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Analysed Document: FRP_Himanshu_garg.docx (D47609088)
Submitted: 2/5/2019 11:44:00 AM
Submitted By: himanshu_garg@lbsim.ac.in
Significance: 7%

Sources included in the report:

FRP finalproject Anish.docx (D25336989)

Instances where selected sources appear:

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0: FRP finalproject Anish.docx 80%

“A STUDY ON CUSTOMER BEHAVIOR TOWARDS BRANDED SHOES IN DELHI-NCR”

A PROJECT STUDY SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE REQUIREMENT OF THE


TWO YEAR (FULL-TIME) POST-GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN MANAGEMENT (2017 – 19) BY
HIMANSHU GARG 095 / 2017 UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF (Dr. RAJEEV SIROHI)

LAL

BAHADUR SHASTRI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT, DELHI February, 2019

CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the present study is based on my original research work
and my indebtedness to others’ works, publications, etc. wherever cited in this study has
been duly acknowledged at appropriate places. This work has not been submitted either in
part or in full for the award of any diploma or degree in any university/ Institute, and is now
being submitted for evaluation in partial fulfillment for the requirement of the Two-year Full
Time Post-Graduate Diploma in Management (General).

_____________________________

Signature of the Student (HIMANSHU GARG) (095/2017)

The student consulted / did not consult me while doing this Final Research Project.

Extent of Plagiarism: ________% Prof. Dr. RAJEEV SIROHI Faculty Guide

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my profound gratitude to all who have been instrumental in the
preparation of

my project report. To begin with, I would like to thank my institute for giving me the chance to
undertake this research project and allowing me to explore the areas of marketing research
which helped me in understanding the concepts better. The knowledge I acquired will surely
prove to be very beneficial to me in my future assignments, studies & career.

I wish to place on records, my sincere appreciation & gratitude to my project mentor Dr.
Rajeev Sirohi, Assistant Professor (Sr.), Marketing, LBSIM who advised and helped me in
preparation of the frame work of the research report. I would also like to thank him for his
continuous guidance and encouragement, without which this report would be impossible to
complete.

Regards, HIMANSHU GARG

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Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 CHAPTER-I 2 Indian footwear industry – Background


3 Increased preference for branded footwear 6 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis of Footwear
Industry 7 Impact of GST on footwear industry 10 Growing Opportunities 11 CHAPTER-II 12
MAJOR COMPETITORS 12 Bata India 13 Reebok 15 NIKE 17 Puma 19 Adidas 21 CHAPTER-Iii 23
LITERATURE REVIEW 23 CHAPTER-Iv 26 Research Design and Methodology 26 OBJECTIVES 27
RESEARCH DESIGN 28 CHAPTER-v 31 Data Analysis and Findings 31 Objective:1.

To understand the taste and preference of the customers for shoes. 32 Objective 2. To
determine the different factors by which the customer gets influenced while purchasing
shoes. 34

Objective 3. To find out the positioning of major brands in the industry in the minds of
customers. 38

CHAPTER-vi 41 Conclusion and limitations 41 Bibliography 43 Appendix 44

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This

report is prepared on a study done at Lal bahadur Shastri institute of management,

Delhi, it provides an analysis of the purchasing behavior of the customers for branded shoes
i.e. what are the factors they consider while purchasing shoes and this report also analyses
the positioning of the major shoe brands in the minds of customers. This report gives the
analysis of the footwear market in India and there is huge growth potential for the companies
to enter in this market because of low percentage share of organized footwear market in India
and also people in India are shifting towards branded footwear because of the increasing
standards of living. Tool used for the analyses is the 5 pointer Likert type of scale and with the
help of SPSS, factor analysis was done which gives four factors which influences the purchase
decision of the customers out of which three factors were very important – performance of
the product, net price of the offering and promotion. Discriminant analysis was used to make
the perceptual map of the five Brands-Reebok, Nike, Adidas, Bata, Puma along with five
different attributes, it shows which brand has close association with a specific attribute. It was
found that Nike has a strong brand value and Adidas produces designer shoes while Bata is
perceived as a value for money and reebok is positioned as a sporty brand but Puma is not
able to create a distinct image

in the minds of customers.

CHAPTER-I INTRODUCTION

Indian footwear industry – Background

The Indian footwear market generated total revenues of $4,978.1 million in 2015, a compound
annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.01% between 2011 and 2015.

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In comparison, the South Korean and Chinese markets increased by 9.5 percent and 11.1
percent respectively over the same period to $7,042.5 million and $56,836.4 million in 2015
respectively. The overall Asia-Pacific clothing and apparel sector is expected to grow rapidly at
over the next five years. The annual average growth in clothing and footwear expenditure is
projected to outweigh any other region, as rising incomes lead more Asian households to
medium-sized incomes and discretionary purchases. Increasing demographics also contribute
to rapid growth.

India footwear market value: $ million, 2011–15 The men's footwear segment was the most
lucrative segment of the market in 2015, with total revenues of $2,704.7 million, representing
54.4 percent of the total market value. In 2015, the women's footwear segment contributed
$1,541.6 million in revenue 31.01 percent of the aggregate value of the market. In 2015, the
Indian footwear market increased by 11.9% to a value of 4,978.1 million dollars.

India footwear market category segmentation: $ million, 2015 Now India is the

world's second largest footwear producer, accounting for around 9 percent of the world 's

annual production of ~22 billion pairs,

compared with China, which produces more than 61 percent of the world 's production. India
produces ~2.2 billion pairs of

footwear annually, 90 percent of which is consumed internally while the remaining ones are
mainly exported to European countries. In terms of

consumption, India's annual footwear consumption stands at ~2.1 billion pairs and is the third
largest in the world after China and the USA and has recorded a healthy growth over the past
decade, driven by higher income levels, increased awareness of fashion and increased
discretionary

expenses.

India’s footwear industry (in USD Bn) The growth of the Indian market in fashion and lifestyle
gave the footwear industry momentum. The footwear industry in India has developed into an
evolving category of fashion and style from a basic needs industry. India's footwear market is
well below the average per capita consumption of only 1.8 pairs per year compared to the
global average of 3 pairs and the average of 5 pairs of developed countries. In view of this
trend and the changing preference of consumers

for fashionable footwear, we believe that the per capita consumption of Indian consumers will
probably increase. With rising disposable incomes, robust economic growth and increased
awareness of fashion through

the opening of shops, the Indian footwear markets are therefore well placed as a sweet place.

