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U.S. Department of
Federal Aviation

Subject: AERONAUTICAL DECISION MAKING Date: 12/13/w AC No: 60-22

. Initiated by: AFS-820

1. PURPOSE. This Advisory Circular (AC) safety and learn ways to manage stress while
provides introductory material, background recognizingand avoiding unnecessaryrisk. This
information, and reference material on AC is a learning tool that will help enable a
Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM). The personto make an intelligent determinationas to
material in this AC provides a systematic the risk involved before beginning a flight. It is
approach to risk assessment and stress intended that the reader recognize risk factors
managementin aviation, illustrates how personal such as weather,weight and balance,recencyof
attitudescan influence decision making and how experience, environment, and cockpit stress
thoseattitudescan be modified to enhancesafety managementso as to deal effectively with them.
in the cockpit. This AC also provides
instructors with methods for teaching ADM
techniques and skills in conjunction with 4. RELATED REFERENCE MATERIAL.
conventional flight instruction. However, this Twelve years of ADM research,development,
AC is not intendedto replacethe complete body and testing culminated in 1987 with the
of knowledge contained in the ADM related publication of six manuals oriented to the
reference materials listed in paragraph 4, but decision making needsof variously rated pilots.
ratherto supportthem and to serve as a catalyst These manuals provide multifaceted materials
for further study. designed to reduce the number of decision
related accidents (the type of accidents which
2. APPLICATION. The material containedin account for 52 percent of fatal general aviation
this AC is applicable to pilots who operate pilot error accidents). The effectivenessof these
airplanes or helicopters under Federal Aviation materials has been validated in six independent
Regulations (FAR) Parts 61, 91, 121, 125, 133, studies where student pilots received such
135, and 141. training in conjunction with the standardflying
curriculum. When tested, the pilots who had
3. FOCUS. This AC is designedto explain the received ADM training made fewer in-flight
risks associatedwith aviation activities to pilots. errOrs than those who had not received ADM
Underlying behavioralcausesof typical accidents training. The differences were statistically
and the effects of stress on ADM are significant and ranged from about 10 to
emphasized. These materials provide a means 50 percentfewer judgment errors. In the opera-
for an individual to develop an “Attitude Profile” tional environment, an operator flying about
through a self-assessmentinventory and provide 400,000 hours annually demonstrateda 54 per-
detailed explanations of preflight and in-flight cent reduction in accident rate after using these
stressmanagementtechniques. The assumption materials for recurrency training. For detailed
is that persons exposed to these behavioral information regarding exposure to risk
techniqueswill developa positive attitudetoward assessment, stress management, interpersonal
AC 60-22 12/13/91

crew coordinationand communication, and other Report Number Title

ADM techniques,the readeris directedto oneor
more of the manuals which may be obtained DOT/FAA/PM-86/46 Aeronautical Decision
from National Technical Information Service. Making - Cockpit
Resource Manageme.nt.
a. Published Documents. (Rice of NTIS identification
individual documents is subject to change number ADA205 115,
without notice.) price $23.00.

Report Number Title b. Any of the series of ADM training

manuals may be obtained by writing or calling:
DOT/FAA/PM-86/4 1 Aeronautical Decision
Making for Student and Mailing Address: National Technical
Private Pilots. NTIS Information Service
identification number 5285 Port Royal Road
ADA182549, price Springfield, Virginia 22 161
Telephone: (703) 487-4650 (orders)
DOT/FAA/PM-86/42 Aeronautical Decision (800) 336-4700(rush ordersonly)
Making for Commercial (703)478-4780(title identification
Pilots. NTIS branch)
identification number
ADA198772, price 5. DEFINITIONS.
a. ~~ is a systematicapproachto the
DOT/FAA/PM-86/43 Aeronautical Decision mental process used by aircraft pilots to
Making for Instrument consistently determine the best course of action
Pilots. NTIS in responseto a given set of circumstances.
identification number
N8724880,price $17.00. b. Attitude is a personal motivational
predispositionto respondto persons,situations,
DOT/FAA/PM-86/44 Aeronautical Decision or events in a given manner that can,
Making for Instructor nevertheless,be changed or modified through
Pilots (how to teach training. A sort of mental shortcut to decision
ADM). NTIS making.
identification number
ADA182611, price c. Attitude Management is the ability to
$17.00. recognizehazardousattitudesin oneself and the
willingness to modify them as necessarythrough
DOT/FAA/PM-86/45 Aeronautical Decision the application of an appropriate
Making for Helicopter antidote thought.
Pilots. NTIS
identification number d Cockpit Resource Management,
ADA180325, price (CRM), in multiperson crew configurations, is
$23.00. the effective use of all personneland material

