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The Backbones of the Alphabets

Joannes Richter

Abstract
Studying language we may be struck by the idea of a backbone as a basic structure to keep the
linguistic body upright.
In the course of time I concentrated on some fundamental keywords and discovered “ay” as a great-
grandfather in the Futhark alphabet, which I remembered to have met in the Sumerian water-codes
“a → aya → ayaya”.
I remember the one-vowel word “a” had been chosen to define “seed-water”, to be followed by
“aya” (“father”) and “ayaya” (“grandfather”). These words had been dated ~5000 years ago at
~3000 BCE.
I did not remember the code-word for great-grandfather but I guess any Sumerian citizen may have
understood the imaginary expression “ayayaya” (for great-grandfather).
The Germanic runic alphabet has been founded on a central “ai”-, respectively “ia”-core, including
the words ai (great-grandfather), æ (I, eternal) and “aye” (“always, ever”). The word ai (great-
grandfather) seemed to have been inherited from Sumerian “aya”, but the definition had been
shifted a few generations and lost the repetitive mode.
The Sumerian word ama (“mother”) matches the Basque's word “ama” for “mother”. The Sumerian
root aya (“father”) matches the Basque's word “aita” for “father”. Both correlations indicate 5000
years of age for these Basque words.
In the Sami languages the words for Grandfather such as aajja and áddjá also correlate to the
Sumerian words aya and adda for “father”.
In the archaic Futhark, Greek and Latin alphabets the vowel pillars (for supporting the sky) seem to
be centered around the letters H and I, which represent the vowels H (Æ) and I. Generally the
corresponding keywords are iæ (“each”, “every”), respectively æi (“eternal”).
In Sumerian, Basque, Sami, Germanic, Greek and Latin vocabularies these vowel-words a, aya,
ayaya, ai, æ, iæ, æi, aye, ama, aita, aajja, adda, áddjá seem to represent the backbone for
“carrying the sky”.
The Sumerian keywords “a”, “ay”, “ad”, “ab” 1
Inspecting the ePSD (→ Sumerian Sign-name Index) I discovered there were three different trees
for the word “grandfather”, which all had been using different roots. The oldest roots were either:
• from ~3000 BCE: “a” (“water”, maybe sperm), → “aya” (father”) → Ayaya ("grandfather")
• from ~3000 BCE: “ad” (“voice”, “cry”) → “adda” (father”) → Adadda ("grandfather")
• from ~2500 BCE; “ab” (“sea”, “seawater” ?)→ “abba” (father”)→ Adadda ("grandfather").

grandfather father root

Adadda - "grandfather" adda [FATHER] (~3000 BCE) ad [VOICE] (~3000 BCE)


old babylonian Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Old Babylonian wr. ad
wr. ad-ad-da Babylonian, Old Babylonian, "voice; cry; noise"
akk. abi abi unknown) wr. ad-da; ad Akk. Rigmu
"father"Akk. Abu

Adda'abba - "grandfather" abba [FATHER] (~2000 BCE) ab [SEA] (~2500 BCE)


wr. ad-da-ab-ba wr. ab; ab-ba; abba2 "old Old Akkadian, Old
(person); witness; father; elder; Babylonian)
an official" wr. ab; a-ab-ta "sea"
Akk. abu; šību Akk. tâmtu

Ayaya (~2000 BCE) aya [FATHER] (~3000 BCE) a [WATER] (~3000 BCE)
"grandfather" Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old aya [CRY] (~2000 BCE)
(3x: old babylonian) Babylonian, Old Babylonian) (Old Babylonian)
wr. ayayax(|a.a.a|); a wr. a-a; aya2; a-ia "father" wr. a; u3 "a cry of woe; to
Akk. abu cry, groan"
Akk. ahulap; nâqu

Table 1: Overview or the Cuneiform "Grandfather"- Word-Trees

1 Chapter from the paper The Sumerian “Water”-Codes by jwr47


The Sumerian concept
The first written language may have been designed in Sumer, which had been located in southern
Mesopotamia. This manuscript suggests a logical linguistic design-phase in which core-words may
have been chosen in a chronological sequence.
The origin of the “ego”-words may have been founded in Sumer, where more than 5000 years ago
the writers transformed the archaic hieroglyphics into cuneiform scripture 2.
Inspired by John A. Halloran's Proto-Sumerian Language Invention Process I analyzed the
Sumerian “Water”-Codes for Offspring, which all seemed to have been based on the basic one
vowel-word “a” (water).
The first design had been the simplest and easiest trace a → aya → ayaya developing from: “a”
(“seed-water”) via “aya” (“father”) to “ayaya” (“grandfather”).3
Inspecting the ePSD (→ Sumerian Sign-name Index) I discovered there were three different trees
for the word “grandfather”4.

