) The training area is the place where the training is

to be conducted. The training area may be located inside camp or outside
camp but is located in a military reservation area.

(b) Training facilities includes ranges, classrooms,

tents, parking lots, barracks or billet areas, local training areas, reserve
center, armories, military reservations, training obstacles and others. The
nature of training is the determining factor in the kind of facilities needed for
the conduct of training. Some facilities need no preparation. Others require
extensive preparation. As with equipment, facilities must be coordinated and
inspected. Some facilities, such as ranges and certain classrooms are in high
demand and must be scheduled far in advance. Facilities must be inspected
to be sure they are adequate for the training task. Some considerations in
determining the status of training facilities include:

(c) Availability of the facilities during the prescribed

training period.



(d) Those permanent and semi-permanent aids to

training (ranges, classrooms, field training areas, and other required training

(e) The number of facilities (classrooms, ranges and

tactical areas) available and under direct control, and the number available
but not under direct control.

(f) The size, capacity, and suitability of facilities.

(g) The operating condition of equipment installed

(particularly ranges).

(h) The proximity of facilities to garrison area.

(i) Maintenance requirements.

(j) The effect of the climate on the use of these


6) Training time is the time actually available for the conduct

of training, and as such, is one of the most critical factors to be considered.
Normally, the directive assigning the mission will specify the time allotted for
its accomplishment. When the time is not specified, the commander must
estimate it. The commander, through his S3 estimates the time he can
reasonably expect to be available and this will vary considerably depending
on the type unit concerned, its assigned mission/s and its location. The
following are some of the demands on time that must be considered:

(a) Time consumed in the performance of operational


(b) Time consumed in the performance of

administrative tasks.

(c) Authorized holidays.

(d) The loss of time due to movements to and from

training areas.

Requesting for resources

Upon approval of the Annual Training Program, which is incorporated

in the Annual Operating Program (AOP), all programmed training courses are
to be conducted by designated schools, ATGs and DTUs and funds are
allocated based on the training budget.

Remedial training is conducted in the divisions or brigades while the in-

house training is conducted in the battalions and other units to correct
deficiencies of the unit. Based on the evaluation of the commander, certain



remedial courses are recommended that are included and incorporated in the
programmed courses. However, if there is essential training or courses that
need to be conducted, these must be approved first by HPA prior to their
conduct. Unit commanders must first prepare and have the Program of
Instruction approved if it is a new course and then prepare the Program of
Expenditure. It should be submitted to their respective G3s or their respective
higher commander for prior approval prior to endorsement to HPA (Attn: G3).

Upon receipt of the request for the conduct of an unprogrammed

training by the Officer of the AC of S, G3, PA, the request shall be evaluated.
Upon determination of the necessity and relevance of the training requested,
G3 will plan for the allocation of funds for the conduct of the training.

The normal procedure in the request for training resources and funds
will be through the chain of command.

Receiving of resources

G3, PA will release quarterly unit training funds every first week of the
quarter or upon approval of the Philippine Army’s quarterly program of
expenditures by CG, PA which is normally approved during the last week of
the preceding quarter and then monitor the utilization training fund.

The major units through the coordinated effort of their MFOs and G3s
will monitor fund release and disseminate the availability of unit training fund
to the units concerned and then the G3s to monitor the administration of
training and utilization of training funds by the units.

The end users or line units that administer the training must submit
opening report by wire and written After Opening Report as well as Utilization
of Fund Report to their respective G3s. Utilization of Fund Report should
follow the prescribed format.

The major units through their respective G3s will consolidate and
forward reports to OG3, PA on or before the last week of the quarter.
However, the major units shall forward late reports submitted by line units to
G3, PA separately without delay.

On the other hand, upon receipt of the notice of approval of an

unprogrammed training, the unit will then proceed with the conduct of the
training course. The After Opening Report, either written or through radio
message will be submitted to OG3 for proper monitoring. After the conduct of
the training, unit commanders must submit an After Course Report and
include a report on the utilization of fund support received from OG3. The
receipt of training resources will be done following the unit SOPs.

Providing resources

OG3, upon approval of the AOP, will support and allocate funds for all
programmed in-service and unit raining. In the case of unprogrammed



training courses, evaluation of training courses will be undertaken by the Unit

Training Branch, OG3, regarding the merits, relevance and importance of
unprogrammed training courses. If the unprogrammed training course is
really needed, the Chief, Unit Training Branch, OG3 will recommend approval
of the said course to G3, PA and upon consultation/coordination with the
Budget Officer, OG3 for the allocation of funds. Upon approval of G3, PA, the
requesting unit will be informed.

Other resources needed by units conducting training can be provided

by their respective next higher headquarters, hence, a battalion can request
the brigade or the division to provide other resources beyond his capability to
provide during the conduct of training.

Requests for other training resources should normally be coursed

through the chain of command.

4. Training Phase

Training is conducted and evaluated in accordance with the near-term

plan. Training is based on specific tasks, conditions, and standards provided
by unit commanders. During training, performance is continually evaluated by
commanders so that they can effectively coach soldiers. At the end of training,
performance is evaluated to measure proficiency for compliance with stated
conditions and standard.

The primary purpose of training is to develop and sustain unit

proficiency. Other purposes include conducting professional development
classes for leaders, motivating unit personnel, and building soldier’s self-
confidence and team cohesiveness.

a. Commanders train subordinate commanders, trainers, soldiers

and unit in order to:

1) Develop individual and collective proficiency on new

tasks and mission as assigned.

2) Sustain individual and collective proficiency on tasks and

missions previously trained to standard.

b. Training responsibilities at battalion level and above include:

1) Assisting subordinate echelons to retain their collective


2) Maintaining collective proficiency in command and control


3) Developing the leader skills or primary staff members and

immediate subordinate commanders.



4) Developing and sustaining individual proficiency of

personnel assigned to the headquarters unit and soldiers attending unit
schools or centralized training.

5) Developing and sustaining combined arms proficiency

and integration of all members of the team or tasks force.

6) Supervising and evaluating training conducted by

subordinate units.

c. Training responsibilities at company level and below include:

1) Developing and sustaining company level collective

proficiency by executing the training program.

2) Developing and sustaining individual, leader, and

collective proficiency of subordinate elements.

3) Supervising training conducted by subordinate elements.

Characteristics. To plan, conduct and evaluate training, the

characteristics of good training must be understood. Good training is
accurate, well structured, efficient, effective, realistic, and safe.

a. Accuracy. Information provided by the trainer must comply with

current doctrine and be technically correct. Equipment operations and safety
procedures must be correctly presented and practiced.

b. Structure. Soldiers are given prerequisite training first. Unit

training programs should contain a suitable mix of tasks or missions needing
initial and sustainment training. Sustainment training on critical tasks or
missions that the unit can already perform will keep them from becoming
future weaknesses. Advanced tasks and missions are added as appropriate.

c. Efficiency. Resources costs may outweigh training value. In

such a case, leaders should review the resources expended to ensure they
are being used correctly and are appropriate for the training. They should
explore alternate, less costly ways to train the tasks, if needed.

d. Effectiveness. Training builds proficiency and cohesiveness.

Whenever they conduct training, leaders encourage and develop teamwork
among subordinates. Soldiers acquired confidence in them and in other unit
members, building a mutually supporting team. Unit leaders use training to
build the team they will want to lead into combat. Training develops leaders
by giving them a chance to demonstrate their proficiency in military skills and
to set examples that subordinates will want to learn from and follow. During
training, leaders learn from their mistakes and gain confidence in their
leadership abilities. Leaders at higher echelons should recognize that
mistakes would occur and use them as opportunities to develop the



subordinate leaders. The unit-training program should contain a suitable mix

of tasks needing initial training as well as sustainment training repetitive
training on critical tasks or mission that the unit can already perform keeps
them from becoming future weaknesses. The following are the ways to get
soldiers or units to retain their skills.

1) Schedule periodic practice.

2) Practice tasks or mission under varied conditions.

3) Conduct refresher training of individual tasks as part of

more complex tasks (often collective).

e. Realism. Units train the way they will fight or support. Leaders
prepare scenarios based on enemy doctrine that enable their units to train
under combat conditions. Units that will fight or support as part of a combined
arms team must exercise as members of that team. Whenever possible, they
should train with all the equipment they would use in war. Mess,
administrative, supply, maintenance, and other routine activities should take
place in the field. Units use as much realism as they can afford and are ready
for. Too much realism early in training can waste time and resources if
soldiers have not mastered basic tasks. Once soldiers have learned the
basic, leaders add realism as quickly as soldiers can profit from it. Realistic
training develops endurance, coordination, and determination. Such training
reinforces unit discipline and provides opportunities to exercise personal
initiative as condition change.

f. Safety. A well disciplined, trained unit executing a thoroughly

prepared training plan is normally accident-free. Although accidents can
occur through no fault of the equipment operator, most accidents result from
unsafe acts by inadequately trained or unsupervised personnel.

Process. Tasks are best learned through performance-oriented

training, which requires planning, preparation, presentation, practice, and

a. Planning. To conduct good training, trainers need to plan their

activities. They base their plans on guidance from commanders, using
backward planning to prepare the training activity. Such plans should be
detailed in a training outline.

b. Preparation. The soldiers to be trained, the leaders who

conduct the training and the place where training will occur must all be
prepared. Soldiers must have the required prerequisite skills or knowledge.
They must be motivated and have the proper uniform and equipment.
Trainers must be tactically and technically proficient in the tasks to be trained.
They must also know how to instruct soldiers and develop their skills.
Trainers should obtain, set up, and check all required facilities, materials, and
equipment before training.



c. Presentation. Trainers tell soldiers exactly what tasks they will

learn to perform, under what conditions, and to what standards. Soldier must
understand that they will be evaluated against those standards. They must be
told how the training will be one and why the task is important they must be
cautioned about security and personal and equipment safety. Presentation
focuses on how to perform the task.

d. Practice. Soldiers apply what they have learned by actually

performing the task. This is the critical phase of training. At first, practice is
closely controlled by the trainer and is geared to the soldiers’ current abilities.
Later, trainers emphasize speed and realism until soldiers can perform to the
standard. Trainers continually coach during practice and critique at the end of
the training session. To do this, they must evaluate. Thus, every trainer is an

Coaching and Critiquing

Coaching and critiquing are the primary tools leaders use to provide
feedback in training. In coaching, leaders make corrections or gives
additional guidance during the actual performance or practice of a task. In
critiquing, leaders tell all the members of a unit or team about the strong and
weak points of their performance.

Throughout the practice, leaders constantly coach and critique soldier

to correct their mistakes and reinforce what they do well. Coaching and
critiquing are especially important when soldiers first practice tasks. Once the
tasks are performed correctly, the amount of coaching and critiquing may be
reduced but never eliminated.

Tools for Evaluation Performance

During Performance After Performance

Coaching: Critiquing:
- Correct errors on the spot - Identify strengths/weaknesses.
- Provides help needed. - Answers critical training
- Ensure correct leaning questions
- Focuses on critical details - Indicates any additional
- Prevents negative learning. practice needed.
- Improves speed. - Encourage open
- Provides immediate feedback. discussion/group participation.
- Improve understanding of
- Aids retention.


This is the most powerful tool to improve performance. Leaders coach

a lot during step-by-step practice because heavy coaching reduces errors.
Coaching permits immediate corrections, and preventing negative learning.



Coaches and leaders watch every action, correcting mistakes on the spot and
providing tips to ensure that soldier, crews, and units learn correctly.

It is important to start coaching as soon as the soldier needs help and

before they become frustrated or confused. While soldiers are practicing
tasks, a coaching focuses on fine points that improve the speed and quality of
performance. For example, a squad leader may tell his soldiers to increase
the space between them as they advance to an objective. Leader also uses
coaching to help soldier perform daily operational jobs and tasks. Coaching
emphasizes safety and security and continues until the soldiers perform the
task correctly. When soldiers practice tasks the right way, they learn them the
right way.

Leader must develop coaching skills. To coach effectively, leaders


a. Be able to perform the tasks themselves.

b. Coach the way they would want to be coached. During initial

practices, leaders are understanding and patient. They assume that every
soldier can improve. During advanced practice, leaders become more
demanding to ensure that the soldiers perform their tasks to standard.
Coaching becomes more detailed as practice focuses on proficiency.

c. Provide help when signs of confusion or frustration appear.

d. Point out the critical cues. As practices progress, leaders

reinforce cues to ensure that the soldiers have learned proper responses.


Critiques are discussions that leaders conduct after practice. They are
mini-AARs. They bring out both strength and weaknesses, answering three
questions important to learning:

a. What happened?

b. Why did it happen?

c. How could it have been done better?

Leader critique after each task is performed during practice. After each
critique, soldiers practice as soon again as possible to reinforce what they
have learned in the critique.

Generally, the critique comes at a logical breakpoint, such as after a

platoon has taken the objective, reorganized, and consolidated. The platoon
leader might call a break in the training session and conduct critique on the
tasks associated with making the hasty attack. Critiques are verbal and
informal; taking only a short time immediately after the task is performed.



During critiques soldiers talk about what they did during the training.
As they attempt to answer the three questions, they correct each others
understanding of the tasks. The leaders listen to the discussion, add
appropriate information and comments, reinforce the correct actions taken,
identify incorrect actions, and determine if additional practice is required. If
necessary and possible, leaders conduct more practice immediately after the
critique. Such repetition helps the soldiers remember what they learned in the
critiques. Leaders ensure that the soldiers correct their mistakes and then
critique the practice again.

For collective tasks and missions, subordinate leaders are critiqued,

but never in front of their soldiers. After their private critiques, subordinate
leaders help critique the soldiers. This approach has several advantages:

a. Leaders maintain credibility with their soldiers

b. Subordinate leaders practice their critiquing skills under the

watchful eyes of experienced leaders.

c. Leaders reinforce their own learning as they pass on corrections

to subordinates.

d. Leaders and subordinate leaders work in unison, creating a

healthy command climate.

To be effective, leaders must keep in mind that critiquing:

a. Centers on the soldier.

b. Is required when performance or practice stops because of

confusion, incorrect performance, or lack of understanding.

c. Is required at the end of all practice activities.

d. Reinforces good performance and corrects deficiencies or


e. Occurs as often as needed.

f. Lasts as long as needed to get the points across.

The spirit and tone of the critiques are important. Soldiers must feel
that they can discuss their practice honestly. Leaders encourage open,
honest talk and get all members of the group to participate. They convince
the soldiers to help themselves and each other by taking part in the critiques.



Critiques consist of the following:

a. Description. The soldiers should describe both good and bad

points in their own words. The description should not encourage opinions or
judgments; it should be limited to facts. Leaders may have to prompt soldiers
on some details by asking questions to get the soldiers to state the facts
themselves. As they talk, soldiers are forced to think about their performance,
which helps them profit from the review.

b. Analysis. During a critique soldiers and leaders analyze what

they did correctly and what they did poorly. The analysis concentrates on why
performance fell below standards. Standards in the soldier’s manual or unit
SOP are referred to as often as needed. The analysis should not over-
emphasize mistakes, but should reinforce strong points and good
performance. Since much of soldier training is intended to prepare for war,
the analysis should bring out the consequences in combat if standards are not
met. Knowing why tasks must be performed a certain way in combat gives
soldiers more incentive to perform tasks correctly and gives them a greater
sense of responsibility to the team. It is best if soldiers judge their own
performances and discover the correct answers themselves. If they can
identify their own faults, their confidence will be high. Even if only one or a
few soldiers were responsible for shortfalls, sessions should cover everyone’s
performance. Weak performances are critiqued separately. Although
personal embarrassment is normally to be avoided, use of peer pressure to
attain results is an effective tool for rapid improvements.

c. Definition. After an analysis, any problem must be defined in

detail. Soldier should have enough information to determine what to do
differently the next time. Leaders guide the discussion so that the soldiers
themselves learn how to perform the tasks properly. If they devise proper
performance methods themselves, soldiers will remember longer-especially if
their leader confirms their findings.

d. Performance. After practice is finished, leaders evaluate the

performance of soldiers and units against the Army minimum acceptable
standards of performance or soldiers’ manual standards. Such evaluations
determine how well the training program is meeting training objectives.

5. Evaluation Phase

Leaders gather information on individual and collective proficiency to

evaluate the performance of subordinate leaders, soldiers, and units. This
information is used as feedback to correct weaknesses during the conduct of
training and to correct longer-term weaknesses by shaping future training
programs. Evaluation also produces information which commanders at all
echelons use to coach their subordinate leaders and hold them responsible
for their management actions.



Evaluations conducted by battalion and higher echelons should


e. Subordinate unit proficiency

f. Integration and conduct of combined arms training.

g. Conduct of all centralized training, including unit schools, and

use of resources by trainers at their level and one echelon below.

h. Training management procedures used at their level and one

echelon below.

Evaluations conducted by company and below should address:

a. The collective and individual proficiency of the company and

subordinate elements.

b. The conduct of training and use of resources by trainers within

the company.

c. The effectiveness of the planning and preparation for the unit’s


Evaluation programs must emphasize the products of training

individual and unit performance. These programs must address more than the
instructor techniques and management procedures used. They must address
the sum total of leader tasks, drills, teamwork, and soldier skills performed
within the framework of the collective mission or tasks. If a command’s
evaluation program checks only records and reports, subordinates will tend to
focus attention on producing training records rather than on achieving high
levels of soldier’s performance. The evaluation process is only as effective as
the accurate feedback provided for subsequent use in improving training

Evaluating (Inspecting) Training

Purpose. Provide a guide to training evaluation. It is written to help

trainers conduct self-evaluations of the training they have conducted and to
assist personnel responsible for a evaluating (inspecting) training conducted by

Evaluation responsibilities. Every trainer has a major responsibility to

evaluate training he has conducted, or that has been conducted by one of his
assistant trainers. Training managers also have a responsibility to evaluate
training. They must insure that training is of the higher possible quality and,
most important, is accomplishing specified training objectives.

What evaluating training means. Training evaluation is concerned with

the effectiveness and efficiency of training. Training effectiveness is



determined by how well personnel undergoing training can meet or exceeds

established performance standards specified in the commander’s training
objective(s). Training efficiency is concerned with how well the trainer (and
indirectly the training manager) used what was available (i.e., the training
resources-time, personnel, facilities, equipment, funds, etc,) to train the

Why performance-oriented training is easier to evaluate than

“traditional training.” Performance-oriented training requires the development
of precise training objectives. These include the task to be performed, the
conditions of performance, and the training standards of minimum acceptable
performance. The nature of the training objective contrasts markedly with
“traditional” objectives, which are normally vague, and non-measurable.
Accordingly, in performance-oriented training, the trainer and training are able
to focus on the important aspect of training-whether the soldiers undergoing
training can perform the objectives and meet or exceed the training standards.

On what training evaluation should concentrate. There are many items

in the preparation and conduct of training that can be evaluated. However,
only two items are critical: (a) Have training objectives (the commander’s and
intermediate, if needed) been developed that specify task, conditions, training
standards? 9b) As a result of the training, can soldiers perform the training
objectives and meet or exceed training standards: if the answer to both
questions is yes, everything else is largely secondary (e.g., the appearance of
training, the format of the lesson plans, etc.) If training objectives have not
been developed properly or have not been attained, the reasons for the failure
may be identified using the self-evaluation and/or training evaluation
checklists included in this annex.

How to evaluate your own training. The following checklist provides

the items necessary to make a self-evaluation of how well the training was
prepared and conducted. It will help make training more efficient and

Self-Evaluation Checklist
1. Preparation of Training N/A YES NO

Where specific training objective (intermediate and

commander’s) developed and stated in terms of tasks,
conditions, and measurable training standards?

Did the lesson plan contain the following minimum

elements of information:

The commander’s training objective(s).

All intermediate training objectives (if any) listed in


Administrative instructions:



- When training will conducted.

- Training location
- Who will be trained
- Principal aids/devices and equipment to be used.
- Key references
- Training activity sequence and estimated time.
- Safety restrictions.
- Additional information required by local SOP.

Did you discuss training with the commander before

development of the weekly training schedule?

Did you rehearse:

All explanations, skits, and demonstrations (if any)?

All practice periods controlled by your assistant trainers?

All performance tests?

All films or other audiovisual training aids integrated into

the training?

Before beginning the training, did you check the following:

- Arrangement of the classroom or training area?

- Arrival of special equipment and personnel such as
liter bags, range guards, first aid vehicle and
personnel, etc.
- Cold or hot weather restrictions specified in local
training SOP?
- Arrival of assistant trainers and support troops as
- Working order of projection and sound system (if

2. Conduct of Training

a. Phase 1 – (Explanation and Demonstration)

Did you:

- Tell the soldiers the training objectives including the

performance standards they must meet?
- Give a reason for learning the skill?
- Demonstrate how to perform the objective from
soldiers viewpoint?
- Give demonstrations in a location where all soldiers
could see well?



- Demonstrate each step of the objective in the order

- Give all information necessary for performance of
each step?
- Where appropriate, require soldiers to perform each
step immediately after your demonstration and
- Emphasize critical (key) points?
- Avoid giving unnecessary information?
- Pace demonstrations in accordance with the
soldiers’ learning ability?

b. Phase II – (Practice)


Did you:

- Correct soldiers if they made errors?

- Tell soldiers what to do when they needed that kind
of help?
- Show soldiers what to do when they needed that
kind of help?
- When coaching, always require soldiers to perform
all the steps or part of the steps you demonstrated?

Individual Practice

Did you:

- Tell soldiers when they were ready for skill

- Prompt soldiers when necessary by asking
questions, “How do you do such and such?” what
must you do now” or the like?
- Ask soldiers “smoke-out” questions to be sure they
understood critical (key) points. “Why do you do
that? “What would happen if… or the like?
- If task result varies with conditions, give soldiers
practice situation that different from each other and
from demonstration and walk-through situations?

c. Phase III – (Test)

Did your:

- Explain/read testing instructions clearly and slowly

to the soldier being tested?
- Observe complete performance of soldiers being



- Avoid correcting errors before test was finished?

- Arrange testing conditions so soldiers could not
copy each other? When computations and the like
are required.)
- Explain error(s) for each “NO GO” item?
- If any soldier received a “NO GO”, assign him to an
assistant or per trainer for remedial training, if time

d. General

Did your:

- Speak so soldiers could hear well?

- Use understandable words?
- Encourage soldier questions?
- Always answer relevant questions?
- Always defer irrelevant questions?
- Be patient with the soldiers?
- Reinforce correct soldier performance by saying
“Good, that’s right,” “Fine,” or the like?
- Avoid giving soldiers unnecessary help?
- Create an environment which facilitated learning
(e.g., minimized distracters, provided for
evaluation/observation visits without disrupting
training, etc.)?

How to Evaluate (Inspect) Training. Evaluating training is more than

just walking into the training area and reading a visitor’s folder with its status
report and lesson plan. A good evaluator is not overly impressed with the
“eye wash” of training. He is concerned with the conduct of training> His
evaluation should concentrate on whether complete performance-oriented
training objectives have been developed and whether, as a result of the
training, the soldiers undergoing training can perform the objective(s) and
meet or exceed the established training standards(s). all other items are
secondary, but by evaluating them, future training may be made more
efficient. The following “training Evaluation Report” is provided as a guide for
developing one for a unit. Checking the items listed is relatively simple; they
are either done (Yes), or not observed. Remember, in performance-oriented
training, the goal is for all the soldiers to successfully perform all the training



Training Evaluation Report

Principal Trainer_____________________
Time Training Began _________________
Soldiers Present for Training ___________
Ended ____________________________
Time Evaluator Arrived________________

Yes No N/A Not


1. Did the trainer have specific training objectives

to accomplish? (i.e., did all objectives [commander’s
and intermediate] specify the task(s) to be
performed, the conditions of performance, and the
training standard of acceptable performance?)


2. As a result of the training, did the soldiers

perform successfully (i.e., meet or exceed the
training standards) the commander’s training


3. Were the resources adequate to accomplish the




Training Area(s) classroom


Training aids/Devices

Trainers (Principal & assistants)


4. Did the training progress in a logical sequence



toward meeting the commander’s training



5. Did the soldiers undergoing training appear to be



6. did the trainer:

a. Inform the soldiers of the training objective(s)

to be accomplished and give reason(s) for the
b. Arrange training area so all could see and
hear well?
c. Use understandable words?
d. Demonstrate how to perform the objective(s)
(when appropriate)?
e. Give all necessary information?
f. Avoid giving unnecessary information?
g. Require “walk through” performance of the
objective (if appropriate).
h. Encourage questions?
i. Exhibit adequate knowledge of subject
j. Show interest in helping the soldiers learns?
k. Make acceptable use of training aids?
l. Use assistant trainers to best advantage?
m. Require practice until the training standards
were achieved?
n. Test soldier’s ability to perform the
commander’s training objective?


7. Would you consider this training adequate?

Specific recommendations:

Every command has several evaluation programs. They monitor such

activities as maintenance, supply, training, and administration. Commanders
can coordinate this program by:

a. Designating the performances to be evaluated.

b. Determining if existing evaluation produces adequate
c. Reducing redundancy between existing evaluations
d. Ensuring that feedback from subordinates is obtained.



Evaluation is a continuous process whereby information is gained to

assess how well the training program is meeting training objectives.
Evaluating unit performance on GO or NO-GO ratings does this. During
external evaluations, evaluators are seeking not only to assess performance
but also to help train leaders and soldiers of the unit being evaluated.
Individuals and units must be evaluated daily by the chain of command as
they conduct routine training or perform day-to-day missions.

Testing differs from evaluations. A test measures proficiency against

established soldiers’ manual standards. However, it results in a pass-fail
rating. During a test, individuals and unit strive to meet established standards
without deviating from a prescribed process by experimenting or trying
innovative techniques. When tests are conducted, the personnel conducting
the test even when mistakes are detected do not give soldiers any help.

Evaluations are based on selected tasks which soldiers perform within

a realistic scenario. Troop-leading steps and orders to the unit in training are
designed to create stress by emphasizing pressures and conditions similar to
war. This is done to obtain a valid evaluation. The scenario should include
realistic cues, which cause desired responses. For example, if the unit must
move in response to any enemy’s presence, it should receive intelligence
information or actually encounter the enemy rather than being told to move by
the evaluator.

Evaluators must be tactically and technically proficient in the tasks to

be evaluated. For internal evaluations, evaluators should be selected from
unit personnel. For external evaluations, evaluators should come from similar
units within the same command and hold the same duty positions as that of
the personnel they will evaluate. This type of evaluator assignment allows
evaluators to gain additional experience from other units and builds a base of
qualified evaluators and trainers. Evaluators must know evaluation and
training techniques. They should be provided useful information about the
unit, for example, unit missions, personnel turbulence, leader fill, assigned
priorities, equipment serviceability, and shortages.

Types of Evaluation Program

When establishing a command evaluation program, individual, leader,

and unit performance; the unit’s training management procedures; and the
leaders’ conduct of training are evaluated.

Evaluation of individual, leader, and unit performance is the most

important type of training-related evaluation. It allows commanders to see
how well units and soldiers can perform their mission and tasks and how well
resources are used. With this evaluation, commanders can also determine if
performance is in accordance with command policy. Individual performance
is measured using evaluation guides in soldiers’ manuals. This evaluation
may be done to sample performance during individual training or during unit
training. Unit performance is measured against standards found in the unit.



This evaluation may be internal or external. Conducted in a field setting, it is

as realistic as possible since its purpose is to provide feedback concerning
unit strengths and weaknesses. The results of this evaluation are used to
shape future training programs at all echelons and to provide immediate
feedback for the evaluator to use in training the units and soldiers being

Training management procedures are evaluated to assess the overall

quality of unit management programs for their compliance with command
goals and objectives. The evaluation should also assess how information is
passed within the unit, between higher and lower echelons, and to supporting
units. This evaluation results in immediate feedback, which improves existing
training management programs. It also results in long term changes to
programs and shapes future training guidance.

The leader’s conduct of training is assessed through evaluations, which

center on the trainer. These valuations reveal whether the training objectives
were met, whether the training was adequately prepared and conducted, how
the resources were used, and how effective the trainer was. They result in
immediate feedback to the trainer and help him to further develop his ability to
train. These evaluations also shape future training guidance for leaders.
When evaluating the leader’s conduct of training, the presentation, practice,
performance, planning, and preparation is checked.



Evaluating the Conduct of Training

Presentation should provide only enough information to prepare soldiers
for practice:

 The trainer states the task to be trained and performance standards,

based on the training objective.
 The trainer emphasizes the security classification, soldier safety, and
care of equipment as needed throughout the training
 The trainer explains to the soldiers why the task is important and how the
training is to be conducted.
 The trainer explains to the soldiers why the task is important and how the
training is to be conducted.
 The trainer presents information that soldiers and leaders need to
perform the task. He can use techniques such as demonstrations,
briefing. “TV tapes, film, or a walk-through. After training the evaluator
should determine if the most suitable technique was selected and used
properly. He should also ask pertinent questions to determine if the
trainer is technically and/or tactically proficient.

Practice should develop skill to the degree required by the training


 Practice is initially performed at the soldier’s skill or knowledge level.

Variety and realism are added until soldiers meet the training standards.
 Assistants or peer trainers are properly supervised.
 Practice is coach and critiqued by the trainer until the soldier can perform
to the training objective.
 Practice emphasizes tactically and technically correct procedures.
 Suitable training support materials, equipment, supplies, time, and other
resources are available during practice.

Performance should be evaluated to determine whether soldiers can meet

the training objective after training:

 The soldier is given help as authorized by the training objective.

 The soldiers who do not perform to the standard are given extra practice
 The trainer uses information concerning soldier or unit proficiency for
Results future training and making recommendations to personnel in the
chain of command.

Preparation should be evaluated based on indicators observed during


 The trainer was proficient, organized, confident, and enthusiastic.

 The trainer was given adequate guidance, resources, references, and
time to prepare
 The trainer used equipment and support materials effectively.
 The soldiers required to receive the training were present with the correct
uniform and equipment.
 The soldiers were given necessary preliminary training.
 The equipment was complete and serviceable.
 The facility or site was adequately prepared for training to be conducted.
 The facility or site afforded maximum freedom from distractions



Evaluation should surface the needed information and provide the

maximum training benefit with minimum resources. Evaluations should
emphasize goals, objectives, and command guidance provided for the
exercises. Evaluations should also objectives, and command guidance
provided for the exercises. Evaluations should also assess known unit
weaknesses. Sufficient time for corrections and future practice should be
allowed in exercise evaluation plans. When deficiencies are identified, it may
be necessary to stop evaluating so that they can correct.