ii Par 4
12/13/91 AC 60- 22

assets available to a flight crew. CRM type of operation that .comprise any given
emphasizes good communication and other aviation situation.
interpersonalrelationship skills.
k. Situational Awareness is the accurate
e. Headwork is required to accomplish perception and understandingof all the factors
a conscious, rational thought process when and conditions within the four fundamental risk
making decisions. Good decision making elements that affect safety before, during, and
involves risk identification and assessment, after the flight.
information processing,and problem solving.
1 Skills and Procedures are the
f. Judgment is the mental process of procedural, psychomotor, and perceptual skills
recognizing and analyzing all pertinent usedto control a specific aircraft or its systems.
information in a particular situation, a rational They are the stick and rudder or airmanship
evaluationof alternativeactionsin responseto it, abilities that are gained through conventional
and a timely decision on which action to take. training, are perfected, and become almost
automatic through experience.
g. Personalityis the embodiment of
personaltraits andcharacteristicsof an individual m. Stress Management is the personal
that are set at a very early age and extremely analysisof the kinds of stressexperiencedwhile
resistantto change. flying, the application of appropriate stress
assessmenttools, and other coping mechanisms.
h. Poor Judgment (PJ) Chain is a
seriesof mistakes that may lead to an accidentor n. VOR is a very high frequency
incident. ‘Iwo basic principles generally omnidirectional rangestation.
associatedwith the creationof a PJ chain are: (1)
one bad decision often leads to another;and (2) 6 COMMENTS INVITED. Comments
as a string of bad decisionsgrows, it reducesthe regardingthis publication should be directed to:
number of subsequentalternativesfor continued
safe flight. ADM is intended to break the PJ Federal Aviation Administration
chain beforeit can causean accidentor incident. Flight StandardsNational Field Office,
AFS-500 (Advisory Circular Staff)
i. Risk Management is the part of the P.O. Box 20034, Gateway Building
decision making process which relies on Dulles International Airport
situational awareness,problem recognition, and Washington,DC 2004l-2034
good judgment to reduce risks associatedwith
each flight. Every comment will not necessarily generatea
direct acknowledgement to the commenter.
3 Risk Elements in ADM take into Comments received will be considered in the
considerationthe four fundamentalrisk elements: development of upcoming revisions to AC’s or
the pilot, the aircraft, the environment, and the other related technical material.

Th&as C. Accardi
Director, Flight Standards Service

Par 5 iii (and iv)

12/13/91 AC 600 22


CHAPTER1. INTRODUCIION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

i. General ...~~ . . . . l

2. ADM Process. . . . . . . . .. . .
3. Conventional DecisionMalung
4. OperationalPitfalls . . . . . . . .

CHAPTER2. HAZARDOUSAITITUDE INVENTORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Test ................................................
5. AttitudeAssessment 5
6. Self-Assessment Hazardous AttitudeInventoryTest ............................. 5
7. Instructionsfor Takingthe Self-Assessment Hazardous
AttitudeInventoryTest. ................................................. 5
8. ScoringInstructions.. .................................................. 7
9. AttitudeProfile........................................................ 7
10. SampleSituations for AdvancedRatedPilots ..................................
11. ProfileExplanation .................................................... 8
12. Summary.. ......................................................... 9

CHAPTER3. DEALINGWITH HAZARDOUSATTITUDES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

13. HazardousAttitudes.. ................................................ 11

14. Antidotesfor Hazardous Attitudes ........................................ 11
15. AntidoteRecallExercise............................................... 11
16. TheImportanceof Reinforcement Exercises................................. 12
17. Instructionsfor UsingReinforcement Exercises ............................... 12

AND FLYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 l

18. WhatIs Stress...................................................... 17

19. How Much Stress Is in YourLife? ........................................ 17
20. Is StressBad ....................................................... 17
21. HandlingStressIn Plying .............................................. 17

CHAFI’ER5. RISK MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Risk ......................................................
22. Assessing 21
23. TheDecideModel ................................................... 21

AC 60- 22 12/13/91

CONTENTS (Continued)

Page No.
CHAPTER6. IDENTIFYINGTHE ENEMY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-; . . . . . . . . . .. . . 23

24. General ......................... 23

25. PersonalC;lkcklfs;‘::::::::::::::::::::::::::. ....................... .23
26. How To Be A SafePilot ............................................... 24
27, Development of GoodDecisionMakingSkills ................................ 24
28. Successful
DecisionMaking ............................................ 25

CHAPTER7. TEACHINGADM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...*. 27

29. purpose...................................................’........ 27
30. Background........................................................2 7
31. TheFlightInstructor’sRolein ADM Training................................ 27
32. Principlesof ADM Training ............................................ 27
33. Teachingthe BehavioralAspectsof ADM ................................... 28
34. Teachingthe ApplicationExercises........................................ 28
35. In-night Instruction: TheLessonPlans .................................... 29
36. In-FlightInstruction:TheTrainingScenario................................. 29
37. TypicalTrainingScenarios .............................................. 29
38. Management of ADM Training .......................................... 29


APPENDIX 2. SCORING FORM ......................................... (1 Page)

APPENDIX3. AnITUDE PROFILE....................................... (1 Page)

APPENDIX4. ANTIDOTERECALLEXERCISE.............................. (1 Page)

APPENDIX5. LIFE EVENTS STRESS TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (1 Page)

