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SYLLABUS
EN6501 MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

UNIT I SOURCES AND TYPES 8


Sources and types of municipal solid wastes-waste generation rates-factors
affecting generation, characteristics-methods of sampling and characterization;
Effects of improper disposal of solid wastes-Public health and environmental
effects. Elements of solid waste management –Social and Financial aspects –
Municipal solid waste (M&H) rules – integrated management-Public awareness;

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Role of NGO‟s.
UNIT II ON-SITE STORAGE AND PROCESSING 8

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On-site storage methods – Effect of storage, materials used for containers –

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segregation of solid wastes – Public health and economic aspects of open storage –
waste segregation and storage – case studies under Indian conditions – source

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reduction of waste – Reduction, Reuse and Recycling.
UNIT III COLLECTION AND TRANSFER
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Methods of Residential and commercial waste collection – Collection vehicles –
Manpower– Collection routes – Analysis of collection systems; Transfer stations –

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Selection of location, operation & maintenance; options under Indian conditions –
Field problems- solving.
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UNIT IV OFF-SITE PROCESSING
12 Objectives of waste processing – Physical Processing techniques and
Equipments; Resource recovery from solid waste composting and biomethanation;
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Thermal processing options – case studies under Indian conditions.
UNIT V DISPOSAL 9
Land disposal of solid waste; Sanitary landfills – site selection, design and
operation of sanitary landfills – Landfill liners – Management of leachate and
landfill gas- Landfill bioreactor– Dumpsite Rehabilitation

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TEXTBOOKS:
1. Tchobanoglous, G., Theisen, H. M., and Eliassen, R. "Solid. Wastes: Engineering
Principles and Management Issues". McGraw Hill, New York, 1993.
2. Vesilind, P.A. and Rimer, A.E., ―Unit Operations in Resource Recovery
Engineering‖, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1981
3. Paul T Willams, "Waste Treatment and Disposal", John Wiley and Sons, 2000

REFERENCES:
1. Government of India, "Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management",

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CPHEEO, Ministry of Urban Development, New Delhi, 2000.
2. Bhide A.D. and Sundaresan, B.B. "Solid Waste Management Collection",

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Processing and Disposal, 2001
3. Manser A.G.R. and Keeling A.A.," Practical Handbook of Processing and

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Recycling of Municipal solid Wastes", Lewis Publishers, CRC Press, 1996

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4. George Tchobanoglous and Frank Kreith"Handbook of Solidwaste
Management", McGraw Hill, New York, 2002
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Sl. Description Page no.


no.
a Aim and objective 4
b Detailed Lesson Plan 5
c Unit –I Sources and Types
d Part A 8
e Part B 11
f Unit –II Onsite Storage and Processing

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i
Part B
Unit –III Collection and Transfer
32

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k
Part A
Part B
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45
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Unit –IV Off-site Processing
m Part A gin 58
n Part B
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o
p
Unit –V Disposal
Part A ing 77
q Part B 79 .ne
r Industrial /Practical connectivity of the
subject
90
t
s University Question Bank 91

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Aim and Objective of the subject

To make the students conversant with different aspects of the types, sources,
generation, storage, collection, transport, processing and disposal of municipal solid
waste.

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DETAILED LESSON PLAN

Sl. No. of Book


WEEK Topics
No. Hours No.

UNIT-I : SOURCES AND TYPES

1 WEEK I Sources and types of solid wastes 1 T1

Quantity – factors affecting


2 2 T1
generation of solid wastes

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3 Characteristics of solid waste,

4w.E methods of sampling and


characterization
2 T1

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Effects of improper disposal of solid

5
WEEK
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wastes ,public health effects, 2 T1,R1
II
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Principle of solid waste management

Social & economic eer


6
aspects , Public awareness; ing 1 T1,R2,R1

7 Role of NGOs; Legislation. 1 .ne


T1,R1

UNIT – II : ON-SITE STORAGE & PROCESSING t


WEEK
9 On-site storage methods 2 T1,T2
III

10 Materials used for containers 2 T1

11 On-site segregation of solid wastes 1 Net

WEEK Public health & economic aspects of


12 1 T1,T2,R1
IV storage

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Sl. No. of Book


WEEK Topics
No. Hours No.

options under Indian conditions –


13 1 T1
Case study 1

options under Indian conditions -


14 1
Case study 2 T1,T2

Critical Evaluation of Options. 1 T1

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15 Methods of Collection 1 T1

16
WEEK
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Types of vehicles – Manpower
2 T1,R2, net
V requirement
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17 Collection routes
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18 Transfer stations
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19
WEEK Selection of location, operation &
ing 2 T1,R2
VI maintenance
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20
Options under Indian conditions-
Case study
2 R2,R1
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UNIT – IV : OFF-SITE PROCESSING

21 Off site processing 1 T1

WEEK Processing techniques and


22 2 T1,T2
VII Equipment

23 Resource recovery from solid wastes 2 T1,T2

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Sl. No. of Book


WEEK Topics
No. Hours No.

24 Composting 1 T1,T2

WEEK T1
25 Incineration 1
VIII

26 Pyrolysis 1 T1

27 options under Indian conditions 1 R2,R1

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28 Dumping of solid waste 1 T1,T2

29
WEEK
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Sanitary landfills – site selection 2
T1,T2
IX
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Design and operation of sanitary
1
T1,T2

30 landfills
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31 Leachate collection
ing 1 T1,net

32 Leachate collection-case study 1


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T1,T2

33
WEEK
X
Leachate treatment 1
T1,T2
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34 Leachate treatment - case study 2 T1,T2

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UNIT –I SOURCES AND TYPES

PART –A

1. What is called Hazardous wastes? (Nov/Dec 2012)


Hazardous wastes are those defined as wastes of industrial, institutional or
consumer origin that are potentially dangerous either immediately or over a period
of time to human beings and the environment. This is due to their physical,
chemical and biological or radioactive characteristics like ignitability, corrosivity,
reactivity and toxicity.

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2. List out the MSWM principles (or) Enunciate the vital principle of

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Municipal solid waste management. (Nov/Dec 2012)
 Protection of environmental health.
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 Promotion of environmental quality.

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 Supporting the efficiency and productivity of the economy.
 Generation of employment and income.
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3. Define solid Waste Management (Nov/Dec 2010)
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Solid waste management (SWM) is associated with the control of waste generation,
its storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal in a manner
that is in accordance with the best principles of public health, economics, .ne
engineering, conservation, aesthetics, public attitude and other environmental
considerations.
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4. Define the term Refuse. (May/June 2013)
All nonhazardous solid waste from a community that requires collection and
transport to a processing or disposal site is called refuse or municipal solid waste
(MSW). Refuse includes garbage and rubbish. Garbage is mostly decomposable
food waste; rubbish is mostly dry material such as glass, paper, cloth, or wood.

5. Hierarchy of municipal solid waste management

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Waste minimization, Reuse, Material recycling and biological treatment ,Thermal


treatment (with energy recovery and without energy recovery),Landfill

6. What is called legislation & the role of NGOs in MSW ?


This refers to the existence of local and state regulations concerning the use and
disposal of specific materials and is an important factor that influences the
composition and generation of certain types of wastes. The Indian legislation
dealing with packing and beverage container materials is an example. In short
elements that relate to waste generation include land use characteristics, population
in age distribution, legislation, socio economic conditions, household and

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approximate number.

w.E  Solid waste disposal act,1965


 National Environmental policy act,1969

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 Resource recovery act,1970

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Catalytic elements-resident welfare association-waste pickers-
vermicomposting-money
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 Energy research and development administration,
 U.S.army corps of engineers,
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 Department of labor,
 Department of transportation ing
 Interstate commerce commission, .ne
 Department of health, education and welfare
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7. Examples of residential and commercial solid wastes. State the per capita
solid Waste generation in India (Nov/Dec 2009)
Residential: This refers to wastes from dwellings, apartments, etc.
and consists of leftover food, vegetable peels, plastic, clothes, ashes, etc.
Commercial: This refers to wastes consisting of leftover food, glasses, metals,
ashes, etc generated from stores, restaurants, markets, hotels, motels, auto-repair
shops, medical facilities, etc.
Institutional: Consisting of schools and colleges (paper, plastics, glasses,etc.).

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Municipal: Consisting of wastes from demolition and construction activities (dust,


building debris, etc.)

Waste generation rate in Indian cities ranges between 200 - 870 grams/day,
depending upon the region‘s lifestyle and the size of the city. The per capita waste
generation is increasing by about 1.3% per year in India.

8. Write Dulong and modified Dulong formula

Dulong

KJ/Kg = 145.4C+620(H-1/8 O)+41 S,C-carbon,H-Hydrogen,O-Oxygen,S-Sulphur

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Modified Dulong

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KJ/Kg =337C+1428(H2-1/8 O2)+93 S+ 23N,C-carbon,H-Hydrogen,O-Oxygen,S-
Sulphur,N-nitrogen
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9. Write the formula to determine the number of samples required for
composition analysis
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N= (ZS/∂)2
N- number of samples eer
z-standard normal deviate for confidence level ing
s- estimated standard deviation
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∂- sensitivity

10. List out the Biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes


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Biodegradable wastes mainly refer to substances consisting of organic matter such
as leftover food, vegetable and fruit peels, paper, textile, wood, etc., generated from
various household and industrial activities. Because of the action of micro-
organisms, these wastes are degraded from complex to simpler compounds.
Non-biodegradable wastes consist of inorganic and recyclable materials such as
plastic, glass, cans, metals.

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PART - B

1. Explain the sources and types of solid wastes.(May/June 2013)

Source-based classification
Historically, the sources of solid wastes have been consistent, dependent on sectors
and activities, and these include the following:
(i) Residential: This refers to wastes from dwellings, apartments, etc., and consists
of leftover food, vegetable peels, plastic, clothes, ashes, etc.
(ii) Commercial: This refers to wastes consisting of leftover food, glasses, metals,
ashes, etc., generated from stores, restaurants, markets, hotels, motels, auto-repair

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shops, medical facilities, etc.

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(iii) Institutional: This mainly consists of paper, plastic, glasses, etc., generated
from educational, administrative and public buildings such as schools, colleges,
offices, prisons, etc.
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(iv) Municipal: This includes dust, leafy matter, building debris, treatment plant
residual sludge, etc., generated from various municipal activities like construction
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and demolition, street cleaning, landscaping, etc. (Note, however, in India

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municipal can typically subsume items at (i) to (iii) above).

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(v) Industrial: This mainly consists of process wastes, ashes, demolition and
construction wastes, hazardous wastes, etc., due to industrial activities.