The male generations


All of these samples had been based on repetition. The word Great-grandfather had not been
defined yet.
Language Timestamp Roots father grandfather Great-grandfather
water, sperm, voice
Sumerian ~3000 bce a (water, sperm) aya ayaya -
Sumerian ~3000 bce ad (voice, “cry”) adda adadda -
Sumerian ~2500 bce ab (sea, “seawater”) abba adadda -
Table 2 The Sumerian Father-concept

2 A New Language is Being Born


3 The Sumerian “Water”-Codes - Uploaded 12/10/2014
4 Overview of the Sumerian Word-trees for “Grandfather"
The female generations
As a reference I found several words for maternal beings5:
Language Timestamp Roots (the sky & I) Mother grandmother Great-grandmother
Sumerian ~3000 bce An (sky), I ama ama'aya -
Sumerian ~3000 bce An (sky), I amagan Amagal -
amagula
Table 3 The Sumerian Mother-concept

Mother = Ego & Sky-symbol


The sign for mother has been composed from the ego-pronoun and (located inside) the Dingir (the
sky-symbol):

2: Mother 3: ĝe26 - “I” 1: Sky (An)

Obviously the mother had to be interpreted as the connection between the ego-pronoun ĝe26 (“I”)
and the heaven respectively the Dingir or sky-symbol (An). The royal and radiating sky-symbol
may also have represented the sky-god.

5 Sumerian Sign-name Index


The Futhark keywords “ai” and “ia”
The Germanic runic alphabet has been founded on a central “ai”-, respectively “ia”-core, including
the words ai (great-grandfather) and æ (I, eternal).
Six words will be found near the central vowel “a”: as (“deity”), ast (love), æ (I, eternal), ai
(great-grandfather), ia(h) (I), ain (unique, one) enclosed in the alphabetical area “niast”
(ᚾᛁᛅᛋᛏ).6
The word ai (great-grandfather) seemed to have been inherited from Sumerian “aya”, but the
definition had been shifted one or two generations and/or lost the “repetitive” ayaya-mode:

Language Timestamp Root (water, sperm, Father (m) grandparents Great-


voice, eternal) mother (f) grandparents
Sumerian ~3000 BCE a (water, sperm) aya (m) ayaya (m)
an (sky) ama (f) ama'aya (f)
Sumerian ~3000 BCE ad (voice, “cry”) adda (m) adadda (m)
an (sky) amagan (f) amagal (f)
amagula (f)
Sumerian ~2500 BCE ab (sea, “seawater”) abba (m) adadda (m)

Germanic ~200 AD Æ (eternal, I) ai


Table 4 The Sumerian and Germanic concept

6 The Unseen Words in the Runic Alphabet


Parents in the database's NorthEuraLex 0.9
In the database's NorthEuraLex 0.9 we may select the symbols for the relevant parental relations
and find a great number of adequate correlations. In this paper I concentrate on the most significant
correlations in Basque and Sami languages.

Basque language
In the database's NorthEuraLex 0.9 we may select the symbol “Grandmother” respectively
“Grandfather” and find a great number of adequate correlations:
In Basque the roots for these words correlate to the Sumerian roots, dated 3000 BCE.
• The Sumerian word ama (“mother”) matches the Basque's word “ama” for “mother”.
• The Sumerian root aya (“father”) matches the Basque's word “aita” for “father”.
Both correlations indicate 5000 years of age for these Basque words.

ePSD (→ Sumerian
NorthEuraLex 0.9 entries
Sign-name Index)
Language Parental relation Parental relation Pronunciation Sumerian root
Basque mother ama ama ama (mother)
Basque father aita ɑjta aya (father)

Basque grandmother amatxi amattʃi ama (mother)


Basque grandmother amona amona ama (mother)
Basque grandfather aitona ɑjtona aya (father)
Basque grandfather aitatxi ɑjtattʃi aya (father)
Table 5 Comparison of the Basque parental relations to the Sumerian words