12/13/91 AC 60-22


1. GENERAL. Contrary to popularopinion, Stepsfor gooddecisionmakingarx:

goodjudgmentcanbe taught. Heretoforeit was
supposed to begainedonlyasa naturalby-product. (1) Identifyingpersonalattitudeshazar-
of experience.As pilots continuedto log acci- dousto safeflight.
dent-freeflight hours,a corresponding
goodjudgmentwasalsoassumed. (2) Learning behavior modification
(3) Leaminghow to recognizeandcope
a. ADlU builds upon thefoun&tion of con- with stress.
ventional decision making (figure I), butenhances
the processto decreasethe probabilityof pilot (4) Developing risk assessment
erxx. ADM providesa shctured, systematic
approach to analyzingchanges that occurduringa (5) Using all resourcesin a multicrew
flight andhowthesechanges mightaffecta flight’s situation.
safe outcome. The ADM processaddresses all
aspects of decisionmakingin thecockpitandiden- (6) Evaluatingthe effectiveness
of one’s
tifies the stepsinvolvedin gooddecisionmaking. ADM skills.




Chap 1
Par 1 1
AC 609 22 12/13/91

3. CONVENTIONAL DECISION MAKING. this point in the process,the pilot is faced with a
need to evaluate the entire range of possible re-
a. In conventional decision making, the sponsesto the detectedchange and to determine
needfor a decision is triggered by recognitionthat the best courseof action.
somethinghas changedor an expectedchangedid --
not occur. Recognition of the change, or non- b. Figure 2 illustrates the ADA4 process,
change, in the situation is a vital step in any how this process expands conventional decision
decision making process. Not noticing the change making, andshowsthe interactionsof the ADM
in the situation can lead directly to a mishap steps and how these steps can produce a safe
(figure 1). The change indicates that an appro- outcome. Starting with the recognition of change,
priate responseor action is necessaryin order to andfollowingwith an assessmentof alternatives,
modify the situation (or, at least, one of the ele- a decision to act or not act is made, and the results
ments that comprise it) andbring about a desired aremonitored. ADM enhancesthe conventional
new situation. Therefore, situational awarenessis decision making processwith an awarenessof the
the key to successfulandsafe decisionmaking. At importance of attitudes in decision making, a




Chap 1
2 Par 3
12/13/91 AC 60-22

learned ability to search for and establish the e. Scud Running. Pushing the capabilities
relevanceof all information, and the motivation to of the pilot and the aircraft to the limits by trying
chooseand executethe actionswhich assuresafety to maintain visual contact with the terrain while
in a timeframe permitted by the situation. These trying to avoid physical contact with it. This
elements of ADM are discussedin depth as they attitudeis characterizedby theold pilot’s joke: “If
relate to the specific discipline in each of the it’s too bad to go IFR, we’ll go VFR.”
training manuals.
f. Continuing visualjlight rules (VFR) into
4. OPERATIONAL PITFALLS. There are a instrument conditions often leads to spatial disori-
number of classic behavioral traps into which entation or collision with ground/obstacles. It is
pilots have been-knownto fall. Pilots, particularly even more dangerousif the pilot is not instrument
those with considerable experience, as a rule qualified or current.
always try to complete a flight as planned,please
passengers,meet schedules,and generally demon- g. Getting Behind the Aircraft. Allowing
strate that they have the “right stuff.” This events or the situation to control your actions
much-talked-about“right stuff’ is a fragile image. ratherthanthe other way around. Characterizedby
The basic drive to demonstratethe “right stuff’ can a constant stateof surpriseat what happensnext.
have an adverseeffect on safety and can impose an
unrealistic assessmentof piloting skills under h. Loss of Positional or Situation Aware-
stressI% conditions. These tendenciesultimately ness. Another caseof getting behind the aircraft
may lead to practicesthat are dangerousand often which results in not knowing where you are, an
illegal, and may lead to a mishap. All experienced inability to recognize deterioratingcircumstances,
pilots have fallen prey to, or have been tempted and/orthe misjudgment of the rate of deterioration.
by, one or more of thesetendenciesin their flying
careers.These dangeroustendenciesor behavior i. Operating Without Adequate Fuel Reser-
patterns,which must be identified and eliminated, ves. Ignoring minimum fuel reserverequirements,
include: either VFR or Instrument Flight Rules (IFR), is
generally the result of overconfidcncc, lack of
a. Peer Pressure. Poor decision making flight planning, or ignoring the regulations.
basedupon emotional responseto peersratherthan
evaluating a situation objectively. .
J Descent Below the Minimum Enroute
b. Mind Set. The inability to recognizeand A&de. The duck-under syndrome (mcntioncd
cope with changesin the situation different from above) manifesting itself during the en route
those anticipatedor planned. portion of an IFR flight.
c. Get-There-Ztis. This tendency,common
among pilots, clouds the vision and impairs judg- k. Flying Outside the Envelope. Unjustified
ment by causing a fixation on the original goal or reliance on the (usually mistaken) belief that the
destinationcombined with a total disregardfor any aircraft’s high performance capability meets the
alternative courseof action. demandsimposed by the pilot’s (usually ovcrcsti-
mated) flying skills.
d. Duck-Under Syndrome. The tendencyto
sneak a peek by descendingbelow minimums dur-
ing an approach. Based on a belief that there is 1 Neglect of Flight Planning, Preflight Zn-
always a built-in “fudge” factor that can be used or specions, Checklists, Etc. Unjustified relianceon
on an unwillingness to admit defeat and shoot a the pilot’s short and long term memory, regular
missed approach. flying skills, repetitive and familiar routes,etc.