Break up of footwear market by price points The footwear industry in India

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can be divided into four sub-segments based on retail prices: mass (less than Rs.500/pair),
economy (Rs.500-1000/pair), mid (Rs.1000-3000/pair) and premium (more than Rs.3000/pair).

Bata with the largest number of shops has a fair presence throughout the country's regions.
In addition to the metro cities, the brand has ensured its penetration into Tier 1 and Tier 2
cities.

Bata india adidas Puma india Reebok India nike india 1293 500 340 302 200

Store network of footwear brands across country

Increased preference for branded footwear Presently, a large proportion of India's population
is below 45 years of age and there has been a significant increase in demand for branded
products across categories, especially footwear,

with factors such as a younger population and an increasing middle class. In addition, the
younger generation is more aspiring, well connected and networked, knowledgeable in
technology and has a high spending power. The demographic dividend of India in the form of
a higher income youth population is likely to have a major impact on the retail

and consumption of many categories and products, as this class is likely to consume more
categories with an increasing preference for branded products.

In addition,

footwear as a lifestyle segment has one of the highest organized penetration levels of ~26
percent compared to other key categories

of lifestyle, such as men's shirts and women's ethnic groups, which reflect ~30 percent and
~18 percent branded play. The combined factors of footwear, which demonstrate a high
propensity for

organized retail and branded play, offer branded players an opportunity to grow further. As a
result, footwear shows a higher receptivity to modern retail with a 26 percent share of
modern retail channel sales compared to ~22 percent for apparel and accessories and

a slightly lower share of ~27 percent

compared to jewelry and watches. We believe that this growing thrust on high-priced branded
products is likely to help companies such as Bata India increase their products ' average sales
prices. We believe that growth can come not only from increased volume, but also from
increased realization,

which results in higher topline growth for companies.

Porter’s Five Forces Analysis of Footwear Industry Barriers to entry-high

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Access to inputs-access to inputs is easy Access to distribution –opportunities is limited


because of the top brands which have already recognized in

the

market. Switching costs –low Government policies- permitting and licenses are not that strict
Intellectual property – Patents and other types of intellectual property

ownership restrict the

industry. Capital requirement –with regard to startup capital it may be little costly because
start up is labor and capital intensive. Brand identity- dominated by branded products

along with strong brand loyalty. Buyer power – moderately low Pricing power – premium
brands and large companies in the industry which has monopoly influence the price for their
products. Substitutes available- most of the shoes can be substituted by normal sandals,
sleepers/floaters Except athletic, orthopedic, trekking and dancing shoes

Buyer ‘s incentives-seasonal sales offered by reputed brands and stores. Buyer’s concentration
vs industry –buyers are less concentrated, reducing buying power. Buyer volume – do not buy
in large quantities. Price sensitivity –buyers are more sensitive to price.

Forces driving competition in the footwear market in India,

Supplier power- low • Major companies can quickly switch suppliers without worrying about
significant quality reductions. • The threat of forward integration is low concentrated supplier
due to high entry barriers-fragmented. • Any supplier that meets the company's quality
standards will be able to supply these commodities.

Threats of substitute -moderate • Shoes

can be substituted except for athletic/medicinal shoes by normal sandals. • Switching costs are
low •

In less developed economies like India consumers are more likely to wear second-hand shoes
or repair a piece of footwear they currently own to extend their lifespan. These trends limit the
sale of new products in certain deprived areas. There is also a considerable degree of
replacement between market segments. Substitution in the form of online footwear sales
channels is a growing threat to traditional brick and mortar stores.

Rivalry within industry-high •

More of an emphasis on price competition. • Firms instead try to increase their range of
products more of the market. • Brand image and customer loyalty is huge in this industry
which leads to the brands competing in advertising. • Some companies acquire other brands,
mergers, ex- Adidas acquisition of reebok may help it challenge.

Impact of GST on footwear industry

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For the entire footwear industry and for the industry as a whole, GST will be a game changer.
The Indian government saw footwear

as a center in the Make in India, whether we do it for India or

the world. It must be known that the footwear industry in India is highly unorganized where
80-85 percent of the industry is made up of small and medium-sized enterprises and brands
not known to the industry, so there is a very small market covered by the large-scale industry.
The size of the shoe business is between 30,000 and 40,000 crores. Moreover, this industry
can develop to 80,000 crores in the next five years, giving the right strategic condition and
setting up the tax assessment structure, since India is the

second largest manufacturer of footwear on the planet and this is the second largest industry
that would like to meet the rising demand in India and also the rising demand in the world's
footwear industry. However, the business in India is shockingly not sufficiently aggressive
because of the tax structure. So

GST will most likely change the entire range of solutions. In the end, many companies

in the unorganized sector will ultimately have no choice but to join the organized sector. Since
the difference in taxes is so high, the industry is not very skeptical about how fast the industry
can integrate

Growing Opportunities The Indian market has a great deal of scope, in particular the footwear
market. The Indian footwear industry builds on its strengths to maximize benefits. India's
material and skilled labor resource strength is, inter alia,

a comparative advantage for the country. The increasing importance of footwear leads to a
daily increase in the demand for footwear, which also leads to higher growth prospects

for the

footwear industry. The easy availability of a wide variety of styles also increases customer
loyalty. The development of such vast varieties of footwear increases the potential of

the footwear industry, even in the towns of Tier II and Tier III, as people are increasingly
focused on these towns. As has been said many times, the real India is in rural areas.

The organized sector has certainly realized this and is moving to India's hinterland India has a
great deal of potential in Tier II and Tier III towns and cities, and therefore Liberty is
constantly entering these towns and

taking advantage of

the market. About two-thirds of the consumer market is dominated by the urban market, and

the rest is rural.

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The Indian retail sector is expected to grow substantially over the next few years, as the reach
of organized retail is gradually expanding to smaller towns and areas. Today, consumers in
Tier II and Tier III cities are aware

of the different categories of

domestic and international marks. The market has evolved and a lot of potential exists. Tier II
cities

currently contribute a large percentage of

total sales, but Tier III cities are increasing in sales and are expected to grow exponentially by
2020, "he says.