Sami languages
In the Sami languages the words for Grandfather such as aajja and áddjá also correlate to the
Sumerian words aya and adda for “father”:

ePSD (→ Sumerian
NorthEuraLex 0.9 entries
Sign-name Index)
Pronunciation Pronunciation
Sami language Father Grandfather Father
Father Grandfather
Inari Sami eeči eːttʃi äijih æijih aya
Kildin Sami аджь adtʒ аайя aːja aya
Lule Sami áhttje ahːttʃɛ áddjá adːja aya, adda
Northern Sami áhčči aːhttʃːi áddjá aːɟcaː aya, adda
Skolt Sami e´čč ɛtttʃʲɘ ä´jj aʝːʲɘ aya
Southern Sami aehtjie æːhttʃiɛ aajja ɑːjːa aya
Table 6 Comparison of the Sami parental relations to the corresponding Sumerian words
The correlations for “mother” is not really convincing:

ePSD (→ Sumerian
NorthEuraLex 0.9 entries
Sign-name Index)
Pronunciation Pronunciation
Sami language mother Grandmother Mother
(mother) (Grandmother)
Inari Sami enni enːi ákku ækːu ama, amagan
Kildin Sami еаннҍ jeːɲː аака aːka ama, amagan
Lule Sami iednne tiɛdnːɛ áhkko ahːkutɔ ama, amagan
Northern Sami eadni eeædni áhkku aːhkːʊ ama, amagan
äkk akːɐ ama, amagan
Skolt Sami jeä´n'n ʝɛanʲnɐ
ä´ǩǩ acctçʲɘ ama, amagan
Southern Sami ietnie iɛtniɛ aahka ɑːhka ama, amagan
Table 7 Comparison of the Sami parental relations to the corresponding Sumerian words
Alphabets with a vowel pillar, carrying the sky
The Futhark alphabet has been structured with a keyword ᚠᚢᚦ (fu þ), in which ᚠ may be
representing a digamma (with a range of various phonemes /w/, /f/, /v/, …), to be followed by the
[ᚨ, (ā) – ᛁ (ī)- (ᛟ, ō)] structure. The central ᛁ (ī) may represent a symbolic pillar, which may have
been considered as a pillar to “carry the sky”.
All available Germanic, Greek and Latin alphabets seem to be equipped with these central ᛁ (ī)-
pillars. In fact the pillars may also be considered as combined vowel combinations such as “ai” (in
Germanic language: “great-grandfather”) or æi (in Greek “eternal”); ai (Sami: “Great-grandfather”),
iæ (Dutch: “each”, “ever”).

The model of the Futhark-alphabet with an iæ-pillar carrying the sky


The elder Futhark alphabet seems to have been designed with a leading “fuþ”-section, to be
followed by a second section between alpha (ᚨ, a) up to an omega (ᛟ, oo).
The vowel pillar to carry the sky seems to be centered around the letters ᛁ and ᛇ, which represent the
vowels i and æ.
In reading “backwards” the corresponding keyword is:
• ai (Sami: “Great-grandfather”)
• aija (Sami: “Grandfather”)
• æi (Dutch: aiϝ (“eternal”)
and in reading forwards:
• iæ (Dutch: “each”, “ever”).

Elder ᚠ ᚢ ᚦ ᚨ ᚱ ᚲ ᚷ ᚹ ᚺ ᚾ ᛁ ᛃ ᛇ ᛈ ᛉ ᛊ ᛏ ᛒ ᛖ ᛗ ᛚ ᛜ ᛟ ᛞ
Futhark f u þ a r k g w h n i j æ p z s t b e m l ŋ o d


ᚠ u/w ᚦ ᚬ ᚴ ᛁ ᛅ ᛏ ᛒ
Younger ᚱ ᚼ ᚾ ᛦ ᛋ ᛘ ᛚ
Futhark f/ , þ, ą, k, — — i, a, — — t, b, — — — —
r h n ʀ s m l
v y, ð o, æ g e æ d p
o, ø
i æ
i æ
i æ
i æ
i æ
Table 8 The younger and elder Futhark -model of the pillar (as a tree), carrying the sky
Ai (“great-grandfather”)
The eternity-core aiϝ” has been based on various different vowels (A, I, U) and is used as a core for
a great number of words.
The runic word “ai” is the “ever”-living great-grandfather. In Sami the “ai”-root is inherited in
“Attje” (“Father”), “attja” (“thunder”) and “aija” (“grandfather”).

4 “Ai” in Runen-Sprach-Schatz (1844) by Udo Waldemar Dieterich


The model of the Greek alphabet with an ÆI-pillar carrying the sky
The Greek alphabet (Α α, Β β, Γ γ, Δ δ, Ε ε, Ζ ζ, Η η, Θ θ, Ι ι, Κ κ, Λ λ, Μ μ, Ν ν, Ξ ξ, Ο ο, Π π, Ρ ρ,
Σ σ/ς, Τ τ, Υ υ, Φ φ, Χ χ, Ψ ψ, and Ω ω) initially took over all of the 22 letters of Phoenician. Three
of the original Phoenician letters dropped out of use before the alphabet took its classical shape: the
letter Ϻ (san), the letter Ϙ (qoppa) and Ϝ (digamma), whose sound value /w/ dropped out of the
spoken language before or during the classical period. The original alphabet up to the letter Y
ranges from the vowel A to the vowel Y (U). Four letters Φ, Χ, Ψ, Ω had been added later to the
end.
The vowel pillars to carry the sky seems to be centered around the letters H and I, which represent
the vowels H (Æ) and I. The corresponding keyword is iæ, respectively αἰών ( = αἰϝών) : (Greek:
“eternal”), connected with αἰεί, ἀεί, Sanskrit evas (aivas), Latin aevum, Goth. aivs, German ewig,
English aye, ever; cf. Curtius, § 585