Chap 1
Par 3 3 (and 4)
12/13/91 AC 609 22


5. ATTITUDE ASSESSMENT TEST. In each Situation1 (Example)
ADM manual,a chapteraddresses five hazardous
attitudesthat can affect a pilot’sjudgment,and. a. -- 1 (your leastlikely reason) .
how thesehazardous attitudescanhaveanimpact
on safeflying. Subsequent chaptersin eachof the b. -- 3
ADM manuals providemethods of modifyingthese
hazardous attitudes. c. -- 5 (yourmostlikely reason)
shouldtakethe Self-Assessment Hazardous Atti- e. -- 4
tude InventoryTest in order to gain a realistic
perspectiveon his/herattitudestowardflying. The FIGURE 3. SAMPLESET OF RANK
inventory test requiresthe pilot to provide a ORDEREDANSWERS
response whichmostaccurately reflectsthereason-
one of the five given reasonsfor makingthat
decision,eventhoughthe pilot may not consider Situation 1. You areon a flight to anunfamiliar,
anyof the five choicesacceptable.Theinventory ruralairport. Flightservicestatesthat VFR flight
test presentsextremecasesof incorrect pilot is not recommended sinceheavycoastalfog is
decisionmakingin an effort to introducethe five forecastto moveinto the destinationairportarea
typesof hazardous attitudesdescribedin Chapter aboutthe time you expectto land. Youfirst con-
3 of this AC. siderreturningto yourhomebasewherevisibility
is still good, but decideinsteadto continue as
7. INSTRUCTIONS FOR TAKING THE plannedandlandsafelyaftersomeproblems.Why
SELF-ASSESSMENT HAZARDOUS ATTI- did youreachthis decision?
a. Youhateto admitthat you cannotcom-
..a. ReadOvereach of the six situationsand pleteyouroriginalflight plan.
the five choicescontainedin the inventorytest.
Keepin mindthat thereareno correctanswers. b. You resentthe suggestionby flight ser-
vicethat you shouldchangeyour mind.
b. Decide which one of the jive choices is
the most likely reasonfor the decisionmade. c. You feel surethat things will turn out
Using a copy of the Attitude InventoryAnswer safely,andthat thereis no danger.
Sheet(appendixl), placethe number5 in the
spaceprovided. d. Youreasonthatsinceyour actionswould
makeno real difference,you might as well con-
c. Continue by ranking in declining order tinue.
the remainingfour probablereasonsfrom 4 (next
mostlikely) to 3, 2, and 1 (leastlikely) until all
five blankshavebeenfilled. (Figure3 providesan e. You feel the needto decidequickly,so
exampleof how the alternatives mightberanked.) youtakethe simplestalternative.

Chap 2
Par 5 5
AC 60- 22 12/13/91
Situation 2. Whiletaxiingfor takeoff,younotice Situation 4. Youwerebriefedaboutpossible icing
that your right brakepedalis softerthanthe left, conditions,but did not think therewould be any
Once airborne,you are sufficiently concerned problemsinceIour departureairporttemperature
abouttheproblemto radiofor information.Since was60 9 (15 C). As you nearyour destination,
strongwindsare reportedat your destination, an youencounter freezingpreciI#ation,whichclings
experienced pilot whois a passenger recommends to your aircraft. Your passenger, who is a more
that youabandon the flight andreturnto yourde- experienced pilot, beginsto panic. You consider
partureairport. Youchooseto continuethe flight turningbackto the departureairport,but continue
and experience no further difficulties. Why did instead.Why did younot return?
you continue?
a. I havemadeit thisf&r. Whatis the usein
a. You feel that suggestions madein this turningbacknow?
typeof situationareusualIyoverlycautious.
b. The panicof the passenger makesyou
b. Yourbrakeshaveneverfailedbefore,so thinkit will not happento me - I haveencountered
you doubtthat theywill this time. ice beforeandnothinghappened.
c. Youfeel that you canleavethe decision c. Why is he panicking?I canhandlethis
to thetowerat your destination. situationjust like I havedonebefore.
d. Youimmediately
decidethat youwantto d. FAA regulationsexaggerate the dangers
continue. of icing. I canhandlethis situation.
e. Youaresurethat if anyonecouldhandle e. I havegot to do something. Descend!
the landing,you can That will make everyonerealizethat I am in
Situalion 3. Your regular airplane has been
groundedbecause of an airframepmblem. You
arescheduled in anotherairplaneanddiscoverit is Situation 5. You do not botherto checkweather
a modelyou are not familiar with. After your conditionsat your destination.En route,you en-
preflight,you decideto takeoff on yourbusiness counterheadwinds.Yourfuel supplyis adequate
trip asplanned.Whatwasyourreasoning? to reachyour destination,but thereis almostno
reservefor emergencies.You continuethe flight
a. Youfeel thata difficult situationwill not andlandwith a nearlydry tank. Whatmostinflu-
ariseso thereis no reasonnot to go. encedyouto do this?
b. Youtell yourselfthat if therewere any a. Being unhappywith the pressureof
danger,youwouldnothavebeenofferedtheplane. havingto choosewhat to do, you make a snap
c. You are in a hurry anddo not want to
takethe timeto thinkof alternatechoices. b. Youdonot wantyour friendsto hearthat
youhadto turn back.
d. You do not want to admit that you may
havetroubleflying anunfamiliarairplane. c. You feel that flight manuals always
understate the safetymarginin fuel tank capacity.
e. You are convincedthat your flight in-
structorwasmuchtooconservative andpessimistic
whenhe cautioned you to be thoroughlychecked d. You believethat all thingsusuallyturn
out in anunfamiliaraircraft. out well, andthis will beno exception.

