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Cisco ASR 1000 Series

Quality of Service

ASR 1000 Instructor Led Training: Train-The-Trainer


MRBU Marketing
March 2008

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 1
Objectives

 Understand the ASR 1000 QoS Hardware


Implementation
–Gain insight on the classification, scheduling and buffering
–Understand the unique QoS capabilities of the ASR 1000

 Learn about the ASR 1000 QoS Software features


and its roadmap

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 2
QoS: Introduction

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 3
ASR 1000 Oversubscription
Embedded Service Route Route Embedded Service
Processor Processor Processor Processor
(active) (active) (standby) (standby)

ESP10 Egress QoS


Cisco QFP into SPI
Interconnect. Interconnect.
30Gbps -> 10 Gbps
Interconnect QoS Cisco QFP Scheduled by ESP10
3 SIP10 into 1 QPM
ESP10 Interconnect.
Interconnect.
30Gbps -> 10 Gbps

Midplane

SIP10 ingress QoS Interconnect. Interconnect. Interconnect. SIP10 egress


4 SPAs into 1 QoS
interconnect 10 Gbps into SIP10
40Gbps -> 10 Gbps Up to 10Gbps

SPA … SPA SPA … SPA SPA … SPA

ESI, 11.5Gbps each direction


SPA-SPI, 11.2Gbps each direct
Hypertransport, 8Gbps each direction

Ingress: 12 SPA:1 ESP10 oversubscription from ingress ports to QFP


Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 4
ASR 1000 Ingress Scheduling
ESP10

SIP10 queues traffic Cisco QFP


from SPA into ingress If 10Gig System Bandwidth
buffers and then is close to full OR if Cisco
sends to ESP10 QFP is too busy then SIP10
may still send High Priority Interconnect

Traffic. ….....
Queue status High and Low

If these queues fill SIP ( Ingress SIP )


Interconnect
then SIP can send
Queue Status back to
specific SPA port High Low High Low High Low High Low

If the queues fill then ….....


packets will tail drop
or generate pause
frames for Ethernet Queue status High and Low This 10Gbps
link is not
oversubscribed
Gig0/0/0 Gig0/0/1 Gig0/0/2 Gig0/0/3 Ingress SPA Interface

Ingress SPA
Ingress SIP
Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 5
ASR1000 QOS Main Scheduling (QFP/MQC)
ESP 1
Queue status
is also sent by ESP 0
• QFP/BQS on active ESP is aware of and
the SIP to the
Stanby FP
can receive queue status from all
interfaces on all SPAs.
• QFP uses this status to control how
USER/MQC Queues are serviced. QFP will
not send more than the interface
bandwidth.
• QFP can listen to both high and low
priority queue status messages from
egress queues on either the CC or SPA.

Gig0/0/0 Congested for example:


Either SPAs or SIP Low Priority Traffic get queued
SIP are HI L HI L HI L HI L
Lo Priority Queue  FULL/XOFF
constantly O O O O
sending egress Hi Priority Queue  OK/XON
physical/virtual Hi Priority Traffic gets Fastlane
port queue status
to both FP’s. HI L HI L HI L HI L
O O O O
QFP is capable of
accepting 10s of
Millions of queue Both Hi/Lo Q’s do not
exist on Ethernet SPAs Gig0/0/0 Gig0/0/1 Gig0/0/2 Gig0/0/3
status updates / but do on other types of
SPAs (shown here just for Egress SPA
sec illustrative purposes).
Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 6
QoS: Ingress SIP
Overview

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7
ASR 1000 SIP10 Ingress QoS
FP0 FP1
ESI Ingress packet priority classification
11.5 10Gbps (ESP10)
Gbps
–Identifies ingress traffic as low- or high-priority
traffic (both SIP and ESP will use this priority)
–Classifies based on 802.1P, IPv4 TOS, IPv6 TC, MPLS
Interconnect
EXP
–Configurable per port or VLAN
 Ingress scheduler for selecting traffic to ESP10
–Default: Weighted Fair scheduling
Egress bfr
Ingress
status
–Min rate per port (optionally High priority only) and
scheduler reporting weight are configurable
–Excess BW sharing among ports