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(vi) Agricultural: This mainly consists of spoiled food grains and vegetables,
agricultural remains, litter, etc., generated from fields, orchards, vineyards, farms,
etc.
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(vii) Open areas: this includes wastes from areas such as Streets, alleys, parks,
vacant lots, playgrounds, beaches, highways, recreational areas, etc.
It is important to define the various types of solid wastes that are generated from
various sources.
1. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes:
 Biodegradable wastes mainly refer to substances consisting of organic
matter such as leftover food, vegetable and fruit peels, paper, textile, wood,
etc., generated from various household and industrial activities. Because of

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the action of micro-organisms, these wastes are degraded from complex to


simpler compounds.
 Non-biodegradable wastes consist of inorganic and recyclable materials
such as plastic, glass, cans, metals,
Type-based classification
Classification of wastes based on types, i.e., physical, chemical, and biological
characteristics of wastes, is as follows
(i) Garbage: This refers to animal and vegetable wastes resulting from the
handling, sale, storage, preparation, cooking and serving of food. Garbage

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comprising these wastes contains putrescible (rotting) organic matter, which
produces an obnoxious odour and attracts rats and other vermin. It, therefore,

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requires special attention in storage, handling and disposal.
(ii) Ashes and residues: These are substances remaining from the burning of wood,

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coal, charcoal, coke and other combustible materials for cooking and heating in

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houses, institutions and small industrial establishments. When produced in large

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quantities, as in power-generation plants and factories, these are classified as
industrial wastes. Ashes consist of fine powdery residue, cinders and clinker often

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mixed with small pieces of metal and glass. Since ashes and residues are almost
entirely inorganic, they are valuable in landfills.
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(iii) Combustible and non-combustible wastes: These consist of wastes generated
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from households, institutions, commercial activities, etc., excluding food wastes and
other highly putrescible material. Typically, while combustible material consists of
paper, cardboard, textile, rubber, garden trimmings, etc., non-combustible material
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consists of such items as glass, crockery, tin and aluminium cans, ferrous and non-
ferrous material and dirt.
(iv) Bulky wastes: These include large household appliances such as refrigerators,
washing machines, furniture, crates, vehicle parts, tyres, wood, trees and branches.
Since these household wastes cannot be accommodated in normal storage
containers, they require a special collection mechanism.
(v) Street wastes: These refer to wastes that are collected from streets, walkways,
alleys, parks and vacant plots, and include paper, cardboard, plastics, dirt, leaves

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13

and other vegetable matter. Littering in public places is indeed a widespread and
acute problem in many countries including India, and a solid waste management
system must address this menace appropriately.
(vi) Biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes: Biodegradable wastes mainly
refer to substances consisting of organic matter such as leftover food, vegetable and
fruit peels, paper, textile, wood, etc., generated from various household and
industrial activities. Because of the action of micro-organisms, these wastes are
degraded from complex to simpler compounds. Non-biodegradable wastes consist
of inorganic and recyclable materials such as plastic, glass, cans, metals, etc. Table

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1.1 below shows a comparison of biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes with
their degeneration time, i.e., the time required to break from a complex to a simple

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biological form
(vii) Dead animals: With regard to municipal wastes, dead animals are those that

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die naturally or are accidentally killed on the road. Note that this category does not

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include carcasses and animal parts from slaughter-houses, which are regarded as
industrial wastes. Dead animals are divided into two groups – large and small.
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Among the large animals are horses, cows, goats, sheep, pigs, etc., and among the

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small ones are dogs, cats, rabbits, rats, etc. The reason for this differentiation is that

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large animals require special equipment for lifting and handling when they are
removed. If not collected promptly, dead animals pose a threat to public health since
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they attract flies and other vermin as they decay. Their presence in public places is
particularly offensive from the aesthetic point of view as well.
(viii) Abandoned vehicles: This category includes automobiles, trucks and trailers
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that are abandoned on streets and other public places. However, abandoned vehicles
have significant scrap value for their metal, and their value to collectors is highly
variable.
(ix) Construction and demolition wastes: These are wastes generated as a result
of construction, refurbishment, repair and demolition of houses, commercial
buildings and other structures. They consist mainly of earth, stones, concrete,
bricks, lumber, roofing and plumbing materials, heating systems and electrical wires
and parts of the general municipal waste stream.

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(x) Farm wastes: These wastes result from diverse agricultural activities such as
planting, harvesting, production of milk, rearing of animals for slaughter and the
operation of feedlots. In many areas, the disposal of animal waste has become a
critical problem, especially from feedlots, poultry farms and dairies.
(xi) Hazardous wastes: Hazardous wastes are those defined as wastes of industrial,
institutional or consumer origin that are potentially dangerous either immediately or
over a period of time to human beings and the environment. This is due to their
physical, chemical and biological or radioactive characteristics like ignitability,
corrosivity, reactivity and toxicity. Note that in some cases, the active agents may

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be liquid or gaseous hazardous wastes. These are, nevertheless, classified as solid
wastes as they are confined in solid containers. Typical examples of hazardous

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wastes are empty containers of solvents, paints and pesticides, which are frequently
mixed with municipal wastes and become part of the urban waste stream. Certain

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hazardous wastes may cause explosions in incinerators and fires at landfill sites.

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Others such as pathological wastes from hospitals and radioactive wastes also

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require special handling. Effective management practices should ensure that
hazardous wastes are stored, collected, transported and disposed of separately,

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preferably after suitable treatment to render them harmless.

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xii) Sewage wastes: The solid by-products of sewage treatment are classified as
sewage wastes. They are mostly organic and derived from the treatment of organic
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sludge separated from both raw and treated sewages. The inorganic fraction of raw
sewage such as grit and eggshells is separated at the preliminary stage of treatment,
as it may entrain putrescible organic matter with pathogens and must be buried
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without delay. The bulk of treated, dewatered sludge is useful as a soil conditioner
but is invariably uneconomical. Solid sludge, therefore, enters the stream of
municipal wastes, unless special arrangements are made for its disposal.

2.Explain the SOLID WASTE CHARACTERISTICS/Mention the various


physico-chemical biological characteristics of MSW.(Nov/Dec 2015, Nov/Dec
2012)

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Physical: moisture content, density


Chemical:
Proximate : moisture ,volatile, ash, fixed carbon, fusing point of ash,
Ultimate analysis: CHONS & ash ,Heating value

In order to identify the exact characteristics of municipal wastes, it is necessary that


we analyse them using physical and chemical .
Physical characteristics Information and data on the physical characteristics of
solid wastes are important for the selection and operation of equipment and for the
analysis and design of disposal facilities. The required information and data include

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the following:
(i) Density: Density of waste, i.e., its mass per unit volume (kg/m3), is a critical

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factor in the design of a SWM system, e.g., the design of sanitary landfills, storage,

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types of collection and transport vehicles, etc. To explain, an efficient operation of a
landfill demands compaction of wastes to optimum density. Any normal

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compaction equipment can achieve reduction in volume of wastes by 75%, which

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increases an initial density of 100 kg/m3 to 400 kg/m3. In other words, a waste

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collection vehicle can haul four times the weight of waste in its compacted state
than when it is uncompacted. A high initial density of waste precludes the

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achievement of a high compaction ratio and the compaction ratio achieved is no

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greater than 1.5:1. Significant changes in density occur spontaneously as the waste
moves from source to disposal, due to scavenging, handling, wetting and drying by
the weather, vibration in the collection vehicle and decomposition. Note that: the
effect of increasing the moisture content of the waste is detrimental in the sense that
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dry density decreases at higher moisture levels; soil-cover plays an important role in
containing the waste; there is an upper limit to the density, and the conservative
estimate of in-place density for waste in a sanitary landfill is about 600 kg/m3.

(ii) Moisture content: Moisture content is defined as the ratio of the weight of
water (wet weight - dry weight) to the total weight of the wet waste. Moisture
increases the weight of solid wastes, and thereby, the cost of collection and
transport. In addition, moisture content is a critical determinant in the economic

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feasibility of waste treatment by incineration, because wet waste consumes energy


for evaporation of water and in raising the temperature of water vapour. In the main,
wastes should be insulated from rainfall or other extraneous water. We can calculate
the moisture percentage, using the formula given below:
Moisture content (%) = [Wet weight - Dry weight X 100 ]
Wet weight
A typical range of moisture content is 20 to 40%, representing the extremes of
wastes in an arid climate and in the wet season of a region of high precipitation.
However, values greater than 40% are not uncommon.

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(iii) Size: Measurement of size distribution of particles in waste stream is important
because of its significance in the design of mechanical separators and shredders.

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Generally, the results of size distribution analysis are expressed in the manner used

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for soil particle analysis. That is to say, they are expressed as a plot of particle size
(mm) against percentage, less than a given value. The physical properties that are

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essential to analyse wastes disposed at landfills are:

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I. Field capacity: The field capacity of MSW is the total amount of moisture which

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can be retained in a waste sample subject to gravitational pull. It is a critical
measure because water in excess of field capacity will form leachate, and leachate

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can be a major problem in landfills. Field capacity varies with the degree of applied
pressure and the state of decomposition of the wastes.
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II. Permeability of compacted wastes: The hydraulic conductivity of compacted
wastes is an important physical property because it governs the movement of liquids
and gases in a landfill. Permeability depends on the other properties of the solid
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material include pore size distribution, surface area and porosity.
Porosity: It represents the amount of voids per unit overall volume of material. The
porosity of MSW varies typically from 0.40 to 0.67 depending on the compaction
and composition of the waste.
Porosity of solid waste n= e/ (1+e)
Where e is void ratio of solid waste
III. Compressibility of MSW: Degree of physical changes of the suspended solids
or filter cake when subjected to pressure.

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ΔHT =ΔHi +ΔHc +ΔHα


ΔHT= total settlement;
ΔHi=immediate settlement;
ΔHc = consolidation settlement;
ΔHα = secondary compression or creep.]
C’α = ΔH/ [H0 X (Log (t2/t1))] = Cα/ (1+e0)
[Cα, C’α = Secondary compression index and Modified secondary Compression
index; and t1, t2= Starting and ending time of secondary settlement

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respectively.]

Proximate analysis for the combustible components of MSW includes the

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following tests:

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Moisture (drying at 105 oC for 1 h)
Volatile combustible matter (ignition at 950 oC in the absence of oxygen)

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Fixed carbon (combustible residue left after Step 2)

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Ash (weight of residue after combustion in an open crucible)

Fusing Point of Ash eer


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Fusing point of ash is the temperature at which the ash resulting from the burning of

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waste will form a solid (clinker) by fusion and agglomeration. Typical fusing
temperatures:1100 -1200 oC.
Ultimate Analysis
 Involves the determination of the percent C (carbon), H (hydrogen), O
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(oxygen), N (nitrogen), S (sulfur) and ash.
 The determination of halogens are often included in an ultimate analysis.
 The results are used to characterize the chemical composition of the organic
matter in MSW. They are also used to define the proper mix of waste
materials to achieve suitable C/N ratios for biological conversion processes.

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3. Explain the Public health effects in MSWM / Describe the effects on


improper disposal of solid waste on human health and Factors affecting
Generation of Solid wastes. (Nov/Dec 2012,Nov/Dec 2009),
Public health effect The volume of waste is increasing rapidly as a result of
increasing population and improving economic conditions in various localities. This
increased volume of wastes is posing serious problems due to insufficient workforce
and other constraints in disposing of it properly. What are the consequences of
improper management and handling of wastes? Consider the following:
(i) Disease vectors and pathways: Wastes dumped indiscriminately provide the

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food and environment for thriving populations of vermin, which are the agents of
various diseases. The pathways of pathogen transmission from

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wastes to humans are mostly indirect through insects – flies, mosquitoes and
roaches and animals – rodents and pigs. Diseases become a public health problem

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when they are present in the human and animal population of surrounding

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communities, or if a carrier transmits the etiological agent from host to receptor.

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(ii) Flies: Most common in this category is the housefly, which transmits typhoid,

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salmonellosis, gastro-enteritis and dysentery. Flies have a flight range of about 10
km, and therefore, they are able to spread their influence over a relatively wide area.