6 Chap 2
Par 7
12/13/91 AC 601 22
e. You reasonthat the situation has already c. You must get to the businessmeeting
been determinedbecausethe destination is closer in 2 hours and cannot wait.
than any other airport
d. You don’t allow an icing forecastto
Situation 6. You are 40 minutes late for a trip in stop you; weather briefers -are usually overly
a small airplane. Since the aircraft handled well cautious.
on the previous day’s flight, you decide to skip
most of the preflight check. What leads you to e. There is nothing you can do about
this decision? atmosphericconditions.
a. You simply take the first approach to Situ&m8. Commercial Pilot ADM Situation.
making up time that comes to mind. Your passengershave shown up almost an hour
late. You are going to an airport that requires a
b. You feel that your reputationfor being on reservation. Which of the following alternatives
time demandsthat you cut comers when necessary. best illustrates your reaction?
c. You believe that some of the preflight in- a. You think to yourself, if I hurry,
spection is just a waste of time. maybe I can still make it.
d. You seeno reasonto think that something b. Nothing will happen if I miss this
unfortunatewill happenduring this flight. reservation.
e. If any problems develop, the responsibil- c. I’m smart enoughto talk our way in
ity would not be yours. It is the maintenanceof when we arrive.
the airplanethat really makes the difference.
d. I can’t help it if my passengerswere
8. SAMPLE SITUATIONS FOR ADVANCED late. I don’t control them.
e. The Feds wouldn’t darekeep me out.
a. Paragraph 7 presented examples of six
situations from the student/private pilot ADM Situation 9. Helicopter Pilot ADM Situation.
manual. For pilots with advancedratings, the re- You are to fly a helicopter which you know is old
maining ADM manuals provide similar situations and has been poorly maintained. A higher than
and self-assessmenttests. The following are normal turbine outlet temperature on startup is
example situations taken from thesetexts. indicated, and you suspectthe fuel control. Two
fellow companypilots, travelling as passengers,do
Situation 7. Instrument Pilot ADM Situation. not want to be delayed. After 5 minutes of debate,
You plan an important business flight under you agreeto make the trip. Why did you permit
instrumentconditions in an aircraft with no deicing yourself to be persuaded?
equipment through an area in which light to
moderate rime or mixed icing in clouds, and a. You feel that you must always prove
precipitation above the freezing level has been your ability as a pilot, even under less than ideal
forecast. You decide to make the trip, thinking: circumstances.
a. You believe your skills are good b. You believe that regulations over-
enoughto handle ice accumulationon the aircraft. emphasizesafety in this kind of situation.
b. You have beenin this situation many c. You think that the fuel control will
times and nothing has happened. certainly last for just one more flight.