Evaluation identifies good performance as ell as point out deficiencies.

Evaluators should train the leaders or soldiers being evaluated by providing
immediate feedback through critiques or after-action review. Critiques should
actively involve the people being evaluated and should answer three

a. What happened?
b. Why did it happen?
c. How can it be done better?

After-Action Reviews are more formal critiques that are given by

evaluators (controllers and umpires, if used) after larger training exercise. For
long exercises, they should also be conducted at pre-determined times
following significant activities. Depending on the size of the training exercise,
they may require rehearsals. Below is a sample procedure in the conduct of
an AAR with a platoon

After-Action Review

General. The evaluators always discuss an AAR first with the platoon
leader alone and then assist the platoon leader to conduct the AAR with the
entire platoon. The procedures for both AARs are otherwise the same.

Sample Procedure

Step 1. Develop a discussion outline. Each platoon evaluator

develops a discussion outline using the training and evaluation outline and
any notes he and his assistants make during the evaluation. This discussion
outline guides the AAR.

Step 2. Review training objectives with the platoon leader. The

evaluator first reviews the training objectives with the platoon leaders. He
restates the training objectives and limits the AAR to them. Next, he leads a
discussion of the training events (from the training schedule) in the sequence
in which they occurred. Graphics and maps help in describing these events.
To conduct an effective pre-AAR, the evaluator.

a. Guides the discussion by asking leading questions

b. Discusses not only what took place, but also why it happened.



c. Guides the discussion so that important tactical lesson will


d. Relates tactical and mission events to the unit’s minimum

acceptable standard of performance and subsequent results.

e. Ensures that alternative and more effective courses of action are


f. Avoids detailed examination of events not directly related to the

major training, objectives (keeps the discussion centered on topic at hand).

g. Avoids discussing excuses for poor action. Turns excuses into

teaching points and keeps the AAR positive in nature.

The evaluator covers all events associated with the unit’s training
session and evaluation. He summarizes what took place with respect to the
training objectives. The evaluator never criticizes the leader. Based on the
facts presented, the leader will have to critique himself mentally.

Step 3. Review training events with the entire platoon. The portion of
the AAR involving the entire platoon is conducted by the platoon leader and
moderated by the evaluator. The same procedures are used in the AAR for
the platoon leader except that the leader conducts the discussion with his
soldiers. The evaluator maintains a secondary role and serves only to keep
the meeting on track regarding training objectives and to prevent any
arguments. This procedure strengthens the chain of command and puts the
focus of the AAR on the unit leader as the primary trainer of his unit. This
AAR focuses on the unit’s collective task performance. The evaluator must
be careful not to embarrass the unit leader in front of his soldiers.

The AAR is not a lecture; it is discovery learning. Soldiers learn best

when they learn from each other and their leaders. Leaders and evaluators
are there to guide that learning. Formal or informal AARs should be
conducted for all training. In this way, soldiers and junior leader are involved
in their own professional development and learn more.

Step 4. Prepare evaluation results. Upon completion of the AAR, the

leader or evaluator prepares an after-action report. It contains the evaluation
results and any additional details during the AAR in a format directed by unit
SOP. The same basic principles used for developing the discussion outline
for the after-action review apply to the after-action report. It must be a
detailed as possible and include the Army training and evaluation outline with
attached notes. It identifies the causes of both substandard and proper
performance. The after-action report is forwarded to the next higher
commander per unit SOP. Information in the after-action report is used to
plan future training.



Pointers for effective AARs:

a. Commanders guide the discussion, not by critique or lecture, but

asking leading questions. They enter the discussion only to sustain the AAR,
to get the discussion back on track, or to bring out new points.

b. Discussion must not embarrass leaders or soldiers, but

emphasize the positive.

c. Participants describe what happened in their own terms

d. Thought-provoking questions are prepared to stimulate


e. Alternate and possibly more effective courses of action are


f. Discussions avoid minor events that do not directly relate to the

major training objective.

g. Participants must not excuse inappropriate actions. Instead

they examine why actions were taken and what alternatives were available.

h. Every unit or element that participated in the exercise must be

represented at the AAR.

i. Training deficiencies brought out during the AAR are

incorporated into the unit training schedule as soon as possible after the

Evaluators should talk with soldiers to determine the reasons for a

good or poor performance. This information will assist evaluators in making
recommendations to the unit commander or to others in the chain of
command. The verbal critique should include the same information will be
passed up to the chain of command. As part of the critiques, evaluators
should use any remaining time and resources to coach participants on
deficient skills or tasks. Critiques should reinforce the team building of
leaders and soldiers.

After the evaluation, evaluators provide their findings and

recommendations to the evaluated unit commander and to others in the chain
of command. Based on this as other pertinent information about the unit and
individual soldiers, the commander is able to improve individuals and unit
performance, develop qualified trainers, and improve training management.
When possible, results of the evaluation should be incorporated into the unit-
training plan within two to six weeks.



Information from evaluations can affect the unit-training program in the

long-range, short-range, and near-term periods. It can also affect unit SOPs.
Information received from Army wide evaluations can change doctrine,
equipment, force structure, literature, and devices.





Hierarchy of Training

Training in units involves learning and sustaining proficiency in

individual and collective skills that units need to accomplish their mission.
Commanders must develop and implement the best mix of individual and
collective training that will help soldiers learn and sustain proficiency in skill
they need. This training is often part of platoon, company, and battalion

Unit training should follow a plan, which leads to a proficient combat-

ready unit. An approach to sustainment in terms of hierarchy is shown in
Figure 1.






Unit training does not proceed through the levels of the hierarchy in
sequence. The hierarchy merely provides a structure for developing unit
training programs. In fact, different echelon and levels of skills must be trained
simultaneously if units are to achieve and sustain the necessary proficiency.
This is normally done using multiechelon training.

a. Individual Proficiency. Technically proficient junior leaders and

soldiers are essential to mission effectiveness. In some technical fields,
proficiency is largely sustained during the daily accomplishment of the
peacetime mission. Tasks that are not performed daily must be identified and
taught. Use of the soldier’s manual ensures individual proficiency.

b. Crew Proficiency. At this level, individual skills are translated

into collective proficiency through team practice. Crew training is the first level
of collective training. Example of some crews are infantry squads, tank crews,
and staff sections (S1, S2, S3..). during the training development process, the
most critical crew tasks are selected for development as drills. Drills are
trained repetitively until they become instinctive in nature. Weapon oriented
crew tasks are trained on standardized qualification ranges.



c. Platoon Proficiency. At this level, individual and crew skills are

combined into collective proficiency through team practice. Platoon or staff
training is the second level of collective training. The most critical platoon and
staff tasks are developed as situational training exercises (STX) or in some
cases, drill. Weapons oriented platoon tasks are trained o standardized
qualification ranges. Staff tasks are trained by participation in command post
exercise (CPX) and battle simulation.

d. Unit Proficiency. Soldiers, leaders, ands teams in platoon and

companies first perform individual and squad, crew, or section tasks. Then
they practice continually to reinforce and build on those tasks. The tasks are
integrated into larger unit training events, such STX or FTX. This type of
training usually occurs in a field setting and involves the entire unit. It should
be as realistic as possible, using such methods as an engagement simulation
against opposing forces. As company and platoon proficiency increases,
training can be further supplemented with LFX. Each training activity, whether
in the field, garrison, or armory, is planned to fit a unit’s specific training needs
at the time. Training objectives for all echelons are based on the unit’s
minimum acceptable standard of performance or are derived from its wartime
mission. Commanders select and assign these collective tasks for training.

e. Combined Arms Proficiency. Combined arms training requires

all the systems available to the unit commander to be employed to unit’s
minimum acceptable standard of performance. The commander is concerned
not only with his unit but also with how well others can support it during
execution of the mission. For example, a transportation company commander
responsible for convoy operations in a hostile environment may have to
coordinate indirect fire support, intelligence gathering, internal and external
security, and communications.



Scenario Example

1. Outline.

The defense of Philippines is a fundamental national security objective.

The sample exercise scenario for a notional corps in the Philippines portrays
corps actions during the days of a general war in Southeast Asia. To provide
the foundation for both the exercise scenario and the schedule of events,
exercise planners develop a scenario outline.

2. Scenario.

Blue Force Armed Force Command Structure

During the general alert or wartime, BLUELAND major services units

(Army, Air Fore, Navy) are placed under the operational command of the
BLUELAND Armed Forces (BAF). Each major service is responsible for each
own combat service support, therefore the BLUELAND Army (BA) will retain
command and control of Army CSS force in the communication zone. The
resulting BAF command structure is shown below.


Defense Secretary


Army Air Force Navy

Figure C.1 Blueland Armed Forces Command Structure.



Figure C.2 Blueland Army Command Structure.

3. General Situation.

The Confederation of Asian States (CAS) serves as a vehicle for

economic partnership and political cooperation among its member states in
the Southeast Asian Region. Majority of member states already belong to the
category of newly industrialized countries and are actually considered to be
the new hub of development in the Pacific Region. Despite the existence of
territorial disputes involving its two (2) member states, CAS remains relatively
stable and firmly committed to peace, progress, and prosperity, Bounded by
this commitment, the two disputing states – the BLUELAND and
CALABANIAN, decided to settle their disputes to the collective interest of the

This was the picture of the confederation until the civilian democratic
government of CALABANIAN was ousted by a military-backed junta following
a successful military coup d’ etat six months ago. Consequently, a radical
shift of foreign policies of CALABANIAN was greatly felt throughout the
region. Succeeding political and economic pronouncements and activities of
CALABANIAN created a stir within the confederation and elicited strong
protests and criticisms from other member states. As a result, CALABANIAN
resigned from the confederation a month later. Immediately thereafter,
CALABANIAN started flirting with NORTHLAND, a non-member state of the
confederation but is an established economic and military power in Asian
region. NORTHLAND’S avowed objective of establishing an economic
hegemony in the region jibed perfectly with the vision of the current ruling
junta of CALABANIAN. This resulted to an alliance between these two
countries that was formed sometime four months ago. Thereafter, these two
countries started taunting the confederation’s call for regional economic
cooperation and peaceful trade competition by intentionally flaunting their
combined armed forces through violation of territorial waters and airspace of
CAS member during their combined exercises in the region three months ago.



Since this practice remained unchallenged, it gave the impression that

it can already impose itself on any country in the Southeast Asian Region.

Two months ago, CALABANIAN suddenly resurrected the issue of

territorial dispute it had with BLUELAND over the control of Kalayaan Group
of Islands northwest of Palawan Island. The contested island that lies along
their common border is presently under the jurisdiction of BLUELAND by
virtue of occupation.
- Increased enemy joint maneuvers along CAS airspace and territorial
E-90 to 50 waters.
- CAS & CALABANIAN diplomatic relation deteriorated.
- BLUELA ND declared state of emergency and ordered Ready & Ready
Reserve Units to active duty.
E-50 to E-21 - All pre-positioning of material configured to unit sets and pre-positioned war
reserve materials are issued.
- CALABANIA N prepares to invade BLUE LAND.
- CALABANIA N attacks BLUELAND territory, capture Kalayaan Group of
Islands, Visayas, and Mindanao, then shifted into defensive posture in
preparation to push northward towards Luzon Island.
E-21 to E-7
- BLUELA ND’s II & III Corps conducts limited attack and shifted to Guerilla
Operations. I Corps defended Luzon and launched a limited counter-attack.
- Intelligence picture develops main & secondary attack objective.
- CAF launched a series of aerial bombardment at Fort Magsaysay area to
the destruction of 7ID, I Corps, BAF Hqs.
rd st
- Three (3) Divisions (307, 308, 309) of the 103 Army, 1 Army Group,
CALABANIA N Field Army successfully landed at Lingayen Gulf and moved
Southwest to capture Manila.
st st
- Three (3) Divsions (301, 302, 303) of the 101 Army, 1 Army Group,
CALABANIA N Field Army successfully landed at Dingalan Bay and secured
E-7 to E-Day st
the area for the unhindered passage of 1 Army Group.
- Three (3) Divisions of BLUELA ND’s I Corps continued their defense and
counter-attack in Luzon.
- I Corps, BAF established TA C CP at San Miguel, Bulacan while 5ID,
reinforced with 1LAB, conducts defensive operations at Western Luzon.
7ID conducts defensive operations at Eastern Luzon. 2ID , AS Corps
reserve, co-locates with Corps TA C CP.
st st
- 301 Division, 101 Army, 1 Army Group, CFA advanced towards Metro
Manila via Dingalan-Gapan City with minimal resistance from BAF Police
Forces and established a hasty defense. 302 & 303 Divisions occupied and
secured areas of Dingalan-Bongabon-Laur areas.
E-Day to E+4
- Three (3) Brigades (701, 702, 703) of 7ID established defensive position
along Sector “KAUGNAY ”.
- 701IBDE, as SE1, task-organized three (3) Infantry Battalions to defend
Sector “MAALAB”.
- 101 Army, CAF launched simultaneous attacks along Sector “KAUGNAY ”.
- 701IBDE conducts defensive operation along Sector “MAALAB”.
- Intelligence reports indicat e that 101 Army, CAF second echelon is located
within 36 hours from 7ID’s FLOT.
- 701IBDE engages 301 Division along Sector “MAALAB”.
E+4 to E+8 - Continued enemy pressure causes penetration in Sectors of 702 &
- Battle continues as 7ID is pushed back towards the rear of the Div AOR.
- Division reserve is committed at 702IB DE Sector against enemy’s main
- 701IBDE experiences extreme shortage of critical items.

Figure C.3 Scenario Outline.



In the past several months, relations between CAS and the

CALABANIAN steadily deteriorated over the issue on the radical shift of
foreign policies of CALABANIAN which created a stir within the confederation
and elicited strong protests and criticisms from other member states. A month
later, CALABANIAN resigned from the CAS and forged an alliance with the
combined maneuver exercises along the territorial water and airspace of CAS
territories had increased. Intelligence reports indicated a massive naval
buildup, especially in the northwest of China Sea. By E-60 CALABANIAN
resurrected a territorial dispute with the BLUELAND over the control of
Kalayaan Group of Islands northwest of Palawan Island which is under the
jurisdiction of BLUELAND. In response to a continued enemy buildup,
territorial dispute, and breakdown of diplomatic relations between the
CALABANIAN and CAS, BLUELAND declared a mid level alert on E-50. One
week later (E-43) BLUELAND declared a high level alert when CAS nations
began mobilization. On same day, the BLUELAND declared a national state
of emergency and ordered all Ready Reserves units and reserve Force to
active duty.

The CALABANIAN ignored repeated attempts to negotiate;

therefore, CAS nations continued to strengthen their defenses in the region.
The primary threat appeared to be a major invasion against BLUELAND, as
indicated by continued enemy naval forces deployed along the international
water of BLUELAND. Three weeks later (E-21) CALABANIAN launched an
invasion of Kalayaan group of islands then subsequently the Palawan Island
on E-14. The enemy continued their push deeper into BLUELAND territory
and invaded the Mindanao and Visayas Island a week later (E-7).

The swiftness of the invasion practically threw BLUEFORCE off

balance. During the first two weeks of the invasion (E-21 to E-7),
BLUEFORCE managed to put up a token of resistance only since they are
pre-occupied in the mobilization of the reserve forces. Luzon Island, a strong
defense was finally emplaced that prevented the northward push by the
invading CALABANIAN Force. The battle for the control of southern Luzon
dragged for more than a week. During this period, the BLUEFORCE
managed to launch limited counterattacks that slowly regained their initiative
and thus throwing the CALABANIAN forced into defensive posture. In a bid to
preserve the momentum of their attack, CALABANIAN Force decided to
maintain an economy of force for defense at Visayas islands and bypass
Northern Luzon with the intent of enveloping the BLUEFORCE and eventually
capturing Metro manila, the seat of BLUELAND government.



Figure C.4 Blueland Force Distribution and Threat Attack Plan.

4. Initial Situation

The 307 Div (Inf), the lead Division of the 103 Army, 1st Army Group,
CALABANIAN Field Army, CAF made a successful landing at Lingayen Gulf
on D011900 (E-7). The 103 Army is a part of the 2nd echelon attack
force/main body of the 1st Army Group, Calabanian Field Army who is
postured to envelop NCR from the North. Likewise, 307 Div is the 103 Army’s
1st echelon attack force initially to secure the beach head at Lingayen and
immediate areas prior to the arrival of 308 and 309 Div, the 103 Army 2nd
echelon and main attack and the landing of 102 Army, the other part of the 1st
Army Group main body. Upon arrival of the 308 and 309 Div at Lingayen Gulf
on D020700 (E-6), the 307 Div, moved on its advance Southwest of Luzon
towards general direction of Metro Manila. However, after finding heavy
resistance from defending BLUELAND forces at the boundary of Pangasinan
– Tarlac provinces, 307 Div shifted its general direction of attack towards
Nueva Ecija via Urdaneta – Umingan areas all of Pangasinan Province and
Cabanatuan City areas, all of Nueva Ecija. 103 Army lead Division, the 307
Division is now temporarily halted at vicinity Lupao, Nueva Ecija and is
expected to resume his offensive once 102 Army has landed at Lingayen
Gulf, that is, within the next 24 hours. He is expected to be at Lupao, Nueva
Ecija in four (4) days and will likely continue pushing forward towards Metro
manila only when Cabanatuan City is cleared.



Meanwhile, the 301 Div (Inf), the lead Division of 101 Army, 1st Army
Group, CALABANIAN Field Army, CAF made a surprise and successful
landing at Dingalan Bay on D022400 (E-6). 301 Div, the 101 Army’s 1st
echelon attack force was initially tasked to secure the beach head at Dingalan
Bay and immediate areas prior to the arrival of 302 and 303 Div, the 101
Army’s 1st echelon attack force was initially tasked to secure the beach head
at Dingalan Bay and immediate areas prior to the arrival of 302 and 303 Div,
the 101 Army 2nd echelon (Main Body) and main attack. Likewise, 101 Army
is the 1st echelon attack force of the 1st Army Group whose main body has
landed at Lingayen Gulf. He is postured to destroy our forces at Palayan City
– Cabanatuan City – Gapan City areas to allow unhindered passage of 1st
Army Group, Calabanian Filed Army follow – on forces towards Metro manila
and control Fort Magsaysay area to serve as the 1st Army Group’s forward
logistical base and bypass route towards Metro manila. Eight hours later (E-
4), the 101 Army main Body arrived at Dingalan Bay with no resistance.
Capitalizing on this initial success, on D030500, 301 Div immediately resume
its advance from East to Southwest towards general direction of Metro Manila
(via Dingalan – Gabaldon – Bongabon – Laur- Palayan City – Cabanatuan
City – Gapan City areas). With very little resistance from the local BLUE
FORCE POLICE FORCE in the area, the rest of the 101 Army forces (302 Div
and 303 Div) were able to swiftly occupy areas of Dingalan – Bongabon –
Laur areas extending up to San Josef – Marcos Village – Imelda Valley
Complex. 301 Division is now occupying hasty defensive positions at Laur
with his forward defensive belt established extending to vic Brgy Matalahib to
block possible BLUE FORCE counterattack coming from the South.

One (1) day prior to the surprise landing of 101 Army Forces (E-8) at
Dingalan Bay, Calabanian Air Force conducted a successful air bombardment
at Fort Magsaysay area resulting to the destruction of 7ID post units at said
camp. To prevent further damage, CG, 7ID moved his Headquarters at
Gapan City.

To contain the enemy 1st echelon attach forces, Commander, 1st

CORPS BLUE FORCE placed Western Luzon to the control of 5ID reinforced
by a Light Armor Bde and Eastern Luzon to the 7ID. 2ID, the Corps Reserve
collocates with the CORPS TCP at San Miguel, Bulacan. The 7ID tasked its
three infantry brigades to defend in sectors to block the 101 Army forces
designating 702 Infantry Brigade as main effort, the 701 and 703 Infantry
Brigades as Supporting Efforts. At present, our strength is 95% status in
personnel and equipment.



Figure C.5 Enemy Threat Attack Plan in Luzon.

Figure C.6 Enemy Threat Attack Plan In 7th Infantry Division,

1st Corps, BAF Sector.

BDE to
Enemy to Initiate the
100700 Chief OPFOR conduct
1 Radio STARTEX attack across Start of
Jul Controller Cmdr defensive
7ID area Exercise
701IBDE units
Controller Occupation Lead elements
101000 Chief to begin
2 w/ Radio of Unit of OPFOR to
Jul Controller occupation of
701IBDE Sector advance slowly
Brigade S2
Bde S2 to brief
to develop
BDE Cmdr on
locations of
101000 location of Controller to
3 Controller BDE S2 Verbal OPFOR
Jul OPFOR main attend briefing
main &
& secondary

Figure C.7 Sample Schedule of Events.




Support functions respond to the needs of the supported units. Figure

B-1 depicts the system within which CS and CSS units operate.







Figure D-1 Need Response System

The tactical situation creates the needs to which the system responds.
Consequently, the tactical situation drives the support system. The response
is the way in which CS and CSS fill the needs. It is determined by the
resources available. In wartime, the needs are created by what happens on
the battlefield: equipment may be lost or damaged; personnel may be killed or
wounded. However, in peacetime exercises, planners determine the tactical
situation and the resources available in order to meet the objectives.

In training exercises, CS and CSS units support actual units or notional

units. Actual units generate their own needs. However, to meet the exercise
objectives, planners control the resources available for responding to these
needs. For notional units, planners control both the needs and the resources.
In preparing for training, planners should employ the principles in this manual
to conduct CS and CSS training exercises.

This annex discusses specific considerations for planning, controlling,

umpiring, and evaluating the following functions:

a. Health services.

b. Military police.

c. Personnel and administration.

d. Transportation.

e. Maintenance.



1. Health Services Operations. Exercise play should include health

services support operations, involving both non-medical units and supporting
Army Medical organizations. As far as possible, AMO units and personnel should
provide realistic support in exercises. They use m odulated casualties to train
medical units in the transport, triage, and care of the wounded.

The terms patient and casualty are precise designations that ensure
proper care of actual patients and proper use of actual resources. Patients are
sick, injured, or wounded personnel receiving medical care or treatment.
Actual patients are those who are really sick, injured, or wounded. They need
actual medical care. Simulated patients are not really sick, injured, or
wounded. They are tagged or otherwise identified (with or without cosmetic
makeup) to simulate actual patients for training or evaluation purposes. They
must be physically moved or cared for to meet training or evaluation
requirements. Constructive patients represent sick, injured, or wounded
patients in reports, messages, or other written or oral communications to
assist in CPX play. It is not necessary to move these patients. Casualties are
those lost to their organizations because of death, wounds, injuries, or
disease. The differences among actual, simulated, and constructive casualties
are similar to those described for patients. In exercises, all patients and
casualties should have one of these designations.

Table D.1 Types of Operations

Division Medical
Battalion /
Combat / Brigade /
Non-AMO Battalion, Non-
Combat Division AMO
Company Brigade, AMO
Support Surgeon’s Corps
/ Section Regiment Corps
Battalion Section
Self/Buddy First
Aid x x x x x x
Personal Hygiene
& Field Sanitation x x x x x x
AMO Staff
function x x x
Healt h Services
mission/ tasks in x x x x
non-medical TEP
Missions / tasks
in AMO in TEP x x x

Actual health services support must integrate with simulated and

constructive exercise play. However, actual support should not replace
simulated or constructive play unless it is furnished under the combat
conditions. For example, a combat support hospital (CSH) providing only area
sick call support for an exercise is not accomplishing its major CSS mission.
See Table B-1 for the types of health services support operations that should
be performed by different levels of medical and non-medical units in field



a. Plans. Exercise directors must ensure that medical planners

include actual, simulated, and constructive health services support
requirements early in pre-exercise planning. Army Medical training objectives
should integrate with other exercise objectives.

Planners must identify all the necessary resources such as:

1) Funds.

2) Personnel.

3) Equipment.

4) Supplies.

5) Transportation.

Some of the required health services personnel for exercises

may be temporarily assigned to fixed installation medical facilities.
Agreements between medical TOE units and the local medical
activity/medical center should specify the release procedures for TOE unit
personnel in on-the-job training or directed support programs. Agreements
should specify procedures for obtaining controller, umpire, and evaluator
personnel. Local agreements should also provide adequate time to request
and obtain release of personnel from their parent units. When local assets
cannot provide actual, simulated, and constructive health services assistance,
requests should go through appropriate command channels.

To support the training objectives of most medical treatment and

evacuation units, realistic simulated casualty or patient play is necessary.
Exercise planners must determine the source of casualties and patients, for
example, by assessing player units or by using casualty or patient pools. In
exercises that involve only medical or other support units, pools are usually
necessary to provide the required volume of patients or casualties. In large
exercises, assessments during exercise play should generate casualties. This
procedure ensures that Army medical training objectives are met. It also
ensures that player units operate with realistic combat losses. Detailed
instructions issued to controllers, umpires, and player units specify how to
release simulated casualties into the treatment and evacuation system.
Procedures must also provide for the timely return of personnel to units upon
their release from medical channels. Medical units are not responsible for
returning patients to their units.

Casualties should simulate only those injuries or diseases that

could be found in the area of operations under the conditions established for
the exercise. To determine the battle and non-battle casualties for each
exercise, planners consider:

1) Units involved.



2) Troop population and density.

3) Enemy forces.

4) Type of combat.

5) Weather.

6) Terrain.

The available resources may limit the simulated casualties. To

meet the training objectives, varying numbers of casualties are necessary.

Medical planning should provide realistic situations and events

for medical units. It should provide enough information so that participating
units can respond realistically. Medical units practice survivability operations
and operate 24 hours a day.

For FTXs, units attached to the medical headquarters in

peacetime or scheduled for attachment in contingency operations may
comprise only a portion of the organization. Other units must be added, as

b. Personnel and Equipment. To determine the personnel and

equipment for large-unit exercises, planners analyze:

1) The objectives of the exercise.

2) The quantity, types, and locations of player units.

3) The timing of exercise events.

Control and evaluation functions may be combined or

separated, depending on the exercise. Sufficient qualified personnel must be
available to play all nonparticipating agencies with which the unit would
normally coordinate and communicate. Many professional specialties in
medical units cannot be adequately evaluated. Controllers must be
experienced and knowledgeable enough to initiate actions for, and respond
to, player units. Control personnel have to moulage simulated patients and
instruct them in their roles. Simulated casualty pools that generate patient
play must have sufficient personnel. Driver/radio telephone operator (RTO)
personnel with vehicles are required to support the medical controllers,
umpires, evaluators, and patients.

When simulated patients and casualties are in treatment

facilities during meal hours, the facilities will feed them. Class X clothing is
required for simulated patients, particularly those who will be moulaged.



c. Control. Exercise plans must specify detailed control procedures

for actual casualties and patients. Actual medical support is normally the
responsibility of the participating units. Provisions are made for:

1) Sick call and outpatient care.

2) Emergency care.

3) Ground and air evacuation, as appropriate.

4) Hospitalization.

5) Care for personnel unable to return to their units but not

requiring hospitalization.

6) Medical supply and maintenance support.

7) Communications to support the above functions.




Figure D-2 Casualty Tag (Front)

Casualty tags identify simulated casualties, place them into training

exercises, and trace their movement through the medical treatment and
evacuation system. If simulated casualties result from assessments,
controllers must be briefed and issued the simulated casualty tags with Part A
completed. Often the assessors are not medical personnel. They may be
controllers for other participating units. When players are tagged, Part B of the
tag should be completed, separated, and turned in to medical controllers on a
prearranged schedule, normally at least once a day. Part A should remain
affixed to the simulated casualty until released from medical channels. The
last medical treatment or evacuation unit seeing the casualty should keep Part
A and turn it in to medical controllers on a prearranged schedule. Controllers
should compare the collected Parts A and B at least once daily. Doing so
ensures that assessed casualties are being released into, and properly moved



through, the medical system. Controllers should bring major problem areas to
the attention of player units for corrective action.

Standard moulage aids are relatively simple and increase

visual impact, Patients must be briefed on behavior, signs, and symptoms.
Then they can add realism to the exercise play.

1. This tag w ill accompany simulated casualties

to the Medical Treatment Facility releasing him INSTRUCTIONS – PART A INSTRUCTIONS
from duty. Tags w ill be retained at that facility – PART A
and be picked-up by a Medical Controller. LEGEND:
Remove this part
2. This tag may be used as a constructive CW – Confused Wound of tag after filling-
casualty & may be moved through the LW – Lacerated Wound out reverse side
treatment / evacuation system as though it PEN W – Penetrating Wound and tagging
were a casualty. MW – Multiple Wound casualty.
PER F – Perforating Wound
3. If Section on “Evacuate Casualty” is left blank, FS – Fracture, Simple Forw ard this part
casualty will be evacuated to facilities FC – Fracture, Compound to Chief, Medical
appropriate for diagnosis . SV – Severe Evacuator.
4. Complete event sequence record (example): SL – Slight
T AGGED 170600 Jan 12 170605 Jan 12 EPBA
T REATED 170630 Jan 12 170800 Jan 12 JACBM
170900 Jan 12 171030 Jan 12 GJJ
AT AID 171045 Jan 12 171200 Jan 12 ECDR
RT U 171500 Jan 12 NMP

Figure D-3 Casualty Tag (Back)

If a casualty pool is used, medical controller personnel

should moulaged and brief the patients, attach a casualty tag or Field Medical
Card, and coordinate their insertion in exercise play. Simulated casualties can
be introduced into play by:

1) Being transported to the treatment facility by ground or air

ambulances or other vehicles.

2) Being picked up at simulated aid stations or other field

sites by evacuation units.

3) Walking into a facility.

If the scenarios require that casualties be evacuated after

receiving initial treatment, each must have a field medical card to reflect
treatment received.

Non-medical controllers must ensure that released

patients return to their units according to established exercise procedures. If
they do not receive casualty information through normal communications,
controllers portraying a unit's higher headquarters or a subordinate unit should
request it from player units. These controllers should also respond realistically
to requests from participating units.