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The four stages in their life-cycle are egg, larva, pupa and adult. Eggs are deposited

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in the warm, moist environment of decomposing food wastes. When they hatch, the
larvae feed on the organic material, until certain maturity is reached, at which time
they migrate from the waste to the soil of other dry loose material before being
transformed into pupae. The pupae are inactive until the adult-fly emerges. The
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migration of larvae within 4 to 10 days provides the clue to an effective control
measure, necessitating the removal of waste before migration of larvae.
Consequently, in warm weather, municipal waste should be collected twice weekly
for effective control. In addition, the quality of household and commercial storage
containers is very significant. The guiding principle here is to restrict access to flies.
Clearly, the use of suitable storage containers and general cleanliness at their
location, as well as frequent collection of wastes, greatly reduces the population of
flies. Control is also necessary at transfer stations, composting facilities and

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disposal sites to prevent them from becoming breeding grounds for flies. Covering
solid wastes with a layer of earth at landfill sites at the end of every day arrests the
problem of fly breeding at the final stage.
(iii) Mosquitoes: They transmit diseases such as malaria, filaria and dengue fever.
Since they breed in stagnant water, control measures should centre on the
elimination of breeding places such as tins, cans, tyres, etc. Proper sanitary practices
and general cleanliness in the community help eliminate the mosquito problems
caused by the mismanagement of solid waste.
68

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(iv) Roaches: These cause infection by physical contact and can transmit typhoid,
cholera and amoebiasis. The problems of roaches are associated with the poor

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storage of solid waste.
(v) Rodents: Rodents (rats) proliferate in uncontrolled deposits of solid wastes,

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which provide a source of food as well as shelter. They are responsible for the

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spread of diseases such as plague, murine typhus, leptospirosis, histoplasmosis, rat

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bite fever, dalmonelosis, trichinosis, etc. The fleas, which rats carry, also cause
many diseases. This problem is associated not only with open dumping but also
poor sanitation.
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(vi) Occupational hazards: Workers handling wastes are at risk of accidents
related to the nature of material and lack of safety precautions. The sharp edges of
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glass and metal and poorly constructed storage containers may inflict injuries to
workers. It is, therefore, necessary for waste handlers to wear gloves, masks and be
vaccinated. The infections associated with waste handling, include:
t
 skin and blood infections resulting from direct contact with waste and from
infected wounds;
 eye and respiratory infections resulting from exposure to infected dust,
especially during landfill operations;
 diseases that result from the bites of animals feeding on the waste;
 intestinal infections that are transmitted by flies feeding on the waste;
 chronic respiratory diseases, including cancers resulting from exposure to
dust and hazardous compounds.

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In addition, the accidents associated with waste handling include:


 bone and muscle disorders resulting from the handling of heavy containers
and the loading heights of vehicles;
 infecting wounds resulting from contact with sharp objects;
 reduced visibility, due to dust along the access routes, creates greater risk of
accidents;
 poisoning and chemical burns resulting from contact with small amounts of
hazardous chemical wastes mixed with general wastes such as pesticides,
cleaning solutions and solvents in households and commercial

ww establishments;
 burns and other injuries resulting from occupational accidents at waste

w.E disposal sites or from methane gas explosion at landfill sites;


 serious health hazards, particularly for children, due to careless dumping of
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lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and mercuric oxide batteries.

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(vii) Animals: Apart from rodents, some animals (e.g., dogs, cats, pigs, etc.) also

gin
act as carriers of disease. For example, pigs are involved in the spread of diseases

eer
like trichinosis, cysticerosis and toxoplasmosis, which are transmitted through
infected pork, eaten either in raw state or improperly cooked. Solid wastes, when

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fed to pigs, should be properly treated (cooked at 100°C for at least 50 minutes with
suitable equipment).
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Improper handling of wastes
Some of the adverse health and environmental effects, due to the improper handling
t
of wastes are:
(i) Health effects: Wastes dumped indiscriminately provide the food and
environment for breeding of various vectors, e.g., flies (salmonellosis, dysentry,
etc.), mosquitoes and roaches (malaria, dengue fever, typhoid, cholera, amoebiasis,
etc.) and animals, e.g., rodents and pigs (trichinosis, cysticerosis, etc.).
(ii) Environmental effects: Inadequate and improper waste management has
serious environmental effects. These include air, water, land, visual, noise and
odour pollution, and explosion hazards.

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Based on a general observation, the four ill effects are


 Due to open dumping, mosquitoes thrive in our locality, which may cause
diseases like malaria or dengue fever.
 Rodents, notably rats proliferate in uncontrolled deposits of solid waste,
which provide them with a convenient source of food and shelter.
 There is a risk of injury during handling of wastes, as workers are not
provided with safety materials, e.g., gloves.
 The aesthetic sensibility (i.e., visual pollution) of concerned residents is
offended by the unsightliness of piles of wastes.

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Factors affecting Generation of Solid waste
Effect of source reduction

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Waste reduction may occur through the design, manufacture and packaging of
products with minimum toxic content, minimum volume of material, source
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reduction can also be achieved by

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 Decrease unnecessary (or) excessive packaging

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 Develop & use products with greater durability
 Use fewer resources ( e.g: 2 sided copying)
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 Increase the recycled materials content of products.
Extent of Recycling
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 The existence of recycling programmes within a community definitely
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affects the quantities of wastes collected for further processing (or) disposal.
Effect of Public attitudes & Legislation
 Public attitudes ultimately, does significant reduction in the quantities of
t
solid wastes generated.
 A programme of continuing education is essential in bringing about a
change in public attitudes.
 It depends upon the willingness of people to change their own volition,
habits & lifestyles.
 Legislation perhaps the most important factor affecting the generation of
certain types of wastes such as package & beverage container materials.

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Geographic Location
 Physical factor that affects the quantity of waste generated including
location, season of the year, the use of kitchen waste food grinders, waste
collection frequency.
 Different climate influences both the amount of certain types of solid
wastes generated & the time period over which the wastes are generated.
(e.g.) substantial variations in the amount of yard & garden wastes generated
in various parts of the country are related to climates.
Season of the year
 The quantities of certain types of solid wastes are also affected by the
ww season of the year. (e.g.) Festivals of India is totally a various thing overall.

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 Depending upon the type & change of festivals, waste generation is
different.

asy
Frequency of Collection

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 In general, where unlimited collection service is provided, more wastes

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are collected. It does not mean that wastes are generated in more quantity.
 But, it means the tendency of throwing away the wastes respective of
frequency of collection. eer
Characteristics of Service Area
ing
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 Peculiarities of the service area can influence the quantity of solid wastes
generated. (e.g.) Quantities of yard wastes generated on a per capita basis are
considerably greater in many of the wealthier neighborhood than in other
parts of town.
t
4. Explain the Principle of solid waste management / The functional elements
in solid waste management

A SWM system refers to a combination of various functional elements associated


with the management of solid wastes. The system, when put in place, facilitates the
collection and disposal of solid wastes in the community at minimal costs,

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while preserving public health and ensuring little or minimal adverse impact on the
environment. The functional elements that constitute the system are:
(i) Waste generation: Wastes are generated at the start of any process, and
thereafter, at every stage as raw materials are converted into goods for consumption.
For example, wastes are generated from households, commercial areas, industries,
institutions, street cleaning and other municipal services. The most important aspect
of this part of the SWM system is the identification of waste.
(ii) Waste storage: Storage is a key functional element because collection of wastes
never takes place at the source or at the time of their generation. The heterogeneous

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wastes generated in residential areas must be removed within 8 days due to shortage
of storage space and presence of biodegradable material. Onsite storage is of

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primary importance due to aesthetic consideration, public health and economics
involved. Some of the options for storage are plastic containers, conventional

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dustbins (of households), used oil drums, large storage bins (for institutions and

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commercial areas or servicing depots), etc.

gin
(iii) Waste collection: This includes gathering of wastes and hauling them to the
location, where the collection vehicle is emptied, which may be a transfer station

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(i.e., intermediate station where wastes from smaller vehicles are transferred to

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larger ones and also segregated), a processing plant or a disposal site. Collection
depends on the number of containers, frequency of collection, types of collection
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services and routes. Typically, collection is provided under various management
arrangements, ranging from municipal services to franchised services, and under
various forms of contracts.
t
Note that the solution to the problem of hauling is complicated. For instance,
vehicles used for long distance hauling may not be suitable or particularly economic
for house-to-house collection.
(iv)Transfer and transport: This functional element involves:
 the transfer of wastes from smaller collection vehicles, where necessary to
overcome the problem of narrow access lanes, to larger ones at transfer
stations;

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 the subsequent transport of the wastes, usually over long distances, to


disposal sites.

The factors that contribute to the designing of a transfer station include the type of
transfer operation, capacity, equipment, accessories and environmental
requirements.
(v) Processing: Processing is required to alter the physical and chemical
characteristics of wastes for energy and resource recovery and recycling. The
important processing techniques include compaction, thermal volume reduction,
manual separation of waste components, incineration and composting.
ww
(vi) Recovery and recycling: This includes various techniques, equipment and

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facilities used to improve both the efficiency of disposal system and recovery of

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usable material and energy. Recovery involves the separation of valuable resources
from the mixed solid wastes, delivered at transfer stations or processing plants. It

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also involves size reduction and density separation by air classifier, magnetic device

gin
for iron and screens for glass. The selection of any recovery process is a function of

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economics, i.e., costs of separation versus the recovered-material products. Certain
recovered materials like glass, plastics, paper, etc., can be recycled as they have
economic value.
ing
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(vii) Waste disposal: Disposal is the ultimate fate of all solid wastes, be they
residential wastes, semi-solid wastes from municipal and industrial treatment
plants, incinerator residues, composts or other substances that have no further use to
the society. Thus, land use planning becomes a primary determinant in the selection,
t
design and operation of landfill operations. A modern sanitary landfill is a method
of disposing solid waste without creating a nuisance and hazard to public health.
Generally, engineering principles are followed to confine the wastes to the smallest
possible area, reduce them to the lowest particle volume by compaction at the site
and cover them after each day‘s operation to reduce exposure to vermin. One of the
most important functional elements of SWM, therefore, relates to the final use of
the reclaimed land.

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5. What is integrated management , public awareness and Explain the Role of


NGO’s (Nov/Dec 2009)

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INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT

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Integrated management include,
 Segregation
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 Storage at source
 Primary collection
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 Secondary storage
 Secondary transport
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 Treatment eer
 Landfill ing
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Minimisation of human contact with waste and increase in its mechanical handling.
Specific normative standards are followed. Standard tool kits for build-operate-
transfer (BOT) and operation & maintenance (O&M) practices are followed; for all
type and size of local bodies manuals on specifications of equipments, vehicles,
t
guidelines on treatment and landfill of wastes are issued. This manual as well
includes approach for information, communication and education. Specifications for
type of vehicles that can be used for primary collection such as auto tippers, tricycle
and push cart are mentioned. And for secondary storage such as variable capacity
metal containers and others advisable are highlighted. Recommendations for class I
and non class I cities are mentioned for secondary transport using hydraulically
operated systems. For example for class I twin container and dumper placer can be
used and for non class I single container and tractor placer can be used.

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Recommendations on treatment and disposal facilities for various types of towns are
also given based on MSW Rules 2000. Suggestions given for class I cities are to
have both treatment and sanitary landfill whereas for Non class I to have only
engineering landfills

ww
w.E
asy
En
gin
eer
ing
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t

PUBLIC AWARENESS
Public Awareness is an important activity in solid waste
management to keep the system sustainable. The information related to
public awareness is necessary for creating a sustainable system.

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Partnership Role for Public Awareness

- NGO
- CBO

Mode of Implementing Public Awareness Programmes

1. Audio & Video program


2. IEC program
3. Child to child education
4. School education

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Public Participation

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- Total number of sweepers allotted for door to door waste collection
work in each ward.
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- Number of sweepers getting good response from citizens in the matter of
doorstep collection.
En
gin
- Number of sweepers not getting response from the public.
- Percentage of public participation.
- Improvement of the area than the previous month eer
Economic Aspects of MSWM ing
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Presently a large proportion of the total expenditure is incurred on collection, a bit
lesser on transportation & ameagre amount on disposal. t
Non-Governmental organizations (NGOs) are yet another set of
participants in waste management operations.
- NGOs are often commissioned to improve the environment of the quality
of life of poor marginalized populations, and may stimulate small-scale
enterprises and other projects.
- Since waste materials often represent the only growing resource stream,
these organizations frequently base their efforts in extracting certain
materials.