Chap 2
Par 7 7
AC 60-22 12/13/91
d. You feel that your opinionmay be 10. ATTITUDE PROFILE. Using the total
wrongsincethetwo otherpilotsarewillingto take scoresfor eachScaleI-V from appendix2, place
the risk. an “X” on the correspondingscaleprofile in
appendix3. Noticethatthe scorevaluesrun from
e. The thought of changingarrange- bottomto top, sothat the highestvalueshouldbe
merGGoying, so youjump at the suggestion at the highestpointon the profilesheet. Straights
of the otherpilots. linesshouldbedrawnfrom thescorein eachscale
to the scorein the next scale(connectthe “X’s”)
so that the profile resemblesa graph Note the
Situation 10. Instructot Pilot ALM Situation. hazardousattitudeshownat the bottom of each
You perforni-a slip demonstration duringan ap- scaleon appendix3.
preachto landingandfly theaircraftto theleft of
the runwaycenterlineto a positionwhichwould 11. PROFILE EXPLANATION. The profile
makeanattempted landingpossiblebutdangerous. graphindicatesthecomparative tendencyfor each
Youreturncontrolof theaircraftto thestudentand of the five hazardousattitudes. The higherthe
instructhim to “executeproper landingproce- relativerank (first, second,third, etc.),the greater
dures.” Whichof the followingbestcharacterizes thepropensityto respondwith thathazardous atti-
yourattitudeaboutputtingthestudentandyourself tude. Thepilot shouldkeepin mindhis/herresults
in this situation? while reviewingthe explanationAn explanation
of the pilot’sprofile startswith the descriptionof
a. I can alwayshandlethis evenif he an alI-too-common flight situation.
a. A pilbt of a shgbengine aitct@t checks
b. Whateverhappens,it’s up to him theweatherandnotesthat thereis a possibilityof
now.- a thunderstorm at thedestination
airport. Thepilot
hasneveroperatedanaircraftin badweatherand
c. I’ve neverhada problemdoingthis knowsthata flight instructorwouldadviseagainst
in ti=sL flying. Despitethis knowledge,thepilot takesoff,
crashes in poor weather,andis seriouslyinjured.
d. Thequickerwe getthroughthis, the
better b. Why &es thfs occw so oflen? Because
many accidentsinvolvepilots who allow them-
e. Theseaircraft cantake a lot worse selvesto be influencedby oneor moreof the five
landingsthanthe manualssuggest. basic hazardousattitudes. Theseattitudesget
pilotsintotroubleby causingthemto takechances
9. SCORING INSTRUCTIONS. After com- that invite an accident. (The five hazardous
pletingtheinventorytesLtransfertheresponses for attitudesarethe onesrecordedon the assessment
eachalternativefrom the completedAttitudeIn- inventoryjust completed.)
ventoryAnswerSheet(appendix1) to the appro-
priatesectionof the ScoringForm (appendix2). 12. SUMMARY.
Totalthe rankingscoresfor eachscaleandenter
the total in the spaceprovidedat the bottomof a. The pilot should use the profile to deter-
eachcolumn. The total scorzfor eachsituation minewhichhazardous attitudesdominatedhis/her
mustbe 15,whilethetotalfor situations1through responses. Theprofilewill illustratewhichhazard-
6 must be 90. If the totals are not 15 and90, ous thoughtpatternshave a greatertendencyto
reviewfor possibleerrorsin the transferof scorns influencea pilot’sjudgment. The inventorytest
andcheckaddition.Thesetotalsarethenmarked mayindicatetheactualtendencyof thepilot; how-
on the AttitudeFWfile (appendix3) whereindi- ever,exhibitingattitudessimilarto thosedescribed
catedfor situations1 through6. arecommonandnormal;As a pilot’sflying career

8 Chap 2
Par 3
u/13/91 AC 60-22

progresses,the ability to identify thesehazardous b. In reviewing the five hazardousattitudes

attitudes will help the pilot counteract his/her in Chapter3, a pilot shouldpay particular attention
hazardousthoughts. The goal of this exerciseis to to hazardousattitudesthat may characterizehis/her
balanceall thoughts against possible outcomesso own tendencies. Hazardous attitudes occur to
that actions are nonhazardous. A critical part of every pilot to some degreeat some time. Problems
ADM training is leaming to examine the thinking’ arise when these hazardousattitudes occur’regu-
processandcontrol hazardousattitudes.Flying will lary and/or to an extreme. Therefore, a pilot
become safer if a pilot is able to identify and act shouldlearn to recognizethesehazardousattitudes
upon hazardousattitudes. in order to take corrective action.

Chap 2
Par 12 9 (and 10)
AC 600 22
: 17/1[3/91
13. HAZARDOUS ATTITUDES. ADM addres- asbeingableto makea greatdealof differencein
sesthe followingfive hazardous attitudes. whathappens to them. Whenthingsgo well, the
pilot is aptto think that’sgood-luck. Whenthings
a. Antiauthority (don’t tell me!). This go badly,thepilot mayfeelthat someone is 6ut to
attitudeis foundin peoplewhodo not like anyone get me, or attributeit to badluck. Thepilot will
tellingthemwhat to do. In a sensethey aresay- leavethe action to others,for better or worse.
ing no onecantell mewhatto do. Theymaybe Sometimes,suchpilots will evengo alongwith
resentfulof havingsomeone tell themwhatto do unreasonable requests just to be a “niceguy.”
or mayregardrules,regulations, andprocedures as
silly or unnecessary. However,it is alwaysyour 14. ANTIDOTES FOR HAZARDOUS ATTI-
prerogative to questionauthorityif you feelit is in TUDES.
a. Hazatious attitudes which contribute to
b. Impulsivity (do somethingquickly!) is the poorpilotjudgmentcanbeeffectivelycounteracted
attitudeof peoplewhofrequentlyfeel the needto by redirecting thathazardous attitudesothatappro-
do something-anything-immediately. Theydo not priateactioncanbe taken. Recognitionof hazar-
stopto thinkaboutwhattheyareaboutto do,they dousthoughtsis thefirst stepin neutralizingthem
do not selectthe bestalternative,andthey do the in the ADM process.This chapteris designedto
first thingthat comesto mind. familiarizethepilot with a meansof counteracting
hazardousattitudeswith an appropriateantidote
c. InvulnerabilQy (it won’t happen to me). thought.
Many peoplefeel thataccidents
happento others,
but neverto them. They know accidentscan b. When a pilot recognizes a thought as
happen,and they know that anyonecan be af- hazardous, the pilot shouldlabelthat thoughtas
fected.Theyneverreallyfeelor believethatthey hazardous,thencorrectthatthoughtby statingthe
will bepersonally
involved.Pilotswho think this corresponding antidote.Antidotesshouldbemem-
way aremorelikely to takechancesandincrease orizedfor eachof the hazardous attitudesso that
risk. theyautomatically cometo mindwhenneeded.
d. Macho (I can do it). pilots who artz
alwaystrying to provethat they are better than 15. ANTIDOTE RECALL EXERCISE. The
anyoneelseare thinkingI can do it - I’ll show
hazardousattitudeantidotes(figure 4) shouldbe
them. Pilotswith this typeof attitudewill try to
learnedthoroughlyandpracticed.Makea copyof
prove themselvesby taking risks in order to the AntidoteRecallExerciseform (appendix4)
impressothers.Whilethispatternis thoughtto be
and,withoutreferzingto the text, write the charac-
a malecharacteristic,
womenareequallysuscep teristicthoughtfor eachhazardous attitudeandits
tible. appropriateantidote. Checkthe statementsand
continueif they are correct. If not, continued
e. Resignation (what’s the use?). Pilots studyof the antidotesis recommended until they
who think what’stheuse?do not seethemselves arememorized.