Moreover, mobile technology revolutionizes the tier II and tier III markets in the hinterlands of
India,

and an online retailer must not ignore this segment. Women are the drivers in the online retail
markets

of Tier II and Tier III. Moreover, with a considerable increase in the consumption of the

trendiest and comfortable pair of footwear, consumers do not mind paying higher for quality
products because they now understand that higher prices definitely mean better quality. India
is a

market that is price sensitive. However, today consumers are no longer hesitant to pay for
quality, innovation and technology.

CHAPTER-II MAJOR COMPETITORS

Bata India

In January 1934, the foundation stone for the first Bata operation building-now known as the
Bata. In the following years, the overall site was doubled in

the area. This city is popularly referred to

as Batanagar. It was also the first production plant in the Indian shoe industry to

be certified as ISO: 9001. In 1973, the company became public when its name was changed to
Bata India Limited

CITATION Top \l 1033 (Top 10 Footwear Brands in

India, 2019). Today Bata India has become India's largest retailer of footwear. Its retail
network of more than 1375 shops provides a coverage that no other

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shoe company can match. The shops are conveniently located in all metro, mini underground
and cities. The clever new shops of Bata, supported by a range of products of better quality,
aim to offer their customers

a superior shopping experience. The company also operates a large non-retail distribution
network through its wholesale division

of the city and supplies over 30 000 customers to millions of customers.

Popular sub-Brand Names: Ambassador, Comfit, Marie Clarie, PotaPata, Safari, North Star,
Power

Core Values Serve with Passion We enjoy our customers enthusiastically. Serving their own
needs defines all we do. That passion for what we do distinguishes us from our competitors.
We are proud and energetic to be part of a family business with profound values. We have all
invested something of ourselves in the company and act as if the company were ours. But we
don't want to win at all costs. We take responsibility for how we affect the many and various
communities we operate in.

Be Bold We have been pioneers. We value people with the courage to change and sometimes
to be ready for failure. We're dissatisfied with the status quo. We promote creativity. We
understand curiosity and original thinking. Innovation is our firm's foundation stone. We
accept the future, but take some time to learn from the past. We do what we say and we don't
sit on our laurels. We celebrate success and value the unique contribution of everybody to
achieving this goal. Count On Me When called, we lead by example and follow. We appreciate
those who take responsibility for their achievements and failures. We are responsible for the
performance of ourselves and those around us. We encourage others to do their best and we
support them. We attach great importance to our development and those around us, and we
believe that the feedback is the champions ' breakfast. We share openly with others and in
everything we do we act with integrity. Exceed Customer Expectations Whether it be products,
processes or people, our quality is uncompromising. We strive to create products that are
easy to purchase, exciting to wear and of outstanding value. We strive to be the most
accountable and efficient in everything we do to provide our customers with the best value.
We work where design, comfort and value satisfy each other. Our lifelong mission is to satisfy
the diverse needs and preferences of our customers. Improving Lives It has been at the heart
of the company's philosophy for more than 120 years to improve people's lives. We do this by
showing respect for our customers, suppliers, staff and our communities. We believe that
through openness and tolerance to race, religion or cultural differences we can make a
difference in the lives of all of us.

Reebok

Reebok is a US-based global brand with a strong fitness heritage and a clear mission: to be the
world's best fitness brand. It's not easy. However, if there is one brand that can make it
happen, it is Reebok, the brand that was essentially part of a fitness movement that changed
our way of looking at spandex and headbands forever. Of course, it's no longer the 1980s–the

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world moved on. But Reebok has it and it continues to be audacious. Daring knows that
greatness is not sameness. Over the past few years, traditional sports have been transformed
into fitness. The three sides of the Reebok Delta, a symbol of change and change, represent
the physical, mental and social changes occurring when people face the challenge of growing
in the gym, their lives and the world . Reebok shows that they understand the lives of people
who wear their gear in the world and invite them to celebrate their humanity through the
interactive tools of Be More Human on the brand's website. While fitness and equipment worn
during fitness activities are obviously the focus of the brand, there is much more to the
equation for those involved in fitness. Popular sub-

Brand Names: All Terrain Thunder, Reebok Classic, Plimton, Zjet, Royal Badge.

REEBOK'S Mission Always Challenge and Lead through Creativity We see the world a little
different in Reebok and have marked our history when we have the courage to challenge the
convention. Reebok develops products and programs to reflect the brand's creative potential.
REEBOK'S Purpose To Empower Global Youth to Fulfill their Potential Corporate responsibility
is a significant legacy and distinctive feature of the Reebok brand. Human rights have been
the focus of this effort through the Reebok Human Rights Program for two decades. Reebok
has expanded on what has been built and created a global corporate citizenship platform for
the brand to help disadvantaged, underserved young people worldwide live a healthy, active
life. REEBOK'S brand territory Having Fun Staying in Shape Fun in shape comes to life in a fun,
bold, provocative way expressed by a fresh, eye-catching image with a unique' Reeword.' The
tone and the way the consumer looks through our' Ree' lens at sport and lifestyle. REEBOK'S
Vision Fulfilling Potential Reebok is dedicated to providing children on the playground with the
opportunity, the products and the inspiration for every athlete from professional athletes to
leisure runners. We can all do great things. Reebok as a brand has the unique opportunity to
help consumers, athletes and artists, partners and employees realize their true potential and
achieve unattainable levels.

NIKE

Originally founded by Phil Knight and Bill Bowerman, Nike is now the market leader in
sportswear and equipment manufacturing and has more than 47% of the world's market
share. The mission of Nike is to provide all athletes with inspiration and innovation (Nike Inc.,
2012). You are an athlete, according to them, if you have a body. The company has more than
700 stores worldwide and offices in 45 countries outside the USA. The majority of its plants are
in Southeast Asia, including China, Indonesia, Taiwan, India, Vietnam, Thailand,

the Philippines, Pakistan and Malaysia.

CITATION Int16 \l 1033 (Introduction To Nike Inc , 2016)

It has

the strength to be a market leader and access to cheap materials and work. In addition, it
must pay lower tariffs and duties, and its suppliers have a lower negotiating power with its
presence in many countries. However, the substitute goods that are quickly gaining ground

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are constantly under threat.