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- The some locations with insufficient collection (or) where


neighborhoods are underserved, community based organizations play an
active role in waste management operations.
- These small-scale organizations (or) local NGOs are formed primarily as
self-help (or) self-reliance units, which may evolve into service
organizations that collect fees from their collection clients and from the sale
of recovered materials.
- NGOs working with informal workers and community based
entrepreneurs often seek recognition for these organizations as part of the

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waste management systems.

w.E
asy
En
gin
eer
ing
.ne
t

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UNIT – II : ON-SITE STORAGE & PROCESSING

PART-A

1. Write and list On-site handling methods, What is onsite storage and factors
considered (Nov/Dec 2015)
On-site handling methods and principles involve public attitude and individual
belief, and ultimately affects the public health. It is an activity associated with the
handling of solid waste until it is placed in the containers used for its storage before
collection.

ww - sorting
- shredding
w.E - grinding

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- composting

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onsite storage :The first phase to manage solid waste is at home level. It requires

gin
facilities for temporarily storing of refuse on the premises
Four factors are:
Type of container to be used eer
 The location of containers
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 Public health
 Collection method / time
.ne
2. What is the Importance of on-site handling of solid waste? List the onsite
handling methods
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- reduce volume of waste generated
- alter physical form
- recover usable materials
onsite handling methods: Sorting , shredding, grinding, composting

3. What are the types of collection services? (May/June 2013)


There are four types of collection services:

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I. Curb (curb side): The home owner is responsible for placing and returning the
empty container. Never entirely satisfactory.
II. Set-out (block collection): Owner is responsible for returning the container. The
full containers are brought or set at the collection site by the crew. Bins are not left
outon the street for long periods.
III. Backyard carrying service (door to door collection):
Collection crews that go along with the collection vehicle are responsible for
bringing out stored solid waste from the dwelling units. It is the only satisfactory
system in which the householder does not get involved.

ww
IV. Alleys: a narrow street or path between buildings in a town. That is difficult to
get the container and also to the vehicle that will collect the waste.

w.E
4. What are the methods of loading the solid waste on the vehicle?

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a. Directly lifting and carrying of container.

En
b. rolling of loaded containers on their rims.

gin
c. use of small lifts for rolling the containers to the collection vehicle.

eer
d. use of large containers into which wastes from small containers are emptied.

5. What are the Routing system of collection?


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 Micro-routing is:
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- the routing of a vehicle within its assigned collection zone.
- concerned with how to route a truck through a series ofone or two t
way streets so that the total distance traveledis minimized.
- very difficult to design and execute.
 Macro-routing is:
- large scale routing to the disposal site and theestablishment of the
individual route boundaries.

6. Write the Modes of operation in solid waste collection?

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 Hauled container system- The containers used for the storage of wastes are
hauled to the disposal site, emptied and returned.
 Stationary container system - The containers used for the storage of waste
remain at the point of generation except for occasional short trips to the
collection vehicles.

7. What is called Resource recovery?

Resource recovery is a partial solid waste disposal and reclamation process. It can
be expected to achieve about 60% reductions in future landfill volume

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requirements. Resource recovery must recognize what is worth recovering and the
environmental benefits.

w.E
8. Write about Storage containers, List out the Storage containers size in
MSWM. (April/May 2014)
asy
En
Garbage and refuse generated in kitchens and other work areas should be collected

gin
and stored in properly designed and constructed water-proof garbage cans (waste
bins). The cans or receptacles can be constructed from galvanized iron sheet or

eer
plastic materials. They should have tightly fitting covers.

Container size for:


ing
- Ash: up to 80 to 128 liters
.ne
- Mixed refuse: should not exceed 120 to 128 liters
- Rubbish up to 200 liters
- Kitchen waste is 40 liters
t
- Garbage is 48 to 80 liters

9. Objectives of On-Site waste Processing / Segregation

- Compound Separation ( Hand sorting, screening )


- Volume reduction ( baling, shredding )
- Size reduction ( shredding, grinding )
- Resource recovery ( composting )

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 Low rise dwelling: Grinding, sorting, Compaction, Composting,


Incineration
 Medium and High rise: Compaction, Incineration: Flue fed, Chute fed,
Shredding and pulping

10. List out the levels of recycling

a) Primary recycling—when the original waste material is made back into the
same material (newspaper
b) Secondary recycling—when the original waste material is made into

ww
some other product
c) Tertiary recycling—breaking material down to components that

w.E
composed the original product; often through depolymerization

asy PART-B

En
1. Explain in detail Onsite handling and Onsite storage methods (Nov/Dec
2012)

gin
On-Site handling methods and principles involves public attitude,individual belief

eer
and ultimately affects the public health. It‘s an activity associated with the handling
of solid waste until they are placed in containers.
ing
Importance of On-Site Handling
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(a) Reduce volume of waste generated
(b) Alter physical form (c) Recover usable material t
On-Site Handling Methods
(a) Sorting
(b) Shredding
(c) Grinding
(d) Composting

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On- Site Storage

The first phase to manage solid waste is at home level. It requires temporary storage
of refuse on the premises. The individual householder or businessman has
responsibility for onsite storage of solid waste.

For individual homes, industries, and other commercial centers, proper on-site
storage of solid waste is the beginning of disposal, because un kept or simple dumps
are sources of nuisance, flies, smells and other hazards. There are four factors that
should be considered in the onsite storage of solid waste. These are the type of
container to be used, the location where the containers are to be kept, public health,

ww
and the collection method and time.

w.E
1. Storage containers
- Garbage and refuse generated in kitchens and other work areas should be collected

asy
and stored in properly designed and constructed water-proof garbage cans ( waste
bins ).
En
- The cans can be constructed from galvanized iron sheets (or) plastic materials.
gin
- They should have tightly fitting covers. They must be of such size that, when full,
can be lifted easily by one man.
eer
ing
- They should be located in a cool place over platforms, at least 30 cm above ground
level.
- The bins must be emptied at least daily and maintained in clean conditions. .ne
- A typical example of garbage can, constructed from galvanized iron sheet,
dimensions: 45 cm diameter, height 75 cm.
t
- An adequate number of suitable containers should be provided with proper
platforms with stand.
- Suitable containers shall be water tight, rust resistant, tight fitting covers, fire
resistant, enough size, light in weight, side handle & washable.
Storage containers as per Indian Conditions
The segregation of garbage at source is ―Primarily meant to keep the two broad
categories of solid waste generated separately in different containers (i.e.) bio

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degradable waste in one container (GREEN) and nonbiodegradable waste in


another container (RED).
- The storage of garbage used by pedestrians (or) the floating populations, bins
should be located at regular intervals. The bins should be placed on ―TWO BINS
BASIS‖
- Some types of receptacles presently used for storage are:
(a) Buckets
(b) Plastics / HDPE / MDPE bins
(c) Plastic bags

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(d) Metal bins with (or) without lids.
- The MSW Rules, 2000 describes, ― The littering of municipal solid waste shall be

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prohibited in cities, towns and in urban areas notified by the State Government ‖
2. Container Size (capacity)

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Consideration should be given for the size of the loaded container that must be

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hauled to the collection vehicle or to the disposal site.
Therefore, container size for:-
- Ash: up to 80 to 128 liters gin
- Mixed refuse: should not exceed 120 to 128 liters
eer
- Rubbish up to 200 liters
- Kitchen waste is 40 liters ing
- Garbage is 48 to 80 liters .ne
Plastic liners for cans and wrapping for garbage reduce the need for cleaning of
cans and bulk containers, and keep down odors, rat and fly breeding.
t
Galvanized metal is preferable for garbage storage because it is resistant to
corrosion. Plastic cans are light in weight but are easily gnawed by rats. Bulk
containers are recommended where large volumes of refuse are generated, such as
at hotels, restaurants, apartment houses, and shopping centers. A concrete platform
provided with a drain to an approved sewer with a water faucet at the site facilitates
cleaning.

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2. Explain in detail the Onsite processing / Segregation (Nov/Dec 2012)

On site segregation is intended:


(a) To improve disposal options
(b) To recover valuable resources
(c) To prepare materials for recovery as new products (or) energy

Objectives of On-Site waste Processing / Segregation

- Compound Separation ( Hand sorting, screening )


- Volume reduction ( baling, shredding )

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- Size reduction ( shredding, grinding )
- Resource recovery ( composting )

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Segregation at Dwellings

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There are three classifications most often used,

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(a) Low rise buildings ( < 4 stories )
a. Single family detached
b. Single family attached gin
(b) Medium rise buildings ( 4-7 stories ) eer
(c) High rise buildings ( > 7 stories )
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Low rise detached dwelling
.ne
- Here, the residents are responsible for placing the solid waste and sorting out
recyclables.
t
- In many communities, the decisions have been made, not to require the residents
to separate the waste.
- But, it should be mandated.
- The equipments & facilities required are, household compactors, large wheeled
containers, small wheeled hand carts

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Medium size apartments

- The collection and sorting process differs according to location and type of waste
generated.
- Some of the solid waste storage locations are:
 Basement Storage / Curb Storage
 Outdoor / Mechanized Storage

Basement Storage

- Usually owner provides basement storage rooms and the recycling containers

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located near (or) next to solid waste storage.
- The residents are responsible for storing waste in the curb side.

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- The maintenance staff is responsible for curb side collection to the street
collection.
Outdoor Storage asy
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- Here, the large containers are located at the outdoor (or) near the apartments.

gin
- The residents are responsible for disposing their waste in the containers.

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- The collection vehicles with unloading mechanism are always preferred here.
High rise Apartments
ing
- Wastes are picked up by building maintenance personnel (or) porters from the
various floors and taken to the basement (or) service area.
.ne
- Wastes are taken to the basements by tenants.
- Wastes discharged in chutes (or) collected in large containers, compacted in to
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large containers.
- In many high rise apartments, solid waste chutes are used with large compactors.

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ww
w.E
asy CHUTE

En
gin
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SCREEN
ing
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3. Public health & Economic Aspects of On-Site Storage

Problems related to On-Site Sorting, Storage


t
The main problems of sorting of waste as it is carried out manually at various stages
are listed below:
(a) Waste gets scattered at the bins.
(b) Some types of waste does not get recycled, since it is not currently recyclables.
(c) Toxic (or) hazardous waste does not get collected and ends up either in landfills
(or) in composting operation. Both cause other contamination such as of
groundwater.

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(d) Recycling takes place in very poor health and environmentally unsafe conditions

Desirable Changes to be happened

The following long-term changes are desirable:


(a) Organized colony-wise collection systems involving rag pickers, with proper
gear and protection.
(b) Investments in the recycling sector to ensure that the units are safe and operate
at economic scales.
(c) Development of recycling laws for specific types of wastes.

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(d) Promotion of simple disinfection techniques and devices such as needle cutter
for infectious waste to be pre-treated before disposal.

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(e) Pre-sorting of waste for composting operations, through mechanical means.

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En
4. Explain Resource Recovery and Processing of MSWM

gin
Resource recovery is a partial solid waste disposal and reclamation process. It can

eer
be expected to achieve about 60% reductions in future landfill volume
requirements. Resource recovery must recognize what is worth recovering and the
environmental benefits.
ing
Resource recovery and processing is a complex, economical and technical system
.ne
t
with social and political implications, all of which require critical analysis and
evaluation before a commitment is made. They demand capital cost, operating cost,
market value of reclaimed materials and material quality, potential minimum
reliable energy sales, assured quantity of solid wastes, continued need for a sanitary
landfill for the disposal of excess and remaining unwanted materials and incinerator
residue, a site location close to the center of the generators of solid wastes.

Products That Can Be Recycled


1. Plastic
Plastic is not a natural material. It is synthesized from petrochemicals to create a
long, complicated chain of atoms called polymers. Bacteria and fungi that would

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usually live on the decaying waste of natural food, fauna, and flora cannot digest
these recovery polymers.
Instead, toxic cadmium and lead compounds used as binders can leach out of
plastics and ooze into groundwater and surface water in unlined or failed landfills.
Unfortunately, plastic is one of the most common non-biodegradable wastes
deposited in landfills. There are a number of plastic items that create great
decomposition problems. Among them are diapers, grocery bags and balloons.
Today only 3% of all plastic containers are recycled.