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Par 13 11
AC 600 22 12/13/91

16. THE IMPORTANCE OF REINFORCE- a. The Impulsivity Hazardous Attitude.

MENT EXERCISES. The basic definitions, the
self-assessmenttest, the hazardousattitudes, and (1) Situation: As you enter the landing
the antidotes representthe foundation for under- pattern, you normally lower the flaps. The tower
standingthe factors of good ADM. However,they suddenly changesthe active -runway. Distracted,
representonly about 10 percent of the important you forget to use the before-landingchecklist. On
processof learning and putting ADM into practice. short final you find yourself dangerouslylow with
The other 90 percentcan be achievedonly through a high sink rate. Glancing down, you realize that
completion of all of the situation exercisesin the you forgot to extend the flaps. Which of the fol-
appropriate manual (i.e., Student/Private, Instru- lowing alternativesbest illustrates the impulsivity
ment, Commercial, etc.) and applying the prin- reaction?
ciples learned to each and every flight. Some
examplesof the reinforcementexercisesfrom each (i) You feel that nothing is going
of the manuals follow. These are presentedas to happenbecauseyou have made intentional
examples of the types of decision errors which no-flap landings before.
have contributed to accidentsin the past.
(ii) You laugh and think, “Boy, this
\. ., low approachwill impress people on the ground.”
t (iii) You think that using a checklist
is a stupid requirement.
Antiauthority: Don’t Follow the rules. They
tell me. are usually right.
(iv) You immediately grab the flap
Impulsivi ty: Do Not so fast. Think handle and add full flaps.
something quickly. first.
(v) You think that it all dependson
Invulnerability: It It could happen to me. whether you get an updraft or downdraft now.
won’t happen to me.
Macho: I can do it. Taking chances is
, (2) Explanation of Alternatives:
Resignation: What’s I’m not helpless. I can
the use? make a difference.
(i) Feeling that nothing bad can
happen suggests the invulnerability hazardous
FIGURE 4. THE FIVE ANTIDOTES attitude (it won’t happen to me). Go back to the
situation and select anotheralternative.
FORCEMENT EXERCISES. Read each of the (ii) When you are thinking about
following situations. At the end of eachsituation, impressingpeopleon the ground, watch out for the
an alternative should be selectedwhich best illu- macho hazardousattitude (I can do it). This can
stratesthe reactions of a pilot who is thinking a cost you dearly. Go back to the situation and
particular hazardous attitude. After the most select anotheralternative.
appropriate alternative is selected, refer to the
explanation of alternatives page for the proper (iii) Thinking that checklists are
response. This page will provide the correct stupid suggeststhat you feel that aircraft designers,
answer. If the selectionis accurate,proceedto the the Government,and your instructor, all of whom
next situation. If an incorrect alternative was urge the use of checklists, are wrong. This sug-
selected, the reader should review the situation geststhe antiauthorityhazardousattitude(don’t tell
again and select another alternative. Repeat the me). Go back to the situation and select another
exerciseuntil the correct alternativeis selected. alternative.

Chap 3
12 Par 16
AC 600 22

(iv) Right! Immediately adding full (ii) Right! The regulations are for
flaps without thinking is an example of the someone else attitude assumes controllers are
impulsivity hazardous attitude (do something interfering with your business. You are thinking in
quickly). Unfortunately,in this situation, full flaps an antiauthority manner. Go--on to the next situa-
will probably only increasethe sink rate. Go on to tion.
the next situation.
(iii) Here you are taking the invul-
(v) If you areconvinced that it is up nerability stand (it won’t happen to me). You
to the wind, this implies the hazardousattitude of think of yourself as invulnerable. Go back to the
resignation (what’s the use). Go back to the situation and select anotheralternative.
situation and select anotheralternative.
(iv) This is the impulsivity hazardous
(3) A Good Attitude. Distractionscan be attitude (I must act now, there’s no time). Go
dangerous-always use your checklist. back to the situation and selectanotheralternative.
b. The Antiauthority Hazardous Attitude. (v) The desire to impress another
influences your decision. This is the macho
(1) Situation: You approachthe VOR attitude (I’ll show you - I can do it). Go back to
and the controller asks if you want to executethe the situation and select anotheralternative.
entire VOR procedureor will you accept a right
turn of more than 90’ to intercept the final ap-
proach course. You state that you will make the (3) A GoodAttitude. Make as much time
turn directly onto final at 2,000 feet although this available on an approachas possible. You may
will pressyou to get properly establishedon final. need it.
Which of the following alternativesbest illustrates
the antiauthority reaction? c. The Macho Hazardous Attitude.