CITATION Int16 \l 1033 (Introduction To Nike Inc , 2016)

It was founded in 1964 as Blue Ribbon Sports by

Bill Bowerman, a track and field coach at the University of Oregon, and

his former student Phil Knight. They opened their first department store in 1966 and started
the Nike shoe in 1972. The company was renamed Nike Inc in 1978. Two years later, it was
released. Nike had retail outlets and distributors in more than 170 countries at the beginning
of the 21st century, and his logo–a curved checkmark called the "swoosh "–was recognized
worldwide.

CITATION Int16 \l 1033 (Introduction To Nike Inc , 2016)

At the beginning of the 21st century, Nike began selling sports equipment, for example
portable heart rate monitors and high-altitude wrist compasses which would help climbers.
Nike's success is also because of the support of many athletes like Michael Jordan, Mia Hamm,
Roger Federer and Tiger Woods. The Nike Town chain stores, the first of which was opened in
1990, pays tribute to the above mentioned sportsperson and other company spokespersons
while offering consumers a wide range of products.

Popular Brand Names: Nike Blazers, Nike Dunk, Air Max, Foamposite.

NIKE’S Mission Nike Inc. 's corporate mission. " All athletes in the world must bring inspiration
and innovation. " The company also states that everyone is an athlete based on Nike founder
Bill Bowerman 's statement,' You are an athlete if you have a body. " This statement
represents the company’s strategic objective to reach the global market for footwear, apparel
and equipment for leisure and sport. The following main components are contained in Nike's
statement of business mission:

• Inspiration

• Innovation

• Every athlete in the world

Nike inspires people to adopt a "winner mindset "covered by the mission statement's
"inspiration "component. This inspiring goal is the slogan of the company "Just Do It. " Nike's
mission statement also emphasizes innovation. This component is implemented through the
company's strategy of continuous product improvement through new technologies, as
included in the overall competitive strategy and intensive growth strategies of Nike Inc. The
component "every athlete in the world "indicates that the corporate mission of the company
drives the company to target every consumer in the world. As noted, every person is
considered an athlete by the company. Based on this corporate mission, the products of Nike
are designed to attract and satisfy a wide range of market segments worldwide.

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NIKE’S Vision

Nike Inc. 's corporate vision is "to remain the most authentic, connected and distinctive brand.
"This vision statement, which was emphasized in the company's global growth strategy for
2015, continues to be applied by the company. The company emphasizes the development of
its brand.

The following are the important elements of Nike's statement of business vision:

• Authentic

• Connected

• Distinctive

The company retains its distinctive character by supplying the best products on the market.
This view concerns Nike Inc. As an industry leader, while pushing the company further away
from its competitors. One notable aspect of the company is that its vision of corporate social
responsibility also develops links with consumers: "to help NIKE, Inc. And our consumers
thrive in a sustainable economy with balanced people, profits and the planet. "The social
responsibility strategy of Nike Inc. and the approaches to stakeholder management are based
on this vision.

The company also retains its distinctive character by providing the best available products on
the market. This vision applies to Nike Inc. As an industry leader, pushing the company further
from its competitors. One notable aspect of the company is that its vision of corporate social
responsibility also develops links with consumers: "to help NIKE, Inc. And our consumers
thrive in a sustainable economy in which people, profits and the planet are balanced. " Nike
Inc. 's social responsibility strategy and approaches to stakeholder management are based on
this vision.

Puma

Puma SE is a German multinational company which designs and produces athletic and casual
footwear, apparel and accessories based in Herzogenaurach, Bavaria, Germany.

PUMA is

the world's

third largest sportswear manufacturer The company was founded by Rudolf Dassler in 1948.
In 1924, Rudolf and his brother Adolf Dassler formed the Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik
(Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory). The relationship between the two brothers deteriorated until
1948 when the two agreed to divide and formed two separate entities, Adidas and Puma.

At present, both companies have headquarters in Herzogenaurach, Germany. Since 1986


Puma has been a public company on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. The French luxury group
Kering (formerly known as Pinault-Printemps-Redoute or PPR) owns 16 percent of the share

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capital, the largest shareholder of Kering, Artemis SA, owns 29 percent. Since 1 July 2013,
former footballer Bjarn Gulden (CEO) has been responsible for the company. Since 2017,
Puma SE employs more than 13,000 people worldwide and distributes its products to over 120
countries. After the division of his brother, Rudolf Dassler first registered the newly founded
company as Ruda, but later changed its name to Puma. The earliest logo of Puma was a
square and a beast that jumped through a D registered in 1948 with the name of the
company. Puma 's shoe and cloth designs feature the Puma logo and the distinctive 1958
"Formstrip. " Mission

Forever Faster is more than being quick. It is our mantra. It is 70 years of fast products for fast
athletes.

We aim high, and when we score our goals, we aim even higher.

All to achieve one thing: to be the Fastest Sports Brand in the World.

Vision To generate a better world that would be safer, more peaceful, and more creative than
the world we know today. Values Fair Honest-we believe that by staying true to our values,
inspiring the passion and talent of Positive Creative –our people, working in sustainable,
innovative ways, and doing the best things. Safe-be fair honest, positive and creative, we will
keep on making the products. Peaceful-our customers love, and at the same time brings that
vision of a better world a little closer every day.

Adidas Adidas, German manufacturer of sports shoes and apparel and sports goods. It was

the largest sportswear producer in Europe and the second largest (after Nike) in the world

at the beginning of the 21st century. Adidas products traditionally have a three-way
trademark, which remains an integral part of the company’s recent "triple "and "mountain
"logos. Herzogenaurach 's HQ, Germany. The name Adidas (written by' Adidas') is an
abbreviation of the name of Dassler 's founder Adolf (' Adi'). After World War I, the Dassler
family began to make shoes. At the 1936 Berlin Olympics, American track and field star Jesse
Owens wore shoes, which were reportedly a gift from Adi Dassler. Owens ' medal-winning
performance has made the brand Dassler more aware throughout the world. Adi and his
brother Rudolf (" Rudi ") tried to rebuild the Dassler company after the disruption of the
Second World War, but a personal breach had become irreparable by 1948. The company was
therefore divided into two: Rudi 's company was finally called Puma, while Adi became Adidas.
In the 1950s, Adidas grew steadily as football (soccer) players switched to lightweight shoes
with screw-in cleats in the company. In 1963, the company developed a sports product line
and launched football. Adidas started to make clothes four years later. Adidas has long been
the biggest name in athletic shoes, but competition has increased in the 1970s, particularly
from new companies like Nike. Adi Dassler died in 1978 and the creators of the hit song "My
Adidas "(1986), despite an innovative agreement with the rap group Run-D.M.C., experienced
a decline in market share in the 1980s. The company was to ally with hip-hop again in a deal
with rapper and entrepreneur Kanye West in 2016.) Between 1990 and 1993, Adidas was a
scandalous French company manager, Bernard Tapie, who failed to revive it. The company