Plastic threatens the lives of millions of marine animals who get entangled in plastic

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netting. Autopsied marine animals have revealed that their intestines were full of
nonbiodegradable plastic. Marine mammals and birds have suffocated, strangled,

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and been poisoned by the plastic waste such as can rings or balloons that have been

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expelled into the oceans and into the air. Fishermen currently dump around 175,000
tons of plastic into the oceans each year. It is thought that as many as a million sea

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birds and 100,000 marine mammals in the Northern Pacific Ocean die each year

gin
from eating or becoming entangled in plastic waste. Many more marine lives are

eer
poisoned in the Atlantic Ocean by raw sewage, chemical waste, and pesticide waste
flowing from rivers into these water bodies.
2. Tires ing
.ne
Discarded tires pose two particular vector health threats to a community: rats and
mosquitoes. Tires create an excellent breeding place for rats and mosquitoes, which
in turn carry diseases to humans.
An automobile tire contains about 10 liters of oil, which has the potential to produce
t
enough electricity to serve a small town. Unfortunately, when tires burn in an
uncontrolled environment, they are extremely difficult to contain or extinguish.
There are actually some tire graveyards that have been burning for years. Although
15 million old tires are recycled each year, the number of recycled tires is actually
going down each year as new blends of rubber and steel-belted tires cannot use
recycled tires.

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3. Paper
Paper is the single most frequently seen item in most landfills, taking up more land
space. It accounts for more than 40% of a landfill's contents. Newspapers alone may
take up as much as 13 to 30% of the space in landfills. It is not enough to just
change from paper grocery bags to recyclable cloth bags.
Garbage archeologists from the University of Arizona have discovered that most
materials buried deep in a landfill change very little. Newspapers from the 1950s
could still be read in 1992. Paper in landfills does not biodegrade; it mummifies.
Paper may be one of the most recyclable waste products.

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Obstacles to resource recovery
• Heterogeneity of the waste

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• Putrescibility of the waste
• Location of the waste

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• Low value of product
• Uncertainty of supply
• Unproven technology En
gin
Techniques involved in resource recovery
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1. Compaction, which mechanically reduces the volume of solid waste
2. Chemical volume reduction by incineration
ing
3. Mechanical size reduction by shredding, grinding and milling
.ne
4. Component separation by hand-sorting, air separation, magnetic separation and
screening.
t
5. EXPLAIN WASTE MINIMISATION IN MSWM

Key methods for waste minimization


 Reduce – Purchase only what you need
 Reuse – Reuse empty containers to collect waste – Discarded material could
be used in another projects
 Recycle – Some waste oils and paints can be recycled – Remember that
Paper, Metals and some Plastics can be recycle

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WASTE MINIMISATION
Prevention of waste being created is known as waste reduction which is an
important method of waste management.

The modern concepts based on the three ‗R‘s are: Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.

Methods of avoidance include reuse of second hand products, designing products to


be refillable or reusable, repairing broken items instead of buying new etc.
Integrated solid waste management through the following processes can provide a

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better reliable solution for the problem of municipal solid waste generation.
 WASTE COLLECTION

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 SEGREGATION

 RECYCLING
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 SHREDDING OR PULVERIZING En
 COMPOSTING gin
WASTE COLLECTION
eer
ing
 From individual houses, wastes can be collected in person with the help of
vehicle.
.ne
 To minimize the time and cost involved in collecting waste through vehicles,
public can be given instruction to dump their house wastes in one place t
(nearby their street).
SEGREGATION
Segregation of wastes into degradable and non-degradable wastes is to be done to
recover or divert non-degradable wastes (electric items, plastics, tyres etc.) and
degradable items (wood, textiles etc.) to its recycling plant and if possible, it can be
reused.
It is a tedious process which therefore needs labour. Magnets can also be used to
segregate ferrous metals.

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This process will help in reducing the amounts of waste going for composting and
also earns money (through selling wastes to recycling plant.

RECYCLING
The non-degradable and degradable wastes can be recycled very economically in
the recycling plants. Apart from sending wastes to recycling plant, recycling of
some organic waste is possible. Some of the waste recycling techniques are: Fly
ash, Organic wastes, Slag and scrap, Industrial gases, Waste waters, Recovery of
silver from photographic films.

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SHREDDING OR PULVERIZING
 This process involves in size reduction of organic wastes before it goes for
w.E composting.

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 This process reduces the overall volume by 40%.

ADVANTAGES: En
gin
 It will increase surface area availability for bacterial activity
(decomposition).
eer

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Facilitates easy handling of moisture content and aeration.

COMPOSTING
.ne
Aerobic composting is one of the cheapest and easiest methods that are being
available for MSW. t
Generally, composting can be carried out in three techniques. They are
i) Windrow composting
ii) Aerated static pile method
iii) In vessel method

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UNIT III COLLECTION AND TRANSFER

Part-A

1. What are symbols used in layout routes

HCS=F/N

SCS,
self-loading compactors= SW/N/F
F= Collection frequency
N= Number of containers

ww SW= amount of solid waste collected, yd3/trip

w.E Manually loaded


Ο = one container, once per week

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∆= two container, once per week
□= three container, once per week
En
Ο= one container, twice per week
∆= two container, twice per week gin
□= three container, twice per week
eer
ing
2. List the Factors that tend to make of transfer operation (May/June 2013)

.ne
Illegal dumps,diposal site far way from collection routes,use of small capacity
collecton trucs,low density residential areas,wide spread use of medium sized
containers,use of hydraulic or pneumatic collection system t
3. Write the formula to determine volume reduction and compaction ratio

Volume reduction = (Vi-Vf/Vi)*100


Compaction ratio= Vi/Vf
Vi= initial volume of waste before compaction,yd3
Vf= Final volume of waste after compaction,yd3

4. Haul container system and Stationary container system types

HCS: Hoist truck system, Tilt frame container system, Trash trailer

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SCS: Systems with self loading compactors, Systems of manually loaded

5. List out the types of Compaction equipment


Compaction equipment- Stationary, movable
Light duty,commercial,heavy industrial
Low pressure: <100 lb/in2
High pressure:upto 5000 lb/in2

6. Collection system, general steps involved in Layout of routes (April/May


2014)

ww Activities:Pickup,Haul,Atsite,Offroute (HCS,SCS)
Tscs=(Pscs+S+a+bx)/(1-W), Thcs=(Phcs+S+a+bx)/(1-W)

w.E General steps


 Preparation of location maps
asy
 Data analysis

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 preliminary layout of routes

gin
 comparision of preliminary routes and development of balanced
routes
 schedules eer
7. What is Off-route?(May/June 2013)
ing
.ne
Off-route (W) – All time spent on activities that are nonproductive from the

t
point of collection operations. (eg) time spent due to unavoidable congestion, time
spent on repairs etc.
Thcs = Phcs + s + a + bx
Where Thcs = time/trip for HCS, h/trip Phcs = pickup time/trip for HCS, h/trip s =
at-site time/trip, h/trip (0.0127 to 0.133) a = empirical haul constant, h/trip b =
empirical haul constant, h/km x = round-trip haul distance, km/trip
Phcs = pc + uc + dbc, Where pc = time required to pickup loaded container, h/trip
uc = time required to unload empty container, h/trip dbc = average time spent
driving between container locations, h/trip

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8. What is Haul? (May/June 2013)


Haul ( hhcs ) – The time required to reach the disposal site, starting after a container
whose contents are to be emptied has been loaded on the truck, plus the time taken
after leaving the disposal site until the truck arrives at the location where the empty
container is to be redeposited. Time spent at the disposal site is not included.

9. What is pickup

Pick-up ( Phcs ) – The time spent picking up the loaded container, the time required
to redeposit the container after its contents have been emptied and the time spent
driving to the next container.

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10. Give the Five basic models of waste collection vehicles

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 Front loaders

 Rear loaders asy


 Automated Side loaders (ASL)
En
 Pneumatic collection gin
 Grapple trucks
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PART-B
1. Explain in detail the method of collection (Nov/Dec 2012) .ne
It is carried out in 5 different phases as discussed below
t
Phase 1: The individual house owner must transfer whatever is
considered as waste to the refuse can, which may be inside (or) outside the
home.
Phase 2: The movement of the refuse can to the truck, which is usually
done by the collection crew, called backyard collection. It the can is moved
to the street by the home occupant, the system is called, curbside collection
Phase 3: More & more separated materials and yard wastes are collected
separately either in same truck (or) in separate vehicles from house to
house.

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Phase 4: This phase is known as ―truck routing‖. The trucks must collect

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the refuse from many homes in the most efficient way possible.
Phase 5: The fifth phase of the collection system involves the location of

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the final destination (e.g: MRF, disposal site, transfer station)

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Components of a solid waste collection system can be listed as below:
- Collection Points
- Collection Frequency En
- Storage Containers
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- Collection Crew
- Collection Route eer
- Transfer Station ing
Collection Points: .ne
It depends on the locality that may be residential, commercial (or) industrial. It has
the deciding factors such as size & storage which ultimately affect the cost of
t
collection.
Collection Frequency:

- Climatic conditions and requirements of a locality as well as containers and costs


determine the collection frequency.
- In hot and humid climates, solid wastes must be collected atleast twice a week
because the decomposing solid wastes produce bad odour & leachate.
- In residential areas (food & other putrescible wastes), frequent collection is
desirable for health & aesthetic reasons.

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- While deciding the collection frequency, following factors must be kept in mind;
cost, storage space, sanitation.
 Compatibility, i.e., the containers must be compatible with collection
equipment.
 Public health and safety, i.e., the containers should be securely covered and
stored.
 Ownership, i.e., the municipal ownership must guarantee compatibility with
collection equipment.
Collection crew : The optimum crew size for a community depends on labour and

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equipment costs, collection methods and route characteristics. The size of the
collection crew also depends on the size and type of collection vehicle used, space

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between the houses, waste generation rate and collection frequency. For example,
increase in waste generation rate and quantity of wastes collected per stop due to

asy
less frequent collection result in a bigger crew size. Note also that the collection

En
vehicle could be a motorised vehicle, a pushcart or a trailer towed by a suitable

gin
prime mover (tractor, etc.). It is possible to adjust the ratio of collectors to collection
vehicles such that the crew idle time is minimised. However, it is not easy to

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implement this measure, as it may result in an overlap in the crew collection and

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truck idle time. An effective collection crew size and proper workforce management

.ne
can influence the productivity of the collection system. The crew size, in essence,
can have a great effect on overall collection costs. However, with increase in
collection costs, the trend in recent years is towards:
 Decrease in the frequency of collection;
t
 Increase in the dependence on residents to sort waste materials;

 Increase in the degree of automation used in collection.

This trend has, in fact, contributed to smaller crews in municipalities.

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collection vehicles helps decrease costs by reducing the labour expended for
collection. Proper planning of collection route also helps conserve energy and
minimise working hours and vehicle fuel consumption. It is necessary therefore to
develop detailed route configurations and collection schedules for the selected
collection system. The size of each route, however, depends on the amount of waste
collected per stop, distance between stops, loading time and traffic conditions.
Barriers, such as railroad, embankments, rivers and roads with heavy traffic, can be
considered to divide route territories. Routing (network) analyses and planning can:
 increase the likelihood of all streets being serviced equally and consistently;

ww  help supervisors locate or track crews quickly;

w.E
 Provide optimal routes that can be tested against driver judgement and
experience.
asy
En
gin
Transfer station: A transfer station is an intermediate station between final disposal
option and collection point in order to increase the efficiency of the system, as

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collection vehicles and crew remain closer to routes. If the disposal site is far from

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the collection area, it is justifiable to have a transfer station, where smaller
collection vehicles transfer their loads to larger vehicles, which then haul the waste
.ne
long distances. In some instances, the transfer station serves as a pre-processing
point, where wastes are dewatered, scooped or compressed. A centralised sorting
and recovery of recyclable materials are also carried out at transfer stations (EPA,
t
1989). The unit cost of hauling solid wastes from a collection area to a transfer
station and then to a disposal site decreases, as the size of the collection vehicle
increases. This is due to various reasons such as the following:
 labour costs remain constant;

 the ratio of payload to vehicle load increases with vehicle size;

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 the waiting time, unloading time, idle time at traffic lights and driver rest
period are constant, regardless of the collection vehicle size.
Efficiency: Do the services help minimise the cost per household?
Effectiveness: Do the services satisfy the community needs?
Equity: Do the services address equally the concerns of all social and demographic
groups?
Reliability: Do the services ensure consistency?
Safety and environmental impact: Do the services ensure safety of workers, public
health and protection of the environment?