Planners should consider other locally constructed aids. Some

applicable nonstandard aids may be available through the Army medical
organization. They may be justified for purchase and use within a command.
Improvised medical training aids are as varied as imagination and resources

2. Military Police Operations.

Military police (MP) units participate in exercises to provide realism.

These units provide combat, CS, and CSS to the commander. Table D-2
summarizes MP missions and operations and identifies the military police
units responsible for each.

Table D.2 MP Mission and Responsibilities

Divi sion MP MP MP MP
MP Battalion / POW Confinement Security
Company Company Unit Unit Company
Battlefield Circ ulation
Cont rol
Rout e Reconnaissance
& Surveillance
x x x
MSR Regulation
Enforcement x
Straggler & Refugee
Cont rol x
Area Reconnaissanc e x x x
Rear A rea Combat
Operations x x x
Area Damage Control
Operations x x x
Intel Collecting &
x x x
POW Mission x x x
Law & Order Mission x x x
Law Enforcement
Criminal Investigation x x
Military Prisoner
Confinement x x

a. Plans.

Military police planning considerations are applicable to actual

tactical situations, as well as to the planning and conduct of training exercises.
Wherever feasible, military police participate in the planning so that their
training needs can be incorporated in the exercise. Tasks in the MP TEP
should be included in the exercise scenario. Additional military police tasks
dictated by local missions or circumstances may also be included. Planners
should keep in mind the size and actual capabilities of the military police unit
being employed. The wide spectrum of possible military police missions
requires that the military police be given every opportunity to experience
situations as close to actual combat conditions as possible. The conditions



needed to employ military police realistically are best met by including them in
exercises conducted by higher headquarters. Military police can receive
excellent training in planning for, and assisting with, the movement of units to
and from the training areas.

b. Personnel and Equipment

Military police planners develop their plans to best support the

concept of the exercise. Planning factors that affect military police
employment include:

1) Number, types, and missions of units in the MP element's

area of operation.

2) Specific missions and the type of support required of the

MP element.

3) Quantity, quality, and types of vehicles and equipment

available to the MP element.

4) Environmental conditions within the area of operations.

5) Width, depth, size, and location of built-up areas.

6) Attitudes and needs of the inhabitants.

7) Requirements for augmentation by MP elements.

8) Enemy capabilities in the rear area.

9) Political or psychological activities directed against

friendly forces.

The military police controller, umpire, or evaluator checks

to ensure that MP unit commanders establish mission priorities in the light of
available troops and provide for 24-hour area coverage. Once these
determinations have been made, the formula below may be used.

Military police planners will consider special equipment,

facilities, and transportation. MP units can provide the majority of their
equipment needs. Special missions require augmentation. Such missions may

1) Support of river-crossing forces.

2) Security of ports and harbors.

3) Security of permanent stations.

4) Handling unusual numbers of POWs or military prisoners.



5) Riot or civil disorder control.

6) Security for extended lines of communication (LOC)
under enemy observation and fire.

Military police planners consider aviation employment and

support in the following missions:

1) Command and control, especially for extending

communications capabilities.

2) Security.

3) Over-watch of extended LOC, including convoy cover,

location of congestion, interruption of the MSR, and in-transit security.

4) Movement of MP elements to unblock a threat obstruction

and to relieve congestion on road networks.

5) Timely coordination with supported headquarters and

subordinate military police elements.

6) Evacuation of selected POWs for special protection or


Man Hours Operational

per day times
requirement x days for
mission to be
in effect

Productive man hours per person Number of military police
for the length of the mission
= required to man post or
accomplish mission

51.7 X 365
2700 = 7 Military Police required

Figure D.5 Computing Required MP Strength

Contingency planning must include implementing instructions to

undertake all types of operational support, including:

a. Rear area protection.

b. Security of critical installations.

c. Security of LOC.



d. Reaction to major disaster situations (area damage control).

e. Reaction to installation security plans.

f. Reaction to civil disturbance and riot control missions.

g. Implementation of nuclear accident/incident control plans.

h. Conduct of joint operations.

3. Personnel and Administration Operations

Personnel and administration (P&A) functions are heavily loaded with

peacetime requirements. During wartime, only a few of these functions
become more important or create a heavier work load than during peace-time.
Training exercises must focus on these critical wartime functions at each
echelon. Critical functions include:

1) Personnel strength accounting.

2) Personnel information system (automated/manual)


3) Replacement requirements and requisitions.

4) Replacement processing/operations.

5) Casualty reporting.

6) Military awards.

7) Postal operations.

8) Tactical administration service operations.

9) Promotions/reductions.

Other P&A functions may be performed in combat. However, these are

the critical ones that must be performed by each echelon. They differ from
echelon to echelon. For example, at battalion level, personnel information will
be detailed. At division level, it will be summarized. Tactical SOPs and plans
should include procedures and requirements to ensure that the system
supports each echelon.

a. Plans

For successful exercises, P&A planning must occur early. It


1) Establish objectives.



2) Determine which functions will be played and plan to

exercise them thoroughly.

3) Coordinate with scenario developers to ensure that the

play will exercise the selected objectives.

In multi-echelon exercises, P&A elements at all levels

must coordinate to ensure that current SOPs and plans are sufficient. In
exercises without higher and lower echelons, controllers must be provided
proper information to create exercise realism. A number of functions require
support from other organizations. If a player element does not provide this
support, a controller must provide it to ensure that the units are fully
exercised. For example, the division AG company (replacement detachment)
needs transportation support from the supply and transportation (S&T)
battalion to move replacements. If the replacement system is not being
exercised, movement requirements must still be submitted so that the
transportation element can exercise.

Exercises should involve both P&A functional and tactical

responsibilities. For example, the division AG company should also perform
rear area security and rear area damage control in the division support area.
The maneuver battalion's personnel administration center (PAC) should
perform the same function in the brigade trains area.

b. Personnel and Equipment

The personnel selected for the exercise must be those who

would normally perform during combat operations. The exercise objectives
and the P&A functions to be played determine the actual number of
participants. Only equipment authorized by the TOE should be used. Blank
forms and appropriate references required by field SOPs should be available.

c. Control

Exercise play drives P&A activities. For example, as personnel

losses are declared, these losses are translated into MOSs and reported in
accordance with established procedures. The personnel controller is the key
to this function. He should have the TOE and standard division personnel
system rosters to verify losses by MOS and grade. The personnel controller
ensures that personnel and other staff elements coordinate properly
especially when exercise action increases.

4. Transportation Operations.

Exercise play should include realistic transportation requirements for

participating units. Transportation planners consider:

1) The types of transportation operations and the modes of

transportation to be exercised. See Table B-3 for an example.



2) The levels of transportation to be exercised.

3) The integration of transportation play into exercises.

Table B.3 FTX Transportation Operations

Company &
Below x
Battalion x
Brigade &

a. Plans.

Planning steps identify basic transportation levels--strategic,

coordinative, and operative. The steps then relate these to the transportation
command structure. The strategic level involves high-level, long-range
planning. It is done by the assistant chief of staff for transportation at army HQ
or by the senior transportation command in a theater. The coordinative level
integrates movement. Normally, the movement control center or the senior
transportation command does this planning. The operative level involves unit
missions. Each unit performs its function:

1) Discharging containers from ships.

2) Clearing terminals by truck, water, and air.

3) Performing intermediate maintenance.

4) Providing training for troops.



Table D-4 Planning Level Responsibilities

• Assess the theater-wide transportation situation.
• Determine transportation requirements.
• Allocate re-s upply.
• Study the theater operations area & select MSRs and alternates.
• Advise the theater commander on theater transportation operations.
• Select ports, terminals, and trans fer points to use or avoid.
• Set the theater transportation policy.

• Match transportation requirements with capabilities.
• Allocate & use transportation modes.
• Cont rol activities, transportation groups, and other assigned units required
in the movement of cargo and pers onnel.
• Report the daily capabilities of highways, inland waterways, air routes, and
rail lines.
• Maintain liais on with loc al & national commercial transporters.
• Collect, evaluate, int erpret, analyze, and integrate t rans port ation
• Prepare traffic circulation plan.
• Advise all concerned of the play.
• Recommend substitution of one mode for another.

• Perform the unit mission as directed.
• Prepare reports on requirements versus capabilities.
• Recommend re-routing or diversion.
• Recommend substitution of one mode for another.
• Report daily readiness status.
• Maintain readiness.
• Apply & implement Command policies & directives.

b. Personnel and Equipment

Exercise planners assign tasks at the correct transportation

level--strategic, coordinative, or operative. Planners use the applicable TEP to
suggest support requirements for various transportation exercises, as well as
the framework for the desired standards and control.

c. Maintenance Operations

By virtue of their missions, maintenance units perform daily

many of the functions they can expect to perform under field conditions. At the
DS level, these include:

1) Inspecting.

2) Testing.

3) Classifying.



4) Supplying repair parts.

5) Cannibalizing.

6) Controlling exchange.

7) Repairing.

8) Modifying materials.

These are prime candidates for exercise play. Some

functions, notably reclamation, overhaul, and rebuilding, are performed at
maintenance levels higher than DS. Nonetheless, exercise planners should
consider giving all functions some play.

The exercise scenario should include the applicable tasks

shown in the appropriate TEP. It should also include tasks that are not part of
the daily maintenance mission.

Exercises should be as close as possible to actual

combat. For example, the supply function should train in conjunction with
maintenance. Doing so is important because most maintenance supply
actions will have an effect on Class IV supply. Similarly, the materiel
management center should train to find additional sources of repair parts,
such as adjacent maintenance units and equipment that can be cannibalized.
Accurate and timely readiness reporting is absolutely essential. Effective
communications nets are also vital. If radio silence is imposed, couriers must
be used. Likewise, as maintenance support teams (MSTs) are sent forward,
they should train to satisfy both the supported and supporting units. Response
times may be critical, both for equipment repair and MST survivability. MSTs
may be transported by any means to the equipment or provided armored
maintenance vehicles.



Opposing Forces

1. Purpose

OPFOR units are trained and equipped to confront Philippine Army

units with realistic opponents that look like and fight like potential adversaries.
Such realism enhances training exercises. Well-equipped OPFOR units are
skilled in the tactics and techniques of a potential adversary. They not only
add realism to training exercises, but generate player enthusiasm. Soldiers
learn the potential adversary's tactics, doctrine, and weapon systems that they
could successfully exploit in air-land battles. OPFOR units encourage:

a. Effective intelligence-gathering procedures.

b. Electronic warfare techniques.

c. Operations security measures.

d. Deception measures.

e. Unconventional warfare techniques.

The collective sustainment training in units further refines the tactical

skills taught in service schools. However, such training usually derives from
friendly-on-friendly force engagements. Given such training, Philippine Army
forces would have to develop innovative ways to fight an actual enemy during
the initial stages of a war. However, under current operational concepts, a
period of adaptation is no longer acceptable. All units should train for future
battles by exercising as much as possible against realistic, uncooperative,
and competitive OPFORs that use threat doctrine, tactics, weapon systems,
and fortifications. Knowing how a potential adversary is likely to perform on
the battlefield, Philippine Army soldiers and units can take advantage of
enemy characteristics and weaknesses from the very start.

2. Organization

Successful OPFOR employment relies on support from unit

commanders and staffs. Therefore, division and subordinate unit training
programs must use unit assets to depict OPFOR tactics and operational
principles. The G3/S3 manages the OPFOR program. The G3/S3 staff section
uses the available expertise within the G2/S2 section to help manage the
program. This staff relationship fosters intelligence support to the overall unit
training goal of combat readiness. The G3/S3 also monitors unit scenarios.
He ensures that they are properly designed and controlled and that they allow
the OPFOR to create a realistic environment.



Units in the division and subordinate units should be trained, on a

rotating basis, to perform as an OPFOR element for training exercises and
training evaluation program (TEP) evaluations.

3. Size

Full-scale employment of OPFORs demands extensive resources.

Thus, OPFOR participation may be scaled down to reduce costs. The size of
the OPFOR usually depends on the unit's ability to provide supporting
personnel. For reporting purposes, one OPFOR soldier normally represents
three enemy soldiers. One tank normally represents a tank platoon. The ratio
between the OPFOR and the notional enemy it represents is flexible. The
chief controller of the exercise must establish the ratio, based on available
OPFOR training time, equipment, and personnel. However, the ratio must
always be realistic. Some additional considerations when using OPFOR units
in a training exercise include:

a. Free play or controlled play scenarios.

b. The exercise training objectives.

c. The personnel, equipment, and facilities available.

d. The scheme of maneuver.

e. The fire support plan.

f. The type, strength, composition, and training status of the

OPFOR unit.

g. The available maneuver space within the area of operations.

h. The weapon systems to be employed.

4. Equipment

Modified Philippine Army vehicles can suggest the appearances and

silhouettes of threat combat equipment. Likewise, foreign material and
equipment for training can and should be an important part of the total
OPFOR program. Foreign equipment in displays and in typical strong points
can enhance realism in individual, leader, and collective training.
The OPFOR emblem identifies OPFOR equipment and personnel. It is
also used on OPFOR training literature and materials. When the emblem is
superimposed on OPFOR-designed equipment, the hammer and sickle is red.
The background remains the original color of the equipment. When a colored
version is for uniforms, flags, and staff papers, the hammer and sickle will be
black and the background red.



5. Training

Ideally, each division should have a small, permanent cadre to assist in

OPFOR training. This cadre should train the OPFOR maneuver unit to
execute the OPFOR portion of exercises quickly and professionally. It should
provide division wide classroom instruction pertaining to enemy military

Training units must prepare training packages to teach tank and

motorized rifle companies and battalions to portray authentic enemy tactics.
To save fuel, OPFOR units can practice them with indigenous vehicles
instead of tracked vehicles. Considerations to keep in mind when using

a. The general tendency of an OPFOR to revert to Philippine Army

tactics once it begins to maneuver against an actual Army force.

b. The tendency of OPFOR commanders to use the best of both

enemy and Army tactics. Doing so should be avoided because anything less
than authentic enemy tactics degrades the training of both the player unit and
the OPFOR element.

6. Planning

The exercise directive provides initial planning guidance such as:

a. The size of the OPFOR element required.

b. The player units that will participate.

c. The equipment available.

d. The constraints (physical, financial) or other limitations.

e. The tactical doctrine or techniques to be emphasized.

f. The procurement of special supply items.

g. The OPFOR training objectives and equipment.

h. The source of OPFOR equipment and personnel.

The OPFOR scenario is developed in the same manner as the player

unit scenario to facilitate player intelligence training. The OPFOR scenario
emphasizes the following:

i. Propaganda to enable all personnel to develop positive attitudes

toward the exercise. Appropriate means may include posters and leaflets,
agent activities, and loudspeaker broadcasts.



j. Tactical deception designed to strengthen procedures for

developing counter-deception activities.

k. Partisan, guerrilla, and counterintelligence agency operations to

train all player units in survivability operations.

The pre-exercise phase must provide sufficient time to allow for:

l. Training and converting a unit to OPFOR status, to include

rehearsing the tactical plan.

m. Developing plans and orders, to include preparation of

communication, air support, and fire support plans.

n. Developing plans for OPFOR intelligence activities.

Once the OPFOR has been designated by the directive, the

OPFOR commander and staff begin planning and training:

a. To establish operational headquarters.

b. To reorganize units for OPFOR employment.

c. To designate OPFOR identities for personnel and to issue

weapons, clothing, markings, and documents, as needed.

d. To construct necessary defensive positions according to threat


e. To prepare the OPFOR OPLAN based on the exercise scenario.

f. To plan and conduct appropriate rehearsals in coordination with

controller personnel.

g. To schedule briefings for all OPFOR personnel on the nature of

the exercise and their particular roles in the exercise.

2. Control

The exercise control plan details provisions for controlling OPFOR

play. The type of scenario dictates the measures used for OPFOR control.
Threat doctrinal control measures and graphics control OPFOR elements
during the exercise. Controllers and umpires are designed to OPFOR units:

a. To evaluate actions.

b. To ensure realism.

c. To assess loss and damage.



d. To control activities.

Detailed training for umpires and controllers in OPFOR organization,

doctrine, and tactics is the key to realistic control of exercise play. The division
or subordinate OPFOR program manager or other personnel trained in
OPFOR tactics and organization can provide this training.

The OPFOR commander has tactical and administrative control of the

OPFOR and its attached units during the exercise. The OPFOR should
rehearse planned tactical operations with the umpires and controllers. This
enables all concerned to become familiar with the terrain and control
measures to be used and allows correction of faulty tactical procedures.





Exercise Control

1. Purpose

All training exercises require control. Some such as TEWTs need only
commanders. Others such as division or brigade level CPXs or FTXs may
require formal controller organizations responsible for conducting entire
exercises. The control system for any exercise should ensure that it follows its
scenario and attains its objectives. The control system makes sure that each
exercise develops smoothly and provides meaningful, realistic training.

2. Organization

To control exercises, chief controllers must organize the staffs to use

the available personnel most effectively and beneficially. To do so, they
prepare controller manning tables.

The composition of the control team depends upon:

a. The type of exercise and the echelon at which it is conducted.

b. The method, sometimes called the exercise driver, which

sustains the exercise and causes it to flow to a logical conclusion. A sequence
of events, a battle simulation, an OPFOR element, or a combination of these
may drive an exercise.

c. Troop lists from the notional higher and adjacent headquarters.

Controllers should represent all higher, subordinate, adjacent, and

supporting units and staffs except those physically represented. If First Battle
drives a CPX, the chief controller can use the organizer's guide from First
Battle and the OPLAN troop list to assign controllers properly. For an FTX
with an OPFOR element and no higher headquarters, OPLAN, or troop list
available, the chief controller must decide not only where to place controllers,
but whom they must represent.

Each battle simulation includes a recommended controller manning

table along with the instructions. In many instances, manpower restrictions will
dictate modifications to it. However, control organizations that are not familiar
with the particular simulation being used should follow the recommended
control organization as closely as possible. A control staff, a headquarters
together with umpires, and evaluators may all be necessary.
Controllers ensure that events take place at the right time and place per
scenario and schedule. They perform as all Hqs and units not present as
players. Umpires determine outcomes of:



a. Engagements.

b. Fires.

c. Obstacles.

d. Support activities.

Table F.1 Sample Manning Table

Duty Position Rank Quantity Specialty Clearance Equipment
Chief Umpire COL 1 INF Secret
Driver / RATE LO Sgt 1 OS M450

They report outcomes to players and controllers. Evaluators observe

activities to determine whether tasks are performed to standard. Ideally, one
person should not serve as controller, evaluator, and umpire during the same
exercise. However, exercise directors may have to make dual assignments if
there is a shortage of qualified personnel.

2. Exercise Control Center

As the focal point for controlling each exercise, the ECC will portray the
higher headquarters of the player unit. It will also be responsible for the
administration and logistics necessary to support the exercise. Subordinate
control centers, if used, and umpire teams report to, and coordinate their
activities through, the ECC. ECC personnel must also know control and
umpire procedures thoroughly and interact as required with subordinate
control centers. The chief controllers or their designated representatives will
coordinate all activities of the control organization according to the guidance
from the exercise director. All training exercises have ECCs. Higher echelons
require formal organizations.

A sample controller manning table for the ECC of a division-level FTX

appears in Table D-2. The suggested task organizations are austere. Actual
controller requirements must be based on a mission analysis of the exercise
being conducted and permit sustained operations. Manning and equipment
tables vary depending on the type of exercise. They are based on the
mission, the terrain, and the troops available to support the operation. The
ECC must be organized to permit sustained operations.



TABLE F.2 Exercise Control Center Manning


Exercise director COL 1
Deputy Exercise director/Chief
controller LTC 1
Clerk/Driver CPL 1
Pilot CPT 1
Crew Chief SGT 1
Draftsman CPL 1
Operations/intelligence officer MAJ 2
Assistant operations/intelligence officer CPT 2
Operations/intelligence NCO TSG 2
Operations/intelligence specialist SGT 2
Clerk/driver CPL 2
FSE officer MAJ/CPT 2
FSE specialist SGT 2
Engineer Officer CPT 1
Engineer NCO TSG/SSG 1
Clerk/RTO CPL 2
ADA Officer CPT/LT 1
Clerk/RTO CPL 1
Aviation Officer CPT 1
Aviation NCO TSG 1
Clerk/RTO CPL 1
Personnel Officer MAJ 1
Personnel NCO TSG 1
Clerk/Driver CPL 1
Logistic Officer MAJ 1
Logistics NCO TSG 1
Clerk/driver CPL 1
CMO Officer LTC 1
Assistant CMO officer CPT 1
Clerk/driver CPL 1
Provost Marshal LTC 1
Deputy Provost Marshal CPT 1
Operations NCO TSG 1
Clerk/driver CPL 1
Surgeon LTC 1
Medical NCO TSG 1
Joint visitor's bureau OIC MAJ 1
Operations officer CPT 1



Clerk CPL 1
Note: The scope of this exercise will dictate what equipment and
facilities are necessary.
Equipment for this and all subsequent tables in this appendix is
intentionally omitted.

a. Chief Controller

The chief controller commands all exercise controller

personnel. He is responsible for informing the exercise director
of player unit locations, plans, and intentions. He advises the
exercise director about taking possible actions through controller
channels to influence the tactical situations. ECC staff members
aid the chief controller in these duties. In the absence of a chief
controller, a senior member of each shift of the operations
section acts as ECC officer in charge.

b. Operations Officer

The operations officers are the primary advisors to the

chief controller for exercise planning and operations. The
operations section controls all notional units. It is aggressive in
seeking updated information from the area coordination centers
(ACCs) and the player unit's highest headquarters. It is
responsible for:

1) Fighting its portions of air-land battles.

2) Disseminating changes to the highest player unit's


3) Issuing orders and directives.

4) Planning on behalf of the player unit's higher


c. Intelligence Officer

The intelligence officers are the primary advisors to the

chief controller on all OPFOR matters. The ECC intelligence section controls
all OPFOR units. It makes sure they adhere to the OPFOR commander's
orders. It ensures that all necessary intelligence reports are issued and
received per SOP requirements.

d. FSE Officer

The FSE officers represent the chief artillery umpires at

the ECC. They:



1) Brief the exercise director, chief controller, and staff.

2) Recommend actions to control the exercise.

3) Direct actions based on guidance from the exercise

director and chief controller.

The FSE officers receive reports from the fire support

sections of the ACCs and maintain current status reports on all field artillery
player elements. The FSE officers ensure that map and status charts for ECC
operations are properly posted. They pass guidance and information to the
subordinate fire support controllers as required, and they maintain artillery unit
status logs and staff journals.

e. Engineer Officer

The ECC engineer officer is responsible for briefing the

exercise director and chief controller concerning engineer activities. The
engineer officer also posts information about current engineer operations on
the map and maintains all necessary logs. He directs engineers to comply
with guidance received from the exercise director and chief controller, and he
coordinates with other ECC staff sections, as required.

f. ADA Officer

Using information from ACCs, the ECC ADA officer

maintains status maps showing all units and their engagement zones. He
reports all ADA position changes to the ECC operations section, and he
reports all changes in ADA position and operational status to the ACC. In
addition, the ADA officer maintains the current and planned air defense
situation based on situation reports received from the air defense umpires.

g. Aviation Officer

The ECC aviation officer compiles and maintains all Army

aviation-related data during the exercise. He briefs aviation related activities
to the exercise director and chief controller.

h. Logistics and Civil Affairs Officers

The ECC G4 aids in the coordination of local national

agencies or citizens, as required, concerning conflicts or maneuver damage,
linguistic support, and other civil affairs activities related to the control
mission. The G7 assists in handling foreign nationals who visit control facilities
or activities. The G7 may collocate with the provost marshal section to assist
in resolving incidents involving foreign nationals.

i. Provost Marshal



The provost marshal advises the chief controller on the

status of all control personnel during the exercise. He advises the ECC
personnel officers on matters involving policy violations. He maintains liaison
with safety officers and provides the required reports on accidents involving
umpire personnel and equipment. The provost marshal maintains the umpire's
serious incident reporting system and is the ECC point of contact with
appropriate public agencies.

j. Surgeon

The surgeon advises the chief controllers on the health

status of all personnel during the exercise. He is responsible for operations of
the casualty evacuation system.

k. Visitor's Bureau Officer

The ECC visitor's bureau (VB) is responsible for hosting

visitors to the ECC, in accordance with established itineraries. The OIC of the
VB establishes and maintains liaison/coordination with the secretary of the
general staff. He keeps the chief controller and staff advised of visitors and
their status, reporting their times of arrival and departure to the VB. He meets
and escorts visitors in the ECC area, as the headquarters commandant
directs, and he provides ground transportation for visitors in the ECC area, as
necessary. The OIC also coordinates visits with umpires or ACCs.

3. Area Coordination Center

ACCs, when established, are subordinate to the ECC. ACCs remain in

fixed locations. They coordinate the administrative and logistical support that
is not part of exercise play. In addition, ACCs monitor and record maneuver
damage. ACCs are normally established for division and higher echelon
exercises or when the geographic area is too large for an ECC's control
radius. ACCs are normally composed of three elements:

a. A maneuver section.

b. A fire support section.

c. An obstacle section.

For exercises for special contingencies, they might add other sections
such as maneuver damage control.

ACCs must know:

a. The locations of all player and OPFOR units.

b. The locations of all emplaced obstacles.

c. The general tactical situation.



ACCs use this information:

a. To coordinate the support, such as maintenance, refueling,

feeding, and administrative information, for umpire teams and
controller/evaluator personnel.

b. To coordinate emergency support that is not part of exercise

play for all participants.

c. To brief visitors to the exercise area.

Wire and/or radio communication connects each ACC with the ECC
and with each other. ACCs are administrative elements and do not control,
umpire, or evaluate. ACCs depend upon effective communication and timely
reports from the umpire teams operating within their areas of responsibility.
When the need for ACCs has been established, it is normal to field two or
more of them.

The number of communications nets established by each ACC will

depend on the type and echelon of the exercise. Sufficient nets must be
established to enable the ACC to function effectively. Some nets that can be
used are the:

a. Umpire command net.

b. Administrative/logistical net.

c. Maneuver net.

d. Fire support net.

e. Obstacle net.

f. Fire marker net.

Whenever possible, each ACC spans a geographical area that

corresponds to the player unit boundaries. Thus, each ACC should work with
only one player, OPFOR, and umpire/controller organization. However, if
terrain and communication limitations make this ideal impossible, each ACC
must be prepared to act as a relay point for other umpire/control elements.
For division-level exercises, ACC limits usually correspond to brigade
boundaries. ACCs then perform both their own functions and those of brigade
umpire teams. All ACC sections assist area umpires and controllers in
resolving administrative and logistical problems.

a. Maneuver Section

The maneuver section maintains the locations and status

of all player and OPFOR units on the operations map. It places opposing
maneuver umpires and controllers in direct communication with each other to



institute and/or evaluate planned activities. This section consolidates umpire

team reports and keeps the ECC informed of the intentions of subordinate
units. It coordinates with adjacent ACCs and reports to the ECC on the status
of flank units and on any boundary problems.

b. Fire Support Section

The fire support section monitors all fire support activities

and communications, serving as the control element for all support fires within
the ACC radius. All fire support umpires are required to process their reports
through this section to the ECC. During LFXs, this section may have to halt
play for safety reasons.

c. Obstacle Section

The obstacle section provides current information on

obstacles to area umpires and controllers. It monitors conventional obstacles
and damage to the MSR and to LOC for its assigned area. It should be staffed
by experienced engineer personnel. Collateral damage from conventional that
create obstacles must be reported to this section. It assigns sequential target
numbers to obstacles, and it reports their status, target numbers, and
locations to the ECC. It reports current obstacle information to maneuver unit
umpires by means of updated obstacle overlays. This section assists in
controlling tactical obstacles and coordinates the placement of obstacle
guards within the ACC area. It may divide its area into sub areas to simplify
the dissemination of information to tenant units. Breached obstacles are
logged on the obstacle status log and removed from the obstacle map.
Repairing unit umpires report MSR and LOC repairs, and ACC personnel post
them in proper logs, remove them from the correct obstacle overlay, and
report them to the ECC G4. The obstacle section also ensures that all
obstacles in the ACC area are properly marked throughout the exercise. The
obstacle should be marked by either the emplacing unit umpire, the
requesting unit umpire, or a nearby resident umpire.

A sample ACC organization for a brigade area of

operations during an FTX is shown in Table D-3. The table is provided for
guidance. Exact manning will depend on the type of exercise, the echelon at
which it is conducted, and the geographic area.


Asst chief controller COL/LTC 1
Asst area controller LTC 1
Driver/RTO CPL 1
Maneuver controller MAJ/CPT 2
Asst maneuver controller MSG/TSG 2
Driver/RTO CPL 2
Fire support controller MAJ/CPT 2
Asst FS controller MSG/TSG 2
Driver/RTO CPL 2
Obstacle controller MAJ/CPT 2
Asst obstacle controller TSG/SSG 2
2. Umpire Teams
Driver/RTO CPL 2



The umpire teams evaluate engagements, fires, obstacles, encounters,

and support activities, based on weapons effect tables, professional
judgment, and a thorough knowledge of the player unit's disposition and
scheme of maneuver. The teams interface with ACCs. They are especially
active at the battalion and lower levels of command where they may perform
simultaneously as controllers and evaluators.

The organizational tables that follow depict umpire teams supporting a

division (brigade-slice) FTX. These tables depict the most commonly required
teams. Any unit in an exercise may require a corresponding umpire team.