SPAs  Ingress buffering when ESP10 oversubscribed

Ingress Buffers –Accepts packets at line rate since memory is fast
(per port) Egress Buffers enough
(per port)
Ingress H/L – Two queues per port (H/L priority)
pkt
classifier – Total ingress buffer pool is 128MB per SIP10
– Almost full buffer can generate ENET PAUSE, only
HP by default
11.2Gbps each

4 SPA’s
ESI, 10Gbps)
ESI, 10Gbps)
Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 8
SIP10/SPA Ingress Classification Details

 Several options for ingress classification


MPLS EXP, IPv4 Prec/DSCP, IPv6 Prec/DSCP or 802.1p

 Priority determination either from SPA or SIP


(depends on SPA type)
 Non-MQC CLI available for customization
plim qos input map ip dscp <dscp-value | dscp-range>
queue < low-latency | 0>

 Otherwise, default classification is used for control


packets

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 9
Example – Default Ingress classification

1. Default ingress classification for a physical interface


Router#show platform hardware interface te0/0/0 plim qos input map
Interface TenGigabitEthernet0/0/0
Low Latency Queue(High Priority):
IP PREC, 6, 7
IPv6 TC, 46
MPLS EXP, 6, 7

2. Default ingress classification for 802.1q subinterface

Router#show platform hardware interface Gig2/2/1.1 plim qos input


map
Interface GigabitEthernet2/2/1.1
Low Latency Queue(High Priority):
COS, 6, 7

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 10
Examples of PLIM Match Commands

1. Map a range of values to an ingress queue


plim qos input map ip dscp af11-ef queue low-latency

2. Map all values to an ingress queue


plim qos input map mpls all queue 0

3. Map a list of values to an ingress queue


plim qos input map ipv6 tc cs4 cs5 queue low-latency

4. Map 802.1p value 5 to High Priority (VLANs only)


plim qos input map cos 5 queue low-latency

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 11
SIP10 Ingress Scheduling Details
 There are 2 queues ( high and low priority) per port
 There are two levels of scheduling per port per
SIP10
1st level is to satisfy the Mininum BW config for the port
2nd level is for excess weight, i.e., dividing the remaining
BW among ports based on configured weight
Optional: Specify that only the high priority gets min. BW
guarantee per SIP10 or per port
 Non MQC CLI provided to customer for changing
scheduling.
–plim qos input [bandwidth <value_in_Kbps> [ low-
latency]] [weight <weight>]

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 12
Example – Ingress Scheduler
Router#show platform hardware subslot 2/2 plim qos input bandwidth
Interface 2/2/0
BW : 1031040 Kbps, Min BW: 0 Kbps, Applied On Port, Excessive Weight: 1031000 Kbps
Interface 2/2/1
BW : 1031040 Kbps, Min BW: 0 Kbps, Applied On Port, Excessive Weight: 1031000 Kbps
Interface 2/2/2
BW : 1031040 Kbps, Min BW: 0 Kbps, Applied On Port, Excessive Weight: 1031000 Kbps
Interface 2/2/3
BW : 1031040 Kbps, Min BW: 0 Kbps, Applied On Port, Excessive Weight: 1031000 Kbps
Interface 2/2/4
BW : 1031040 Kbps, Min BW: 0 Kbps, Applied On Port, Excessive Weight: 1031000 Kbps

 Default behavior of the Ingress Scheduler for a 5*GigE SPA


No minimum bandwidth is assigned to any of the ports
Each port is assigned an excess weight proportional to interface BW
 Parameters are configurable via interface CLI commands
Min BW: plim qos input bandwidth 100000 low-latency
Weight: plim qos input weight 100
Pause frame generation: plim qos input queue 0 pause enable

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13
ESP10 Interconnect Scheduler
 Ingress interconnect scheduler algorithm
Selects among SIP10 based on their Min BW and Weight
Within each SIP the scheduling is strict priority (High vs. Low)
 Configurable parameters
Minimum Bandwidth: 0 to 11.2 Gbps
Excess Weight: 10 to 40000
Configure Min BW to apply only to High Priority traffic
 Non MQC CLI is provided to change scheduling parameters
 QFP backpressures ingress schedulers to pace packet
transfer rate
This is based on current QFP engine usage
There is a separate backpressure for high and low priority