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Note also that various management arrangements, ranging from municipal services
to franchised services and under various forms of contracts are, typically, in vogue

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for waste collection. One of the critical decisions to be made at the planning stage,
therefore, is as to who – the public or private agencies – operates the collection

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system, though the final decision depends on the existing conditions and options for

En
the local decision-makers (EPA, 1989).

gin
2. Explain the TRANSFER operations and plant layout

eer
The operation of a transfer station can be divided into the following phases:

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unloading, loading, transport, and discharge. The design concepts for transfer
systems are described under each of the main phases.
Unloading .ne
This phase involves the unloading of collection vehicles and, if necessary,
temporary storage of wastes. The following two basic alternatives can be utilised for
t
the unloading phase:
Collection vehicles can either unload directly into containers, or into a storage area
or pit. The wastes can then be loaded from the storage area into transfer vehicles, as
described below.
Direct unloading
A system that uses direct unloading involves the discharge of the wastes from the
collection vehicles directly into transfer vehicles or the vehicle loading systems
(e.g., compactors), i.e., the design does not incorporate a waste storage area as part

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of the system. Direct unloading requires a two-level arrangement. In this


arrangement, the collection vehicles drive up a ramp to the upper level in order to
discharge their contents through a chute into either a transfer vehicle or a loading
system installed on the lower level. As an alternative to gravity loading, a direct
loading system can also employ a wheeled loader to push the wastes directly into
the transfer vehicles.
One of the basic requirements of the direct unloading system is that either the
transfer vehicles in operation must keep pace with the frequency of arrival of
collection vehicles at the transfer station, or extra transfer vehicles must be

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purchased for use as temporary storage. These operational alternatives support the
efficient coordination of incoming and outgoing wastes and, thereby, avoid delays

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in the unloading of collection vehicles and the resultant delays in the collection
operations. Such logistical coordination is difficult to achieve in a large-scale

asy
system (i.e., large processing capacity) where there is a steady flow of collection

En
vehicles entering the transfer station and periods of high frequencies of unloading of

gin
delivered waste. Therefore, the direct unloading system generally is implemented
only as a small-scale system, such as a neighbourhood transfer station in a small

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city, or a rural transfer station. In these situations, the quantity of waste handled at

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the transfer stations would be on the order of 200 to 300 Mg/day. If the transfer
station is one of large processing capacity (i.e., greater than 200 to 300 Mg/day),
.ne
provision should be made for a sufficient number of spare transfer vehicles to
ensure that the delivering collection vehicles are not delayed unduly due to the
inability of the transfer facility to load out the waste in a timely manner. One of the
t
main advantages of the direct unloading system is that it involves a small capital
investment in terms of civil works. Since a pit to store the wastes is excluded in the
direct loading system, in order to result in a simple facility and to save expense, the
size of the building can be small. Furthermore, investment in specialised systems to
control doors and insects under suchconditions can usually also be small, since
substantial doors and prevalence of insects generally are associated with storage of
waste.

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ww
w.E
asy
En
gin
eer
ing
.ne
t

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The types of structures used to house a waste transfer operation range from none at
all (open-air) to large, enclosed concrete and metal buildings. Open-air transfer
stations work well in rural areas with dry climates. Rural areas with wet weather can
utilise a small shelter over the unloading area, loading area, or both.
Most transfer station buildings in developing countries are fabricated of sheet metal,
concrete, or brick. The specific type of design and landscaping is a function of
location, i.e., locally available materials, available financial resources, and local
preferences.
Transfer station buildings typically are equipped with water sprays and/or systems

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for controlling air emissions such as dust, motor vehicle exhaust, and doors. The
building should include offices and facilities for the workers, e.g., restrooms,

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showers, etc. Designs of transfer stations in the United States incorporate viewing
areas so that public education and public relations‘ campaigns can be conducted
from those areas.
asy
En
The station should also be equipped with at least one truck scale for weighing

gin
inbound and outbound wastes. An inbound weigh scale is important for managing
the operation and for levying disposal fees. Large, modern transfer stations also

eer
incorporate truck scales in the locations where the long-haul transfer vehicles are

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loaded. This design permits loading of the vehicles to their maximum allowable
payloads, thus optimising the cost of transport of waste to the disposal site.
.ne
3. Explain the collection routes in detail (April/May 2014)

Collection Crew: - The optimum crew size for a community depends on labour and
t
equipment costs, collection methods and route characterization.
- It also depends on the size and types of collection vehicle used, space between
houses, waste generation rates & collection frequency.
- Nowadays as the increase in collection costs, the trend in recent years is towards:
i. Decrease in the frequency of collection
ii. Increase in the dependence on residents to sort waste materials.
iii. Increase in the degree of automation used in collection.

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Collection Routes:

- The collection programme must consider the route that is efficient for collection.
- An efficient routing of collection vehicles reduces the costs by reducing the labour
expended for collection.
- Proper planning of collection route also helps conserve energy and minimize
working hours and vehicle fuel consumption.
- Routing (road network) analysis and planning can,
i. Increase the likelihood of all streets being serviced equally and consistently.
ii. Help supervisors to locate (or) track crew quickly.

ww
iii. Provide optimal routes that can be tested against driver judgment and
experience.

w.E
Collection Vehicle Routing

asy
- Efficient routing and re-routing of solid waste collection vehicles can help to

En
decrease the cost by reducing the labour expended for collection.
- Routing procedures usually consists of the following two separate components:
(a) Macro Routing – Defining size of routesgin
(b) Micro Routing – Defining exact path of each route
eer
Macro Routing:
ing
.ne
- It consists of dividing the total collection area into routes, in such a way as to
represent a day‘s collection for each crew.
- The size of each route depends on the amount of wastes collected per stop,
distance between stops, loading time and traffic conditions.
t
- Natural barriers such as rail road embankments, rivers and roads with heavy
competing traffic, can be used to divide route territories.
- As much as possible, the size and shape of route areas should be balanced.
Micro Routing:
- Using the results of the macro-routing analysis, micro-routing can define the
specific path that each crew and collection vehicle will take on eachcollection day.
- Results of micro-routing analysis should also be done by the review of
experienced collection drivers.

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Deciding Factors for Collection Vehicle Routing

- The heuristic (trial & error) route development process is a relatively simple
manual approach that applies specific routing patterns to block configurations.
- The map should show collection, service locations, disposal (or) transfer sites,
one-way streets, natural barriers and the area of heavy traffic flows.
- Then, routes should be traced out onto the tracing paper using the following
factors:
(a) Routes should not be fragmented (or) overlapping.
(b) Total collection (+) Hauling time reasonably constant for each route in the

ww
community.

w.E
( c ) The collection route should be started as close to the garage (or) motor pool as
possible.

asy
(d) Heavily travelled streets should not be visited during rush hours.

En
(e) In case of one-way streets, it is best to start the route near the upper end of the
street.
gin
(f) In case of dead-end streets, wastes must be collected by walking down,
reversing the vehicle (or) taking a U-turn.
eer
ing
(g) Higher elevations should be at the start of the route.
(h) For collection from one side of the street at a time, it is generally best to route
with many anti-clockwise turns around the blocks. .ne
Based on the above rules, a typical vehicle routing is illustrated below:
t

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4. Explain in detail the Transfer station (May/June 2013)

- When the waste disposal unit is remote to the collection area, a transfer station is
employed.
- A transfer station is an intermediate station between final disposal option and
collection point in order to increase the efficiency of the system, as collection
vehicles & crew remain closer to routes.
- In some situations, the transfer stations serves as a pre-processing plant, where
wastes are dewatered & compressed.
- A centralized sorting and recovery of recyclable materials are also carriedout at

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the transfer station.

w.E
asy
En
gin
eer
ing
.ne
t

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Types of Transfer Stations:


- Depending upon the size, transfer stations can be either of the following types:
(i) Small to Medium Transfer Stations
(ii) Large Transfer Stations

Small to Medium Transfer Stations:

- These are direct discharge station that provides no intermediate waste (storage
area.)
- The capacities are generally small (< 100 tons/day) and medium (100-300
tones/day )

ww
- These stations includes a recyclable material separation and processing units.

w.E
- The required over all station capacity (number & size of containers) depends on
the size and population density of the area served and the frequency of the
collection.
asy
Large Transfer Stations:
En
gin
- These are designed for heavy commercial use by private and municipal collection

eer
vehicles. The typical operational procedure for a larger station is as follows:
- When collection vehicles arrive at the site, they are checked in for billing,
weighted and directed to the appropriate dumping area.
ing
.ne
- Collection vehicles travel to the dumping area and empty the wastes into a waiting

t
trailer, a pit (or) a platform.
- After unloading, the collection vehicle leaves the site, and there is no need to
weigh the departing vehicle, if its weight (empty) is known.
- Transfer vehicles are weighed either during (or) after loading, trailers can be more
consistently loaded to just under maximum legal weights and this maximize
payloads and minimizes weight violations.

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5. Benefits and factor affecting sit selection of Transfer station

Benefits of Transfer Stations:

- Reduces overall community truck traffic by consolidating smaller loads into larger
vehicles.
- It offers more flexibility in waste handling and disposal options.
- It reduces air pollution, fuel consumption and road wear by consolidating trash
into fewer vehicles.
- Allows for screening of wastes for special handling.
- Reduces the traffic at disposal facility.

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- Offers citizens facilities for convenient drop-off of waste and recyclables.

w.E
Factors Affecting Site Selection (or) Location of Transfer Stations

asy
- Transfer stations will generate additional amount of traffic in its immediate area.
This traffic can contribute to increased road congestion, air emissions, noise and

En
wear on roads. So, site selection should be based on following criteria:

gin
- Selecting sites that have direct access to truck routes, highways and rail terminals.

eer
- Providing adequate space within the facility site so that customers waiting to use
the transfer station do not interrupt traffic on public roads.

ing
- Arranging the site so that traffic flows are not adjacent to properties that are
sensitive to noise.
.ne
t
- The site should large enough to accommodate all required functions and possibly
future expansion should be centrally located in the area where waste is generated.
Operation & Maintenance of a Transfer Station
- Six categories can be finalized and can be explained under ―Operation &
Maintenance of a Transfer Station‖. They are:
(i) Operation & Maintenance plans
(ii) Facility Operating Time
(iii) Interacting with the people
(iv)Waste Screening
(v)Emergency Situation
(vi)Record Keeping

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UNIT –IV OFFSITE PROCESSING

PART-A
1. What is called Composting?

Composting is an effective method of solid waste disposal. In composting,


biodegradable materials break down through natural processes and produce humus.
The metabolism of micro-organisms breaks down the waste aerobically or
anaerobically.