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was sold to investors who introduced another Frenchman, Robert Louis-Dreyfus, as Chief
Executive Officer and Chairman. Under his leadership Adidas acquired the Salomon Group in
1997. While Salomon was best known for its winter sports products, it also owned the golf
supplier Taylor Made. Following Nike's leadership in 2001, Adidas was renamed Adidas-
Salomon AG and retailed. The company established a successful partnership in 2004 with the
clothing designer Stella McCartney. Adidas sold Salomon in 2005 but continued the Taylor
Made brand. The company name was changed to Adidas AG the following year. In 2006
Adidas acquired a competitor, the company Reebok, the owner of the Rockport shoe brand.

Mission The Adidas Group strives to be the global leader in the sporting goods industry with
brands built on a passion for sports and a sporting lifestyle. We are committed to continuously
strengthening our brands and products to improve our competitive position. Vision • We are
innovation and design leaders who aim to help athletes of all skills achieve maximum
performance with every product we market. • We focus on consumers and therefore
constantly improve the quality, look, feel and image of our products and our organizational
structures in order to meet and exceed consumer expectations and give them the highest
possible value. • We are a global, socially and environmentally responsible organization that
embraces creativity and diversity and rewards our employees and shareholders financially. •
We are committed to delivering consistently outstanding financial results.

Values

Performance Sport is the foundation for all we do and executional excellence is a core value of

our Group. Passion Passion is at the heart of our company. We are continuously moving
forward,

innovating, and improving. Integrity We are honest, open, ethical, and fair. People trust us to
adhere to our word. Diversity We know it takes people with different ideas, strengths,
interests, and cultural backgrounds to make our company succeed. We encourage healthy
debate and differences of opinion.

CHAPTER-Iii LITERATURE REVIEW

The purpose of this section is to examine the theories and concepts that contribute to the
foundation of this study. This study focuses mainly on consumer behavior. The question now
is what it means. Consumer behavior is a study of how people spend their resources on
products related to consumption. It involves studying what you buy, why you buy it, where
you buy it, how often you buy it and how often you use it (Schiffman and Kanuk, 1996). Gender
or sex was regarded as an important cultural component. We find products in every society
that are both exclusively and strongly linked to sex. It is therefore worthwhile to include sex in
the subculture category (Schiffman and Kanuk, 1996). Age was found to affect product and
service consumption patterns due to differing demand. The stimulus response model is the
simplest consumer behavior buying model. Under this model, marketing stimuli (i.e. 4 Ps) and
other major forces (economic, political, technological and cultural) always have a major impact
on buying behavior. Consumer procurement is strongly influenced by cultural social, personal

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and psychological features. Marketers cannot control them for most factors, but they take it
into account before they make any decisions (Kotler and Armstrong, 2001). The main objective
of marketing is to satisfy the needs and needs of the target customer. Consumer behavior as a
subject also addresses factors affecting the consumer's purchasing behavior. It gives a clear
idea of how consumers choose, buy, use and distribute products, services, ideas or
experiences to meet their needs and wishes (Kotler, 2003) Another article reviewed was
“Information sources for college students Athletic shoe purchasing”. The study showed that
college students were the most influential and often referred to information source. The
results are consistent with previous studies. Consumers may opt out of buying a product if
they believe that the product does not match their own perception of themselves as members
of a particular company. The study found that the information source was not significantly
different between the sexes and the sources of income for the purchase of shoes. (Yoh & Pitts,
2005).

Bob (2008) stipulates the use of the correct type of footwear. The author observes that people
buy footwear most of the time for their looks and do not consider comfort. Even safety shoes
come in all styles with the advancement of technology. The author discusses a number of
different shoes, namely electrical safety shoes, ankle protection shoes and chemical shoes,
and points out the importance of of having these shoes depending on the kind of job one is in.

In their study "Factors affecting the consumer purchasing behavior of shoes in Kolkata, "Saha,
Dey & Bhattacharya (2010) seeks to identify various factors in the marketing mix that influence
the purchasing behavior of customers in Kolkata. Some sub variables found by them were
brand, discounts, price, display, occurrence, influence of sales person, etc. The study
attempted to analyze the relative importance of the customers for all of these variables.

CHAPTER-Iv

Research Design and Methodology

OBJECTIVES

• To understand the taste and preference of the customers for shoes. • To determine the
different factors by which the customer gets influenced while purchasing shoes. • To find out
the positioning of major brands in the industry in the minds of customers.

RESEARCH DESIGN

Secondary Data – Secondary data will be collected from

various sources from existing research papers, journals, and data bases.

Primary Data: Questionnaire: Primary data will be collected by preparing questionnaire and
the people will be requested to fill them.