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 14
Example – Interconnect Scheduler
Router#show platform hardware slot F0 serdes qos
Qos Settings on FP:
slot # Min BW (Kbps) Min BW Mode Slot Weight
RP1 99975 HILO 256
RP0 99975 HILO 256
ESP1 99975 HILO 256
SIP2 49987 HILO 50
SIP1 49987 HILO 50
SIP0 49987 HILO 50
 This shows the default behavior of the Interconnect Scheduler
Each SIP is given a minimum bandwidth of ~50Mbps
This minimum bandwidth applies to both High & Low Priority traffic
Each SIP is given the same weight so excess BW is split equally
among SIPs
 Each parameter is configurable via global CLI commands
Min BW: hw-module slot 2 qos input bandwidth 5000000
Mode: hw-module slot 2 qos input bandwidth 5000000 low-latency
Weight: hw-module slot 2 qos input weight 100
Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 15
Ingress Scheduling – putting it all together

 Example
–2 10GigE core-facing SPAs on separate SIPs requiring a
combined ~7Gbps of the available BW towards the ESP10
–1 10 x GigE access-facing SPA requiring a guarantee of
100Mbps per port and each port must get an equal share of
remaining bandwidth once the 100Mbps contract is met
–Voice & Video must have priority over other types of traffic
–Voice & Video must get priority over other traffic for the
minimum bandwidth guarantees, i.e., assume that we trust
the packet marking

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 16
Ingress Queue Example:
ACCESS
CORE
10 x 1 GigE

10GGigE
SPA(HH)

10GGigE
SPA(HH)
Empty
Empty

Empty
Empty

Empty

Empty

Empty
1Gbps
1Gbps
1Gbps
1Gbps
1Gbps
1Gbps
1Gbps
1Gbps
1Gbps
1Gbps
Slot
Slot

Empty
Slot
Slot

Slot

Slot

Slot
Slot
Classify

Classify

Classify
Classify
Classify
Classify
Classify
Classify
Classify
Classify
Classify
Classify
32MB / SPA 32MB / SPA 32 MB / 10 x 1Gbps =
2.56 ms / GigE
Optional Min. BW = Optional Min. BW = Min. BW =.1Gbps / Port
3.6Gbps (HP only) 3.6Gbps (HP only) (HP only)
2nd Level WRR 2nd Level WRR 2nd Level WRR

10 Gbps
10 Gbps

10 Gbps.
SIP0 SIP1 SIP2

Min. BW = 3.6Gbps (HP only) Min. BW = 3.6Gbps (HP only) Min. BW = 1Gbps (HP only)
Excess weight = 1 Excess weight = 1 Excess weight = 1

1st Level Min. BW / SIP

2nd Level WRR / SIP


10+ Gbps

Cisco QuantumFlow Processor (QFP) ESP10

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 17
QoS: ESP/QFP
Overview

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 18
ESP10 Ingress and Egress QoS
1. Ingress packets are temporarily
Cisco QFP Engine stored in small internal pkt buffer
ESP10
until processed
PPE0
PPE0 PPE0
PPE0
Resource PPE0 PPE0
PPE2 PPE0
PPE3 2. Free QFP Engine is allocated for this
PPE0
PPE0
Memory PPE1
3 packet and SW begins processing
Cisco QFP Traffic
Buffer, queue,
Manager packet (MAC classification, QOS
Buffer, queue,
schedule (BQS)
TCAM4
PPE0
PPE0
PPE0
PPE5
… PPE0
PPE0
PPE0
PPE40
schedule (BQS) 5 Packet classification, ACL’s, forwarding
2 Buffer lookup, police, WRED, etc.) including
Memory
modifying packet contents

4
3. SW accesses tables in resource
1 Dispatcher / Buffer
DRAM and TCAM to perform lookups
for features enabled for this packet,
update statistics, update state for
stateful features, etc.