2. What are the Types of Composting?

ww
Types of Composting

w.E
The three main types of composting are: windrow, static pile, and in-vessel.
1. Windrow: A sludge/refuse mixture configured in long rows (windrows) that are

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aerated by convection air movement and diffusion, or by turning periodically

En
through mechanical means to expose the organic matter to ambient oxygen.
2. Static pile: A stationary mixture is aerated by a forced aeration system installed
under the pile. gin
eer
3. In-vessel composting: Composting takes place in enclosed containers in which

ing
environmental conditions can be controlled. The waste decomposes into a harmless
organic material that can be used as a soil conditioner and enhancer for agricultural
applications.
.ne
3. Which Factors in Composting Operation? t
The most important factors in composting operations are:
1. segregation of refuse and salvage
2. grinding or shredding of the material
3. carbon-nitrogen ratio
4. blending or proportioning of wastes
5. moisture content

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4. Draw the composting process

ww
w.E
5. What is In-vessel composting? (Nov/Dec 2012)

asy
In-vessel composting generally describes a group of methods that which confine
the composting materials within a building, container, or vessel.In-vessel

En
composting systems can consist of metal or plastic tanks or concrete bunkers in

gin
which air flow and temperature can be controlled, using the principles of a

eer
"bioreactor". Generally the air circulation is metered in via buried tubes that allow
fresh air to be injected under pressure, with the exhaust being extracted through a

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biofilter, with temperature and moisture conditions monitored using probes in the
mass to allow maintenance of optimum aerobic decomposition conditions.
.ne
6. Parameters affecting the composting process (Nov/Dec 2012)
t
1. Abiotic factors: Nature of the substrate, Moisture, Oxygen, temperature and
aeration interaction, pH

2. Biotic factors: Bacteria, fungi, Actinomycetes

7. Process parameters of composting

 Oxygen
 Moisture

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 Carbon to
 Nitrogen Ratio
 (C:N)
 pH
 Porosity

8. Define Energy recovery

Energy recovery from waste is the conversion of non-recyclable waste materials


into useable heat, electricity, or fuel through a variety of processes, including

ww
combustion, gasification, pyrolization, anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas (LFG)
recovery. This process is often called waste-to-energy (WTE).

w.E
9. What do you mean by the term processing of Waste

asy
The recyclates that result from the sorting operation may be processed on the same
En
site that the sorting took place or forwarded on to more specialised facilities for
treatment
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Onsite Processing eer
Processing
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Offsite Processing
.ne
Onsite Processing
Low rise dwelling: Grinding, sorting, Compaction, Composting, Incineration
t
Medium and High rise: Compaction, Incineration: Flue fed, Chute fed,
Shredding and pulping

Offsite Processing
1. Mechanical volume reduction: Compaction equipment ,pulverizer
2. Mechanical Size reduction: Hammersmills(Vertical shaft, horizontal
shaft),hydropulper
3. Chemical volume reduction: Incineration,pyrolysis
4. Component separation:

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 Manually: Handsorting
 Mechanically:
a) Air separation: conventional chute type,zig-zag air
classifier,Open inlet vibrator
b) Magnetic Seperator: Suspended magnet,magnetic
pulley,suspended magnetic drum
c) Screening: Vibrating, rotating drum
5. Other separation:
Inertial: Ballastic, Secator, Inclined conveyor

ww floatation,optical sorting,electrostatic separation,heavy media


separation,linear induction

w.E 6. Drying and dewatering

asy
10. What is composting and pyrolysis? (April /May 2014)

En
Pyrolysis: most organic sub. Are thermally unstable which on heating in

gin
02 free atmosphere ,be split due to combined thermal cracking and
condensation reactions into gaseous,liquid,solid fraction.
GAS-700KJ/Kg,OIL-10,000 KJ/kg eer
Steps
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 Feed gas compression and shift conversion
 Acid gas removal .ne
 Methanation
 Sulfur recovery
t
Composting:
Organic fraction: water soluable , Hemicellulose, cellulose, fats,oil and
waxes,Lignin, Ligno cellulose,proteins
Humus: dark brown to black colour, low C-N ratio,c ontinually changing
due to activities of microorganisms, baser exchange for water absorption
Steps:
 Preparation of solid waste
 Decomposition of soild waste

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 Preparing and marketing


 Aerobic and an aerobic digestion

11. Explain in detail the off-site processing techniques (April /May 2014)

1. Mechanical volume reduction: Compaction equipment ,pulverizer


2. Mechanical Size reduction: Hammersmills(Vertical shaft, horizontal
shaft),hydropulper
3. Chemical volume reduction: Incineration,pyrolysis
4. Component separation:
 Manually: Handsorting
ww  Mechanically:

w.E a) Air separation: conventional chute type,zig-zag air


classifier,Open inlet vibrator

asy
b) Magnetic Seperator: Suspended magnet,magnetic

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pulley,suspended magnetic drum

gin
c) Screening: Vibrating, rotating drum
5. Other separation:

eer
Inertial: Ballastic, Secator, Inclined conveyor

ing
floatation,optical sorting,electrostatic separation,heavy media
separation,linear induction
6. Drying and dewatering .ne
PART-B

1. Explain the various Processing techniques and equipment’s (Nov / Dec 2012)
t
- The processing of wastes helps in achieving the best possible benefit
from every functional element of the solid waste management (SWM) system and,
therefore, requires proper selection of techniques and equipment for every element.
- Essentially, the purposes of processing are:
(a) Improving efficiency of SWM system (e.g.) Shredding
(b) Recovering material for reuse
( c ) Recovering conversion products & energy

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Various Techniques & Equipments

(a) Mechanical Volume & Size reduction


(b) Component Separation

- Air Separation
- Magnetic Separation
- Screening
( c ) Drying & Dewatering

Mechanical Volume & Size Reduction

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- Mechanical volume and size reduction is an important factor in the development

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and operation of any SWM system.
- The main purpose is to reduce the volume and size of waste, as compared to the

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original form, and produce waste of uniform size.
Volume Reduction (or) Compaction
En
gin
- Volume reduction (or) compaction refers to densifying wastes in order to reduce
their volume. The benefits of compaction are:

eer
(a) Reduction in the quantity of materials to be handled at the disposal site

ing
(b) Improved efficiency of collection and disposal of wastes
( c ) Increased life of landfills
(d) Economically viable waste management system .ne
Equipments for Volume reduction (or) Compaction: t
Stationary Equipments:
- This represents the equipment in which wastes are brought to, and loaded into,
either manually (or) mechanically.
Movable Equipment:
- This represents the wheeled and tracked equipment used to place and compact
solid wastes.
Low Pressure ( < 7 kg / cm2 ) Compactors:
- These compactors are used at apartments, commercial establishments.

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Example:
Baling equipment – For waste papers & card boards
Stationary compactors – For transfer station
- In low pressure compaction, wastes are compacted in large containers.
High Pressure ( > 7Kg / cm 2 )Compactors:
- Compact systems with a capacity up to 351.5 Kg / cm2 came under this category.
- Here, specialized compaction equipment are used to compress solid wastes in to
blocks (or) bales of various sizes.
- Typically, the reduction ranges from about 3 to 1 through 8 to 1

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Compaction Ratio = V1 / V2
V1 = Volume of waste before compaction

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V2 = Volume of waste after compaction

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Size Reduction (or) Shredding

En
- This is required to convert the large sized wastes into smaller pieces.
- Size reduction helps in obtaining the final product in a reasonably size in
comparison to the original form. gin
Equipments for Size Reduction (or) Shredding:
eer
Hammer Mill:
ing
- These are used most often in large commercial operations for reducing the size of
wastes. .ne
- Hammer mill is an impact device consisting of a number of hammers, fastened
flexibly to an inner disk, which rotates at a very high speed.
t
- Solid wastes as they enter the mill, are hit by sufficient force, which crush (or) tear
them with a velocity so that they do not adhere to the hammers.
- Wastes are further reduced in size by being struck between breaker plates &
cutting bars fixed around the periphery of the inner chamber.
Hydro-pulper:
- An alternate method of size reduction involves the use of a hydropulper
- Solid wastes and recycled water are added to the hydro-pulper.

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- The high speed cutting blades, mounted on a rotor in the bottom of the unit,
convert palpable and friable materials in to slurry with a solid content varying from
25 to 35%
- The rejected material passes down a chute that is connected to a bucket elevator,
while the solid slurry passes out through the bottom of the pulper tank and is
pumped to the next processing operation.
Component Separation
- Component separation is a necessary operation in which the waste components are
identified and either manually (or) mechanically to aid further processing.

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Air Separation
This technique has been in use for a number of years in industrial operations for

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segregating various components from dry mixtures.
- Air separation is primarily used to separate lighter materials from theheavier ones.

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- The lighter materials may include plastics, paper products and otherorganic
materials.
En
gin
eer
ing
.ne
Equipments used for Air Separation
t
Conventional Chute Type:
- Its one of the simplest type of air classifier.
- In this type, when the processed solid wastes are dropped into the
vertical chute, the lighter materials are carried by the air flow to the top while the
heavier materials fall to the bottom of the chute.
- A rotary air lock feed mechanism is required to introduce the shredded wastes into
the classifier.

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Zig-Zag Classifier:
- It consists of a continuous vertical column with internal zig-zag deflectors through
which air is drawn at high rate.
- Shredded wastes are introduced at the top of the column at a controlled rate, and
air is introduced at the bottom of the column.
- As the wastes drop into the air stream, the lighter friction is fluidized and moves
upward and out of column, while the heavy fraction falls to the bottom.

ww
w.E
asy
En
Magnetic Separation gin
eer
- The most common method of recovering ferrous scrap from shredded solid wastes
involves the use of magnetic recovery system. ing
.ne
- Ferrous materials are usually recovered either after shredding (or) before air
separation.
t

Equipments used for Magnetic Separation

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67

Suspended Magnet:
- In this type of separator, a permanent magnet is used to attract the ferrous metal
from the waste stream.
- When the attracted metal reaches the area where there is no magnetism, it falls
away freely.
- This ferrous metal is then collected in a separate container.

Magnetic Pulley:
- This consists of a drum type device containing magnets (or) electromagnets over
which a conveyor (or) a similar transfer mechanism carries the waste stream.

ww
- The conveyor belt conforms to the rounded shape of the magnetic drum and the
magnetic force pulls the ferrous material away from the falling stream of solid

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waste.
Screening
asy
En
- Screening is the most common form of separating solid wastes, depending on their
size by the use of one (or) more screening surfaces.
gin
- Screening has a number of applications in solid waste resource & energy recovery
systems.
eer
ing
- Screens can be used before (or) after shredding and after air separation of wastes
in various applications dealing with both light & heavy fraction materials.
Drying & Dewatering .ne
- Drying and dewatering operations are used primarily for incineration systems with
(or) without energy recovery systems.
t
- These are also used for drying of sludges in wastewater treatment plants, prior to
their incineration (or) transport to land disposal
Drying

The following methods are used to apply the heat required for drying the wastes.
Convection Drying: In this method, hot air is in direct contact with the wet solid
waste stream.

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Conduction Drying: In this method, the wet solid waste stream is in contact with a
heated surface.
Radiation Drying: In this method, heat is transmitted directly to the wet solid waste
stream by radiation from the heated body.
Dewatering
- When drying beds, lagoons (or) spreading on land are not feasible mechanical
means of dewatering are used.

- The objective is to reduce the liquid volume in the solid waste stream.
- Once dewatered, the sludge can be mixed with other solid waste, and the resulting

ww
mixture can be:
(i) Incinerated to reduce volume

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(ii) Used for the production of recoverable by-products

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(iii) Used for production of compost
(iv) Buried in a landfill

En
2. Write the principles of composting, explain Indore and Banglore composting
gin
eer
Decomposition and stabilisation of organic waste matter is a natural phenomenon.
Composting can be carried out in two ways i.e., aerobically and anaerobically.

ing
During aerobic composting aerobic micro-organisms oxidize organic compounds to

.ne
Carbon dioxide, Nitrite and Nitrate. Carbon from organic compounds is used as a

t
source of energy while nitrogen is recycled. Due to exothermic reaction,
temperature of the mass rises. During anaerobic process, the anaerobic micro
organisms, while metabolising the nutrients, break down the organic compounds
through a process of reduction. A very small amount of energy is released during
the process and the temperature of composting mass does not rise much. The gases
evolved are mainly Methane and Carbon di oxide. An anaerobic process is a
reduction process and the final product is subjected to some minor oxidation when
applied to land.

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Bangalore Method

This is an anaerobic method conventionally carried out in pits. Formerly the waste
was anaerobically stabilised in pits where alternate layers of MSW and night soil
were laid. The pit is completely filled and a final soil layer is laid to prevent fly
breeding, entry of rain water into the pit and for conservation of the released energy.
The material is allowed to decompose for 4 to 6 months after which the stabilised
material is taken out and used as compost.