SAMPLING DESIGN Target sampling population: Target population involves all the individuals
who are above the age of 15 and below the age of 45. METHOD OF SAMPLING Non-

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Probabilistic Sampling- Non-probability sampling is a sampling technique where the samples


are gathered in a process that does not give all the individuals in the population equal
chances of being selected. Convenience Sampling- It is based on researcher’s convenience in
terms of cost, time, and place. It attempts to obtain a sample of convenient elements. Sample
Size: Sample size is coming out to be: - N= (z*s/e) ^2 (1.96*0.67/0.1) ^2=172 (rounding off to
180)

Z= Z score = 1.96 (At 95% confidence level) E= Tolerable error (0.1) S= Population standard
deviation of the variable of interest. Calculation of standard deviation S= R/6=4/6=0.67

Tools Used for Data Collection: Questionnaire was used for the evaluation of factors affecting
consumer’s

perception while purchasing shoes. Techniques of Data Analysis • Factor Analysis • Perceptual
Mapping using discriminant analysis. Reliability testing of questionnaire • The overall
consistency of a measure is the reliability in statistics and psychometrics. A measure is said to
have a high precision quality in when it produces comparable outcomes under consistent
conditions. • It shows that even if a testing process is repeated over and over again with the
sample size being the same, the results obtained would be identical to the previous ones or
could be negligibly different. So a measurement should be highly reliable so that we can
generalize it for the further investigation process, since we cannot completely remove the
error or achieve 10 percent reliability. • There are many reliability coefficients used in statistics
to indicate the amount of error in the test scores, one of which is Cronbach 's Alpha. • It
measures internal consistency between test scores. As the interrelationships between test
items increase, Cronbach 's alpha will generally increase and is thus referred to as an internal
consistency estimate of the reliability of test scores. Since inter-correlations between test
items are maximized when all items measure the same construct, the alpha of Cronbach is
widely believed to indicate indirectly the degree to which a set of items measures a single
latent one-dimensional construct.

Analysis of Cronbach alpha

To check the reliability of our questionnaire we took an initial sample of 30 respondents and
conducted a Reliability Test by calculating Cronbach’s Alpha for the set of questionnaires.

Case Processing Summary

N % Cases Valid 30 100.0

Excludeda 0 .0

Total 30 100.0 a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure.

Reliability Statistics table that provides the actual value for Cronbach's alpha, which is 0.795
which indicates

a high

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level of internal consistency in the scale for a set of questionnaires with this specific sample.

Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of


Items .823 .795 14

CHAPTER-v Data Analysis and Findings

Objective:1. To understand the taste and preference of the customers for shoes.

Preferred price Range

Price 1500-3000 3000-4500 4500-6000 <6000 49 72 36 23

So here we can found that most of the respondents, about 72 prefers to buy shoes of the price
range of Rs.3000-4500 and around 49 prefers the range of Rs.1500-3000 and most of the
respondents purchases 3 pairs of shoes in a year followed by 2 pairs of shoes per year ,so only
around 13 % of people prefer premium category shoes i.e above Rs.6000, so if a company
wants to target mass market then it should price its products in the range of Rs. 1500-4500.
Also per capita shoes purchase is around 2-3 pairs of shoes which is very much lesser than the
Per capita purchase of pairs of shoes in developed countries like US.

No. of shoes purchased

[PERCENTAGE]

[PERCENTAGE]

[PERCENTAGE]

[PERCENTAGE]

2 3 4 <4 54 68 36 22

Preferred shoes brand

Reebok Adidas Nike Puma Bata 31 49 58 24 18

When respondents were asked to choose which brand they would prefer to buy in near future
then majority of them selected Nike followed by Adidas while Bata was the least preferred
choice by the respondents which shows Nike has a very powerful brand recall in this category.
Also it is evident from the responses that most communicative medium to inform potential
customers about the new offerings of shoes is online Ads. Followed by newspaper/pamphlet
and hoardings are not very good option for advertising.

Information Sources

Tv ads Online ads Friends Newspaper Hoardings 34 58 30 38 20

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FACTOR ANALYSIS Objective 2. To determine the different factors by which the customer gets
influenced while purchasing shoes.

Factor analysis is a form of exploratory multivariate analysis used either to reduce the number
of variables in a model or to detect relationships between variables. All variables involved in
the factor analysis must be intervals and should normally be distributed. The objective of the
analysis is to try to identify factors underlying the variables.

There may be fewer factors than variables, however there may be no more factors than
variables. It is a statistical method used to explain the

variability between observed correlated variables in terms of a potentially lower number of


unobserved variables

referred to as factors. Variables included in the analysis 1.Price 2.Colour 3.Brand Image
4.Advertisement 5.Free offers 6.Comfort 7.Durability 8.Discount 9.Sales person influence
10.Warranty 11.Packaging 12.Design 13.Quality

Analysis: Null Hypothesis (H0): The variables are uncorrelated Alternative Hypothesis (H1): The
variables are correlated with each other. Test Statistic:

KMO and Bartlett's Test Level of significance: 5%

KMO and Bartlett's Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .687 Bartlett's
Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 2052.434

df 78

Sig. .000

Communalities

Initial Extraction Price 1.000 .706 Colour 1.000 .841 Brand Image 1.000 .806 Advertisement
1.000 .893 Free offers 1.000 .746 Comfort 1.000 .822 Durability 1.000 .641 Discount 1.000 .782
Sales Person influence 1.000 .813 Warranty 1.000 .852 Packaging 1.000 .720 Design 1.000 .922
Quality 1.000 .920 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Test:
KMO measures the adequacy of the sampling, i.e. the adequacy of the factor analysis. To
proceed, its value should be greater than 0.5. Since the value of KMO is 0.696

in this case, this is considered good. Factor analysis is therefore appropriate in this case.
Bartlett’s Test:

It indicates the relationship strength between variables. It tests the above null hypothesis.
Since the significance value

in this case is 0.000, which is less than 0.05. It is therefore statistically important and null
hypothesis is therefore rejected, i.e. Some correlation exists between variables. Communality:

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It shows that the extracted factors account for

how much of the variation in a variable. It thus shows the percentage of variance in a variable
that the common underlying factor

captures. Communalities: This is the

proportion of each variable's variance that can be explained

by

the principal components. Initial: By definition, the initial value of the communality in a
principal components analysis is 1. Extraction - The values in this column indicate the
proportion of each variable's variance that can be explained by the principal components.
Variables with high values are well represented in the common factor space, while variables
with low values are not well represented.

Total Variance Explained Component Initial Eigenvalues Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings

Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative % 1 5.914 45.491 45.491


3.537 27.211 27.211 2 1.801 13.853 59.344 3.029 23.297 50.508 3 1.498 11.522 70.866 2.070
15.923 66.431 4 1.252 9.630 80.496 1.828 14.065 80.496 5 .744 5.722 86.218 6 .476 3.663
89.881 7 .374 2.878 92.759 8 .281 2.165 94.924 9 .249 1.916 96.840 10 .201 1.543 98.383 11
.122 .935 99.318 12 .065 .500 99.818 13 .024 .182 100.000

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Since, the Eigen value of first four variables

are greater than 1, thus we are considering only these four factors. Cumulative Eigen values
represent the percentage of total variance explained by each factor. In this case, first four
factors cumulatively explain 80.496 % of the total variance.