TABLE F.4 Brigade Umpire Team


Brigade chief umpire COL/LTC 1 S
Driver/RTO SGT 1 C
Pilot CPT 1 S
Asst chief umpire MAJ 1 C
Driver/RTO CPL/PFC 1 C
Administrative umpire CPT 1 C
Asst administrative
umpire TSG 1 C
Intelligence umpire MAJ/CPT 2 S
Intelligence NCO TSG 1 S
Driver/RTO CPL/PFC 1 C
POW umpire SSG 1 S
Asst POW umpire CPL 1 S
Operations umpire MAJ/CPT 2 S
Operations NCO SSG 1 S
Asst Operations NCO SSG 1 S
Truck driver/RTO SGT 2 C
Logistics umpire CPT 1 C
Asst logistic umpire TSG 1 C
Driver/RTO CPL/PFC 1 C
Medical umpire CPT/LT 1 C
Asst medical umpire TSG 1 C
Driver/RTO CPL 1 C
Maintenance umpire CPT 1 C
Asst maintenance
umpire MSG/TSG 1 C
Driver/RTO CPL 1 C



TABLE F.4 Maneuver Battalion Control Team


Chief umpire LTC 1 S
Driver/RTO CPL 1 C
Asst chief umpire MAJ 1 S
Driver/RTO CPL 1 C
Operations/intelligence CPT 2 S
Operations NCO TSG 1 S
Driver/RTO CPL 1 C
Battalion fire support
umpire MAJ/CPT 1 S
Asst fire support umpire LT 1 S
Battalion fire support NCO TSG/SSG 1 S
Asst fire support NCO SSG/SGT 1 S
Driver CPL 1 C
Scout platoon umpire TSG 1 C
Driver/RTO CPL 1 C
Company chief umpire CPT 3 C
Driver/RTO CPL 3 C
Company FIST/FO umpire TSG/SSG 3 C
Driver CPL 3 C
Asst company umpire TSG 3 C
Driver/RTO CPL 3 C
Administrative umpire CPT/TSG 1 C
Logistic umpire CPT/TSG 1 C
Driver/RTO CPL 1 C
Mortar platoon umpire LT/TSG 1 C
Antiarmor platoon umpire* LT/TSG 1 C
Driver/RTO PFC 1 C
* For infantry battalions

TABLE F.5 Artillery Umpire Team


Counter-Fire Team /
Brigade Umpire
Counter-Fire chief CPT/LT 2 S
Operations NCO SSG/SGT 2 S
Driver/RTO CPL 2 S
FA Battalion Team
Chief umpire MAJ/CPT 1 S
Operations TSG 1 S
Driver/RTO CPL 1 S



TABLE F.6 Engineer Umpire Team


Per line company;
Company umpire CPT 1 S
Platoon umpire LT/TSG 2 S
Driver/RTO CPL 5 C
Per bridge company:
Company umpire CPT 1 S
Driver/RTO CPL 1 C
Per Hqs and Hqs
Company umpire CPT 1 S
Driver/RTO CPL 1 C

TABLE F.7 Aviation Control and Umpire Team


Chief company umpire MAJ 1 S
Pilot LT 1 S
Operations officer CPT/LT 1 S
Driver/RTO CPL/PFC 1 C
Platoon umpire CPT/LT 3 S
Pilot LT 3 S

TABLE F.8 Medical Control and Casualty Team


Medical control team
Medical umpire CPT/LT 1 C
Asst medical umpire TSG 1 C
Driver/RTO CPL 1 C
Casualty Control Team
Moulage technician CPL/SGT 1 C
Driver/RTO CPL 1 C

a. Brigade Team

1) Brigade Chief Umpire. The brigade chief umpires are in

charge of all brigade umpire teams in their sphere of control. They are the
primary link between the ECC, ACC, and the player units. They provide
liaison with player units and ensure that ACCs and the ECC receive frequent
updates on unit locations, plans, and intentions. They coordinate with OPFOR



brigade umpires and assist in positioning opposing battalion umpires. They

ensure that timely situation reports (SITREPs) are received and forwarded.

The brigade chief umpires maintain current

locations of player units and monitor player unit plans and intentions. They
resolve conflicts among player umpires and report them to the division chief
umpires, when appropriate. The brigade chief umpires also conduct AARs at
the ends of exercises.

2) Assistant Brigade Chief Umpire. The assistant brigade

chief umpires represent the chief umpires in their absence and perform other
duties that the chief umpires specify.

3) Administrative Umpire. The administrative umpires

monitor the personnel replacement and casualty reporting system.

4) Intelligence Umpire. The intelligence umpires monitor the

performance of the brigade S2 section, to include the brigade intelligence net
traffic and actions generated by that traffic.

5) POW Umpire. The POW umpires control trained POWs,

coordinate their insertion in player channels, and monitor the handling,
processing, and evacuation of POWs in player channels. They accompany
POWs from insertion to evacuation to the division PW collection point. They
ensure that captured OPFORs are repatriated and not processed as POWs.

6) Operations umpire. The operations umpires monitor the

brigade S3 section, maintain communications with the ECC or ACC, and
gather and transmit SITREPs from battalion umpires.

7) Logistical Umpire and Assistant. The logistical umpires

and assistants monitor all supply expenditures and resupply activities. They
also monitor equipment loss reports and weapon systems replacement
operations in the brigade.

8) Medical Umpire. The medical umpires coordinate the

insertion of medical casualties and monitor the casualty evacuation system of
player units.

9) Maintenance Umpire and Assistant. The maintenance

umpires and assistants monitor all maintenance activities in the brigade. They
ensure that recovery, repair, and replacement follow established procedures.
They may accompany equipment through the maintenance system to observe
player actions.

b. Maneuver Battalion Team

1) Battalion Chief Umpire. The battalion chief umpires are in

charge of all battalion umpires. They are the primary communications link
between the brigade team and the player units, and they ensure that the



brigade team and the ACC maneuver section are notified prior to entering or
departing ACC areas. The chief umpires make sure that the brigade team and
the appropriate ACC maneuver section get updates whenever the battalion or
a subordinate company moves 2 to 3 kilometers or more, changes the
direction of attack, or withdraws. They make sure that timely SITREPs are
transmitted to the ACC. They update the ACC frequently on player plans and
intentions. They place subordinate company umpires in direct contact with
their counterparts in the OPFOR. They resolve player-umpire conflicts and
report them to the brigade chief umpire, as necessary. They conduct informal
briefings at the ends of the exercises and provide input for the AARs.

2) Battalion Assistant Chief Umpire. The battalion assistant

umpires take the place of the chief umpires, in their absence. They perform
any other functions that the chief umpires direct.

3) Operations/Intelligence Umpire. The

operations/intelligence umpires are the primary contact between player unit
umpires and the umpire chain of command. As assistants to the battalion
assistant umpires/evaluators, they establish the umpire maneuver operations
center. They maintain the operations map with the current locations of
battalion and subordinate units. They maintain communication and
coordination with ACCs and subordinate company/scout platoon/attached unit
umpires such as the engineer platoon umpire. They consolidate and transmit
SITREPs from subordinate unit umpires to the ACC, and they transmit
required reports to the appropriate ACCs. They provide target information,
when requested, through the ACC maneuver section to the fire support
section, and they receive and relay information on opposing forces and
obstacles from ACCs to concerned company/scout platoon umpires.

4) Logistics Umpire. The logistics umpires monitor the

battalion logistics activities. They also monitor the equipment loss reports and
weapon system replacement operations.

5) Company Umpire. Normally, company umpires go with

the company commanders. They ensure that team members are properly
positioned to observe player activities. They communicate or meet directly
with the opposing force unit umpires to exchange information, adjust
engagements, assess all battle losses, and determine the outcome of
engagements. They report the plans and intentions of player unit
commanders, as well as changes in unit location of more than 2 to 3
kilometers, to the battalion umpire teams. They also report all obstacles that
player units emplace, execute, or breach to the battalion umpire team. The
company umpires emphasize safety and report any violations directly to the
unit or through umpire channels. They conduct informal briefings at the end of
the exercise and report maneuver damage that exceeds the allowable

6) Scout Platoon Umpire. The scout platoon umpires

monitor the activities of the scout platoon. They ensure that information
regarding opposing force sightings and imminent contact is relayed to the



company umpire. They must clear with the battalion chief umpire/operations
officer before directing the platoon's withdrawal when it is reduced to one-third
TOE strength.

7) Battalion Fire Support Umpire. The battalion fire support

umpires assess the effects of hostile weapons. They monitor the FSO's fire
planning and coordination.

8) Company Fire Support Umpire. The company fire support

umpires assess the effects of incoming hostile fire. They monitor FIST/FO fire
planning and coordination, positioning, and calls for fire. They forward fire
planning and other appropriate information through umpire channels to the
battalion umpires. They mark indirect fires within their sectors.

9) Mortar Platoon Umpire. The mortar platoon umpires

monitor platoon planning, coordination, calls for fire, positioning, and interface
with the scheme of maneuver.

10) Administrative Umpire. The administrative umpires have

the same duties as the administrative umpires for the brigade team.

11) Antiarmor Platoon Umpire. For infantry battalions only,

these umpires function like the company maneuver umpires but have specific
responsibility for the antiarmor platoon.

c. Artillery Team

1) Chief Artillery Umpire. The chief artillery umpire is in

charge of all field artillery umpires in the exercise sector. He is responsible for
the training, supervision, placement, and welfare of umpires. The chief umpire
arbitrates conflicts; serves as contact between players and umpires, as
required; and ensures that all umpires adhere to established procedures in
performing their duties.

2) FA Battalion Team. The FA battalion team collocates with

the player FDC operations center. The team monitors all counterfire and
indirect fire missions, as required.

d. Air Defense Battalion Team

1) Battalion Umpire. The battalion umpires activities, keep

abreast of unit intentions, maintain the status and location of all units assess
battle losses and casualties, and report and report to the ACC, as appropriate.
The battalion umpires are the relay points for information provided the player
unit by the ACC, especially obstacle information. They monitor both tactical
play and movement of the battalion headquarters and headquarters battery.
They assess battle loss and engagements, as required.

2) Battery Umpire. The battery umpires receive and act

upon messages from the battalion and platoon umpires. They monitor unit



current status to the battalion, umpires, as required. The battery umpires also
submit obstacle reports to battalion umpires.

3) Platoon Umpire. The platoon umpires monitor player

movement, tactics and engagements; and they report to the battery umpires,
as required. They assess battle losses and casualties and report obstacles to
battery umpires. The platoon umpires provide aviation umpires with air
defense locations and operational status, as required.

e. Engineer Battalion Umpire Team

1) Engineer Company Umpire. The engineer company

umpires validate operations of the engineer company to include obstacle
emplacement, execution, breaching, and bridging operations. They monitor
Class V obstacle materiel management. They ensure that obstacles are
marked and reported and that obstacle guards are properly placed.

2) Engineer Bridge Company Umpire. The engineer bridge

company umpires validate the operations of an engineer company equipped
with mobile assault bridge, ribbon, and panel bridging. They ensure that river-
crossing operations are conducted in a realistic manner and verify bridge
construction estimates during bridging operations with the ACC.

f. Aviation Control Team

1) Company Controller. The company controllers are in

charge of the company umpire teams. They keep the ACC informed of
company and forward arming and refueling point (FARP) locations, receive
engagement reports from platoon umpires, and monitor current company
strength. They ensure that assessed aircraft are removed from operation for
the prescribed time period, and they monitor selected ammunition
expenditures and resupply, to include FARP interdiction. The company
controllers mark and assess incoming fire missions upon receipt of reports or
retransmit reports to subordinate umpires in the vicinity of the impact grid for
their assessment.

2) Platoon Umpire. The platoon umpires fly with and

observe the deployment of the player-accompanied platoon. They assess
losses from ground fire and ADA weapons, contact ground unit umpires
through the ACC, provide a subjective loss evaluation of both air and ground
elements, and submit engagement reports to the company umpire.

g. Medical Control and Casualty Teams

Medical control and casualty team record and tag

simulated casualties that medical umpires have designated for evacuation
through medical channels. They will collocate with the specific evacuation
companies that provide a simulated combat support hospital in the division
support area.







1. Basic Functions

Through the controllers, exercise directors monitor the play to ensure

that the training objectives are accomplished. Controllers keep the play within
the limits prescribed by the scenario. By arbitrating engagements and
assessing losses, umpires help player units get the maximum training
benefits. Evaluating is separate and distinct from both controlling and
umpiring. Evaluators determine proficiency, based on the training objectives in
soldiers’ manuals by observing player activities.

2. Preparation

At all echelons of command the controllers, umpires, and evaluators

who monitor exercise play must be knowledgeable in the performance of
assigned duties. They must know the schedule of events that support the
training objectives. Controllers, umpires, and evaluators receive formal
training after the LOI is published and prior to STARTEX. The chief umpire,
chief controller, chief evaluator, and their respective staffs conduct training
sessions together or separately.

Generally, preparation begins with team leaders' conferences. The

chief controllers, umpires, and evaluators conduct conferences with their
player counterparts at each echelon to acquaint them with the exercise
scenario and background information; the missions, concepts, policies, and
procedures for controllers, umpires, and evaluators; the organization, duties,
and responsibilities for controllers, umpires, and evaluators; and the
schedules for controllers and umpires. Preparation i ncludes further schooling
for controllers, umpires, and evaluators. Conducted either concurrently or
separately, these schools familiarize personnel with:

a. Duties, responsibilities, and procedures.

b. The exercise scenario and background information.

c. Administrative and logistics procedures.

d. The exercise area, rules, and safety requirements.

e. Medical procedures.

f. Environmental protection.

g. Procedures during player tactical movement.

h. Procedures for umpiring obstacle encounters.



i. Direct and indirect fire assessment.

j. Procedures for controlling ADA, tactical air, and Army aviation.

k. Preparation of reports.

l. Procedures for multi-echelon AARs.

Preparation also includes reconnaissance, coordination, and

communications. Prior to STARTEX, controller, umpire, and evaluator teams
and supporting personnel should reconnoiter the exercise area and test the
communications equipment.

Evaluators should be selected with care and must be thoroughly

knowledgeable in the specific tasks to be evaluated. The senior evaluator will
instruct evaluator personnel on evaluation objectives and be responsible for
their training. The senior evaluator will also develop the evaluator manning
table in conjunction with the chief controller, taking care to ensure that
evaluators are properly selected and assigned to positions they are qualified
to evaluate. Evaluators must also be knowledgeable concerning:

a. Player units' TOE and TDAs.

b. The personnel status of the player units.

c. The training of the player units to date.

d. The equipment status of the player units.

e. Player units' SOPs.

Evaluators are responsible for positioning themselves where they can

observe as many activities as possible. However, because it is physically
impossible to observe all activities during an exercise, they must make sound
judgments to determine which ones are more important. This does not relieve
the evaluator of the responsibility to evaluate the other activities. To do that,
evaluators must rely on the reports received from other means, including:

a. Radio traffic.

b. Pointed questions of other evaluators.

c. Message traffic.

d. Directed discussions with commanders and staff.

Evaluators may also assist unit commanders who desire help in

meeting training objectives. Acting as trainers during the exercise, they can



show soldiers and leaders better ways to perform tasks or correct poor
performance, if required.

2. Particular Functions

Control personnel must be able to monitor and assess various kinds of

exercise play: direct fire, indirect fire, ADA, Army aviation, tactical air support,
and engineer.

3. Direct Fire Play

If simulation is used, umpires will assess casualties using the tables in

Appendix F for evaluating small arms engagements.

4. Indirect Fire Play

a. Control

Indirect fire control procedures require effective radio

communications among opposing unit umpires and fire direction centers. Fire
support controllers must be aggressive in establishing and maintaining
communications. They must be accurate and prompt in informing each other
of changes in locations, maneuver control measures, fire support coordination
measures, and frontline traces.

Dedicated fire support umpires are assigned to each

echelon from maneuver company headquarters to brigade headquarters,
including FA units. The composition of umpire teams for FA units depends
upon unit missions and exercise objectives. Terrain and local situations may
dictate modifications to any manning table. Only the planners at local levels
can determine modifications. Appendix D of this manual provides guidance
and sample manning tables for control organizations. Umpires accompanying
other forces must mark and assess indirect fires on their units' installations, as

Because no OPFOR live fire occurs during field

exercises, targets that would normally be located by counterfire sound and
flash ranging, and crater analysis cannot be developed. The targeting
assistance provided by EWI units is also difficult to portray in exercises.
Controllers or umpires can provide necessary information for exercising target
intelligence systems to provide battle staff, survivability, and systems training.
For example, the umpire of the targeted unit can receive the gun-target (GT)
direction in each indirect fire mission report from the FDC umpire. If the
targeted unit players can, in a practical manner, demonstrate to the controller
that they know how to perform crater analysis correctly and have the
equipment to do it, the controller will provide the hostile GT direction to the
player unit. The player unit must then get this information through correct
channels to the counterfire center at player artillery. The fire support section of
each ACC where indirect fire systems are positioned will notify the ECC fire



support section of the identity and grid locations of OPFOR targets according
to the schedule in Table E-1.




Mortar platoon 1 each / hour
FA howitzer battery 1 each / 2 hours
FA gun battery 1 each / 2 hours
FA battalion command
1 each / 4 hours

Another way to create target intelligence is to have the

ECC for the support section consolidate opposing force locations and,
according to percentages specified in Table F-7, relay a portion of them via
telephone to S2/S3 controllers. The S2/S3 controllers place the locations in
the player all-source intelligence center. The ECC fire support element relays
the remaining firing unit locations to each OPFOR artillery controller by the
fastest and most secure means available. In order to simulate acquisitions,
the artillery controller sends relay locations to the FA battalion umpire, who
will provide them to the player section located in the area. The player artillery
is responsible for providing the communications link from the FA battalion
umpire to the radar section.

As constraints permit, umpires can use pyrotechnics,

munitions, or other aids to add realism. Upon notification of the mission, the
umpire with the targeted unit can use an artillery simulator. A smoke grenade
can simulate chemical or smoke munitions.

b. Assessment

For exercises such as CPXs that have no actual OPFOR,

umpires assess field artillery and mortar effects, damage, and casualties
using the appropriate tables from Appendix F. For exercises such as FTXs
that use an actual OPFOR, umpires with player and OPFOR units should
determine the effects of fires and assess damage and losses using the
appropriate tables from Appendix F. For example, when an observer locates a
target and calls for fire, the unit umpire gets the fire request information. The
FDC umpire informs the company umpire of the impact location, shell, fuze,
number of volleys, and observer target direction, rounded to the nearest 10
mils. This information passes from the friendly to the OPFOR umpire, who
assesses casualties and damage based on damage tables, accuracy of fire,
and subjective judgment, as appropriate. The OPFOR controller provides
damage and casualty assessment to, the friendly controller, who then
provides it to the FO. The FO uses the assessment in submitting surveillance
report if, in the controller's judgment, the terrain and weather allow
observation. If the OPFOR unit correctly conducts a crater analysis, the
OPFOR controller will provide the unit with a back azimuth upon which to
base a shell report. If the exercise is so large that it is difficult to identify



opponents, the umpire should get the call sign for the opposing umpires from
the ACC.

Using Table F-6, umpires assess personnel losses and

equipment damage caused by artillery and mortar fires. Simulated battle
losses of cargo carrying vehicles include the loss of the cargo. The controller
reduces or stops maneuver and/or delivery of fires, as circumstances require,
until the player unit simulates re-supply of destroyed cargo. In those firing
units where weapon systems are assessed, the umpire adjusts the total
rounds fired per mission based on the number of volleys fired, multiplied by
the total number of operational tubes remaining.

In order to place realistic restrictions on the number of fire

missions that an indirect fire unit can deliver, umpires assigned to mortar and
field artillery units must maintain strict and proper ammunition accountability,
including simulated losses to counterfire as described above. Maximum daily
expenditures by type of firing unit and ammunition are shown in Table F-8.
Unless OPFORs are designated and configured as threat units, the maximum
authorized expenditures listed for US forces will apply to both. When a unit
has fired its maximum daily expenditure or lost it through damage
assessment, the umpire denies the unit permission to tire additional missions
until it is re-supplied. Table 35 approximates the ammunition available daily,
based on the unit's on-board basic load plus 2 1/2 turn-rounds of its organic
re-supply vehicles.

5. Aviation Play

a. Control

Army aviation control computes losses for both aviation

and OPFOR units during engagements and insertions. Engagements are
confrontations between attack helicopter unit and an OPFOR unit for a 5-
minute period. Insertions of troops or equipment delivered into landing zones
by combat support aviation unit. Engagement outcomes are based on attack
positions, exposure times, and OPFOR air defense assets.

b. Assessment

For engagements between attack helicopters with rockets

against an OPFOR ADA array, an umpire is assigned to each AH platoon. A
rated pilot rides in the front seat of the observation helicopter or in the back
seat of the player platoon observation helicopter which accompanies the
attack helicopter platoon. The pilot must have access to FM communications.

To assess engagements with AHs, OPFOR umpires

monitor the number of engagements their ADA units accumulate against
helicopter elements, keeping cumulative figures throughout the exercise.
OPFOR company umpires coordinate with the OPFOR battalion umpire to
determine what ADA assets, in addition to organic or attached systems, are
available to the company.



When air assault, or attack helicopter missions fly over

OPFOR territory, the inbound and outbound flights are subject to casualty
assessments. Helicopter unit umpires should establish communications with
OPFOR umpires along the intended flight routes. Doing so determines losses
inflicted on the way in and out of the mission objective areas before the
missions are actually flown. Once the assessment process has been
coordinated and computed by aviation and OPFOR umpires, helicopter units
are allowed to perform the mission. Helicopter unit umpires will direct their
units to divert the losses back to their home bases, to a FARP site, or in the
case of an air assault, to the pre-designated casualty holding area.

Aviation umpires should consider air-to-air engagements

both in planning and controlling field exercises. Because aviation performs a
wide range of missions with a wide variety of helicopters, standardized
assessments are very difficult. Range, weapons, and targets control air-to-air
and anti-helicopter engagements. For example, rapid fire weapons are
extremely effective at ranges less than 1,000 meters, but their effectiveness
decreases significantly as the range increases. At 1,000 meters or less,
machine guns are effective. At 1,000 to 1,800 meters, folding fin aerial rockets
are effective.

In addition to the weapon systems and how they relate to

range, planners must consider other factors. Rapid fire guns have a high
volume of fire and create devastating effects on point targets at ranges under
1,000 meters. They require little time to lay on targets but must hit targets
directly to be effective. Rockets require relatively little time to lay on targets.
However, firing aircraft must aim at the targets, which requires maneuvering
time. The greatest advantage of rockets is their effectiveness without making
a direct hit.

Target presentation is the third factor to be considered in

an anti-helicopter confrontation. Does the target helicopter present its flank or
front? Is it hovering, flying nap-of-the-earth (NOE), masked, flying contour, or
attacking? Optimum hit and kill probability may occur when the target
helicopter presents its flank and is engaged as a point target at a range of
less than 1,000 meters. As the presentation becomes frontal and the range
increases, the hit/kill probability decreases proportionally. Given all the
possible factors, the professional judgment of qualified control personnel must
still remain primary in assessing results.

6. Tactical Air Support Play

a. Control

For tactical air support during exercises, the ECC should

be manned by sufficient Air Force TACP personnel and equipment to maintain
24-hour duty and the Air Force control net. Normally, Air Force controller
functions are performed by the ALO attached to the Army HQ that is given the



mission to establish control for the exercise. Each active ACC should be
manned by sufficient TACP personnel to maintain and operate the Air Force
control net as directed by the chief controller, and to receive/record BDA
reports for air strikes conducted within the ACC's area of responsibility. On
joint training exercises, the appropriate Air Force headquarters will designate
a chief controller for the exercise.

The Army controller organization should man the ASOC

with sufficient ADA controller personnel and equipment to maintain 24-hour
duty and communications with the ECC. If the ASOC is not deployed to the
exercise area, ADA controllers must establish communications to the ASOC
or to the Air Force organization fulfilling the ASOC mission for the exercise.

b. Assessment

For all Air Force tactical air support sorties entering the
exercise area airspace (close air support, battlefield air interdiction,
reconnaissance), the ADA controller computes attrition from ground-based
ADA. The ASOC advises the ADA controller of missions, times over targets
(TOTs), target coordinates or initial contact points based on procedures, and
numbers of aircraft involved. Using the attrition reports, the ASOC advises the
ADA controller of the number of sorties remaining.

1) Close Air Support. Forward air controllers are also

players. They control specific missions and supply BDA for them using
mutually agreed upon tables provided for the exercise. They also introduce
BDAs into controller channels and transmit them via controller
communications to targeted unit umpires.

The ASOC notifies FACs of the number of aircraft

for which BDA will be made. For example, the message Four aircraft; score
three shows that ADA killed one aircraft. BDA reports only three aircraft are
scored. All other ASOC transmissions to and from the FACs are standardized.

After each mission, the FACs make the BDAs

using mutually agreed upon tables and deliver the standard reports. In
addition, the FACs contact the ACC responsible for the area of the target
coordinates and pass on messages indicating the mission number, TOT,
target coordinates, BDA, and number of aircraft in the area. The ACCs log
these mission reports.

2) Battlefield Air Interdiction. The ASOC notifies the Air

Force controller in the ECC of all ground attack missions that will not be
observed or for which a BDA by a FAC will not be made. The ASOC will
provide mission number, actual TOT, target coordinates, type of attack
(visual, radar, air support radar team), target description, type/number of
aircraft to score, and ordnance. The Air Force controller will determine what
unit may have been at the coordinates at the time of the strike and initiate
assessment procedures.



3) Reconnaissance. The ADA controller at the ASOC will

notify the ECC if a reconnaissance mission was unsuccessful due to OPFOR
action. The G2/S2 air controller will prevent the appropriate reconnaissance
mission reports from being used by player units.

For tactical air reconnaissance missions, the

ASOC notifies the supported unit TACP of how many aircraft were lost before
they reconnoitered the approved targets. The TACP then notifies the
designated or sup-ported unit umpire, as well as the appropriate staff member
of the supported unit. Unit umpires should provide an appropriate intelligence
readout given the flight path of the reconnaissance flight.

4) Air Transport. For tactical air transport missions, the

ASOC notifies the supported unit TACP of how many air-craft were lost before
they got to the drop or landing zones. The TACP then notifies the designated
supported unit controller, as well as the appropriate staff member of the
supported unit.

7. Engineer Play

a. Control

The planning sequence for Engineer play in training

exercises and for actual combat are identical. Exercise objectives determine
the scope of engineer operations. The OPLAN published by the higher
headquarters con-ducting the exercise provides subordinate commanders
with EEI necessary to carry out the mission.

The engineer staff officer assigned to the exercise

planning staff writes the engineer annex to the OPLAN. During planning,
major engineer elements participating in the exercise work with the engineer
planner to ensure that operations are adequate.

Umpires validate all simulated obstacles with obstacle

certificates. Upon partial or full completion of a simulated obstacle, the umpire
assigned to the emplacing unit fills in and signs the certificate and gives it to
the obstacle guard. Obstacles should be so constructed that encountering
units have difficulty in breaching or bypassing them. Attrition will be enhanced
if an obstacle is covered by fire or if it coincides with a direct fire kill zone. The
emplacing engineer unit umpire or, in the case of reserve targets, the umpire
with the maneuver company guarding the obstacle reports completed
obstacles to the ACC. Demolition obstacles are not effective until execution,
including detonation, is reported to the ACC.

Umpires of units capable of delivering mines are informed

of the minefield mission by the delivering unit. After the emplacement, the
maneuver unit umpire submits a report to the ACC, completes the obstacle
certificate, and marks the obstacle.




(To be completed by unit officer)

1. TYPE AND NA TURE OF OBS TACLE (Example: Bridge demolition, bridge

damage by bomb, road crat er, pre-positioned weapons.)

2. METHODS USED (brief description of work done. Example TNT placed at

center abutment; for conventional explosives, attach a sketch, indicate
location, type and amount of explosives in each charge and include wiring

3. MATE RIA L OR E XPLOSIVE USE D: (Example: 6 Charges, 200 pounds each

with electric or non electric blasting caps.)

4. STA RTED (Dat e and hour)

5. E XECUTE D (Date and hour) or DA TE AND HOUR BOMBED


Figure G.1 Obstacle Certificate (Front)





- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


DATE ______________________________

(Unit) (Signature of controller) (Rank)


Figure G.2 Obstacle Certificate (Back).



b. Assessment

Upon entering an exercise area, the maneuver battalion

umpire receives obstacle information from the ACC. The maneuver unit
empire is responsible for ensuring that the unit takes appropriate action when
encountering an obstacle. Units encountering obstacles should actually
perform all steps of the breach possible. For example, when a unit encounters
a minefield, the leader must choose the breaching method. If mine detectors
are used, operators with detectors should actually attempt to locate and
neutralize the mines. The nature of an obstacle determines the time required
to reduce or breach it. This time obtained from the breaching requirements
specified on the obstacle certificate. Appendix F provides the time required for
breaching and the casualty assessment criteria for simulated minefields.

When an obstacle is covered by fire, the encountering

unit must suppress or eliminate the source of fire and proceed with the
breaching requirements specified in the obstacle certificate. Casualties from
direct or indirect fire will be determined by casualty assessment instructions.

The exercise control organization provides obstacle

guards who have the same authority as other exercise controllers. Obstacle
guards enforce and ensure active compliance by all participating troops
encountering the obstacle.



Assessment and Computation Tables

1. Principles

The tables that follow were developed for assessing such exercise
effects as personnel losses and equipment damage and for computing
emplacement or deployment times. When battle simulations support an
exercise, the tables from the simulations should be used. Other PAMs and
SPs contain data and tables that should be used, as appropriate, in the
assessment procedures. Locally produced tables and procedures should be
used judiciously. Within any exercise, all participating elements must use the
same tables.

To determine armored vehicle kill probability (AVKP), umpires follow

the procedure below.

a. Step 1

First, opposing umpires determine task organization

based only on the part of the unit that is in contact. For instance, one armored
platoon, two mechanized infantry platoons, and two anti armor sections may
be opposing each other. Each of these elements has a kill potential in the
following ranges: 1,000 meters, 1,000-2,000 meters, and 2,000 meters and
beyond. At 500 meters or less, each can also inflict casualties. Umpires total
the kill potential of all elements for each range, using Table F-1.

1,000 1,000-2,000 2,000 500
1 tank pltn 4 2 1 12
1 mech pltn 3 0 0 20
1 antiarmor
section 1 2 1 3
Total 8 4 2 35

1 tank pltn 4 2 1 12
2 mech pltn 5 0 0 40
2 antiarmor
section 2 4 2 6
Total 12 6 3 58



Table H.1 Direct Fire Adjustment Table

b. Step 2

Opposing umpires then exchange their accompanied unit

AVKP. The totals above, for instance, would be exchanged as

FRIENDLY to 8/4/2/35
OPFOR to 12/6/3/58

c. Step 3

The umpires then adjust the AVKP they received for

posture, visibility conditions, and the amount of indirect fire being used to
suppress the opposing forces. They adjust the Friendly to OPFOR 8/4/2/35



AVKP for these factors by referring to the OPFOR to Friendly 12/6/3/68 direct
fire adjustment table F-1.