4. Once packet processing is complete


and packet has been modified, SW
Interconnect issues request to enqueue packet to
an output queue

5. The packet contents is copied from


the internal pkt buffer to the deep
output packet buffer where it is
From SIP10
stored until scheduled for output

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 19
ESP10 Ingress and Egress QoS
QFP10 ESP10 1. Main output packet buffering in QFP
HQF
scheduler 2. QFP HQF scheduler performs packet scheduling
decisions
1
• Levels of hierarchy dynamically created to match MQC
2 6 configuration
Pkt Buffer
Memory
• Selects among class queues of an interface, among virtual
BW scheduler
3 interfaces on physical interface, among physical interfaces on
a SIP10

Interconnect • Enforces min, excess and max rates per queue and node
• High priority packets can pass lower priority packets in
hierarchy (priority propagation)

ESI 3. BW scheduler allocates QFP output BW among SIP10's


4
SIP10 • Selects among SIP10's with high priority packets first,
Interconnect
• If no high priority packets, then selects among SIP10's with
Egress Buffers low priority packets
5
… 4. Packet data transferred to SIP10's simultaneously over
ESI
5. Shallow buffers on SIP10's and SPA – used to allow
simultaneous packet transfer out multiple ports
11G 11G 6. Backpressure from shallow buffers used to control QFP
6
scheduler at corresponding hierarchy node
SPA
… … SPA

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 20
Which QoS features are done by
PPEs?
 Cisco QFP PPE’s are in charge of all classification
including NBAR, policing, WRED and other ingress
QoS features (most of these are h/w accelerated)
 NBAR and FPM are easily done since the Cisco QFP
can process the whole packet.
 Policing algorithm is a single- or double-rate, three-
color policer. The Cisco QFP 10 supports the
algorithm defined in RFC 2697 and RFC 2698.
 The bandwidth for policer calculations is similar to one
used in 7200, which includes some of L2 overhead.
For Ethernet, we only include 14 byte (src mac, dst mac, type)
but not the additional 24 byte ( gap, preamble, crc)

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 21
Which QoS features driven by PPEs
are available at FCS?
1. Classification
 Precedence, DSCP, MPLS EXP, 802.1p, FR-DE, ACL
 HW-assist: TCAM
2. Marking
 Precedence, DSCP, MPLS EXP, 802.1p, FR-DE, discard-class,
qos-group
 HW-assist: none, done in software
3. Policing
 1 rate 3 color, 1 rate 2 color, percent-based policing
 HW-assist: Policing block in QFP
4. WRED
 Precedence, DSCP, discard-class
 HW-assist: WRED block in QFP

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 22
What is HQF?
 The Hierarchical Queuing Framework (HQF) describes an
architecture/framework for implementing a hierarchical queuing
system
 As such it does not specify the underlying algorithms that should
be used
 Platforms may implement the framework with different levels of
hierarchy and algorithms, with different resulting capabilities and
behaviors
Just because two platforms both support HQF does not mean
they support the same underlying functionality!!
 For the ASR1000 the QFP has a hardware queuing
implementation that implements hierarchical scheduling
 HQF is also used to refer to the common control plane code in IOS
that connects to MQC and provides APIs to the platform code
These APIs define MQC rules that ASR1000 and QFP Traffic manager
follow

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 23
What is a Schedule Hierarchy?

Queues

classes

vlans Schedules

ports
Schedule Entries
Root Schedule

Carrier card Scheduler’s client

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 24
QFP Traffic Manager / BQS
highlights:
 128K queues in ESP10 for network interfaces and internal
interfaces (RP, crypto engine, recycled packets)
 3 parameter scheduling: Max rate, min rate, excess weight
 2 level of high priority traffic per policy
 Multiple levels for egress hierarchical queuing
 There’s backpressure/queue status at several levels: ESI,
SIP10 and some SPAs
 This in addition to the MQC classes, becomes a multilayer
hierarchy:
– MQC Levels + SPA + SIP10 + ESI
 Packet buffering equivalent to 100ms
– ESP-5G: 64MB
– ESP-10G: 128MB
– ESP-20G: 256MB

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 25
QFP Scheduling Feature Roadmap

RLS0 RLS1 RLS2 RLS3

Multiple Priority Queues    

Shaping    

Shape per BB Session X X  

Bandwidth    

BRR*    

BRP* X X  

Priority Propagation    

Min BW Propagation X X X X

Conditional Policer X X  
Fragment CLI/Economy Class
   
Rate
3-Level H-QoS X   

4-Level H-QoS X X X 

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 26
QFP Priority Queuing
 Two Levels of Priority Queues (PQ)
Priority Level 1 traffic served before Priority Level 2 traffic
Priority Level 2 traffic served before non-priority traffic
Priority is “propagated” through the hierarchy
 What does Priority Propagation mean?
Priority level defined at the class layer in the hierarchy propagates to
logical and physical layers
 Priority Queuing + Priority Propagation = low latency as long as
priority traffic is not oversubscribed
Explicit Policer can be used to cap priority traffic in a class
Conditonal Policer can be used to cap priority traffic when congestion is
detected on the output interface
 Two levels of PQ allows optimized support for Voice and Video