Rotated Component Matrix: It reduces the number factors on which the variables have high
loadings. It does not actually change anything but makes the interpretation easier.

Rotated Component Matrixa

Component

1234

Price -.793 Colour .787 Free offers .730 Discount .717 Durability Comfort .880 Design .851
Quality .711 Brand Image .888 Advertisement .806 Warranty .867 Packaging .620 Sales Person
influence .609

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser
Normalization. a. Rotation converged in 10 iterations.

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Factors Coming Out: 1.

Net price-price, discount, color, free offers. 2.

Performance-Design, comfort, Quality, Durability. 3.Promotion- Brand Image, Advertisement 4


Looks -Warranty, Packaging, Sales person influence

Discriminant analysis Objective 3. To find out the positioning of major brands in the industry
in the minds of customers. Discriminant analysis requires respondents to give ratings of
attributes. A goal of this method,

like factor analysis, is to reduce the number of attributes to a smaller number of underlying
dimensions. Unlike factor analysis,

however, discriminatory analyzes focus on attributes that show differences among brands.
This approach tends to ignore attribute ratings that vary widely within brands; these latter
dimensions are

not "significant "in discriminatory analysis. In discriminatory analysis, sets of observations


represent different "groups. "The ratings for each brand constitute a group

in product positioning studies. As its name suggests, discriminatory analysis will identify the

underlying dimensions most useful in distinguishing between groups. It is essentially to know


where the brands are, i.e. Which attribute they

concentrated on

more. Wilks' Lambda

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Test of Function(s) Wilks' Lambda Chi-square df Sig. 1 through 4 .109 1985.422 20 .000 2
through 4 .346 948.801 12 .000 3 through 4 .640 398.887 6 .000 4 .899 94.749 2 .000

wilks' Lambda test is to

test which variable contribute significance in discriminate function. The table provides a Chi-
Square statistic to test the significance of Wilk's Lambda. If the p-value if less than 0.05, we can
conclude that the corresponding function explain the group membership well.

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Eigenvalues Function Eigenvalue % of Variance Cumulative % Canonical Correlation 1 2.188a


61.6 61.6 .828 2 .850a 23.9 85.5 .678 3 .405a 11.4 96.9 .537 4 .112a 3.1 100.0 .317

The Eigenvalues table outputs the eigenvalues of the discriminant functions; it also reveals the
canonical correlation for the discriminant function. The larger the eigenvalue is, the more

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amount of variance shared the linear combination of variables. The eigenvalues are sorted in
descending order of importance. So the first one always explains that majority of variance in
the relationship.

Standardized Canonical Discriminant Function Coefficients

Function

1234

Design .722 -.775 1.578 .230 Comfort 1.092 .681 -.561 -.727 Brand value .738 1.535 .183 .868
value for money -.871 .551 -.212 1.130 sporty .719 -1.290 -1.013 .937

So from the above table we took first two functions for making the perceptual map, using the
coordinates from the values given in function 1 and 2 we make 5 axes and then marking the
different pints on the map using the values in the below table for different brands, so by this
way we can get to know which brand is inclined to a particular attribute given in the
standardized discriminant function. We are taking only first two function because these
cumulatively explains 85.5% variation in the data.

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Functions at Group Centroids BRAND Function

1 2 3 4 1 100.000 -1.281 -.698 .301 2 .809 -.209 1.146 .208 3 1.891 1.239 -.455 -.055 4 -.450
-.573 .069 -.624 5 -2.525 .824 -.062 .170 Unstandardized canonical discriminant functions
evaluated at group means

So from the above map we can see that Nike scores well in the terms of brand value and
comfort while Adidas also lies between the comfort and design axes but it is more inclined
towards design attribute. Reebok is positioned as a sporty brand in the minds of customers
and Bata is seen as value for money brand maybe because its products are relatively cheaper
when compared to other brands and are of good quality. Positioning of Puma is not very clear
although it lies in between the sporty look and value for money axes but it is very much closer
to the origin and also it is approximately same distance from both the axes so we can’t say
what is the correct positioning of puma through this analysis.

CHAPTER-vi Conclusion and limitations

Majority of respondents purchase shoes 2-3 times a year which is very less when compared to
other developed countries like US, UK, etc. so as our country is an emerging market so there is
huge potential for the footwear companies to take advantage of this gap. Also people prefers
to buy shoes in the price range of Rs.1500-4500 which shows that still most of the people likes
low/mid-priced shoes so if any company wants to launch a product for masses then it should
price its products in this price range while established brands can leverage their brand value
and can charge higher price by offering some good quality and designer shoes. People are
influenced more by online ads and newspapers when it comes to the news regarding the new

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product offering in this category, while they are least influenced by hoardings. So companies
should use the above preferred communication channel to convey their new launches and
offers, etc. the most preferred choice for the shoes by the respondents was Nike followed by
Adidas when they were asked about which brand they would prefer to buy in near future.
From factor analysis we reduced the 14 variables to 4 factors which are: -Performance, net
price, promotion, looks and these factors represents around 74.85% variance in the data.
Among the above factors performance and net price are important so companies should
emphasis more on the above factors while designing/launching their new offerings. From
discriminant analysis it is clear that Nike has very good brand image and it also better than its
competitors in terms of comfort. Adidas has taken place as a designer brand in the minds of
customers while reebok is seen as a sporty brand, so the positioning of the above brands in
the customer’s mind is very well defined but puma’s positioning is not very clear so puma
should try to communicate its positioning strategy clearly and effectively to the customers
.Bata is positioned as a value for money brand so if it wants to increase its revenue so it
should move towards premium category shoes and create a distinct image of premium brand.
Limitations: - one of the major limitation was the small sample size so this report is not
suitable to generalized on a large scale. Also time span of this research was not very long and
there would be some bias in the respondents because most of the respondents are from
urban are so it does not take account of the preference of rural population. Lack of prior
research was also a problem as most of the research reports were of some other countries
not India.