1) Example 1

Friendly forces are in defensive/prepared positions

(2 to 8 hours). Heavy rain reduces visibility. The Friendly forces is firing light
suppression on OPFORs located 1,500 meters from friendly positions. The
AVKP friendly forces received from OPFOR is 12/6/3/58. By entering the
adjustment table at 6 (1,500 meters) and reading across, the umpire
determines that the posture adjustment is 3. The umpire then enters the
visibility table at 3 and adjusts for rain. The AVKP is reduced to 2. Finally, the
umpire enters the suppression table at 2 and, reading across to light
suppression, determines an AVKP of 2. Thus, at a range of 1,500 meters, the
OPFOR has the potential to kill 2 friendly armored vehicles in each five
minutes of contact.

d. Example 2

The OPFOR is attacking 900 meters from friendly forces

defensive positions. There is no night illumination, and heavy suppression is
being fired on friendly positions. The AVKP that OPFOR received from
friendly force is 8/4/2/35. Entering the table at 8 and reading across, the
umpire would determine that there is no target posture adjustment. The
OPFOR is moving or in open positions; the night illumination adjustment is 4;
the heavy suppression adjustment is 2. Thus, at a range of 900 meters, the
friendly forces has the potential to kill 2 OPFOR armored vehicles in each five
minutes of contact.

e. Example 3

The friendly forces is attacking and has breached a

minefield 900 meters from the OPFOR. The friendly forces umpire takes the
AVKP previously received from the OPFOR controller--8/4/2/35--and makes a
special AVKP adjustment. Using the AVKP for 900 meters, which is 8, the
umpire enters the direct fire adjustment table F-1 in the Moving or Open
column and reads directly across to the Canalized Crossing Obstacle column
where the AVKP increases to 10. This number reflects the increased
vulnerability for crossing an obstacle through a narrow breach. Other
adjustments are made for visibility and suppression. The adjusted AVKP is
assessed for each 55-minute period the friendly forces is moving through the
breached obstacle.

f. Step 4

From the above calculations, the umpires determine that

the OPFOR now has the capability to inflict 2 armored vehicle losses per 5
minutes of engagement on the friendly forces and that the friendly forces can
inflict 2 armored vehicle losses per 5 minutes of engagement on the OPFOR.



When more than one unit opposes a single unit, umpires

use the cumulative AVKP in assessing losses. For example, an umpire may
receive AVKPs from two opposing controllers:

The umpire then adjusts the cumulative AVKP for target

posture, illumination, and suppression. When a company is attacked by two
opposing companies, the AVKP is divided and forwarded to each opposing
controller. For example, a company in such a posture has an AVKP of
10/6/4/18. The umpire forwards an AVKP of 5/3/2/9 to each opposing

2. Direct Fire Tables

To determine the effects of direct fires, umpires use the tables below,
as appropriate.





FORCES 50-1,000 1,000-2,000 3,000 PERSONNEL

Armored cavalry
pltn 3 4 2 13
Scout pltn 2 3 1 10
Rifle pltn
(mechanized) 3 20
Rifle pltn (foot) 2 - - 15
Combat engineer
pltn 1 - - 10
FA battery (155
mm) 2 1 1 36
FA battery (105
mm) 2 2 1 24
ADA pltn - - - 12

Tank company 7 5 2 18
Motorized rifle
company 8 9 2 23
Recon company 2 2 2 11
Antitank company 2 1 - 6
FA battery 2 1 1 25

Notes: The date above is guide. Controllers must adjust target posture,
visibility and suppression. They must apply judgment to account for reduced
effectiveness because of combat losses.

Crew loss per armored vehicle kill is 3

Against wheeled or unarmored vehicles,
the above losses double.

Personnel casualties are the total

casualties against a dismounted
element, regardless of total elapsed time
of engagement.

Potential armored
kill for a 105mm FA
battery are not valid
against tank.



Table H.2 Infantry Fires Versus Infantry Personnel



Table H.3 Infantry Ambush


Table H.4 Close Assault (Attacker/ Defender Fractional Losses

3. H.3 Indirect Fire Tables

To determine the effects of indirect fires, umpires apply the tables

below, as appropriate.



Table H-5 Conventional Indriect Fire Damage Assessment

Munitions effects radii for various indirect fire weapon systems using HE

60 mm mortar squad – 50 meters

81 mm mortar platoon – 100 meters
105 mm howitzer battery – 100 meters
155 mm howitzer battery – 150 meters

Standardized target arrays in normal battlefield configurations.
Tanks - 5 vehicles
APCs - 4 vehicles
FA - 6 towed weapons (105 mm)
Mortars - 5 vehicles
Troops - 25 individuals
Antitank/ADA - 4 SP/towed/ground mounted weapons
Trucks - 5 vehicles
Helicopters - 5 aircraft
Mounted artillery crew- 4 individuals
Number of HE rounds, by caliber, necessary to destroy one target
element of the type indicate d:

Target Mortars Field Artillery

60 mm 81 mm 105 mm 155 mm
Tanks - - - 120
APCs 12 24 24 18
Dismounted Troops
In open 1 1 1 .75
Dug in 4 4 4 3



Table H.6 Indirect Fire Engagement

Table H.7 Counte r Battery Targeting




60 mm Mortar
squad (Light 400 - 100 60
Infantry Battalion)
81 mm Mortar Pltn
(Light Infantry 600 - 150 80
81 mm Pltn
(Mechanized 600 - 200 100
Infantry Battalion)
105 mm Howitzer
9,500 1,000 1,500 300
Battalion (Towed)
155 mm Howitzer
4,000 700 300 -
Battalion (Towed)
120mm Mortar
1,400 - 300 60
122 Howitzer
8,500 400 800 300
152 Howitzer
4,000 200 400 150
130mm Gun
7,500 - - -

Table H.9 Small Arms Versus Aircraft



Table H.10 Random Numbers

4. Engineer Tables

To determine the effects of obstacle emplacement and breaching

operations, umpires apply the table below, as appropriate.



Table H. 11 Obstacle Emplacement


Table H.12 Obstacle Breaching Requirements


Table H.13 Demolition Require ments for Conventional Tactical Obstacle



Table H.14 Pre Chambe r Road Crater Emplacement Guidelines

Table H.15 Class IV Barrier Haul Guidelines



Post Exercise Activities

1. After-Action Reviews

Whether externally or internally evaluated, all training exercises have

AARs. Normally, the formality and scope of the AARs increase as the level
and scope of the training expand. For example, because events occur so
frequently and over such distances in a company-level field exercise, no
single person can observe all the events, especially someone preoccupied
with the overall unit mission. AARs pull together the separate events. They
integrate the experiences and observations of everyone involved in an
atmosphere that promotes effective learning. To be most effective, AARs
should be conducted during the exercise at logical break points, as well as at
the conclusion.

AARs are not critiques in the traditional sense. They do not merely
judge success or failure. Instead, they are professional discussions of training
events. Trainers or controllers should not lecture participants on what went
wrong. Rather they guide discussions to ensure that important lessons are
openly discussed, preferably by the participants themselves. Soldiers who
identify what went right and wrong learn much more than when lessons are
dictated. For effective AARs:

a. All controllers, umpires, and evaluators must be trained in AAR

techniques and prepared to conduct AARs with subgroups. The chief
controller should debrief all controllers and assistants prior to the AARs.

b. Commanders and controllers should not critique or lecture. They

guide the discussions by asking leading questions. They enter the discussion
only to sustain the AAR, to get the discussion back on the right track, or to
bring out new points.

c. Discussions do not embarrass leaders or soldiers but

emphasize the positive.

d. Participants describe what happened in their own terms.

a. The discussions are outlined, prepared, and rehearsed.

e. Thought-provoking questions are prepared to stimulate


f. Analyses relate tactical events to subsequent results and

training objectives.

g. Alternate courses of action are discussed.



h. Discussions avoid minor events that do not directly relate to the

major training objectives.

i. Participants do not excuse inappropriate actions. Instead, they

examine why actions were taken and what alternatives were available.

j. Terrain models and training aids illustrate events. Participants

relate their comments to the model and move the markers for units, vehicles,
and personnel to show the events. TV tape playbacks of key events generate
interest and discussions.

k. Every element that participated in the exercise is present at the


l. Training deficiencies surfaced during the AAR are incorporated

into the unit training schedule within two to six weeks of the exercise.

AARs encourage discovery learning. Soldiers learn best when they

learn from each other and from their leaders. Controllers, umpires, and
evaluators are there to guide that learning. In this way, soldiers and junior
leaders get involved in their own professional development and learn more in
the process.

Controllers, umpires, and evaluators must provide comments to the

units with which they work. AARs occur during the exercises or as soon after
them as practical. During lengthy exercises, they occur at predetermined
times following significant activities. Controllers, umpires, and evaluators
coordinate with respective OPFOR and player commanders to determine who
will attend. The chief controllers schedule ARRs in convenient locations,
preferably quiet places protected from adverse weather, where the soldiers
can feel relatively comfortable. Coffee and soup help create the proper
atmosphere. Regardless of the echelon conducting the exercise, the
maximum number of player personnel should attend an AAR, down to and
including the first-line NCO leaders and soldiers. Exercises at battalion and
above normally conduct separate AARs at each echelon.

AARs cover both the strengths and the weaknesses associated with:

a. Tactics.

b. Combined arms employment.

c. Command and control.

d. Communications.

e. Survivability.

f. Personnel and logistics support.



They encourage dialogue among controllers, evaluators, umpires, and

player unit personnel so that everyone will have the opportunity to discuss the
conduct of the exercise. AARs highlight lessons learned and alternative
solutions. The chief controllers provide agendas for the reviews. The agendas
then become outlines for the formal after-action reports, which are written
concurrently with or immediately after the exercise.

2. Preparation

In order to conduct AARs, chief controllers must have a complete

picture of what happened in the exercises. They base the AARs on comments
provided by controllers, umpires, evaluators, and OPFORs. They must debrief
the controllers immediately after ENDEX to determine what happened. They
must also debrief the OPFORs, which as control elements, are in
advantageous positions to observe player units.

If the controllers know something occurred that they could not observe,
they should ask a player unit member who was involved exactly what
happened, but not why or how. The why and how will be presented by the
player during the AAR. Figure G-1 provides a possible format they could use
for making detailed observations during exercises. By collecting and recording
the data from these working papers, chief controllers get the information
needed to conduct AARs. After gathering all the information, the chief
controllers review the exercises to determine the sequence of events and the
cause and effect relationships for all significant activities. The chief controllers
then coordinate the AARs and outline an agenda. Table G-1 shows a possible
agenda for the AAR of a platoon-or company-size maneuver unit in an
offensive role.


Event Number (from schedule of

events)/OPFOR action:


Observation (Player Action)


Figure I.1 Sample Format for Observation.



Table I.1 Sample AAR Agenda.

3. Conduct

Each AAR contains three major steps:

a. A restatement of training objectives.

b. A discussion of all events and how they are related, in order to

bring out teaching points.

c. A summary of the AAR and a recommendation for subsequent

training to correct weaknesses and sustain strengths.

The chief controller briefly restates the specific training objectives. The
AAR normally covers only the training objectives that the commander
identified prior to the exercise. The chief controller then guides a discussion of
events and their relationships by:

a. Asking leading questions that emphasize the training objectives.

b. Having the unit members describe what happened in their own

words and from their own points of view. Key elements of the AAR are the unit
commander's visualization of the battle, the commander's concept, the actual
events, and the reasons why they happened.

c. Bringing out important lessons learned.

d. Relating tactical events to subsequent results.

e. Exploring alternative courses of action that might have been

more effective.



f. Avoiding detailed examination of events not directly related to

major training objectives.

AARs may be delivered in either written or oral form. The Oral AAR is
usually conducted after every particular exercise activity. This is designed to
remedy or refine situations at the soonest possible time prior to the conduct of
the next activity. The Oral AAR may include, but is not limited to, the

a. Summary of Events

b. What Needs to be Improved

c. What Needs to be Sustained

Oral AAR usually follows the prescribed time format. For Squads and
Platoon levels, an oral AAR usually lasts from 30-45 minutes. For Company
level, it lasts for approximately 1 hour to 1 hour and 30 minutes. Finally, at
Battalion and Brigade levels, this lasts for at most 2 hours.

On the other hand, a Written AAR is a compilation of the entire AAR

process. This is a more formal aspect of the AAR since it already
incorporates the entire comments, critiques, observations, lessons learned,
and recommendations rolled into one comprehensive document. The Written
AAR may include, but is not limited to, the following:

a. Summary of the Exercise Activity

b. Observations

c. Lessons Learned




SUBJECT: After Action Report, FTX ________________.

A. Summary of the Executive Activity

B. Observations

C. Lessons Learned

Annexes (as required only)

Annex A - Personnel
Annex B - Intelligence
Annex C - Aviation
Annex D - Electronic Warfare
Annex E - Funding Procedure
Annex F - After Action Review
Annex G - Logistics
Annex H - Public Affairs
Annex I - Civil Military Operations
Annex J - Range Instructions
Annex K - Communications
Annex L - Operations Security
Annex M - Protocol
Annex N - Maneuver Damage and Environmental Considerations
Annex O - Control Cell Organization
Annex P - Provost Marshall
Annex Q - Engineer
Annex R - Distribution

Figure I.2 Sample Action Report.

Diagrams or overlays help players visualize what happened during the

exercise. For example, the assembly area and the objective could be shown
first. As the AAR proceeds, routes of advance and engagement locations can
be shown later as the exercise events are covered.

The chief controller concludes the AAR with a quick summary. After the
summary, the chief controller privately discusses individual and unit
performance with unit leaders. They discuss weaknesses honestly and
candidly in order to improve performance. But like the whole AAR, this portion



should be positive and encourage proud, confident units. Training objectives

for subsequent exercises can derive from such an analysis.

4. Echelons

Most training exercises integrate several systems such as maneuver,

fire support, intelligence, engineer, and maintenance support. They are
intersystem exercises. Others train only one system, regardless of its
complexity. They are intra system exercises. AARs are conducted either
consecutively or concurrently at each echelon that took part in the exercise.

For a Brigade FTX, each echelon's AAR discusses items and events
relating to the exercise objectives, unit OPORD, and TSOP as they affected
the unit's mission. CS units also conduct multi-echelon AARs following
exercises or after major phases or events during an exercise. FA, ADA, and
combat engineer units have special considerations that affect their AARs. CS
units normally provide elements, such as FIST and fire sup-port sections, that
associate and collocate with maneuver units. These personnel should attend
both the maneuver unit AAR and the parent unit AAR. If one person cannot
attend both AARs, a representative should attend each one. Commanders of
DS units (FA, engineer) should attend the maneuver brigade (third-echelon)
AAR and may wish to schedule the DS unit AAR later.

a. First Echelon

As soon after ENDEX as possible, the company umpire

holds an AAR for the company commander, leaders, and soldiers. A
maneuver company AAR will discuss:

1) Engagements.

2) Use of terrain.

3) Suppression of enemy weapons.

4) Coordination of fire and maneuver.

5) Employment of antitank weapons.

6) Employment of other organic and sup-porting weapon


For example, during the FTX, antitank weapons engaged

OPFOR units from defensive positions at the maximum range of 3,000
meters. The OPFOR dispersed instead of entering a kill zone where Dragons
could have been employed. The AAR discusses the pros and cons of this
event and the tactical procedures. It explores what should have happened
and what the results might have been.



During an FTX, elements of CSS units are normally

assigned to support maneuver units or areas. After ENDEX, members of CSS
units attend the first-echelon AAR of the sup-ported maneuver unit. Those in
forward areas should remain in position and attend the AAR of the maneuver
unit being supported. Those in rear areas such as field trains should attend
the AAR conducted there.

A first-echelon AAR should also be held at company level

for CSS units. For example, the maintenance company umpire should
conduct an AAR for the commander, leaders, and soldiers. This AAR must be
delayed until all members attending maneuver unit or other AARs can arrive
and until evaluator observations are compiled. A maintenance company AAR
will discuss:

1) The capability to repair equipment as far forward as


2) Provision of spare parts.

3) Optimum use of available spare parts.

4) Communications.

5) Availability of proper tools.

6) Response time to requests for repair.

7) Coordination procedures with supported units.

8) Tactical operations (rear area security) and survival


It will also discuss how the contact team can get enough
information from the unit requesting support so that supervisors send the right
personnel equipped with the right tools forward to make repairs.

b. Second Echelon

Second-echelon AARs are conducted only after the first-

echelon AARs are held and the necessary observations are recorded.
Battalion umpires conduct second-echelon AARs. Battalion commanders,
staffs, company commanders, and officers and non-commissioned officers
down to platoon sergeants or the equivalent attend. At this echelon, AARs are
professional discussions led by commanders and battalion umpires to
examine what happened, why it happened, and what alternatives should be
used in different tactical situations. A maneuver battalion AAR might discuss:

1) Organization for combat.



2) Concept of operation and scheme of maneuver.

3) Fire support coordination.

4) Combat engineer support.

5) Employment of antitank weapon systems.

6) Communication support.

7) Target acquisition systems.

8) Staff coordination.

9) Administrative and logistical support.

10) Integration and orchestration of all CA, CS, and CSS


11) Probable results for alternate courses of action.

For example, the AAR might discuss why the battalion did
not use combat engineer support properly as a combat multiplier and how
ineffective planning resulted in inadequate preparation of the battlefield. The
lessons learned can apply to the next exercise. The engineer officer who
supported the battalion should be present to discuss the proper use of combat

A maintenance battalion AAR will cover:

1) Systematic procedures for requesting spare parts.

2) Procedures for dispatching contact teams to support

maneuver units.

3) Training shortcomings in specific maintenance areas.

4) Communication procedures.

5) Maintenance system operations with units above and

below battalion level.

6) The effect of terrain, weather, and intensity of combat on

the demand for various types of spare parts.

7) The effect of new weapon systems on maintenance


8) Recovery and evacuation.



9) Controlled substitution.

10) Maintenance collection points.

11) Operational safety.

12) Operational readiness plan.

13) Mission essential maintenance only (MEMO).

14) Calibration.

15) Repair facility sites.

For example, the AAR might discuss the procedures for

dispatching contact teams to perform forward area maintenance and how a
lack of organic transportation degraded responsiveness. The AAR addresses
alternate means of transportation available to the battalion and procedures to
obtain and use them. If the unit SOP seems to be in error, the discussion
should focus on correcting and validating it in the next similar exercise.

b. Third Echelon

Third-echelon AARs are conducted after the second-

echelon AARs are completed, allowing enough time for compiling necessary
observations and examining lessons learned at the battalion level. Brigade
umpires conduct third-echelon AARs for the commanders, staffs, and
appropriate non-commissioned officers. Battalion commanders, their staffs,
and company commanders attend. AARs at this echelon are professional
discussions of what happened and why. However, third-echelon AARs

1) Operations under limited visibility.

2) The impact of new systems and doctrine on operations.

3) Intelligence preparation of the battlefield.

4) Tactical operations against different enemy actions.

5) Effects of enemy EW activity on friendly operations.

6) Integration and use of all CA, CS, and CSS assets.

If the exercise were conducted in summer season under

ideal conditions, the AAR could discuss how the same operation would be
conducted in wet season on wet ground and with limited visibility. Under such
conditions, operation planning would have to consider:

1) Increased control measures.



2) Degraded air support.

3) Limitations on target acquisition.

4) Effects of wet weather on troops and equipment.

5) The impact on logistical systems.

Third-echelon AARs conducted should be attended by

the commander, staff, subordinate battalion commanders and staff, and
company commanders. Representatives from maneuver and combat support
units (FA, engineer, ADA) should also attend. These AARs should cover all
aspects of CSS during the exercise and their impact on the tactical operation.
Topics for discussion include:

1) Medical support and casualty evacuation.

2) Personnel and administrative support.

3) Supply system operations.

4) Maintenance procedures.

5) Transportation.

6) Ammunition hauling and stockpiling.

The AAR discusses the time units actually spent

supporting exercise requirements as opposed to the time they spent on
scenario events. The AAR compares the training benefits received from
responding to actual situations caused by the exercise to the benefits from
simulated situations. The lessons learned from this comparison allow planners
to schedule events for CSS units during future exercises. They also provide
indicators of what will actually be required in combat and allow commanders
to fine tune support systems and procedures.





1. The CRM Process. Composite risk management (CRM) is a primary

decision-making process used to identify hazards and the same instance,
control risks across a full spectrum of Army missions, functions, operations,
training and other activities. See Figure 1-1.

Figure 1-1 CRM

a. CRM is a decision-making process used to mitigate risks

associated with all hazards that have the potential to injure or kill personnel,
damage or destroy equipment, or otherwise impact mission effectiveness.
This can be separated into two categories: tactical risk and accident risk.
While these two areas of concern remain, the primary premise of CRM is that
it does not matter where or how the loss occurs, the result is the same—
decreased combat power or mission effectiveness. The guiding principles of
CRM are as follows:



b. Integrate CRM into all phases of missions, operations, and

trainings. Effective CRM requires that the process be integrated into all
phases of mission or operational planning, preparation, execution, and

1. Make risk decisions at the appropriate level. As a

decision making tool, CRM is only effective when the information is passed to
the appropriate level of command for decision. Commanders are required to
establish and publish approval authority for decision making. This may be a
separate policy, specifically addressed in regulatory guidance, or addressed
in the commander’s training guidance. Approval authority for risk decision
making is usually based on guidance from higher HQ.

2. Accept no unnecessary risk. Accept no level of risk

unless the potential gain or benefit outweighs the potential loss. CRM is a
decision making tool to assist the commander, leader, or individual in
identifying, assessing, and controlling risks in order to make informed
decisions that balance risk costs (losses) against mission benefits (potential

3. Apply the process cyclically and continuously. CRM is a

continuous process applied across the full spectrum of Army training and
operations, individual and collective day-to-day activities and events, and
base operations functions. It is a cyclic process that is used to continuously
identify and assess hazards, develop and implement controls, and evaluate

4. Do not be risk averse. Identify and control the hazards;

complete the mission.

2. The Steps. CRM is a five-step process:

a. Step 1 – Identify hazards.

b. Step 2 – Assess hazards to determine risk.

c. Step 3 – Develop controls and make risk decisions.

d. Step 4 – Implement controls.

e. Step 5 – Supervise and evaluate.

Steps 1 and 2 are assessment steps, steps 3 through 5 are

management. See Figure 1-2.



Figure 1-2. CRM process

3. Step 1- Identify Hazards

a. A hazard is a condition with the potential to cause injury, illness,

or death of personnel; damage to or loss of equipment or property; or mission
degradation. A hazard may also be a situation or event that can result in
degradation of capabilities or mission failure. Hazards exist in all
environments—combat operations, stability operations, base support
operations, training, garrison activities, and off-duty activities.

b. How are hazards identified? The factors of mission, enemy,

terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, and civil
considerations (METT-TC) serve as a standard format for identification of
hazards, on-duty or off-duty. The factors of METTTC are used because they
are institutionalized in the Army. They are part of the common knowledge
imparted through the Army’s professional military education and initial entry
training. See Figure 1-3.



Figure 1-3. Assessment factors

c. Some other resources and tools to assist in the identification of

hazards are as follows:

1. Experience and other experts.

2. Regulations, manuals, standing operating procedures

(SOPs), policies.

3. Accident data.

4. War-gaming what-if scenarios.

5. Risk assessment matrices.

6. Readiness assessments.

7. Cause and effect diagrams.

8. Change analysis.

9. Energy trace and barrier analysis.

10. Logic diagrams.

11. Mapping techniques.



12. Training assessments.

13. After-action reviews (AARs).

4. Sources of Hazards and Risks. Hazards may arise from any number
of areas. Hazards can be associated with enemy activity, accident potential,
weather or environmental conditions, health, sanitation, behavior, and/or
material or equipment. CRM does not differentiate between the sources of the
hazard. The loss of personnel, equipment, or material due to any hazard has
the same disruptive impact on readiness or mission capabilities no matter
what the source. An individual may have a greater influence to effect change
in hazards arising from behavior, accident potential, equipment, or material
than over hazards that arise from enemy action. The bottom-line is the effect
of the hazard, not its source.

5. The Role of METT-TC in Hazard Identification

a. The factors of METT-TC provide a standardized methodology

for addressing both threat and hazard-based risk for tactical and nontactical
operations and off-duty activities. METT-TC is primarily used as part of the
MDMP for tactical missions. However, the same thought process is equally
effective for considering non-tactical operations and the off-duty environment.
When applied in a tactical or operational environment, the factors of METTTC
require no explanation. The same factors can be applied in nonmilitary
activities. For the sake of clarity, however, the terms are changed to reflect
the nonmilitary application as depicted in Figure 1-3.

b. For garrison and off-duty activities the METT-TC factors become

activities, disrupters, terrain and weather, personnel, time, and legal
considerations. Both processes address similar considerations expressed in
different terms.

1. Mission. The nature of the operational mission may imply

specific hazards. Some missions are inherently more dangerous than others.
Leaders look for hazards associated with the complexity of higher HQ plans
and orders such as a particularly complex scheme of maneuver. The use of a
fragmentary order (FRAGO) in-lieu of a detailed operation order (OPORD) or
operation plan (OPLAN) also may raise the risk due to the possibility of

2. Activity. This pertains to garrison on- and off-duty

activities. The classic example is a risk assessment performed in preparation
of a long holiday weekend. It could also be performed for a recreational or
sporting event or for travel associated with leave, pass, or temporary duty
(TDY). Junior leaders play a particularly important role in making
assessments that address the behavior traits of individual Soldiers. Events
where there is alcohol present or the potential for substance abuse require
special focus.



3. Disrupters. In the on- and off-duty garrison environment,

enemy considerations take the form of outside influences that may affect or
impact a planned event or activity.

4. Terrain and Weather. The factors of observation and

fields of fire, avenues of approach, key and decisive terrain, obstacles, and
cover and concealment (OAKOC) are used to identify and assess hazards
impacting on mission type operations. Pre-trip checklists are useful in making
assessments associated with non-mission activities. Common terrain hazards
are elevation, altitude, road surfaces, curves, grades, and traffic density.

5. Common weather hazards are cold, ice, snow, rain, fog,

heat, humidity, wind, dust, visibility and illumination. Whether planning a
tactical mission or out-of-town leave, include the aspect of terrain. Weather
can also create very specific hazards. Leaders assess these factors for both
mission and non-mission activities.

6. Troops (or People) and Equipment. For mission-related

risk assessments, the term troops are used to consider hazards that are
associated with the level of training, staffing, and equipment maintenance and
condition. It also includes morale, availability of supplies, and services to
include the physical and emotional health of the Soldiers.

7. For non-mission activities, the term people is used to

include Soldiers, their dependents, civilian workers, and other people whether
connected to the activity or not. Some examples of other-than-mission
hazards may include such things as sexual assault, domestic violence,
substance abuse, sexually transmitted diseases, and other behavioral or
medical conditions.

8. Time. Insufficient time for mission preparation often

forces commanders to accept greater risk in planning, preparation, and
execution of orders and plans associated with mission planning. To avoid or
mitigate the risk associated with inadequate time for planning, leaders should
allow subordinates two-thirds of the available planning time as a control. For
non-mission activities insufficient time is more of a matter of haste as opposed
to availability. This is especially critical during holiday periods where the zeal
of young Soldiers to get home may lead them to depart duty stations without
sufficient rest.

9. Civil or Legal Considerations. This function expands the

consideration of hazards to include those hazards that a tactical mission may
pose to the civilian populace and noncombatants in the area of operations.
The objective is to reduce the amount of collateral damage to civilians and
noncombatants. Hazards are also created by the presence of a large civilian
population and their efforts to conduct day-to-day living during the course of a
mission. High civilian traffic densities may present hazards to convoys and
maneuver schemes. Such diverse elements as insurgents, riots, and criminal
activity must also be assessed.



10. For non-mission activities, the term legal is used to

address those legal, regulatory, or policy considerations that may impact a
desired activity or limit a leader’s or individual’s course of action (COA).

6. Step 2-Assess the Hazards

a. This process is systematic in nature and uses charts, codes and

numbers to present a methodology to assess probability and severity to obtain
a standardized level of risk. The five-step CRM process is a method for
expressing and depicting a normally intuitive and experience-based thought
process. The risk management process is a disciplined application of five
steps to obtain and express a risk level in terms that are readily understood at
all levels of command.

Note: Technical competency, operational experience, and lessons-

learned weigh higher than any set of alpha-numeric codes. Mathematics and
matrixes are not a substitute for sound judgment.

b. Hazards are assessed and risk is assigned in terms of

probability and severity of adverse impact of an event/occurrence. This step
considers the risk or likelihood of an event or incident adversely impacting
mission, capabilities, people, equipment, or property. “What are the odds
(probability) of something going wrong and what is the effect (severity) of the
incident if it does occur?”

c. Hazards and associated risks are assessed during the mission

analysis, COA development, analysis, and rehearsal and execution steps of
the MDMP and must consider both mission and non-mission related aspects
that may have an impact. The end result of this assessment is an initial
estimate of risk for each identified hazard expressed in terms of extremely
high, high, moderate, or low as determined from the standardized application
of the risk assessment matrix. (See Figure 1-4.)

d. There are three sub-steps in this step:

1. Assess the probability of the event or occurrence.

2. Estimate the expected result or severity of an event or


3. Determine the specified level of risk for a given probability

and severity using the standard risk assessment matrix. (See Figure 1-4.)



Figure 1-4. Risk assessment matrix

e. Assess Each Hazard on the Probability of the Event or


f. Probability is the likelihood of an event. This is your estimate,

given what information you know and what others have experienced. The
probability levels estimated for each hazard are based on the mission, COA,
or frequency of a similar event. For the purpose of CRM, there are five levels
of probability—frequent, likely, occasional, seldom, and unlikely:

1. Frequent – Occurs very often, known to happen regularly.

In illustration, given 500 or so exposures to the hazard, expect that it will
definitely happen to someone. Examples of frequent occurrences are vehicle
rollovers, rear-end collisions, and heat injury during a battalion physical
training run with hot weather or non-acclimated soldiers.