(i) It was not your idea to make the (1) Situation: On a trip to the west
approachlike this. coast, you make an en route refueling stop at an
airport in the Rockies. After refueling, the density
(ii) A controller is not going to altitude prior to your departure is reported as
influence the way I fly. 10,500feet. You are at maximum takeoff weight
when you depart. At the presentrate of climb, you
(iii) You do not need the full ap- will just barely clearthe minimum crossingaltitude
proach;you know you are a good instrumentpilot. (MCA) at the next intersectionon your flight route.
Which of the following alternativesbest illustrates
(iv) You are in a hurry and do not the macho reaction?
wish to bother with the full approach.
(i) There is really nothing you can
(v) You know the controllerswill be do about it; it is up to air traffic control (ATC) to
impressedwith this approach. make sure you clear.
(2) Explanation of Alternatives. (ii) The MCA’s have plenty of
leeway for clearance. So what if you are a little
(i) By assuming someoneelse has low.
responsibility for your approach,you exhibit the
resignation attitude (what’s the use?). Go back to (iii) You are a good pilot and will
the situation and select anotheralternative. make it.

Chap 3
Par 17 13
AC 60022 12/13/91

(iv) When you see that you cannot (i) It’s too late to fix it now.
climb enough, you immediately inform ATC of
your situation without determining your intentions. (ii) You can handle a little problem
like this.
(v) Mountain flying is not any
different from any other flying and you have never (iii) What’s the worst that could
run into any problems before. Nothing will hap- happen?
(iv) I certainly didn’t break it. It ’s
not my fault.
(2) xplanation of Alternatives.
(v) You barely need the pressur-
(i) Assuming someone else is ization at the filed altitude anyway.
responsible for you is the resignation hazardous
attitude. Go back to the situation and select (2) Explanation of Alternatives.
(i) This is the impulsivity hazardous
(ii) This is the antiauthority hazard- attitude (there’s no time - I must do something
ous attitude (don’t tell me). Go back to the situa- quickly). Go back to the situation and select
tion and select anotheralternative. anotheralternative.
(iii) Right! Thinking I’ll show you - (ii) This is the macho hazardous
I can do it, is the macho hazardousattitude. attitude showing through (I can do it). Go back to
the situation and select anotheralternative.
(iv) Acting before thinking, this is
the impulsivity hazardousattitude (do something (iii) Right! Nothing bad is going to
quickly). Go back to the situation and select happento you becauseof your invulnerability. Go
anotheralternative. on to the next situation.
(v) This is the invulnerability haz- (iv) This is the resignationhazardous
ardousattitude (it won’t happento me). Go back attitude - what’s the use?- where someoneelse is
to the situation and select anotheralternative. responsible. Go back to the situation and select
(3) A Good Attitude. Be aware of your
limitations and don’t exceedthem. (v) This type of thinking is character-
istic of the antiauthority attitude (rules and
d. The Invulnerability Hazardous Attitude. regulations are made to be broken). Go back to
the situation and select anotheralternative.
(1) Situation: While preflighting the
pressurization system, you discover that the rate (3) A Good Attitude. Settle for nothing
adjustment control is inoperative. Knowing that less than full operating systems.
you can manually control the cabin pressure,you
opt to disregard this discrepancy and depart on e. The Resignation Hazardous Attitude.
your trip. You will have to handle the system
yourself. Which of the following alternativesbest (1) Situation: Your copilot shows up for
illustrates the invulnerability reaction? duty and you notice that the copilot’s behavior is

Chap 3
14 Par 17
12/13/91 AC 60-22

somewhatout of the ordinary. You know your co- (2) Explanation of Alternatives.
pilot has had a cold. When questioned,the co-
pilot said maybe it was the antihistamine that (i) This is a trait of the macho
he/she took the night before. Although your hazardousattitude (I can do it). Go back to the
aircraft requires a crew of two, you decide to situation and select anotheralternative.
ignore your copilot’s drowsiness and inattention.
Which of the following alternativesbest illustrates (ii) This is the invulnerability attitude
the resignation reaction? (it won’t happento me). Go back to the situation
and select anotheralternative.
(i) You could fly this jet by yourself
anyway. - (iii) Right! When you feel as if it is
out of your control, you are exhibiting the resigna-
(ii) You two have flown together tion hazardousattitude.
many times, and everythinghasalways worked out
fine. (iv) This is the antiauthority hazard-
ous attitude (the rules and regulations don’t apply
(iii) What else can you do? He was to me). Go back to the situation and selectanother
assignedthis flight too. alternative.
(iv) He/she might not be within the (v) This is the impulsivi ty
regulations, but he/she says he/she’s okay and hazardous attitude (do something quickly). Go
that’s what counts. back to the situation and select anotheralternative.
(v) There is really no time to call (3) A Good Attitude. Don’t let othersdo
anothercopilot now. your thinking for you.

Chap 3
Par 17 15 (and 16)