Bibliography

Saha, Soumya and Dey, Munmun and Bhattacharyya, Sumanta, Factors Affecting Consumer
Buying Behavior of Shoes in Kolkata: A Case Study (March, 31 2010). The IUP Journal of
Management Research, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 39-60, April 2010. Mohan, P.

R.

INFLUENCE OF PRODUCT AND PLACE FACTORS ON CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR IN


FORMAL FOOTWEAR SECTOR. International Journal of

Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS)1–9 Industry Reports | MarketLine. (n.d.).
Retrieved from https://www.marketline.com/overview/industry-information/ YOH, T., & PITTS,
B. (n.d.). INFORMATION SOURCES FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS ATHLETIC SHOE PURCHASING
[Abstract]. SMART ONLINE JOURNAL,28-34.

India has the largest footwear market in the world: Adesh Gupta, CEO, Liberty Shoes. (2017,
June 29). Retrieved from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/opinion/interviews/india-has-
the-largest-footwear-market-in-the-world-adesh-gupta-ceo-liberty-shoes/
articleshow/59366264.cms

India's footwear industry stepping towards a bigger and brighter future. (2017,

December 04). Retrieved from https://

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www.indianretailer.com/article/launch-pad/fashion-and-accessories/India-s-footwear-
industry-stepping-towards-a-bigger-and-brighter-future.a5880/

Answers Ltd. (2019, January 30).

Introduction to Nike Inc Business Essay. Retrieved from https://www.ukessays.com/essays/


business/introduction-to-nike-inc-business-essay.php

Bata India - Buy Shoes Online for Men, Women & Kids. Footwear from Leading Brands, Power,
Hush Puppies. (

n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.bata.in/

Appendix

Information Sources

Tv ads Online ads Friends Newspaper Hoardings 34 58 30 38 20

Preferred shoes brand

Reebok Adidas Nike Puma Bata 31 49 58 24 18

No. of shoes purchased

[PERCENTAGE]

[PERCENTAGE]

[PERCENTAGE]

[PERCENTAGE]

2 3 4 <4 54 68 36 22

Bata india adidas Puma india Reebok India nike india 1293 500 340 302 200

Preferred price Range

Price 1500-3000 3000-4500 4500-6000 <6000 49 72 36 23

[Metadata removed]

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Hit and source - focused comparison, Side by Side:

Left side: As student entered the text in the submitted document.


Right side: As the text appears in the source.

Instances from: FRP finalproject Anish.docx

1 80% 1: FRP finalproject Anish.docx 80%

“A STUDY ON CUSTOMER BEHAVIOR TOWARDS BRANDED SHOES ?"A STUDY ON MARKET ENTRY STRATEGY FOR SPECIALIZED
IN DELHI-NCR” SPORT SHOES"

A PROJECT STUDY SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR A PROJECT STUDY SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR
THE REQUIREMENT OF THE TWO YEAR (FULL-TIME) POST- THE REQUIREMENT OF THE
GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN MANAGEMENT (2017 – 19) BY
HIMANSHU GARG 095 / 2017 UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF (Dr. TWO YEAR (FULL-TIME)
RAJEEV SIROHI)
POST-GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN MANAGMENET (General)
LAL
(2015-2017)
BAHADUR SHASTRI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT, DELHI
By
February, 2019
ANISH DUGGAL 005/2015
CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the present study is based on
my original research work and my indebtedness to others’ UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
works, publications, etc. wherever cited in this study has been
duly acknowledged at appropriate places. This work has not DR. SAMANT SHANT PRIYA

24
URKUND FRP_Himanshu_garg.docx (D47609088)

been submitted either in part or in full for the award of any LAL BAHADUR SHASTRI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT JANUARY,
diploma or degree in any university/ Institute, and is now being 2017 LAL BAHADUR SHASTRI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT,
submitted for evaluation in partial fulfillment for the DELHI
requirement of the Two-year Full Time Post-Graduate Diploma in
Management (General). Date.........................................

_____________________________ CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the present study is based on my original


research work and my indebtedness to others' works,
publications, etc. wherever cited in this study has been duly
acknowledged at appropriate places.

This work has not been submitted either in part or in full form
for the award of any diploma or degree in any university, and is
now being submitted for evaluation in partial fulfillment for the
requirement of the Two-Year Full Time Post-Graduate Diploma in
Management (General).

_______________________________

2 83% 2: FRP finalproject Anish.docx 83%

Test of Function(s) Wilks' Lambda Chi-square df Sig. 1 through 4 Test of Function(s) Wilks' Lambda Chi-square df Sig. 1 through 4
.109 1985.422 20 .000 2 through 4 .346 948.801 12 .000 3 .635 800.040 32 .000 2 through 4 .884 217.565 21 .000 3 through
through 4 .640 398.887 6 .000 4 .899 94.749 2 .000 4 .946 98.576 12 .000 4 .986 24.563 5 .000

wilks' Lambda test is to Exhibit 3: Wilks’ Lambda

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Wilks’ Lambda is used to

3 100% 3: FRP finalproject Anish.docx 100%

Eigenvalues Function Eigenvalue % of Variance Cumulative % Eigenvalues Function Eigenvalue % of Variance Cumulative %
Canonical Correlation 1 2.188a 61.6 61.6 .828 2 .850a 23.9 85.5 Canonical Correlation 1 .392a 75.5 75.5 .530 2 .070a 13.5 89.0
.678 3 .405a 11.4 96.9 .537 4 .112a 3.1 100.0 .317 .256 3 .043a 8.3 97.3 .203 4 .014a 2.7 100.0 .118

4 85% 4: FRP finalproject Anish.docx 85%

Functions at Group Centroids BRAND Function Functions at Group Centroids VAR00001 Function

1 2 3 4 1 100.000 -1.281 -.698 .301 2 .809 -.209 1.146 .208 3 1.891 1 2 3 4 1.00 1.001 -.018 .156 .110 2.00 .461 -.069 -.231 -.173 3.00
1.239 -.455 -.055 4 -.450 -.573 .069 -.624 5 -2.525 .824 -.062 .170 -.618 -.447 .060 .032 4.00 -.434 .286 .265 -.099 5.00 -.410 .249
Unstandardized canonical discriminant functions evaluated at -.250 .131
group means
Exhibit5: Unstandardized canonical discriminant functions
evaluated at group means

26