2. Likely – Occurs several times, a common occurrence. In

illustration, given 1000 or so exposures without proper controls, it will occur at
some point. Examples might include improvised explosive devices (IEDs),
wire strikes for aircraft, controlled flights into terrain, and unintentional
weapons discharges.

3. Occasional – Occurs sporadically, but is not uncommon.

You may or may not get through your deployment without it happening. Some
examples might include unexploded ordnance (UXO) and fratricide.

4. Seldom – Remotely possible, could occur at some time.

Usually several things must go wrong for it to happen. Examples might
include things like heat-related death or electrocution.



5. Unlikely – Can assume will not occur, but not impossible.

Examples might include detonation of containerized ammunition during

g. Estimate the Expected Result or Severity of an Occurrence.

1. Severity is expressed in terms of the degree to which an

incident will impact combat power, mission capability, or readiness. The
degree of severity estimated for each hazard is based on knowledge of the
results of similar past events and is addressed in the following four levels
used on the risk assessment worksheet:

2. Catastrophic –

a) Complete mission failure or the loss of ability to

accomplish a mission.

b) Death or permanent total disability.

c) Loss of major or mission-critical systems or


d) Major property or facility damage.

e) Severe environmental damage.

f) Mission-critical security failure.

g) Unacceptable collateral damage.

3. Critical –

a) Severely degraded mission capability or unit


b) Permanent partial disability or temporary total

disability exceeding three months time.

c) Extensive major damage to equipment or systems.

d) Significant damage to property or the environment.

e) Security failure.

f) Significant collateral damage.

4. Marginal –

a) Degraded mission capability or unit readiness.



b) Minor damage to equipment or systems, property,

or the environment.

c) Lost days due to injury or illness not exceeding

three months.

d) Minor damage to property or the environment.

5. Negligible –

a) Little or no adverse impact on mission capability.

b) First aid or minor medical treatment.

c) Slight equipment or system damage, but fully

functional or serviceable.

d) Little or no property or environmental damage.

h. Determine Specified Level of Risk. Using the standard risk

assessment matrix at Figure 1-4, probability and severity for each identified
hazard are converted into a specified level of risk. This matrix provides an
assessment of probability and severity expressed in terms of a standard level
of risk. This assessment is an estimate, not an absolute. It may or may not be
indicative of the relative danger of a given operation, activity, or event. The
levels of risk are listed in the lower left corner of the matrix. All accepted
residual risk must be approved at the appropriate level of command.

1. Extremely High Risk – Loss of ability to accomplish the

mission if hazards occur during mission. A frequent or likely probability of
catastrophic loss (IA or IB) or frequent probability of critical loss (IIA) exists.
This implies that the risk associated with this mission, activity, or event may
have severe consequences beyond those associated with this specific
operation or event. The decision to continue must be weighed carefully
against the potential gain to be achieved by continuing this COA.

2. High Risk – Significant degradation of mission capabilities

in terms of the required mission standard, inability to accomplish all parts of
the mission, or inability to complete the mission to standard if hazards occur
during the mission. Occasional to seldom probability of catastrophic loss (IC
or ID) exists. A likely to occasional probability exists of a critical loss (IIB or
IIC) occurring. Frequent probability of marginal losses (IIIA) exists. This
implies that if a hazardous event occurs, serious consequences will occur.
The decision to continue must be weighed carefully against the potential gain
to be achieved by continuing this COA.

3. Moderate Risk – Expected degraded mission capabilities

in terms of the required mission standard and will result in reduced mission
capability if hazards occur during mission. An unlikely probability of



catastrophic loss (IE) exists. The probability of a critical loss is seldom (IID).
Marginal losses occur with a likely or occasional probability (IIIB or IIIC). A
frequent probability of negligible (IVA) losses exists.

4. Low Risk – Expected losses have little or no impact on

accomplishing the mission. The probability of critical loss is unlikely (IIE),
while that of marginal loss is seldom (IIID) or unlikely (IIIE). The probability of
a negligible loss is likely or less (IVB through (IVE). Expected losses have
little or no impact on accomplishing the mission. Injury, damage, or illness are
not expected, or may be minor and have no long term impact or effect.

7. Step 3 - Develop Controls And Make Risk Decisions.

In step 2, hazards were assessed and an initial risk level was

determined. In this step, controls are developed and applied. The hazard is
reassessed to determine a residual risk. Risk decisions are always based on
the residual risk. The process of developing and applying controls and
reassessing risk continues until an acceptable level of risk is achieved or until
all risks are reduced to a level where benefits outweigh the potential cost.

a. Develop Controls

1. After assessing each hazard, leaders (individuals)

develop one or more controls that either eliminate the hazard or reduce the
risk (probability and/or severity) of a hazardous incident occurring. In
developing controls leaders must consider the reason for the hazard, not just
the hazard itself.

2. Controls can take many forms, but normally fall into one
of three basic categories:

a) Educational (awareness) Controls. These controls

are based on the knowledge and skills of units, organizations, or individuals. It
includes their awareness of the hazard and control. Effective educational
control is implemented through individual and collective training that ensures
performance to standard.

b) Physical Controls. These take the form of barriers

and guards or signs to warn individuals, units, or organizations that a hazard
exists. Special controller or oversight personnel also fall into this category.

c) Avoidance/Elimination Controls. These controls

include positive action to prevent contact with an identified hazard or the total
elimination of the hazard.

3. To be effective, each control developed must meet the

following criteria:

a) Suitability. It must remove the hazard or mitigate

(reduce) the residual risk to an acceptable level.



b) Feasibility. The unit must have the capability to

implement the control.

c) Acceptability. The benefit gained by implementing

the control must justify the cost in resources and time. The assessment of
acceptability is largely subjective.

b. Find Control Measures. Sources such as personal experience,

AARs, SOPs, regulations, tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs), and
lessons learned from similar past operations can provide or identify possible
control measures for specific events, operations, or missions. CRM
worksheets from previously executed missions provide another source for
selecting controls. The key to effective control measures is that they reduce
the effect of or eliminate the identified hazard.

c. Examples of Control Measures

Effective control measures must specify who, what, where,

when, and how.

1. Unsecured/unstable loads.

a) WHO: Supervisors, leaders, drivers, operators.

b) WHAT: Ensure loads are secured in accordance

w/ load plans & applicable manuals.

c) WHERE: In the assembly area.

d) WHEN: Before vehicle is allowed to leave.

e) HOW: Emphasize cargo center of gravity, ammo,

and pyrotechnics.

2. Unsecured hatches/ramps.

a) WHO: Supervisors, leaders, drivers, operators.

b) WHAT: Inspect and repair unsafe conditions.

c) WHERE: In the assembly area or motor park.

d) WHEN: Before operation.

e) HOW: Secure with locking pin or latch devices.

3. Spot check vehicles, crew, passengers exposed during

operation on rough terrain (tracked vehicles).



a) WHO: Supervisors, leaders, drivers, operators.

b) WHAT: Position no higher than “nametag defilade”

unless engaging targets, wear seatbelts when seated, equipment stowed and
secured in accordance with load plans.

c) WHERE: In the assembly area or motor park.

d) WHEN: Before operation and during operations.

e) HOW: Spot check vehicles.

4. Improper passing.

a) WHO: Supervisors, leaders, drivers, operators.

b) WHAT: Establish and enforce standards, train

vehicle operations to pass other vehicles only at safe places and times while
considering road visibility and traffic conditions.

c) WHERE: In assembly areas and motor parks.

d) WHEN: Train operators and drivers before

licensing, brief operators and drivers before vehicle operation.

e) HOW: Verify drivers and operators are trained and

licensed, enforce standards.

5. Improper ground guiding.

a) WHO: Supervisors, leaders, drivers, operators,

b) WHAT: Establish and enforce standards for
operation of vehicles in congested areas (bivouac, maintenance, assembly
and battle positions).
c) WHERE: Assembly areas, motor parks.
d) WHEN: Before licensing drivers and operators,
before exercises.
e) HOW: Require use of ground guides while
operating in limited visibility, backing vehicles, movement of vehicles in
bivouac, maintenance, assembly and battle positions.

d. Reassess Risk

1. With controls applied, risk must be reassessed to

determine the residual risk associated with each hazard and the overall
residual risk for the mission. The process of developing and applying controls
and reassessing risk continues until an acceptable level of risk is achieved or
until all risks are reduced to a level where benefits outweigh potential cost.



2. Residual risk is the risk remaining after controls have

been selected for the specific hazard. Residual risk is valid (true) only if the
identified controls are implemented. As controls for hazards are identified and
selected, the hazards are reassessed as in step 2 and the level of risk is then
revised. It is possible that application of available controls may not be
sufficient to warrant lowering the risk level of a given hazard.

3. Overall residual risk must be determined by considering

the residual risks for all of the identified hazards. The residual risk for each
hazard may be different, depending on the assessed probability and severity
of the hazardous incident. Overall residual risk is determined based on the
greatest residual risk of all the identified hazards. The overall residual risk of
the mission will be equal to or higher than the highest identified residual risk.
Consideration must also be given to the number and type of hazards present.
In some cases the commander may determine that the overall residual risk is
higher than any one hazard. This is based on a number of lower risk hazards
if, in combination, they present a greater hazard. For example, a mission risk
assessment may result in moderate residual risk for all identified hazards.
Based on the complexity of required controls and the potential synergistic
effect of all hazards the commander may determine that the residual risk for
the mission is high.

e. Make Risk Decisions. The purpose of the CRM process is to

provide a basis for making sound individual and leadership risk decisions. A
key element of the risk decision is determination of what constitutes an
acceptable level of risk. Risk or potential loss must be balanced against
expectations or expected gains. Risk decisions must always be made at the
appropriate level of command or leadership based on the level of risk

8. Step 4 – Implement Controls

a. Leaders and staffs ensure that controls are integrated into

SOPs, written and verbal orders, mission briefings, and staff estimates. The
critical check for this step is to ensure that controls are converted into clear
and simple execution orders. Implementing controls includes coordination and
communication with the following:

1. Appropriate superior, adjacent, and subordinate units,

organizations, and individuals.

2. Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP)

organizations and civilian agencies that are part of the force or may be
impacted by the activity, hazard, or its control.

3. The media and nongovernmental organizations (NGO)

when their presence impacts or is impacted by the force.



b. Leaders must explain how the controls will be implemented.

Examples include the following:

1. Overlays and graphics.

2. Drills for vehicle and aircraft silhouette identification.

3. Rehearsals and battle drills.

4. Refresher training on intensive threat and friendly vehicle

identification for all anti-armor and air defense weapons crews.

5. Orientation for replacement personnel.

6. Installation and maintenance of communications links for

key civilian organizations.

7. Operating convoys with a prescribed minimum number of


8. Provisions to carry weapons and wear body armor and

helmets when outside secure compounds.

9. Accident awareness, safety briefings, and warnings.

9. Step 5 - Supervise And Evaluate. Step 5 of the CRM process is the

means to ensure that risk controls are implemented and enforced to standard.
It also provides the means of validating the adequacy of selected control
measures in supporting the objectives and desired outcomes. Like other steps
of the CRM process, supervision and evaluation must occur throughout all
phases of any operation or activity. This continuous process provides the
ability to identify weaknesses and to make changes or adjustments to controls
based on performance, changing situations, conditions, or events.

a. Supervise. Supervision is a form of control measure. In step 5 of

CRM, supervision becomes an integral part of the process. Supervision
ensures subordinates understand how, when, and where controls are
implemented. It also ensures that controls are implemented, monitored, and
remain in place. Situational awareness is a critical component of the CRM
process when identifying hazards. Situational awareness is equally important
in supervision. It ensures that complacency, deviation from standards, or
violations of policies and risk controls are not allowed to threaten success.
Factors such as fatigue, equipment serviceability/availability, and the weather
and environment must be monitored. The hazards they present can then be
mitigated. Supervision and oversight provides commanders and leaders with
the situational awareness necessary to anticipate, identify, and assess any
new hazards and to develop or modify controls as necessary.

An extraordinary degree of discipline is required to avoid

complacency from boredom and overconfidence when personnel are



performing repetitive tasks. Controls established and implemented for a

prolonged period are especially “at risk” to be ignored due to overconfidence
or complacency. During stability operations, for example, at the beginning of
an operation, the hazards poised by land mines may be readily identified and
controls established and enforced. However, over time and with success (no
accidents or incidents) complacency may set in. When this happens,
established controls lose their effectiveness. The terrorist threat and personal
security are examples. When personnel live or operate in an area that is not
considered a high threat area, or, in cases where personnel have operated in
a high threat area for an extended period without incident, there is the risk of
losing situational awareness and failing to remain vigilant. Other examples of
long-term hazards include climatic extremes, NBC and hazardous waste
contamination, or diseases native to a particular area of operation or
indigenous population.

b. Evaluate. The evaluation process occurs during all phases of

the operation, and as part of the AAR and assessment following completion of
the operation or activity. The evaluation process serves to accomplish the

1. Identify any hazards that were not identified as part of the

initial assessment, or identify new hazards that evolved during the operation
or activity. For example, any time that personnel, equipment, environment, or
mission change the initial risk management analysis, the control measures
should be reevaluated.

2. Assess effectiveness in supporting operational goals and

objectives. Did the controls positively or negatively impact training or mission
accomplishment? Did the controls support existing doctrine, techniques,
tactics and procedures?

3. Assess the implementation, execution, and

communication of the controls.

4. Assess accuracy of residual risk and effectiveness of

controls in eliminating hazards and controlling risks.

5. Ensure compliance with the guiding principles of CRM.

Was the process integrated throughout all phases of the operation? Were risk
decisions accurate? Were they made at the appropriate level? Were there any
unnecessary risks, and did the benefit outweigh the cost in terms of dollars,
training benefit, and time? Was the process cyclic and continuous throughout
the operation?

c. Tools and Techniques.

1. Commanders, leaders, and individuals have

responsibilities for supervision and evaluation of operations and activities.
Techniques may include spot-checks, inspections, situation reports
(SITREPs), back briefs, buddy checks, and close oversight.



2. AARs provide a forum in which the entire mission or

operation may be assessed. Effectiveness of the CRM process and an
assessment of the criteria should be included as a part of any AAR.

3. Based on evaluation and assessment of the operation

and the effectiveness of CRM, lessons learned should be developed and
disseminated to others for incorporation into future plans, operations, and
activities. The S3 ensures that lessons learned from the CRM process, to
include CRM worksheets, are captured and retained for use during future

10. Responsibilities. Chapter 1 discussed the CRM process and its

universal application in Army decision-making. To be effective, this process
must be understood and applied at every level. Commanders, staff officers,
leaders, and individual Soldiers each contribute to the ongoing process.
Individual responsibility in CRM depends largely on the operation or activity
for which it is being used. In operational missions, decision making is a
primary responsibility and the prerogative of commanders, leaders, and staffs.
Individual Soldiers operate within the risk parameters established and provide
feed-back. In non tactical or even off-duty activities, CRM becomes an
individual responsibility.

11. Commander. The commander’s responsibilities for CRM are as


a. Ensure ability of warfighting functions (WFF) functions to

perform to standard to minimize human error, materiel failure and
environmental effects.

b. Establish a force protection policy and publish a commander’s

safety philosophy with realistic safety goals, objectives, and priorities.

c. Ensure the commander’s training assessment considers ability

of WFF to protect the force. Select and ensure implementation of long-term,
short-term, and near-term control actions to improve force protection.

d. Ensure staff integrates risk management into the planning and

execution of training and operational missions.

e. Make risk decisions. Select, monitor, and enforce

implementation of controls for hazards most likely to result in loss of combat
power. After implementing controls, if risk remains above the tolerance level
established by higher command then he or she must elevate the risk decision
to the appropriate command level.

f. Ensure that the CRM process is evaluated during all AARs.

g. Determine if unit performance meets force protection guidance.

Determine effectiveness of hazard controls and necessary changes to



guidance and controls. Ensure these changes are fed back into the training
management cycle and guidance for operational missions, including unit

12. S3. Because CRM is an integral part of mission and operational

planning, the S3 staff and officer are responsible for CRM integration. In
organizations with organic professional safety personnel, the safety
officer/manager, as part of the commander’s special staff, provides technical
CRM expertise to the Commander and staff. Organizations without organic
safety personnel obtain this assistance from trained additional duty safety
officers. The S3’s duties to integrate CRM include—

a. Monitor the ability of each WFF to protect the force. Advise

commander when below-standard status (affecting force protection) of any
WFF is detected.

b. Develop input for commander’s force protection policy and goals

with objectives and priorities.

c. Develop force protection input for quarterly training guidance

and SOP.

d. Develop, with safety officer/manager assistance, safety input

options for commander’s training assessment.

e. Complete risk assessment for each COA during operational


f. Assess unit risk management and force protection performance

during training and operations. Provide recommended changes to force
protection guidance and controls.

g. Ensure that lessons learned from the CRM process and

worksheets are captured and retained for use during future operations.

13. Staff (ALL). Each staff element is responsible for integrating CRM into
their staff estimates and plans. The staff responsibilities for application of
CRM include the following:

a. Execute functions to provide—

1. Necessary support to meet operational requirements.

2. Clear and practical procedures and standards for each

task of the mission essential task list (METL).

3. Necessary training for task performance to standard.

4. Identify force protection shortcomings in WFF and

develop control actions.



5. Apply risk management procedures.

6. Develop and implement controls selected by the


14. Leader. Leader responsibilities for the application of CRM include the

a. Enforce METL task performance to standard. Adopt the “crawl-

walk-run” approach in planning and executing training.

b. Make use of automated on and off duty CRM tools and surveys
available from the USACRC.

c. Execute risk reduction controls selected by the commander by

developing and implementing supporting leader-level controls. Apply risk
management procedures to each task of the METL. After implementing
controls, if the risk is still above the leader’s authority to accept, elevate the
risk decision to the appropriate command level.

15. Individual. The Soldier’s role in CRM in the operational environment is

to support commanders and leaders in the rapid identification and
communication of hazards and associated risks that arise and may impact on
the mission. This usually takes the form of providing immediate feedback to
the leader as the mission progresses and hazards are encountered. During
the execution of the mission, the Soldier becomes a primary source for
actively identifying, reporting, and assessing those hazards. Short written
messages, hand and arm signals, or radio transmissions are effective means
of communicating first-hand information to leaders. There will be situations,
however, when individual Soldiers or small groups must act alone or make
risk decisions within the context of orders. All Soldiers must understand how
to use the CRM process to enhance mission success and to reduce or
eliminate loss.

All Soldiers must be aware of all risk regardless of source and address
these risks simultaneously. Soldiers may not prepare risk assessment
worksheets or use any special matrix during the process in all situations. They
rely on risk guidance from the squad leader to determine potential changes in
the risk level. Reporting is the key to CRM at the Soldier level. Soldiers—

a. Sustain self-disciplined duty performance and conduct.

b. Execute risk management controls selected by the commander

and leader.
c. Use risk assessment tools provided by the USACRC and their
leaders. Identify control actions for risk factors revealed by these tools.
Execute those controls that are within personal capability. Request chain-of-
command assistance with controls that are above personal authority or



d. Use risk management procedures in executing METL tasks.

In operational environments, Soldiers rely on risk parameters

established by commanders and leaders. However, in non tactical and off-
duty situations, Soldiers must make their own risk decisions. All Soldiers must
understand the entire CRM process as a life skill that is applicable to all
activities. The principles of CRM are as relevant in this environment as they
are in MDMP or troop-leading procedures (TLP). Application of the CRM
process provides the individual a decision making tool to effectively identify
and control hazards in their personal day-to-day activities.

16. Application to Training Management. As part of the Army’s training

development process, the systems approach to training management (SAT) is
a systematic approach to making training and educational decisions.. This
includes evaluating the training as well as the personnel, products, and
institutions conducting the training. CRM is a vital component of the training-
development process. The major concern of all commanders is to ensure their
Soldiers and units are trained to perform their mission to standard and
survive. To ensure mission-focused training, Soldiers, staffs, and units must
perform under realistic and stressful conditions. CRM balances benefits
against potential losses. It provides commanders and leaders with the tools to
accomplish realistic training while preserving the scarce resources of
personnel, time, and equipment. When used properly, CRM is a training
enabler. In this chapter we will present CRM application into the SAT process.

17. Application to the Sat Process. The SAT is a systematic, spiral

approach to making collective, individual, and self-development training
decisions for the Army. It determines—

a. Whether or not training is needed.

b. What is to be trained.

c. Who gets the training.

d. How, how well, and where the training is presented.

e. The training support and resources required to produce,

distribute, implement, and evaluate those products.

The process involves five training related phases: analysis, design,

development, implementation, and evaluation. Figure 5-1 shows a
comparison between the SAT process, the MDMP, and the CRM process.

Evaluation is continuous throughout the SAT process with feedback for

corrective actions. It permeates all phases. It is the cement that ensures
training and training products are effective in producing trained units and
Soldiers. Products are evaluated either formally (product validation) or
informally to determine currency, efficiency, and effectiveness. The entire



process must operate within a given set of resources. The CRM process runs
simultaneously and continuously to ensure training remains within the
specified level of risk allowed for each event.

Figure 5-1. Comparison

18. Integration into Realistic Training. Commanders and leaders are

required to make informed risk decisions. This ensures that training is
conducted realistically and in a manner that protects the well-being of the
Soldiers being trained. This enables Soldiers, leaders, and units to survive
and win over the full range of military operations.

Training developers and trainers provide safe training to achieve force

protection by designing, developing, and implementing realistic, viable training

a. Does not unnecessarily jeopardize lives and equipment.

b. Eliminates or minimizes the risks involved in relation to the

training benefits.

c. Includes controls to eliminate/reduce the risk or hazard.

d. Conserves and preserves resources.

e. Complies with federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and




f. Integrates safety, risk management, and force protection

considerations into training and training materials where appropriate.

Proponent training developers will ensure all training products—

a. Include appropriate safety, risk, and protection statements,

cautions, notes, and warnings.
b. Identify training risk and assigns a risk level to every proponent
c. Are validated by the Branch Safety Manager for CRM
d. Include controls necessary to minimize or eliminate hazards
during training.
e. Address CRM and the CRM process as it applies operationally
to the training subject.

The training development process fixes responsibility, institutionalizes

operational safety, and leads to decision-making at the command level
appropriate to the identified level of risk. Using CRM in the training-
development process ensures the following:

a. Safe training.

b. Fewer injuries and deaths.

c. Reduced incidents of lost time.

d. Lower costs (facility, training, and equipment repairs).

CRM is never complete. It is a continuing cycle that requires everyone

be constantly alert to training risks and to take immediate action to eliminate
them or reduce their severity. Safety, risk management, and accident
prevention are a commander's, managers, and individual's responsibility.
Proponent training developers, trainers, and subordinate personnel should
use the generic risk management information contained in training support
products to review and update hazards and controls to adjust for current

19. Application to other Functional Areas. The death of a Soldier in

combat or due to an accident can have a devastating effect on a unit’s morale
and effectiveness. The effects of criminal acts, suicide, sexual assault, and
reckless behavior can also cripple an organization’s morale and destroy its
combat effectiveness. Commanders and leaders must establish and maintain
a command environment that fosters cohesion, team work, and performance
to standard while caring for the well-being of the individual Soldier. Previous
chapters discussed the application of CRM in tactical and non-tactical
situations, in the training development process, and as a life skill for individual
activities. Commanders and leaders can also use the CRM process to identify
behaviors or activities that may present hazards to a unit’s morale and impact



combat effectiveness. This chapter provides examples on how CRM will be

applied to mitigate these hazards.

20. Command Issues. The principles of CRM become indispensable in

addressing issues that impact Soldiers both on and off the battlefield.
Effective CRM is on-going and cyclic. The risk management process is
integrated into the development of all SOPs and the development process for
all policies that address issues of behavior, health, and criminal activity. The
following paragraphs discuss CRM application in the areas of sexual assault
prevention, suicide prevention, and privately owned vehicle (POV) accident

21. Sexual Assault Prevention. The prevention of sexual assault is a

command and an individual responsibility. Sexual assault destroys teamwork,
undermines the good order and discipline of the military, destroys unit morale,
and impacts personal combat readiness. Effective CRM identifies the potential
hazards, conditions, or situations that may lead to criminal behavior. Early
identification of these conditions and active intervention reduces the likelihood
of Soldiers attempting sexual assault or becoming a victim of a sexual assault.
The principles of risk management can play a pivotal role by assisting the
commander with tools to enhance policy awareness and training. By
conducting command climate assessments, complaints processing
awareness briefings, and overall assistance concerning the prevention of
sexual harassment, commanders can mitigate the risks associated with
sexual harassment.

22. Suicide Prevention. Each year the Army needlessly loses Soldiers to
suicide. Suicide continues to be a problem that demands every leader’s
attention. The causes of suicide are difficult to understand, but by applying the
principles of risk management, leaders and Soldiers alike can better identify
“at risk” Soldiers. They then can take appropriate actions to prevent the
tragedy of suicide. The role of Army leadership in suicide prevention cannot
be overemphasized. Military leaders monitor and protect those under their
command. A military leader can more effectively promote and sustain
protective factors in a military setting than in a civilian one. Quality leaders
endorse, advocate, authorize, and even mandate suicide prevention as a
priority. It is important for all commanders and leaders to recognize that
mental wellness is part of the triad of overall individual fitness (along with
physical and spiritual fitness).

23. POV Accident Prevention. POV accidents continue to be the leading

cause of accidental death for Soldiers. Every Soldier has an individual
responsibility to prevent accidents. Commanders and leaders must also be
vigilant in the identification of high-risk behavior. CRM assists commanders
and leaders in recognizing those hazards, behaviors, and/or situations that
may lead to tragedy. The Director of Army Safety has prepared a POV risk
management toolbox for commanders and leaders. This toolbox provides a
comprehensive set of tools and controls that have proven successful in
preventing POV accidents throughout the army.



24. Command Emphasis. By applying the principles of risk management

when identifying hazards associated with suicide, sexual assault, and POV
accident prevention, commanders can take the initiative to identify and
mitigate risks associated with these hazardous behaviors and situations
before they impact on our units. This in no way implies these are the only
applications for CRM. This five-step process can be applied across the full
spectrum of human activity to identify hazards, assess risk, and make

The principles of CRM as a decision making tool are universal in

application. The repeated use of the systematic CRM process reinforces
application of the five steps to identify, assess, and control hazards and to
make informed risk decisions in any situation. The principles of CRM become
indispensable in addressing issues that impact Soldiers both on and off the
battlefield. Effective CRM is on-going and cyclic. The risk management
process will be integrated into the development of all SOPs and the
development process for all policies that address issues of behavior, health,
and criminal activity.

25. Examples for Operations. CRM is a universal decision making

process used at every level of endeavor from the individual to large units or
organizations. Its application is blind to the cause of the hazard. Whether it
comes directly as the result of an enemy action or threat-based activity or as
the result of other factors (hazard based), the CRM process attempts to
identify, assess, and control those factors that may adversely affect the
capabilities of a military unit or organization.



Conduct a Tactical Road March

MISSION: Company A 3-69 Armor conducts a tactical road march in order

to occupy a United Nations designated zone of separation PJ19003500 no
later than (NLT) 0300 16 July XX to conduct peace enforcement operations.

SITUATION: The battalion S2 produced an IPB overlay indicating the

presence of many known (marked) and unknown (unmarked) minefields
throughout your area of operations. The minefields span your route of march.
Intelligence indicates the enemy armed forces are operating in three-to-five
person recon teams. If contact is made, the enemy is expected to break
contact and not put up a fight. Although it is possible, it is not likely that there
will be contact with the enemy.

CONDITIONS: As the company commander of A Company (or the 1st platoon

leader of A Company) you have just received a warning order 1400 hours 15
July from your battalion commander alerting you of the upcoming mission.
The unit has been in country for ten days and has been determined to combat
ready. The battalion conducted extensive pre deployment training and is well



prepared for the terrain consisting of moderating rolling hills. The road
network consists of unimproved roads with sharp curves and steep
embankments. The weather has been in the mid 50s to 60s during the day
and mid 40s at night. It has been raining for the last four days and rain in
predicted to continue through the rest of the week.


Company commander and platoon leader have been assigned for the
past 10 months.

The company has been task organized by the battalion with two tank
platoons, one mechanized platoon, and engineer platoon with combat
engineer vehicles and armored combat earthmovers, an air defense artillery
section, and a military police platoon.

The two tank platoons do not have mine rollers.

The two tank platoons and mechanized platoon are used to working

The other elements were assigned when you entered the theater.

All vehicles are in good shape.

Map recon indicates the objective is 20 kilometers away.

METT-TC Analysis

MISSION: Conduct a tactical road march.

ENEMY: Enemy armed forces are operating in three-to-five person recon

teams equipped with direct (individual weapons/machine guns) and anti armor

TERRAIN: The road network consists of unimproved roads with sharp curves
and steep embankments. The roads are generally bordered by open terrain
and provide no cover and concealment for dismounted troops.

TROOPS: Experience level is high within the tank and mechanized units. The
experience level of the troops recently attached to you is unknown.

TIME: 13 hours to start point


Threat-based risk: Land mine potential

Hazard-based risk:




Limited visibility

Surface traction

Road width


Inexperienced personnel



Base Operations

TASK: Store material in warehouse

MISSION: Move a pallet load of material from the receiving dock and store in
the bin storage area.

SITUATION: Truckload of material just arrived at the loading dock.

CONDITION: As the supervisor in the warehousing section of the material

movement division, your task is moving material just received at the loading
dock to storage in the bin storage section of Warehouse 1216.


The material is packaged 24 each (12 inches high x 30 inches long by

18 inches wide boxes) to a 48 inch by 48 inch (standard) pallet.

The pallet must be moved by forklift or other mechanical lifting device

from the receiving dock to the bin storage area.

The bin storage is from ground level to 10 feet high.

Material must be removed from the pallet and manually placed into
storage bins.

The activity does not have a training and licensing program for forklift
and other lifting devices.

Personnel learn their job duties through a short on-the-job training

program consisting of working with a seasoned employee for one week.



There is no training program for proper lifting techniques and back

injury prevention.

Some employees use back belts. There is no installation policy on use

of black belts.

There is no installation policy on use of personal protective equipment



MISSION: Store material in warehouse

ENEMY (disruptors): Material must be removed from the pallet and manually
placed into storage bins.