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 27
QFP Priority Queuing cont.
 SPA+SIP10+QFP status communication ensures
that Priority traffic is protected
QFP is aware of and can receive queue status from all interfaces
on all SPAs
QFP uses this status to control how the MQC Queues are serviced
QFP will not send more than the interface bandwidth
QFP can also listen to both high and low priority queue status
messages from egress queues on either the SIP10 or SPA

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 28
QFP Shaping
 Shaping uses the traditional token bucket algorithm
with its burst parameters
 Shaping bandwidth calculation is same as policer, with
some L2 overhead

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 29
QFP Weighted Queuing
 QFP supports weighted queuing at all levels of a
hierarchy
Within a SIP  among physical interfaces
Within a physical interface  among logical interfaces
Within a logical interface  among class queues

 Weights are compared against peer nodes

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 30
Weighted Queuing Example -
VLAN 89/9/1 MQC Configuration
interface FastEthernet1/1/3.100 interface FastEthernet1/1/3.101 interface FastEthernet1/1/3.102
encapsulation dot1Q 100 encapsulation dot1Q 101 encapsulation dot1Q 102
ip address 103.1.100.1 255.255.255.0 ip address 103.1.101.1 255.255.255.0 ip address 103.1.102.1 255.255.255.0
service-
service-policy output vlan100 service-
service-policy output vlan101 service-
service-policy output vlan102

Policy Map vlan100 Policy Map vlan101 Policy Map vlan102


Class class-
class-default Class class-
class-default Class class-
class-default
bandwidth remaining ratio 89 bandwidth remaining ratio 9 bandwidth remaining ratio 1

160000

140000

120000

100000 vlan
PPS 100
80000 vlan
101
60000
vlan
102
40000

20000

0
12

15

18
0

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 31
Example – Check default QFP TM buffer/queue
limit
Router# sh plat ha cpp act inf bqs qu out de int GigabitEthernet2/0/2
Interface: GigabitEthernet2/0/2, CPP if_h: 9, Num Queues/Schedules: 1
Queue specifics:
Index 0 (Queue ID:0x32, Name: )
Queue Info:
(cache) queue id: 0x00000032, wred: 0x88b01802, qlimit:
0x0002faf2
Statistics:
tail drops (octets): 0 , (packets): 0

total enqs (octets): 0 , (packets): 0

queue_depth (bytes): 0

• Above shows the default queue limit 0x0002faf2 (195314)


• This value is actually a multiple of 32 bytes
• 195314 * 32 bytes * 8 bits = ~50 Mb … so about 50ms for a GigE link
Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 32
QFP Hierarchy Overview
 Three level H-QoS on an Ethernet interface
1. Class  Defined via MQC
2. Logical  VLAN sub-interface
3. Physical  Ethernet Interface
 Keep in mind that in QFP there are added levels to represent the
egress SIP card and the ESI links … so it is actually 5 levels!

Class A

Class B VLAN 1

Class C
Port 1

VLAN X

Port 2

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 33
QFP Hierarchy Example 1
Sample 2 level (Class + physical) hierarchy QoS configuration
Policy-map PARENT
class class-default
shape average 200 Mbps
service-policy output CHILD

Default
AF4

AF1
Policy-map CHILD

EF
class EF
set cos X
priority level 1
class AF4 10GE1 10GE2
set cos X
priority level 2
class AF1
random-detect dscp-based
random-detect af11 100 1000 SIPn
random-detect af12 100 700
bandwidth remaining ratio 9
class class-default
bandwidth remaining ratio 1

Interface gigabitethernet 0/1.1001


service-policy output PARENT

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 34
QFP Hierarchy Example 2
Sample 3 level (class + VLAN + physical) hierarchy config

queue
BQS
BW Node

Default
Default

Default
AF4

AF1
AF4

AF1

AF4
AF1
EF
EF

EF
Interface Gigabitethernet 1/1/0.1
VLAN1 …
VLAN2 service-policy output PARENT
VLAN X