1 2 3 4 5 - 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 - - 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

AΒΓ ΔΕ F ΖHΘIΚΛΜΝ Ξ OΠ ΡΣΤΥ Φ Χ Ψ Ω

ABGD E ϝ zd æ ᚦ I K L M N xi O P RSTV φι χι ψι oo

æ I
æ I
æ I
æ I
æ I
Table 9 Classical Greek alphabet - Model of the Æ I-pillar (as a tree), carrying the sky
The model of the Latin alphabet with an H-I-vowel pillar
Originally the archaic Roman alphabet (A -D-E-F-H- I -K-M-N-O-S- V ) had been ranging
from Alpha (A) to V (U).
In the archaic alphabets the vowel pillars (for supporting the sky) seem to be centered around the
letters H and I, which represent the vowels H (Æ) and I. Generally the corresponding keyword is iæ
(“each”, “every”), respectively æi (“eternal”).

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
2 22 23 24 25 26
0 1

A - - D E F - H (ae) I - K - M N O - - - S - - V - - - -

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

h i
h i
h i
h i
ae i
ae i
a e i
a e i
Table 10: The Latin alphabet's model of the HI-pillar (as a tree), carrying the sky
Overview of the correlations for parental relations
The overview of the correlations for parental relations now results in:

Language Timestamp Root (water, sperm, Father (m) grandparents Great-


voice, eternal) mother (f) grandparents
Sumerian ~3000 BCE a (water, sperm) aya (m) ayaya (m)
an (sky) ama (f) ama'aya (f)
Sumerian ~3000 BCE ad (voice, “cry”) adda (m) adadda (m)
an (sky) amagan (f) amagal (f)
amagula (f)
Sumerian ~2500 BCE ab (sea, “seawater”) abba (m) adadda (m)
Basque <ai> Aita (m) Aitona (m)
<am> ama (f) aitatxi (m)
amona (f)
Amatxi (f)
Northern <ad> Áddjá (m)
Sami
Southern <ai> Aajja (m)
Sami
Germanic ~200 AD æ (eternal, I) ai
Greek αἰεί, ἀεί (“eternal”)
αἰών ( = αἰϝών)
æi : (“eternal”)
Latin aevum (“eternal”)
Sanskrit αἰvas (“eternal”)
English aye, ever (“eternal”)
Table 11 The Sumerian and Germanic concept
The vowel pillars to carry the sky seem to be centered around the letters H and I, which represent
the vowels H (Æ) and I. The corresponding keyword is iæ, respectively αἰών ( = αἰϝών) : (Greek:
“eternal”), connected with αἰεί, ἀεί, Sanskrit evas (αἰvas), Latin aevum, Goth. aivs, German ewig,
English aye, ever; cf. Curtius, § 585

The etymology for “Aye”


• aye: Adverb Old-Fashioned, Poetic always; ever
• ME Αἰ, ay < ON ei < IE base *aiw-, vital force > age 7

7 Aye Definition und Bedeutung | Collins Wörterbuch - Collins Dictionary


Contents
Abstract.................................................................................................................................................1
The Sumerian keywords “a”, “ay”, “ad”, “ab”.....................................................................................2
The Sumerian concept.....................................................................................................................3
The male generations..................................................................................................................3
The female generations...............................................................................................................4
Mother = Ego & Sky-symbol.................................................................................................4
The Futhark keywords “ai” and “ia”................................................................................................5
Parents in the database's NorthEuraLex 0.9.........................................................................................6
Basque language.........................................................................................................................6
Sami languages...........................................................................................................................6
Alphabets with a vowel pillar, carrying the sky...................................................................................8
The model of the Futhark-alphabet with an iæ-pillar carrying the sky...........................................8
Ai (“great-grandfather”)..............................................................................................................9
The model of the Greek alphabet with an ÆI-pillar carrying the sky...........................................10
The model of the Latin alphabet with an H-I-vowel pillar............................................................11
Overview of the correlations for parental relations............................................................................12
The etymology for “Aye”...............................................................................................................12