TERRAIN: Storage bin 10 feet above ground level.

TROOPS (people): Personnel trained through an on-the-job training program.

No training program for proper lifting techniques or back injury prevention.

TIME: Not a factor.

CIVILIANS (legal): No policy on the use of PPE.

ANALYSIS: (Hazard-based risk)

Fork lift operators are not trained.

Personnel are not trained on lifting techniques.

No PPE policy.

No approved ladder or fall protection training





Checklist for Training Exercises

Shown hereunder are the checklist samples for the conduct of training
exercises. Users may modify these checklists when deemed necessary in
accordance to the prevailing training standards, conditions, and environment.

1. Movement to Contact


Mission Area: Internal Security Operations

Date: _____________

Subject/Activity: Conduct of Movement


Task Standard:

Actions in accordance with the required standards and procedure

in the conduct of movement.

Task, Steps and Performance Evaluation GO NO GO

-conduct briefing to the troops at all levels
-conduct reconnaissance
-effectively use of terrain and weather
-use proper movement formations and technique as squads
and platoons
-faster movement as the situation allows
-better OPSEC
-check and conduct inspection on the completeness of
personnel and equipment (commo and weapons)*
-maximized communication*
-check employment of key weapons*
-proper positioning of key leaders and elements
-designate base of fire and assault elements*
-good command and control
-make contact with the smallest element as possible
-proper link-up during regrouping
-use of hand signals during movements
-enforce noise and light discipline
-fire arms in alternate position


-lead element always look to the front

-last man randomly looks to the rear
-security during short halts+
-check luminous materials

-distance between elements
-speed of movement
-pltn/sqd traverse vantage terrain
-take advantage of route cover and concealment
-camouflage personnel and equipment
Note * Indicates Tm/SqdLdr Task +Critical Task
COMMENTS: (Observations not covered but instruction and recommendations)



2. Foot Ambush


Mission Area: Internal Security Operations

Date: _____________

Subject/Activity: Foot Ambush

Students/Participants: __________________________________________

Task Standard:

Actions in accordance with the required standards and procedure in

React to Ambush.

Task, Steps and Performance Evaluation GO NO GO

-returned fire
-seek for cover and concealment



-observe and determine enemy location

-extricate from kill zone
-maneuver to assailable flank
-provide cover fire to maneuvering troops
-shift / lift fire during assault
-exploit situation
-report situation

Platoon/Sqd Leader Actions

-determine the advantage tm/sqd for maneuver+
-delivery of timely and proper command
-clarity of voice on commands+
-decisiveness of action
-inspect members (condition, ammo and others)
-report to higher command+
Note * Indicates Tm Ldr Task +Critical Task
COMMENTS: (Observations not covered but instruction and recommendations)



3. Vehicular Ambush


Mission Area: Internal Security Operations

Date: _____________

Subject/Activity: Vehicular Ambush

Students/Participants: __________________________________________

Task Standard:

Actions in accordance with the required standards and procedure in

vehicular ambush.



Task, Steps and Performance Evaluation GO NO

-soldier receiving fire immediately returned fire
-the soldier on the other side immediately dismount when the
veh stops, take cover position and fire towards enemy position to
cover fire un-dismounted troops
- soldier receiving fire dismounted after the other team returns
fire and take cover position
-maneuver to assailable flank
-provide cover fires for maneuvering troops*
-shift/left fires during assault*
-exploit situation
-report situation

Platoon/Sqd Leader Actions

-determine the advantage tm/sqd for maneuver+
-delivery of timely and proper command
-clarity of voice on commands+
-decisiveness of action
-inspect members (condition, ammo and others)
-report to higher command+

-extricate vehicle from kill zone
-bring vehicle to dead spot (cliff or any cover away from enemy direct fire)

Note * Indicates Tm Ldr Task +Critical Task

COMMENTS: (Observations not covered but instruction and recommendations)





4. Observed Fire Procedure


Mission Area: Internal Security Operations

Date: _____________

Subject/Activity: Observe Fire Procedure

Students/Participants: _________________________________

Task Standard:

Actions in accordance with the required standards and procedure

in Observe Fire Procedure.

Task, Steps and Performance Evaluation GO NO GO

The observer maintains observation as follows:
a. Maintains ability to observe and adjust fires while
moving or stationary.
b. Maintains communications with FDC.
c. Takes advantage of cover and concealment.
Requests Call for Fire using proper procedures:
a. The observer locates targets using one of the
following methods of target location:
a.1. Grid.
a.2. Polar.
b. Transmits correct Target Description.
c. Transmits correct Method of Engagement, Fire and
The observer conducts “voice-adjust” fire missions.
a. Uses assigned target number.
b. Describes each target clearly, concisely, and
c. Uses proper radio communications procedures to call
for fire (if applicable).
d. Uses one of various techniques for area adjustment ,
such as:
d.1. Successive bracketing.
d.2. Hasty bracketing.
d.3. One round adjustment.
d.4. Creeping fire.
e. Bases the deviation corrections on correct observer-
target (OT) factor and angular deviation (if applicable).
f. Sends subsequent corrections.
g. Ensures fire for effect is within 50 meters.
Observes munitions effects and reports battle damage
assessments to include:
a. Estimates the extent of damage to the target and/or



b. Reports damage assessment to the FDC providing

COMMENTS: (Observations not covered but instruction and recommendations)



5. Conduct of Air-to-Ground Operations


Mission Area: Internal Security OperationsDate: _____________

Subject/Activity: Conduct of AGOS

Students/Participants ____________________-

Task Standard:

Actions in accordance with the required standards and procedure

in the conduct of AGOS.

Task, Steps and Performance Evaluation GO NO

Selection Phase
-The Company Commander reported the Location of LZ/PZ given
in 8 digits coordinates
- Company Commander reported the size ( Dimension) of LZ
-Company Commander identified the description of LZ in
relation with prominent terrain features on the ground ( at least
two references)
- Company Commander ensure that the surface condition is
firm enough to prevent helicopters from bogging down or
creating excessive dust
- Company Commander reported open quadrant given in a
series of magnetic azimuth
- Company Commander identified the description of obstacles
(height, distance and direction measured from the center of
- Company Commander identified the obstacles and reported in



relation to the prominent terrain features surrounding the

- Company Commander ensured that the aircraft’s approach is
along the wind.
- Company Commander /Platoon Sergeant ensured that the
LZ/PZ is secured.

Marking Phase
-The Platoon Sergeant Sets up the LZ/PZ
-The Platoon Sergeant supervise the marking of the LZ/PZ with
panel, smoke or any other expedient devise and it is easily
seen by the pilot.
-Color not identifiable with the surrounding vegetation.
-The Platoon Sergeant supervise the clearing of obstacles from
the LZ/PZ

Controlling Phase
-When initial contact with the aircraft is made pertinent
information, advisories are transmitted and when the aircraft is
still not insight, the Company Commander directs to continue
approach until visual contact.
-When the aircraft is in sight, Did the Company Commander
guide using appropriate methods of directing helicopters (clock
method, command and compass method)
-Was the Pilot able to identify the location by means LZ/PZ
-Signal Identification of the LZ/PZ between the pilot and
Platoon Leader is achieved (smoke color confirmed by pilot)

Marshalling Phase
- Company Commander posted his signal man after his
location was identified by the pilot.
-Signals are conducted with luminous material or any material
visible and recognizable to the pilot
-Signal man positions himself to the right front of the aircraft
where he could be best seen by the pilot
-Arm signal was executed to guide the pilot make his approach
towards the marshal’s front

Aircraft Loading/Unloading
-Aircraft safety briefing was conducted to the members of the
group (Identification tags, helmets fastened, helicopter safety
measures briefed)
-Aircraft is approach only after the landing is completed and
approached from the front (Do not go near the tail rotor blade)
-Approach and depart helicopter in the crouch position for extra
-Rifles carried with the muzzle pointed DOWNWARD,
magazine in the weapon and weapon on safe. Rounds not



chambered; bayonet not fixed

-During unloading, waited for the clearance signal from the
pilot to unload
-After clearance signal from the pilot, the group unloads and
proceeds immediately to pre-designated assembly area.

Other Considerations
-Size of the LZ/PZ
-Compatibility of communication equipment
-Security at the LZ/PZ

Note * Indicates Tm/SqdLdr Task +Critical Task

COMMENTS: (Observations not covered but instruction and recommendations)



6. Conduct of CASEVAC


Mission Area: Internal Security OperationsDate: _____________

Subject/Activity: CASEVAC


Task Standard:

Actions in accordance with the required standards and procedure

in Casualty Evacuation.

Task, Steps and Performance Evaluation GO NO GO

-availability and identification of sqd/pltn medic personnel+
-Inventory of CLS/MEDIC supply+
-Assessment of Medic Capability*
-locate nearby Medical treatment facilities*
-locate Casualty Collection Point (CCP)*
-locate Main / Alternate Supply Route (MSR / ASR)




-report the presence and status of casualty+

-request for casualty evacuation*
-observe / evaluate immediate surrounding for vital info
-tactically move casualty to safety preventing yourself from
being injured
-evaluate casualty+
- Check vital signs
- Identify life threatening conditions / injuries
- Apply first aid
- Identify and treat other injuries / problems
-transport casualty in appropriate technique utilizing
indigenous/own materials
-secure casualty while loading into military vehicle / heli+
-assign “buddy”
Note * Indicates Pltn/Tm Ldr Task +Critical Task
COMMENTS: (Observations not covered but instruction and recommendations)



7. Canine Operations


Mission Area: Internal Security OperationsDate: _____________

Subject/Activity: Canine Operations


Task Standard:

Actions in accordance with the required standards and procedure

Canine Operations.

Task, Steps and Performance Evaluation GO NO

-Pltn / SqdLdr brief the Canine Handler about the situation in the
-Pltn / SqdLdr presented to the handler any object/material
recovered from the enemy
-organize and designate security elements for the Canine
Tracker and Handler



-execute canine operation plan

-preserve and secure recovered evidence and scene of
operation from untoward contamination

-speed of movement during the tracking
-troops must coop up with the phasing of the Canine and
-appropriate security of the Canine and Handler
-observe the DOs and Dont’s in interacting with Mil Working
- Treat dogs kindly and gently
- Socialized dogs with pers especially the medics and
security elements
- do not be fed with leftover food or meat
- do not provoke, harm, shout upon or tease dogs and their
- do not permit dogs to play with astray dogs and others
- refrain dependents or civilian from playing or interacting
-continue update the higher headquarters about recent
-frequently communicate to the Canine Handler

COMMENTS: (Observations not covered but instruction and recommendations)



8. Checkpoint Operations


Mission Area: Internal Security Operations

Date: _____________

Subject/Activity: Check Point Operations

Students/Participants: _____________________________________

Task Standard:

Actions in accordance with the required standards and procedure in

Check Point Operation.

Task, Steps and Performance Evaluation GO NO



-strategic position
-obstacle to prevent bypass
-well protected
-search bay
- be polite and humble
- inform the individual why the search is being carried out
- protection and security of friendly forces carrying out the
- use of minimum force during the searching
- completed the search quickly yet thoroughly
- apologize to individual for any delay caused
Personnel Search
a. Quick Search
- cover of friendly force troops
- Informed the individual about why the search is
being conducted and the authority
-position of person being searched and searcher
-consider eye contact and individual being searched posture
-search method is to gently pat or squeeze
- systematic search from top of bottom, both sides
- get assistance from person being searched to empty any bags
- use of hand metal detector will assist (if available)
b. Detailed Search
-subject’s identify and address are obtained
- all pockets are emptied
- medical personnel inspect dressings and bandages
-outer clothing is removed and searched
Vehicle Search
a. Initial Check
- interior, through the windows.
- exterior.
- underneath.
- engine compartment.
- dashboard compartment
b. Detailed Check
-inspect all the suspicious compartments
Note * Indicates Tm Ldr Task +Critical Task
Other Considerations
-Lighted place/area
-Vehicle, combat park
-Troop organization: inspection, security, flagger, blocking
-Adequacy of communication equipment
-Legal documents (authority/ election primer/COMELEC Deputization Order)
-List of friendly unit contact numbers



-Essential equipment: mirror, flashlight and others

-Personnel services (BP/health service, comfort rooms)

COMMENTS: (Observations not covered but instruction and recommendations)




9. Link-Up Operations


Mission Area: Internal Security Operations

Date: _____________

Subject/Activity: Link-Up Operations


Task Standard:

Actions in accordance with the required standards and procedure i n

Link-up Operations.


-the element movement to a point short of the linkup point and establishes a
rally point
-the element move tactically to the linkup rally point
-report its en route location to higher headquart ers and other linkup element
-establish local security at the rally point
-send a security team forward to confirm the exact location of the linkup point
-clear the immediate area around the linkup point
-mark the linkup point with the coordinated recognition signal
-security team in covered and concealed positions that over watch the linkup
-the element Return and brings the sqd forward to the linkup point? Note:
The first -element on site becomes the stationary element before the link -up.
-the sqd move tactically to the linkup point?
-established a perimeter defense



-the sqd prepare to accept the moving unit at the linkup point
-establish communications with the other element
-moving element sends a security team forward to confirm the exact location
of the link up point
-the moving element make cont act with the element at the linkup point
-the moving element give the far recognition signal? (Countersign)
-moving element advance and exchanges near recognition signals with
element on the linkup point? (Password)
-elements return to the linkup rally point and brings the moving sqd forward to
the linkup point
-moving sqd move tactically to the linkup point posted
-sqd incorporated into the perimet er defense?
-continue the mission IAW the OP ORD, FRAGO, and or guidance from higher
headquart ers aft er the linkup.
Sqd / Tm Leader Actions
-brief the troops about the operation
-send appropriat e elements
-send out recon on the link-up area
-good terrain
-has good vegetation for cover and concealment

COMMENTS: (Observations not covered but instruction and recommendations)



10. Forward Passage of Lines


Mission Area: Internal Security Operations

Date: _____________

Subject/Activity: Forward Passage of Lines


Task Standard:

Actions in accordance with the required standards and procedure

in forward passage of line.



Task, Steps and Performance Evaluation GO NO GO

Passing Unit
-establish contact with the stationary unit+
-coordinate countersign and passwords+
-conduct recon*
Stationary Unit
-designate passage of line point or route+
-establish security
-conduct traffic control
-brief passing unit on location of obstacles, minefields and
-provide guide

-phase line/circumstances for the turn-over of responsibility*
-exchange of tactical plans and standing operating
-tactical SOP in the conduct of link-up operations

Note * Indicates Tm Ldr Task +Critical Task

COMMENTS: (Observations not covered but instruction and recommendations)




11. Harboring


Mission Area: Internal Security Operations

Date: _____________

Subject/Activity: Harboring




Task Standard:

Actions in accordance with the required standards and procedure

in harboring.

Task, Steps and Performance Evaluation GO NO

Site selection
-identify possible harbor site in the map+
-site has tactical value+
-has good cover and concealment+
-good site for OP+
-identify withdrawal routes
-rendezvous point alternate harbor area

Squad Leaders/Platoon Leaders Actions

-conduct recon on the site+
-stand-to before occupation*
-setting up OP+
-setting 360 security*
-identify provable enemy avenue of approach
-designate elements sector of fire*
-employed SAW to the possible enemy avenue of approach*
-has 24 hour security detail+
-shifting of the OP detail*
-account personnel, equipment, fire arms, ammo and others*

-applied noise and light discipline
-maintains security+
-elements has a designated sector of fire
-utilize password and countersign
Note * Indicates Tm Ldr Task +Critical Task
COMMENTS: (Observations not covered but instruction and recommendations)





12. Harassment


Mission Area: Internal Security Operations

Date: _____________

Subject/Activity: Harassment

Students/Participants: _______________________________________

Task Standard:

Actions in accordance with the required standards and

procedure in harassment.

Task, Steps and Performance Evaluation GO NO GO

-somebody shouts enemy+
-execute camp/perimeter defense plan+
-troops cover and conceal+
-observe the enemy+
-determine the enemy location
-return fire+
-report to BnHqs

Platoon/Sqd Leader Actions

-determine the location of the enemy*
-distribute the elements for best defense (360 security)*
-employ SAW/key weapons against enemy location*
-secure other enemy avenue of approach*
-call the higher hqs*
-ceasefire when enemy is not responding
-stand-to and observe for possible enemy presence
-reorganize for possible counter attack (if necessary)
Note * Indicates Tm Ldr Task +Critical Task

COMMENTS: (Observations not covered but instruction and recommendations)





13. MOUT Planning


Mission Area: Internal Security Operations

Date: _____________

Subject/Activity: MOUT Planning


Task Standard:

Actions in accordance with the required standards and

procedure in MOUT Planning.

Task, Steps and Performance Evaluation GO NO

-building/structural data assessment+
-determine enemy fire location and fields of fire+
-determine entry and exit points*
-determine areas with civilian presence*
-determine prohibited weapons and applicable ROE*
-organize troops: command, base of fire/security and assault
-briefing +
-movement to the objective technique+
-designate countersign and password+

-establish base fire and suppress enemy fire+
-sqd/pltnldr identify obstacles and maneuver troops*
-suppress enemy fire+
-sqd/pltnldr deliver appropriate command
-destroys or suppresses enemy crew-served weapons *
-obscure enemy position
-sqd/pltnldr order entry into the building
-shift and continue suppress fire
-first man throws grenade+
-execute TTPs in entering the building+
-sqd/pltnldr inform if the building is clear
-after squad entry follow platoon entry
-consolidate, reorganize and redistribute ammunitions



-alert against booby traps and trip wires+
-avoid exposure against open windows and doors+
-suppress the enemy fire with large caliber of weapon+
-rehearsal and SOP
Note * Indicates Tm/SqdLdr Task +Critical Task
COMMENTS: (Observations not covered but instruction and recommendations)



14. TCP Operations


Mission Area: Internal Security Operations

Date: _____________

Subject/Activity: TCP Operations


Task Standard:

Actions in accordance with the required standards and procedure

in the conduct of TCP Operations.

Task, Steps and Performance Evaluation GO NO

-establish communication with base and subordinate units +
-establish tactical command center +
-formulate TCP defense plan +
-post sentries and sentinels
-establish perimeter early warning devices
-establish perimeter defense and obstacles



-establish secure food and water supply +

-establish waste disposal system +
-establish civilian/visitor control measures

-sufficiency of space for other support facilities and equipment
-accessibility to MSR
-tactical relevance to area of operations and operating troops +
-cover and concealment
Note: * Indicates Tm Ldr Task + Critical Task

COMMENTS: (Observations not covered but instruction and recommendations)



15. Camp Defense


Mission Area: Internal Security Operations

Date: _____________

Subject/Activity: Camp Defense Operations (Coy)

Students/Participants: _______________________________________

Task Standard:

Actions in accordance with the required standards and

procedure in Company Defense Operation.

Task, Steps and Performance Evaluation GO NO

1 Conduct OPORD brief to key pers
2 Utilize safe avenue of approach
3 Recon the area
4 Occupy OP
5 Occupy Battle Positions



6 Fortify Fighting Positions

7 Fortify CampDefence
8 Uses early warning device
9 Observe noise and light discipline
1 Employ Mortar and Crew Serve Weapons
1 Coy Commander controls the to include Platoon Actions
1 Employ Intel to gain info
1 Send Patrols
1 S2 establish BIN
1 Log pers utilize CSS
1 Establish TRPS
1 Employ mines and countermines
1 Security of Camp and Password
COMMENTS: (Observations not covered by instructions and recommendations)



16. Conduct of Raid


Mission Area: Internal Security Operations

Date: _____________

Subject/Activity: Conduct of Raid

Students/Participants: _______________________________________

Task Standard:



Actions in accordance with the required standards and

procedure in the conduct of raid.

Task, Steps and Performance Evaluation GO NO GO

-map recon*
-assess enemy situation*
-prepare alternate plan*
-designate of attack time+
-timing of withdrawal+
-complete rehearsal from movement to objective to
return to friendly area+
-designation of countersign and passwords+
-organization: command, assault and security
-troop, weapons and equipment inspection*
-troop briefing

Conduct of Raid
-movement to contact techniques
-designation of pre-rally point (PRP)+
-halt, final recon and briefing+
-determine movement technique: single or multiple
-eliminate sentries
-breach and remove obstacles
-destroy targets

Squad/Platoon Actions
-utilize vantage avenue of approach undetected
-command fire
-change magazine before assault, if applicable
-secure, account and protect recovered evidence
-clarity of voice on commands+
-decisiveness of action
-inspect members (condition, ammo and others)*
-report to higher command+

-movement to objective
-fire support



Note * Indicates Tm/SqdLdr Task +Critical Task

COMMENTS: (Observations not covered but instruction and recommendations)




17. Retrograde Operations


Mission Area: Internal Security Operations

Date: _____________

Subject/Activity: Retrograde Operations

Students/Participants ______________________________________

Task Standard:

Actions in accordance with the required standards and

procedure in Link-up Operations.


-request approval and guidance from BnHqs
-well organized and executed
-conducted briefing on the mission
-fought within the conceptual framework of HHQs
-conducted spoiling or counter-attacks
-fight as part of the Bn, not independently
-reduced enemy mobility by fire, obstacles and effective use of terrain
-assign sectors or initial and subsequent delay positions for the pltns
-has effective fields of fire to the front
-covered withdrawal routes to the rear
-used delay from battle positions or in sector
-sends quart ering party to recon routes and positions
-effectively positions personnel and key weapons
-coordinate with units to the rear of the coy when passage of line is required

-conducted with secrecy and deception when not under pressure
-pltns moves to the rear at the same time leaving a force to cover the



withdrawal when required

-controls the sequence of actions in which the pltns withdraw

-plns change roles and bound to the rear, using maneuver when under
-sends quart ering party to coordinate with other units during the passage of
line as they withdraw

-moves to the rear in an organized manner
--cont rols the sequence of actions in which the plt ns withdraw
-perform as part of a larger unit using tactical movement techniques, foot
and vehic ular marches

-good terrain
-has good vegetation for cover and concealment

COMMENTS: (Observations not covered but instruction and recommendations)



18. Resupply Operations


Mission Area: Internal Security Operations

Date: _____________

Subject/Activity: Retrograde Operations

Students/Participants ______________________________________

Task Standard:

Actions in accordance with the required standards and

procedure in Link-up Operations.




-request approval and guidance from BnHqs
-well organized and executed
-conducted briefing on the mission

-fought within the conceptual framework of HHQs
-conducted spoiling or counter-attacks
-fight as part of the Bn, not independently
-reduced enemy mobility by fire, obstacles and effective use of terrain
-assign sectors or initial and subsequent delay positions for the pltns
-has effective fields of fire to the front
-covered withdrawal routes to the rear
-used delay from battle positions or in sector
-sends quart ering party to recon routes and positions
-effectively positions personnel and key weapons
-coordinate with units to the rear of the coy when passage of line is required

-conducted with secrecy and deception when not under pressure
-pltns moves to the rear at the same time leaving a force to cover the
withdrawal when required
-controls the sequence of actions in which the pltns withdraw
-plns change roles and bound to the rear, using maneuver when under
-sends quart ering party to coordinate with other units during the passage of
line as they withdraw

-moves to the rear in an organized manner
--cont rols the sequence of actions in which the plt ns withdraw
-perform as part of a larger unit using tactical movement techniques, foot
and vehic ular marches

-good terrain
-has good vegetation for cover and concealment

COMMENTS: (Observations not covered but instruction and recommendations)





19. Resupply Operations


Mission Area: Internal Security Operations

Date: _____________

Subject/Activity: Resupply Operations

Students/Participants ____________________________________

Task Standard:

Actions in accordance with the required standards and

procedure in Link-up Operations.


-planned and coordinated with BnHqs and executed well the CSS
functions of the company
-submits request and status involving pers onnel mngmt, morale,
discipline and law and order to the Bn S1
-submits request and status regarding supplies and equipment required
for sustainment to Bn S4
-evacuat es inoperative commo equipment to the signal plt n through 1SG
during resupply
-ensure effective and continuous unit maintenance to reduce the
requirement for direct support maintenance
-Medical aidmen must be well trained to support medical requirements
-coy trains is located on a covered and concealed position and close
enough to the provide support but out of enemy direct fire.
-security is provided to the coy train
-resupply occurs once a day and during limited visibility
-organized and assembled supplies in the Bn Field train through the coy
supply sgt
-LOGPAC has provided all the supplies, equipment and personnel
needed to sustain the whole coy for the next 24 hrs or next LOPAC
-used the appropriate resupply techniques (in-position or pre-position)
-foraging and scavenging techniques are avoided
-well-versed on the application of aerial resupply when required
-maximized and optimized the used of limited land transport ation during
COMMENTS: (Observations not covered but instruction and recommendations)








Advance Guard – a task-organized combined arms unit or detachment that

precedes a column or formation to protect the main body from ground
observation or surprise by an enemy. It operates within the supporting range
of the main body.

Air Control Point (ACP) – an easily identifiable point on the terrain or an

electronic navigational aid used to provide necessary control during air
movement. ACPs are generally designated at each point where the flight
route or air corridor makes a definite change I direction and at any other point
deemed necessary for timing or control of the operation.

Area Assessment – in unconventional warfare, the collection of specific

information prescribed by the commander to commence immediately after
infiltration. It is a continuous operation and it confirms, corrects, refutes, or
adds to intelligence acquired from area studies and other sources prior to

Area Defense – a form of defense that focuses on denying the enemy access
to designated terrain for specified time, rather than on the outright destruction
of the enemy. A commander may conduct an area defense by using mutually
supporting positions in depth.

Area of Influence – a geographical area including both organic and

supporting combat power, joint, multinational, and interagency assets.

Area of Interest (AI) – a geographical area from which information and

intelligence are required to execute successful tactical operations and plan for
future operations. It includes any threat forces of characteristics of the
battlefield environment that will significantly influence accomplishment of the
command’s mission.

Area of Operation (AO) – an operational area defined by the force

commander for land and naval forces. Areas of operation do not typically
encompass the entire operational area for the joint force commander, but
should be large enough for component commanders to accomplish their
missions to protect their force.

Area Reconnaissance – a form of reconnaissance operations that is a

directed effort to obtain detailed information concerning the terrain or enemy
activity within a prescribed area such as a town, ridgeline, woods, or other
feature that are considered critical to every operation.

Area of Responsibility – a geographical area associated with a combatant

command in which a commander has the authority to plan and conduct



Assault Position – a position between the line of departure and the objective
in an attack from which forces assault the objective. Ideally, it is the last
covered and concealed position before reaching the objective.

Assembly Area (AA) – 1. an area in which a command is assembled for

further action. 2. in a supply installation, the general area used for collecting
and combining components into complete units, kits or assemblies.

Assign – to place units or personnel in an organization where such

placement is relatively permanent, and/or where such organization controls
and administers the units or personnel for the primary function, or grater
portion of the functions, of the unit or personnel.

Attach – 1. the temporary placement of units or personnel in an organization.

2. the detailing of individuals to secondary or relatively temporary specific
functions, e.g., attached for quarters and rations; attached for flying duty.

Attack (Atk) – a form of offensive operation characterized by coordinated

movement supported by the fire. It may be designated as the main or
supporting attack. The principal attack options include hasty and deliberate
attack, spoiling attack, counter attack, raid, feint and demonstration.

Avenue of Approach (AA) – an air or ground route of an attacking force of a

given size leading to its objective or to key terrain on its path.

Axis of Advance (AA) – a line of advance assigned for purposes of control;

often a road or a group of roads, or a designated series of locations,
extending in the direction of the enemy. – a general route of advance,
assigned for purposes of control, which extends towards the enemy. An axis
of advance symbol graphically portrays a commander’s intention, such as
avoidance of built-up areas or envelopment of an enemy force.

Battle Command (BC) – the art of battle decision making and leading. It
includes controlling operations and motivating soldiers and organizations into
action to accomplish mission. Battle command includes visualizing the current
states and future state, then formulating concepts of operations to get from
one to the other at least cost.

Battlefield Framework – the overall structure of the field which, at a tactical

level of war, consists of four interrelated concept: area of interest, battlespace,
area of operations, and battlefield organization. The battlefield framework
provides a way for commanders to relate their forces to the enemy in terms of
time, space and purpose. The battlefield framework applies both linear and
noncontiguous operations.

Battlefield Operating System (BOS) – a listing of critical tactical activities.

The BOS provides a means of reviewing preparations or execution in discrete
subsets. Critical to this review is the synchronization and coordination of
activities not only within the BOS, buy among the various BOS. The BOS are
not all exclusive; they include intelligence, maneuver, fire support, mobility



and survivability, air defense, combat service support and command and
control but do not address timing, tempo, reconnaissance, information
operations or tactics.

Battlespace – the conceptual physical volume in which the commander

seeks to dominate the enemy. It expands and contracts in relation to the
commander’s ability to acquire and engage the enemy, or can change as the
commander’s vision of the battlefield changes.

Begin Morning Nautical Twilight (BMNT) – the start of that period where, in
good conditions and absence of other illumination, enough light is available to
identify the general outlines of ground objects and conduct limited military
operations. Light intensification devices are still effective and may have
enhanced capabilities. At this time, the sun is 12 degrees below the eastern

Block – A tactical task assigned to a unit that requires it to deny enemy

access to a given area or to prevent enemy advance I a given direction or an
avenue of approach. It may be for a specified time. Units assigned this
mission may have to retain terrain and accept decisive engagement.

Boundary – a line which delineates surface areas for the purpose facilitating
coordination and deconfliction of operations between adjacent units,
information or areas. (Army) – 1. a control measure used to define the right,
left, rear and forward limits of an area of operation. 2. a control measure
normally drawn along identifiable terrain features and used to delineate area
of tactical responsibility between adjacent units and between higher
headquarters to the rear of subordinate units.

Buffer Zone – a defined area controlled by a peace operations force from

which disputing or belligerent forces have been excluded. A buffer zone is
formed to create an area of separation between disputing forces and reduced
the risk of renewing conflict.

Bypass – a tactical task that involves maneuvering around an obstacle,

position, or enemy force to maintain the momentum of advance. Bypassed an
obstacle and enemy forces are reporting to higher headquarters.

Campaign – a series of related military operations aimed at accomplishing

strategic or operational objective within a given time and space.

Chokepoint – a geographical location on land or water that restricts the

movement of forces and can be natural, man-made or crated through the
disposition of forces.