Interface Gigabitethernet 1/1/0.2


“bandwidth remaining service-policy output PARENT
ratio ” for AF1 and ….
default performed here
P1 passes P2 Interface Gigabitethernet 1/1/0.1000
service-policy output PARENT


shape average
<parent policy >
GE1 GE2 GEy
enforced here
P1 passes P2, P2 passes Data

SIPn

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 35
QFP 3-level Hierarchy Unique to ASR
 Requirements were for a subscriber QoS Model
1000 subscribers (VLAN-based) sharing a GigE port – Triple Play scenario
Subscriber data traffic should be capped at interface level
Voice/Video traffic to be CAC’ed at interface level and serviced in priority order

 Existing 3-level hierarchy could not handle it


No way to aggregate only data traffic at interface level – interface shaper
would shape ALL traffic
Shaper at VLAN level would shape ALL subscriber traffic (Voice/Video/Data)

 Physical & logical interface policies linked via new


“fragment CLI”
Benefit: Data classes can be linked together to provide both VLAN level and aggregate level service

 Priority queues are separated from the Data queus in the hierarchy
Benefit: Priority traffic is not capped by logical interface shaper

 Introduces the concept of an Economy Class Rate


Think of airline model: data traffic stays within its assigned class of service all through the hierarchy
First class traffic (like voice/video) is not affected by this rate
Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 36
QFP Hierarchy Example 3
ASR 1000 Exclusive Hierarchy

queue
BQS
BW Node

Default

Default

Default
AF4

AF1

AF1

AF1
AF4
AF4

EF

EF
EF

VLAN1 VLAN2 … VLANx VLAN1 VLAN2 … VLANx

… 4 Level Hierarchy:
Priority Data 1. Class -> MQC defined
2. Logical -> VLAN
3. Aggregate -> Service
4. Physical -> GigE
GE1 … GEy

SIPn

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 37
QFP Hierarchy Example 3 cont.
policy-map SUBSCRIBER1
class EF
priority level 1
class AF4

LINKED
priority level 2
class class-default fragment BE
shape average 100 Mbps
bandwidth remaining ratio 1
service-policy AF1plusDefault
Policy-map main-interface
Class data service-fragment BE
shape average 400 Mbps
policy-map SUBSCRIBERN
class EF
priority level 1
class AF4
Aggregate priority level 2
Economy Class class class-default fragment BE
Rate shape average 150 Mbps
bandwidth remaining ratio 2
service-policy AF1plusDefault

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 38
QFP Packet Buffers
 QFP Packet Buffer DRAM treated as one large buffer pool
No pools based on packet size nor are buffers assigned to interfaces
 Two main building blocks for packet buffer DRAM
“Block”: each queue gets 1KB blocks of memory for enqueued pkts
“Particle”: packets are divided into 16 byte particles and linked together
 Several advantages to such an implementation
Less complex than buffer carving schemes
Fragmentation is minimal & predictable due to small sized blocks & particles
 Thresholds exist to protect internal control traffic and priority traffic
 Queue-limit considerations
Requires careful tuning of queue-limit parameter to avoid scenarios where a
small number of queues occupy most of the buffer space

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 39
QFP Packet Buffers - Example

P1 P1 P1 P1 P1 P1 P1 P1 P1 P1 P1 P1 P1 P1 P1 P1

P1 P1 P1 P2 P2 P2 P2 P2 P2 P2 P2 P4 P4 P4 P4 P4
Start of
P4 P4 P4 P4 P4 P4 P4 P4 P4 P4 P4 P4 P4 P4 P4 P4
Block #1
P4 P4 P4 P4 P4 U U U U U U U U U U U

P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3
Start of P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3
Block #2
P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P5 P5 P5 P5 P5 P5 P5 P5