Close Operations – involves forces in immediate contact wit the enemy and
the fighting between the committed forces and the readily tactical reserves of
both combatants.



Coaching – This type of evaluation makes corrections or gives additional

guidance during the actual performance or practice of a task.

Combat Power – A complex combination of tangible and intangible factors

which are transitory and reversible on the battlefield. Combat power is
comprised of the effects of maneuver, the effects of firepower, the effects of
protection, and the effectiveness of leadership.

Combat Service Support (CSS) – The assistance provided to sustain

combat forces; primarily in the fields of administration and logistics. The focus
of logistics at the tactical level of war; the synchronization of essential
functions, activities, and tasks necessary to sustain soldiers and their weapon
system in an area of operations, includes but is not limited to that support
rendered by service support troops to arm, fuel, fix, move, man and sustain
soldiers and their equipment.

Combat Support (CS) – Fire support and operational assistance provided to

combat elements.

Combined Arms – Application of several arms, such as infantry, armor,

artillery, and aviation.

Combined Arms and Service Proficiency – This type of proficiency requires

all the system available to the unit commander to be employed to unit’s
minimum acceptable standard of performance. With this proficiency, the
commander is concerned not only with his unit but also with how well others
can support it during the execution of the mission.

Combined Operation – An operation conducted by forces of two or more

allied nations acting together for the accomplishment of a si ngle mission.

Commander’s Critical Information Requirements (CCIR) – information

required by the commander that directly affects his decisions and dictates the
successful execution of operational or tactical operation. CCIR normally result
of the generation of three types of information requirements: priority
intelligence requirement, essential elements of friendly information and
friendly force information requirements.

Communication Checkpoint (CCP) – an air control point that requires serial

leaders to report either to the aviation mission commander or the terminal
control facility

Communication Zone (COMMZ) – rear part of theater of operations (behind

but contiguous to the zone) which contains the lines of communications,
establishments for supply and evacuation, and other agencies required for
immediate support and maintenance of the field forces.

Conflict – a political-military situation between peace and war, distinguished

from peace by the introduction of organized political violence and from war by



its reliance on political methods. It shares many of the goals an characteristics

of war, including the destruction of governments and the control of territory.

Conflict Termination – the point of conflict ends and post conflict activities
begin. The enemy should be both unable and unwilling to resist. Strategic,
operational and political goals established at the beginning of the conflict
should either be secured, or their securement is the immediate result of the
end of the conflict.

Constraint – restriction placed on the command by a higher command to

dictate an action or inaction, thus restricting the freedom of action the
subordinate commander has for planning a mission by stating things that must
or must not be done.

Control Measures – directives given graphically or orally by the commander

to subordinate command to assign responsibilities, coordinates fire and
maneuver and control combat operations. Each control measure can be
portrayed graphically. In general, all control measures should be easily
identifiable on the ground.

Control Point – 1. A position along a route of march at which men are

stationed to give information and instructions for the regulation of supply or
traffic. 2. A position marked by a buoy, boat, aircraft, electronic device,
conspicuous terrain feature, or other identifiable object which is given a name
or number and used as an aid to navigation or control of ships, boats or

Coordinated Fire Line (CFL) – A line beyond which conventional surface fire
support means (mortars, field artillery, naval gunfire ships) may fire at anytime
within the zone of the establishing headquarters without additional
coordination. It is usually established by brigade or division but may be
established by a maneuver battalion.

Coordinating Point – A control measure that indicates a specific location for

the coordination of fires and maneuver between adjacent units. They usually
are indicated whenever a boundary crosses the forward edge of the battle
area (FEBA) and may be indicated when a boundary crosses phase lines
(PLs) used to control security forces.

Covering Force – 1. A force operating apart from the main force for the
purpose of intercepting, engaging, delaying, disorganizing and deceiving the
enemy before he can attack the force covered. 2. Any body or detachment of
troops which provides security for a larger force by observation,
reconnaissance, attack, or defense, or by any combination of these methods.

Crew proficiency – These are individual skills translated into collective

proficiency through team practice.

Critical Point – 1. A key geographical point or position important to the

success of an operation. 2. In a point of time, a crisis or a turning point in an



operation. 3. A selected point along a line of March used for the reference in
giving instructions. 4. A point where there as a change of direction or change
in slope in a ridge or stream.

Critiquing – This type of evaluation tells all members of a unit or team about
strong and weak points of their performance

Decision Point (DP) – An event, an area, a line or a point on the battlefield

where tactical decisions are required resulting from the war-gaming process
before the operation order. Decision points do not dictate commander’s
decisions, they only dictates that a decision is required, and they indicate
when and where the decision should be made to have the maximum effect on
friendly or enemy course of action.

Decision Support Matrix (DSM) – An aid used by the commander and staff
to make battlefield decisions. It is a staff product of the war-gaming process
which lists the decision point, location of the decision point, the criteria to be
evaluated at the point of the decision, the action or options to occur at the
decision point and the unit element that is to act and has responsibility to
observe and report the information affecting the criteria for the decision.

Decision Support Template (DST) – A staff product initially used in the war-
gaming process which graphically represents the decision points and
projected situations and indicates when, where and under what conditions a
decision is most likely to be required to initiate a specific activity ( such as a
branch or sequel) or event (such as lifting or shifting of fires).

Decisive Point – 1. A point, if retained, that provides a commander with a

marked advantage over his opponent. Decisive point s is usually geographic
in nature but could include other physical elements, such as enemy
formations, command posts and communication node.

Deep Operations – Those operations directed against enemy forces and

functions which are not in contact at the forward line of troops (FLOT), line of
departure, or friendly perimeter and are between the FLOT or perimeter and
the forward boundary of the unit conducting the operation. These operations
employ long-range fires, air and ground maneuver, and command and control
warfare to defeat the enemy by denying him freedom of action; disrupting his
preparation for battle and his support structure; and disrupting or destroying
the coherence and tempo of his operations.

Defense – A coordinated effort by a force to defeat an attacker and prevent

him from achieving his objectives.

Defense Areas – Denying the enemy access to designated terrain for a

specific time to retain ground using a combination of defensive positions and
small mobile reserves.



Division Training Units – these are the primary training units of the infantry
division. Its mission is to provide institutional and unit training to the different
sub-units of the infantry division.

Doctrine – Fundamental principles by which the military forces or elements

thereof guide their actions in support of national objectives.

Fire Support Coordination Line – A line established by the appropriate

ground commander to ensure coordination of fire not under his control by
which may effect current tactical operations. The FSCL is used to coordinate
fires of air, ground, or sea weapons system using any type of communication
against surface targets.

Doctrinal Template – a model base or postulated enemy tactical doctrine. It

generally portrays frontages, depths, echelon spacing, and force composition,
as well as his disposition of combat, combat support, and combat service
support units for a given type of operation. It portrays how the enemy would
like to fight if he was not constrained.

Economy of Force – The allocation of minimum-essential combat capability

or strength to secondary efforts so that forces may be concentrated in the
area where decision is sought. Economy of force is a principle of war and a
condition of tactical operations. It is not used to describe a mission.

Effectiveness (of training) – this is determined on how well personnel

undergoing the training can meet or exceed established performance
standards specified in the commander’s training objectives.

Efficiency (of training) – this is concerned with how well the trainers used
valuable training resources to train the soldiers.

End Evening Nautical Twilight (EENT) – Occurs when the sun has dropped
12 degrees beneath the western horizon and is the instant of last available
daylight. At the EENT, there is no further sunlight visible.

End State – A set of required conditions that, when achieved, attain the aims
set for the campaign or operation.

Engagement Area (EA) – An area along an enemy avenue of approach

where the commander intends to contain and destroy and enemy force with
the mass fire of all available weapons. The size and shape of the engagement
area is determined by the relatively unobstructed indivisibility form the weapon
systems in their firing positions and the maximum range of those weapons.
Sectors of the fires are usually assigned to subordinates to prevent fratricide.

Envelopment – It is one of the five choices of maneuver. A commander must

find or create an assailable flank by passing forces around one or both of, or
over (vertical), the sides of an enemy force, pitting his strength against the
enemy’s weakness.



Essential Elements of Friendly Information (EEFI) – Key questions likely to

be asked by adversary officials and intelligence systems about specific
friendly intentions, capabilities and activities so they can obtain answers
critical to their operation-effectiveness.

Essential Element of Information (EEI) – The critical items of information

regarding the enemy and the environment needed by the commander by a
particular time to relate with other available information and intelligence in
order to assist in reaching a logical decision.

Event Template – a model against which enemy activity can be recorded and
compared. It represent sequential projection of events that relate to space and
time on the battlefield and indicate the enemy’s ability to adopt a particular
course of action. The event template is a guide for collection and
reconnaissance and surveillance planning.

Execution Matrix – A visual and sequential representation of the critical tasks

and responsible organizations by phase for a tactical operation used as a staff

Feint – A type of attack used as a deception intended to draw the enemy’s

attention away from the area of the main attack. This induces the enemy to
move his reserves or to shift his fire support in reaction to the feint.

Fire Support Coordinating Line (FSCL) - A line established by the

appropriate land or amphibious force commander to ensure coordination of
fire not under the commander’s control but which may affect current tactical
operations. The FSCL is used to coordinate fires of air, ground, or sea
weapons using any type of ammunition against surface targets, it should
follow well-defined terrain features.

Forward Defense – A strategic concept which calls for containing or

repulsing military aggression to close to the original line of contact as possible
so as to defend the entire territory of a nation or alliance.

Forward Edge of the Battle Area (FEBA) – The foremost limits of a series of
areas in which ground combat units are deployed, excluding the areas in
which the covering or screening forces are operating, designated to
coordinate fire support, the positioning of forces, or the maneuver of units.

Forward Line of Own Troops (FLOT) – A line which indicates the most
forward positions of friendly forces in any kind of military operation at a
specific time. The FLOT normally identifies the forward location of covering
and screening forces.

Fragmentary Order (FRAGO) – An abbreviated form of an operation order,

usually issued on a day-to-day basis, that eliminates the need for restating
information contained in a basic operation order.



Fratricide – The employment of friendly weapons and munitions with the

intent to kill the enemy or destroy his equipment or facilities, which results in
unforeseen and unintentional death or injury to friendly personnel.

General Support (GS) – That support which is given to the supported force
as a whole and not to any particular subdivision thereof.

General Support Artillery – Artillery which executes the fire directed by the
commander of the unit to which it organically belongs or to attached. It fires in
supports of the operations as a whole rather than in support of a specific
subordinate unit. (Army) – A tactical artillery mission.

General support-Reinforcing (GSR) – A tactical artillery mission. General

support-reinforcing artillery has the mission of supporting the force as a whole
and of providing reinforcing fires for another artillery unit.

Hand-over Line – the action is complete when the receiving commander

acknowledges assumption of control authority.

H-Hour – The specific hour of D-day at which a particular operation


Individual Proficiency – this refers to the technical proficiency of junior

leaders and soldiers sustained during daily accomplishment of the peacetime

Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB) – A systematic approach to

analyzing the enemy, weather, and the terrain in a specific geographical area.
It integrates enemy doctrine with the weather and terrain as they relate to the
mission and the specific battlefield environment. This is done to determine
and evaluate enemy capabilities, vulnerabilities and probable courses of

Joint Operations – An operation carried on by two or more of the armed


Joint Task Force – A force composed of assigned or attached elements of

two or more services and constituted by appropriate authority for a specific or
limited purpose missions of short durations.

Key Terrain – Any locality, or area, the seizure or retention of which affords
marked advantage to either combatant.

Land Component Commander (LCC) – The senior commander of a joint or

multinational military force responsible for all aspects of operations for land
maneuver and supporting forces.

Limit of Advance (LOA) – An easily recognized terrain feature beyond which

attacking elements will not advance.



Limitation – Control measures, instruction or order that restrict freedom of


Line of Contact (LC) – A general trade delineating the location where two
opposing forces are engage.

Line of Departure (LD) – In land warfare, a line designated to coordinate the

departure of attack elements.

Line of Departure is Line of Contact (LD/LC) – The designation of forward

friendly positions as the LD when opposing forces are in contact.

Line of Communication (LOC) – All the routes, land, water, and air, which
connect an operating military force with a base of operations and along which
supplies and military forces move.

Logistics – The process of planning and executing the movement and

sustainment of forces in the execution of military operations.

Main Attack – The principal attack or effort into which the commander throws
the full weight of the offensive power at his disposal.

Main Battle Area (MBA) – That portion of battlefield in which the decisive
battle is fought to defeat the enemy. For any particular command, the main
battle area extends rearward from the forward edge of the battle area to the
rear boundary of the command’s subordinate units.

Main Effort – The unit, battle position, sector, zone, axis, avenue of
approach, area of operations, theater of operations, and so forth, the senior
commander has determined has the most important task and purpose at that
time, whose success will make the most difference in the accomplishment of
the higher headquarters’ overall mission or objective.

Meeting Engagement – a combat action that occurs when a moving force,

incompletely deployed for battle, engages an enemy at an unexpected time
and place.

Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain (MOUT) – All military actions

planned and conducted on a topographical complex and its adjacent natural
terrain where man-made construction is the dominant feature. It includes
combat-in-cites, which is that portion of MOUT involving house-to-house and
street-by –street fighting in towns and cities.

Military Strategy – The art and the science of employing the armed forces of
a nation to secure the objectives of national policy by the application of force
of the threat of force.

Mission – The primary task assigned to an individual, unit or force. It usually

contains the elements of who, what, when, where, and the reason therefore,



but seldom specifies how. This is the task assigned by the National Command
Authority to the combatant commanders.

Named Area of Interest (NAI) – A point or area along a particular avenue of

approach through which enemy activity is expected to occur. Activity or lack of
activity within a NIA will help to confirm to deny a particular enemy course of

No-Fire Area (NFA) – An area in which no fires or effects of fires are allowed.
Two exceptions are (1) when establishing headquarters approves fires
temporarily within the NFA on a mission basis, and (2) when the enemy force
within the NFA engages a friendly force, the commander may engage the
enemy to defend his force.

No-Fire Line (NFL) – A line short of which artillery or ships do not fire except
on request or approval of the supported commander, but beyond which they
may fire at anytime without danger to friendly troops.

Objective – The physical object of the action taken, e.g., a definite tactical
feature, the seizure and/or holding of which is essential to the commanders

Observation Post – A position from which military observations are made, or

fire directed and adjusted, and which possesses appropriate communications

Offense – A combat operations designed primarily to destroy the enemy.

Offensive operations may be undertaken to secure key or decisive terrain to
deprive the enemy of resources or decisive and/or divert the enemy, to
develop intelligence, and to hold the enemy in position.

Operational Control (OPCON) – Transferable command authority that may

be exercised by commanders at any echelon at or below the level of
combatant command. Operational control is inherent in combatant command
(command authority).

Operations Other Than War – Military activities during peacetime and

conflict that do not necessarily involve armed clashes between two organized

Principle of War – The enduring bedrock of Army doctrine that provides

general guidance for the conduct of war at the strategic, operational, and
tactical levels.

Psychological Operations (PSYOPS) –A planned psychological activity in

peace the war directed towards enemy, friendly and neutral audiences, in
order to create attitudes and behavior favorable to the achievement of political
and military objectives.

Passage Point (PP) – A specifically designated place where units will pass
through one another either in an advance or a withdrawal. It is located where



the commander desires subordinate units to physically execute a passage of


Performance-Oriented Training – this method of training is characterized by

training objectives, which states what the soldier must be able to do upon
completion of training.

Phase – A specific part of an operation that is different from those that

precede or follow. A change in phase usually involves a change of task.

Phase Line (PL) – A line used to control coordination of military operations,

usually a terrain feature extending across the zone of action.

Philippine Army Training System – this is a system developed by the

Philippine Army to provide for a systematic approach to determining training
goal and objective and how they are attained. It is a simple and logical
process applicable to both individual and collective types of training of Army
personnel. It is patterned after the system approach model of Dick and Carey.

Platoon Proficiency – these are individual skills and new skills combined
with collective proficiency acquired through team practice.

Priority Intelligence Requirements (PIR) – Those requirements for which a

commander has an anticipated and stated priority in his task of planning and

Reconnaissance (recon) (recce) – An operation designed to obtain

information on the enemy, potential enemy, or the characteristics of a
particular area.

Release Point (RP) – A well-defined point on a route at which the elements

composing a column return under the authority of their respective
commanders, each one of this elements continuing its movement toward its
own appropriate destination.

Retirement – A form of retrograde operations; a directed, rearward

movement by a force that is not in contact with the enemy and does not
anticipate significant contact with the enemy.

Retrograde – A type of operation in which a unit conducts directed, organized

movement to the rear or away from the enemy.

Roles – Thee are the broad and enduring purposes for which the services
(Army, Navy, and Air Force).

Route Reconnaissance – A form of reconnaissance focused along a specific

line of communications, such as a road, railway, or waterway, to provide a
new or updated information on route conditions and activities along the route.



Rules of Engagement (ROE) – Directives issued by competent military

authority which delineate the circumstances and limitations under which US
forces will initiate and/or continue combat engagement with other forces

Secure – A tactical task to gain possession of a position or terrain feature,

with or without force, and to deploy in a manner which prevents its destruction
or loss to enemy action. The attacking force mat or may not have physically
occupy the area.

Sector – An area designated by boundaries within which a unit operates, and

for which it is responsible.

Show of Force – An operation, designated to demonstrate US resolve, that

involves increased visibility of US deployed forces in an attempt to defuse a
specific situation, which, if allowed to continue, may be detrimental to US
interests or national objectives.

Staff Estimate – The staff officer’s evacuation of how factors in his particular
field of interest will influence the course of action under consideration by the

Start Point (SP) – A well-defined point on a route at which a movement of

vehicles begins to be under the control of the commander of this movement.

Strategy – The art and science if employing the armed forces and other
elements of national power during peace, conflict and war to secure national
security objectives.

Strong Point (SP) – A position requiring intense engineer effort for obstacles
and survivability positions and positioned to control or block an avenue of

Support by Fire – A tactical task in which a maneuver element moves to a

position on the battlefield where it can engage the enemy by direct fire to
support a maneuvering force by either support by fire by overwatching or by
establishing a base of fire.

Supporting Effort – The unit, battle position, sector, zone, axis, avenue of
approach, area of operations, theater of operation, and so forth, whose
purpose supports the success of the main effort.

Tactics – The employment of units in combat the ordered arrangement and

maneuver of units in relation to one another and/or to the enemy in order to
use their full potential.

Target Area of Interest (TAI) – The geographical area or point along a

mobility corridor where successful interdiction will cause the enemy to either
abandon a particular course of action or require him to use specialized



engineer support to continue, where he can be acquired and engage by

friendly forces.

Target Reference Point (TRP) – An easily recognizable point on the ground

(either natural or man-made) used to initiate, distribute and control fires.

Traffic Control Point (TCP) – A place at which traffic is controlled either by

military police or by mechanical means.

Training in Units – this involves learning and sustaining proficiency in

individual skill that units need to accomplish their mission. This is often part of
platoon, company and battalion exercises.

Unit Proficiency – this type of proficiency usually occurs in a field setting and
involves the entire unit.

War – A state of open and declared political units such as states or nations
may be limited or general in nature.

War-Gaming – A step-by-step process of action, reaction, and counteraction

for visualizing the execution of each friendly course of action (COA) in relation
to enemy COAs and reaction.





AAR – After Action Review
ACC – Area Coordination Center
ADA – Air Defense Artillery
AG – Adjutant General
AH – Attack Helicopter
ALO – Air Liaison Officer
APC – Armored Personnel Carrier
AR – Army Regulation
ATBSS – Army Training Battle Simulation System
ATEP – Army Training and Evaluation Program
ASA – Aviation Support Activity
ASIC – All-Source Intelligence Center
ASOC – Air Support Operations Center
ATGM – Anti-Tank Guided Missile
AVKP – Armored Vehicle Kill Probability
AVLB – Armored Vehicle Launched Bridge
BAI – Battlefield Air Interdiction
BCC – Battery Control Center
BDA – Bomb Damage Assessment
BMNT– Before Morning Nautical Twilight
CA – Combat Arms
CAS – Close Air Support
CBU – Cluster Bomb Unit
CEV – Combat Engineer Vehicle
CEWI – Combat Electronic Warfare Intelligence
CFX – Combined Field Exercise
C/F – Command/Fire
CI – Counterintelligence
CMO – Civil-Military Operations
CZ – Communications Zone
CP – Command Post
CPX – Command Post Exercise
CS – Combat Support
CSS – Combat Service Support
CTX – Combined Training Exercise
DS – Direct Support
ECC – Exercise Control Center
ECM – Electronic Counter-Measures
EEI – Essential Elements of Information
ENDEX – End of Exercise
EPW – Enemy Prisoner of War
EW – Electronic Warfare
FA – Field Artillery
FAAR – Forward Area Altering Area
FAC – Forward Air Controller
FARP – Forward Arming and Refueling Point
FASCO – Forward Area Support Coordinator
FCX – Fire Coordination Exercise



FDC – Fire Direction Center

FEBA – Forward Edge of the Battle Area
FIST – Fire Support Team
FM – Frequency Modulated
FO – Forward Observer
FPF – Final Protective Fire
FRAGO – Fragmentary Order
FS – Fire Support
FSC – Fire Support Coordinator
FSE – Fire Support Element
FSO – Fire Support Officer
FSS – Fire Support Section
FTX – Field Training Exercise
G1 – Assistant Chief of Staff for Personnel
G2 – Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence
G3 – Assistant Chief of Staff for Operations
G4 – Assistant Chief of Staff for Logistics
G5 – Assistant Chief of Staff for Plans and Programs
G6 – Assistant Chief of Staff for Communication and Electronics
G7 – Assistant Chief of Staff for Civil Military Operations
G8 – Assistant Chief of Staff for Training & Education
GP – General Purpose
GS – General Support
GT – Gun-Target
GTA – Graphic Training Aid
HC – High Concentrate
HE – High Explosive
HTF – How-to-Fight
ID – Identification
IPB – Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield
IPR – In-Process Review
KIA – Killed in Action
LAW – Light Anti-tank Weapon
LC – Line of Contact
LD – Line of Departure
LOC – Lines of Communication
LOI – Letter of Instruction
MAB – Mobile Assault Bridge
MAPEX – Map Exercise
MBA – Main Battle Area
MCC – Movement Control Center
MEDCEN – Medical Center
MEDAC – Medical Activity
MEMO – Mission Essential Maintenance Only
MEDMOD – Medical Module
METT – Mission, Enemy, Terrain, and Troops available
MI – Military Intelligence
MLB – Metallic Link Belt
MMC – Materiel Management Center
MOPP – Mission-Oriented Protection Posture



MOS – Military Occupational Specialty

MOUT – Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain
MP – Military Police
MSR – Main Supply Route
MST – Maintenance Support Team
MTC – Maneuver Training Command
MTOE – Modification Table of Organization and Equipment
NCO – Non-Commissioned Officer
NCOIC – Non-Commissioned Officer-In-Charge
OB – Order of Battle
O/O – On Order
OH – Observation Helicopter
O/I – Operations/Intelligence
OIC – Officer-In-Charge
OP – Observation Post
OPCOM – Operational Command
OPFOR – Opposing Force
OPLAN – Operations Plan
OPORD – Operations Order
OPSEC – Operations Security
P&A – Personnel and Administration
PL – Phase Line
PAC – Personnel and Administration Center
PAO – Public Affairs Officer
PDF – Point Detonating Fuze
PERSCOM – Personnel Command
PSYOP – Psychological Operations
POW – Prisoner of War
RACO – Rear Area Combat Operations
RTO – Radio Telephone Operator
REALTRAIN – Realistic Training
S&T – Supply and Transportation
S1 – Personnel Officer
S2 – Intelligence Officer
S3 – Operations and Training Officer
S4 – Logistics Officer
S7 – Civil Military Operations Officer
SASP – Special Ammunition Supply Point
SITREP – Situation Report
SJA – Staff Judge Advocate
SOP – Standard Operating Procedure
SP – Self-Propelled
SQT – Skill Qualification Test
SSI – Specialty Skill Identifier
SSO – Special Security Officer
STARTEX – Start of the Exercise
STRAC – Standards in Training Commission
STX – Situational Training Exercise
T&E – Training and Evaluation
T&EO – Training and Evaluation Outline



TAB – Target Acquisition Battery

TC – Training Circular
TD – Tactical Deception
TDA – Tables of Distribution and Allowance
TES – Tactical Engagement Simulation
TEWT– Tactical Exercise Without Troops
TF – Task Force
TNT – TriNitroToluene
TOC – Tactical Operations Center
TOE – Table of Organization and Equipment
TOT – Time On Target
TPT – Target Practice Tracer
TSOP – Tactical Standing Operating Procedure
WIA – Wounded-In-Action
WP – White Phosphorus





AAR – After Action Review
ACC – Area Coordination Center
ADA – Air Defense Artillery
AG – Adjutant General
AH – Attack Helicopter
ALO – Air Liaison Officer
APC – Armored Personnel Carrier
AR – Army Regulation
ATBSS – Army Training Battle Simulation System
ATEP – Army Training and Evaluation Program
ASA – Aviation Support Activity
ASIC – All-Source Intelligence Center
ASOC – Air Support Operations Center
ATGM – Anti-Tank Guided Missile
AVKP – Armored Vehicle Kill Probability
AVLB – Armored Vehicle Launched Bridge
BAI – Battlefield Air Interdiction
BCC – Battery Control Center
BDA – Bomb Damage Assessment
BMNT– Before Morning Nautical Twilight
CA – Combat Arms
CAS – Close Air Support
CBU – Cluster Bomb Unit
CEV – Combat Engineer Vehicle
CEWI – Combat Electronic Warfare Intelligence
CFX – Combined Field Exercise
C/F – Command/Fire
CI – Counterintelligence
CMO – Civil-Military Operations
CZ – Communications Zone
CP – Command Post
CPX – Command Post Exercise
CS – Combat Support
CSS – Combat Service Support
CTX – Combined Training Exercise
DS – Direct Support
ECC – Exercise Control Center
ECM – Electronic Counter-Measures
EEI – Essential Elements of Information
ENDEX – End of Exercise
EPW – Enemy Prisoner of War
EW – Electronic Warfare
FA – Field Artillery
FAAR – Forward Area Altering Area
FAC – Forward Air Controller
FARP – Forward Arming and Refueling Point
FASCO – Forward Area Support Coordinator
FCX – Fire Coordination Exercise



FDC – Fire Direction Center

FEBA – Forward Edge of the Battle Area
FIST – Fire Support Team
FM – Frequency Modulated
FO – Forward Observer
FPF – Final Protective Fire
FRAGO – Fragmentary Order
FS – Fire Support
FSC – Fire Support Coordinator
FSE – Fire Support Element
FSO – Fire Support Officer
FSS – Fire Support Section
FTX – Field Training Exercise
G1 – Assistant Chief of Staff for Personnel
G2 – Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence
G3 – Assistant Chief of Staff for Operations
G4 – Assistant Chief of Staff for Logistics
G5 – Assistant Chief of Staff for Plans and Programs
G6 – Assistant Chief of Staff for Communication and Electronics
G7 – Assistant Chief of Staff for Civil Military Operations
G8 – Assistant Chief of Staff for Training & Education
GP – General Purpose
GS – General Support
GT – Gun-Target
GTA – Graphic Training Aid
HC – High Concentrate
HE – High Explosive
HTF – How-to-Fight
ID – Identification
IPB – Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield
IPR – In-Process Review
KIA – Killed in Action
LAW – Light Anti-tank Weapon
LC – Line of Contact
LD – Line of Departure
LOC – Lines of Communication
LOI – Letter of Instruction
MAB – Mobile Assault Bridge
MAPEX – Map Exercise
MBA – Main Battle Area
MCC – Movement Control Center
MEDCEN – Medical Center
MEDAC – Medical Activity
MEMO – Mission Essential Maintenance Only
MEDMOD – Medical Module
METT – Mission, Enemy, Terrain, and Troops available
MI – Military Intelligence
MLB – Metallic Link Belt
MMC – Materiel Management Center
MOPP – Mission-Oriented Protection Posture



MOS – Military Occupational Specialty

MOUT – Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain
MP – Military Police
MSR – Main Supply Route
MST – Maintenance Support Team
MTC – Maneuver Training Command
MTOE – Modification Table of Organization and Equipment
NCO – Non-Commissioned Officer
NCOIC – Non-Commissioned Officer-In-Charge
OB – Order of Battle
O/O – On Order
OH – Observation Helicopter
O/I – Operations/Intelligence
OIC – Officer-In-Charge
OP – Observation Post
OPCOM – Operational Command
OPFOR – Opposing Force
OPLAN – Operations Plan
OPORD – Operations Order
OPSEC – Operations Security
P&A – Personnel and Administration
PL – Phase Line
PAC – Personnel and Administration Center
PAO – Public Affairs Officer
PDF – Point Detonating Fuze
PERSCOM – Personnel Command
PSYOP – Psychological Operations
POW – Prisoner of War
RACO – Rear Area Combat Operations
RTO – Radio Telephone Operator
REALTRAIN – Realistic Training
S&T – Supply and Transportation
S1 – Personnel Officer
S2 – Intelligence Officer
S3 – Operations and Training Officer
S4 – Logistics Officer
S7 – Civil Military Operations Officer
SASP – Special Ammunition Supply Point
SITREP – Situation Report
SJA – Staff Judge Advocate
SOP – Standard Operating Procedure
SP – Self-Propelled
SQT – Skill Qualification Test
SSI – Specialty Skill Identifier
SSO – Special Security Officer
STARTEX – Start of the Exercise
STRAC – Standards in Training Commission
STX – Situational Training Exercise
T&E – Training and Evaluation
T&EO – Training and Evaluation Outline



TAB – Target Acquisition Battery

TC – Training Circular
TD – Tactical Deception
TDA – Tables of Distribution and Allowance
TES – Tactical Engagement Simulation
TEWT– Tactical Exercise Without Troops
TF – Task Force
TNT – TriNitroToluene
TOC – Tactical Operations Center
TOE – Table of Organization and Equipment
TOT – Time On Target
TPT – Target Practice Tracer
TSOP – Tactical Standing Operating Procedure
WIA – Wounded-In-Action
WP – White Phosphorus