P5 P5 P5 P5 P5 P5 P5 P5 P5 P5 P5 P5 U U U U

 Simple example demonstrating block/particle concepts


Two blocks (could be two different queues)
Five enqueued packets total

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 40
Example – Egress SIP Queues
router#show platform hardware slot 2 plim buffer settings detail
Interface 2/2/0
RX : : Size 2064384 Drop Threshold 2063424 Byte Fill Status ( 0/ 0) Byte
Almost Empty TH0/TH1 1011264 Byte / 1020864 Byte
Almost Full TH0/TH1 2022528 Byte / 2032128 Byte
SkipMe Cache Start / End Addr 0x0000A800 / 0x0000B240
Buffer Start / End Addr 0x01FAA000 / 0x021A1FC0
TX : : Size 48 , Drop Threshold 35136 Byte, Fill Status ( 0/ 0) Byte
Event XON/XOFF 3840 Byte / 7200 Byte
Buffer Start / End Addr 0x00000300 / 0x0000032F
RX : : Size 2064384 Drop Threshold 402624 Byte Fill Status ( 0/ 0) Byte
Almost Empty TH0/TH1 180864 Byte / 190464 Byte
Almost Full TH0/TH1 361728 Byte / 371328 Byte
SkipMe Cache Start / End Addr 0x0000B280 / 0x0000BCC0
Buffer Start / End Addr 0x021A2000 / 0x02399FC0
TX : : Size 48 , Drop Threshold 35136 Byte, Fill Status ( 0/ 0) Byte
Event XON/XOFF 3840 Byte / 7200 Byte
Buffer Start / End Addr 0x00000330 / 0x0000035F

 Egress SIP buffer thresholds are not configurable

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 41
QoS: Software
Feature Overview

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 42
ASR 1000 QoS feature support
 ASR 1000 SW QoS features are mainly from 12.2SR,
but it also has NBAR from 12.4T
 This includes the latest 12.2S QoS features
–MQC CLI
–Multiple Priority Queues
–Bandwidth Remaining Ratio
 All of the platform Ingress QoS CLI commands
–“plim qos input map …”
–“hw-module slot X qos input”

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 43
ASR 1000 QoS feature support
Software View System View
Route Processor
Cisco IOS
Route Processor
RP1 CPU

Forwarding Manager Interconnect

Forwarding Manager Embedded Service


ESP 10 Processor
Cisco QFP Client/Driver
Forwarding
CPU

Cisco QFP Datapath


Encryption
Cisco
Cisco Engine QFP
QFP
Interconnect

Legend Transit Data Forwarding Information Path

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 44
Migrating to ASR 1000 QoS
 In many cases it will be necessary to migrate an existing QoS
config to an ASR1000 equivalent which matches desired behavior

 Existing QoS configuration  ASR 1000 alternative


Policy child-output Policy child-output
class EF class EF
priority 5 mbps priority level 1
class AF police 5 mbps
bandwidth 50 mbps class AF
class class-default bandwidth remaining ratio 50
bandwidth 45 mbps class class-default
Policy parent-output bandwidth remaining ratio 45
class class-default Policy parent-output
shape average 100 mbps class class-default
service-policy child-output shape average 100 mbps
service-polcy child-output

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 45
Bandwidth Remaining Percentage vs. Ratio

BRR BRP
 Parameter is unitless  Parameter is a percentage
 Part of ratio that changes  Total % for all classes/levels
with addition of classes can’t be more than 100%
 Inconvenient when trying to  Convenient when a class
figure out % for each class must always get same %
 Convenient with a very  Inconvenient with a very
dynamic class configuration dynamic class configuration
 Convenient with dynamic  Convenient with traditional
configurations with more configurations with few and
than 100 vlans/classes very static vlans/classes

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 46
ASR 1000 QoS Scalability
QoS features ASR 1000

Global Policies 1024 (IOS limit)

Global Class-maps 256-1K (ASR 1000 limit)

Class-maps/policy 8 ( ASR 1000 limit)

Queues 128K ESP-10

Policer/shaper
accuracy 1%
Policer/shaper 8 Kbps ( IOS limit )
granularity

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 47
ASR 1000 QoS Summary
 Cisco ASR 1000 Series Routers are designed to perform
under highly oversubscribed conditions, with SIP10 ingress
classification and scheduling and Cisco QFP flexible
scheduler
 As long as high priority traffic does not oversubscribe ESP10
bandwidth, it will reach Cisco QFP for processing and will be
transmitted before any other traffic.
 The Cisco ASR 1000 Series Router software architecture is
flexible for the rapid implementation of the latest Cisco IOS
MQC QoS features.
 The QoS architecture of the Cisco ASR 1000 Series and Cisco
QFP satisfies all the voice, video and data requirements in
today’s distributed networks and their future generations.

Basic ASR 1000 QoS © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 48