Indore Method

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This method of composting in pits involves filling of alternate layers of similar

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thickness as in Bangalore method. However, to ensure aerobic condition the
material is turned at specific intervals for which a 60 cm strip on the longitudinal

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side of the pit is kept vacant. For starting the turning operation, the first turn is

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manually given using long handled rakes 4 to 7 days after filling. The second turn is
given after 5 to 10 more days. Further turning is normally not required and the
gin
compost is ready in 2 to 4 weeks. In the urban areas, due to extensive provision of

eer
water carriage system of sanitation, night soil is not available. Composting of MSW

ing
alone is hence often carried out. Aerobic composting of MSW is commonly carried
out in windrows.
3. What is windrow composting, what are the factors affecting the composting.ne
process, what are the properties of compost (May / Jun 2013)

The organic material present in Municipal Waste can be converted into a stable
t
mass by aerobic decomposition. Aerobic micro organisms oxidize organic
compounds to Carbon di oxide and oxides of Nitrogen and Carbon from organic
compounds is used as a source of energy, while Nitrogen is recycled. Due to
exothermic reactions, temperature of mass rises. In areas/regions were higher
ambient temperatures are available, composting in open windrows is to be
preferred. In this method, refuse is delivered on a paved/unpaved open space but
levelled and well drained land in about 20 windrows with each windrow 3m long x
2m wide x 1.5m high, with a total volume not exceeding 9.0 cu.m. Each windrow

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would be turned on 6th & 11th days outside to the centre to destroy insects larvae
and to provide aeration. On 16th day, windrow would be broken down and passed
through manually operated rotary screens of about 25mm square mesh to remove
the oversize contrary material. The screened compost is stored for about 30 days in
heaps about 2m wide x 1.5m high and up to 20m long to ensure stabilization before
sale.
Factors affecting the composting process

Organisms, Use of Cultures, Moisture,Temperature, Carbon/Nitrogen (C/N) Ratio,


Aeration.

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Properties of compost

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The compost prepared from MSW should be black brown or at least black in colour.

asy
It should be crumbly in nature with an earthy odour. The pH should be neutral
though slightly acidic or alkaline pH within the range of 6.5 to 7.5 can be tolerated.

En
The compost should neither be completely dry nor it be lumpy and water should not

gin
come out of the mass when squeezed. The Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium

eer
(NPK) contents should be more than one percent each. The Nitrogen should be in
the form of Nitrates for proper utilisation by the plants. The C/N ratio should be
between 15 to 20.
ing
4. Explain Resource Recovery /Energy Recovery from solid wastes – .ne
MRF(May / Jun 2013)
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) contains organic as well as inorganic matter.The
t
latent energy present in its organic fraction can be recovered for gainful utilisation
through adoption of suitable Waste Processing and Treatment technologies. The
recovery of energy from wastes also offers a few additional benefits as follows:
(i) The total quantity of waste gets reduced by nearly 60% to over 90%, depending
upon the waste composition and the adopted technology;
(ii) Demand for land, which is already scarce in cities, for landfilling is reduced;
(iii) The cost of transportation of waste to far-away landfill sites also gets reduced
proportionately; and

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(iv) Net reduction in environmental pollution.


It is, therefore, only logical that, while every effort should be made in the
first place to minimise generation of waste materials and to recycle and reuse them
to the extent feasible, the option of Energy Recovery from Wastes be also duly
examined. Wherever feasible, this option should be incorporated in the over-all
scheme of Waste Management.
Basic techniques of energy recovery
Energy can be recovered from the organic fraction of waste (biodegradable as well
as non-biodegradable) basically through two methods as follows:

ww
(i) Thermo-chemical conversion : This process entails thermal de-composition of
organic matter to produce either heat energy or fuel oil or gas; and

w.E
(ii) Bio-chemical conversion: This process is based on enzymatic decomposition
of organic matter by microbial action to produce methane gas or alcohol. The

asy
Thermo-chemical conversion processes are useful for wastes containing high

En
percentage of organic non-biodegradable matter and low moisture content.

gin
The main technological options under this category include Incineration and
Pyrolysis/ Gasification. The bio-chemical conversion processes, on the other

eer
hand, are preferred for wastes having high percentage of organic bio-degradable

ing
(putrescible) matter and high level of moisture/ water content, which aids microbial
activity. The main technological options under this category is Anaerobic
Digestion, also referred to as Biomethanation. .ne
Parameters affecting Energy Recovery

The main parameters which determine the potential of Recovery of Energy from
t
Wastes (including MSW), are:
 Quantity of waste, and
 Physical and chemical characteristics (quality) of the waste.
The actual production of energy will depend upon specific treatment process
employed, the selection of which is also critically dependent upon (apart from
certain other factors described below) the above two parameters. Accurate
information on the same, including % variations thereof with time (daily/ seasonal)
is, therefore, of utmost importance.

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The important physical parameters requiring consideration include:


 size of constituents
 density
 moisture content
Smaller size of the constituents aids in faster decomposition of the waste. Wastes of
the high density reflect a high proportion of biodegradable organic matter and
moisture. Low density wastes, on the other hand, indicate a high proportion of
paper, plastics and other combustibles.
High moisture content causes biodegradable waste fractions to decompose more

ww
rapidly than in dry conditions. It also makes the waste rather unsuitable for thermo-
chemical conversion (incineration, pyrolysis/ gasification) for energy recovery as

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heat must first be supplied to remove moisture.
The important chemical parameters to be considered for determining the energy

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recovery potential and the suitability of waste treatment through biochemical or

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thermo-chemical conversion technologies include: -
 Volatile Solids
 Fixed Carbon content gin
 Inerts, eer
 Calorific Value
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 C/N ratio (Carbon/Nitrogen ratio)
 toxicity .ne
5. Describe Anaerobic Digestion (AD), Incineration, Pyrolysis (Nov /Dec 2014)
t
In this process, also referred to as bio-methanation, the organic fraction of wastes is
segregated and fed to a closed container (biogas digester) where, under anaerobic
conditions, the organic wastes undergo bio-degradation producing methane-rich
biogas and effluent/ sludge. The biogas production ranges from 50-150m3/tonne of
wastes, depending upon the composition of waste. The biogas can be utilised either
for cooking/ heating applications, or through dual fuel or gas engines or gas / steam
turbines for generating motive power or electricity. The sludge from anaerobic
digestion, after stabilisation, can be used as a soil conditioner, or even sold as

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manure depending upon its composition, which is determined mainly by the


composition of the input waste.
Fundamentally, the anaerobic digestion process can be divided into three
stages with three distinct physiological groups of micro-organisms:
Stage I: It involves the fermentative bacteria, which include anaerobic and
facultative micro-organisms. Complex organic materials, carbohydrates, proteins
and lipids are hydrolyzed and fermented into fatty acids, alcohol, carbon dioxide,
hydrogen, ammonia and sulfides.
Stage II: In this stage the acetogenic bacteria consume these primary products and

ww
produce hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetic acid.
Stage III: It utilizes two distinct types of methanogenic bacteria. The first reduces

w.E
carbon dioxide to methane, and the second decarboxylates acetic acid to methane
and carbon dioxide.

asy
Factors, which influence the Anaerobic Digestion process, are temperature, pH

En
(Hydrogen Ion Concentration), nutrient concentration, loading rate, toxic

gin
compounds and mixing. For start-up a good innoculum such as digested sludge is
required. A temperature of about 35-380C is generally considered optimal in
eer
mesophilic zone (20-450C) and higher gas production can be obtained under

ing
thermophillic temperature in the range of 45-600C. Provision of appropriate heating

.ne
arrangements and insulation may become necessary in some parts of the country.
Anaerobic Digestion (AD) of MSW offers certain clear advantages over the option
of Aerobic process, in terms of energy production/ consumption, compost
quality and net environmental gains:
t
(i) AD process results in net production of energy.
(ii) The quality of the digested sludge (compost) is better as Nitrogen is not lost by
oxidation.
(iii) Its totally enclosed system prevents escape of polluted air to atmosphere.
(iv) The net environmental gains are positive.

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Incineration
Incineration is a process of burning the combustible components of garbage and
refuse. Disposal of solid waste by incineration can be effectively carried out on a
small scale in food service establishments as well as in institutions such as
hospitals, schools etc.
The disadvantage of this method is that only combustible materials are incinerated,
hence there is a need for separation of the waste into combustible and non-
combustible. The noncombustible waste needs separate disposal. Generally there
are two types of incinerators, the open and the closed systems.

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In the open system the refuse is incinerated in a chamber open to the air; while the
closed system contains a special chamber designed with various parts to facilitate

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incineration.
It requires a chimney of appropriate height to provide a good flow of air through the

asy
combustion chamber. There are varieties of designs for small scale incinerators. The

En
size can be varied depending on the volume of the refuse to be incinerated.

gin
- The combustion chamber is laid with iron grids, at the bottom of which are air
inlets in front and at the back.

eer
- The front and back walls are with provision for installing a chimney.

ing
- The feeding door has a baffle wall to facilitate refuse feeding.
- The base below the combustion chamber is for collecting.
On-site Incineration .ne
This term applies to incineration of refuse at home, office, apartment house,
commercial building, hospital or industrial site. Refuse collection and disposal
t
could be reduced satisfactorily by using on-site incineration. Generally, air pollution
can be expected.
Advantages of an incinerator
1. Less land is required for landfills
2. A central location is possible, allowing short hauling for the collection service.
3. Ash and other residue produced are free of organic matter, nuisance- free, and
acceptable as fill material.

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4. Many kinds of refuse can be burned. Even noncombustible materials will be


reduced in bulk.
5. Climate or unusual weather does not affect it.
6. Flexibility is possible - no restriction for its operation.
7. Getting income through the sale of waste heat for steam or power is possible.
Disadvantages of an incinerator
1. Initial cost is high during construction.
2. Operating cost is relatively high.
3. Skilled employees are required for operation and maintenance.

ww
w.E
asy
En
gin
eer
ing
.ne
t

Pyrolysis process.
Pyrolysis is a process in which oxygen is excluded from the reactor, which is heated
externally to produce the elevated temperature environment that causes the organic

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solids (waste input) to breakdown via physical and chemical processes into three
products;
 Solid char,
 Pyrolysis oil and
 Pyrolysis gas
with the proportions of each being governed by the operating temperature within the
pyrolysis reactor.
There is a certain amount of misunderstanding concerning the differences
between pyrolysis and gasification with some people believing that they are the

ww
same. True pyrolysis is a low temperature thermal conversion technology that
operates with an air free environment and produces a primary liquid product as well

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as gas and solid phase products. If pyrolysis is operated at high temperature
(>800oC) then the primary product becomes syngas but the process will also

asy
produce liquid and solid phase products in lesser amounts

En
By increasing the operating temperature the thermodynamics governing the

gin
reactions taking places cause a greater production of pyrolysis gas (syngas) at the

eer
expense of pyrolysis oil. The quantity of char produced at low and high
temperatures does not vary greatly.

ing
For biomass processing the lower temperature pyrolysis processes have been used

.ne
with the objective of maximising the production of pyrolysis oil, referred to as bio-
oil, which was seen as a pre-cursor to the production of many other chemicals in a
bio-refinery context.
t
In a waste processing context the higher temperature pyrolysis processes have been
developed in order to maximise the production of syngas, which is more easily
converted to electricity. It is these processes that we will consider in this report and
we will refer to them henceforth as gasification as the sole objective is to produce
syngas like gasification.

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UNIT-V DISPOSAL

PART-A

1. What is called municipal solid waste landfill (MFWLF)?

Definition: depositing waste on the ground and burying it with at least six inches of
dirt.
Municipal solid waste landfill (MFWLF) ―receives household wastes but can also
receive non-hazardous sludge, industrial solid waste, constructionand demolition
debris.

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2. Define LEACHATE (Nov /Dec 2015)

w.E
A liquid that has passed through or emerged from solid waste and contains soluble,
suspended, or miscible materials removed from such waste.

asy
3. What are the Landfill types? What are the Advantages of landfills?

En
a) Bioreactor landfills (bioreactors) -Air to enhance microbial processes.

gin
b) Construction and demolition debris (C & D) landfills -shingles, metals, and

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some types of plastics standards than municipal solid waste landfills due to the
relatively inert nature of C&D debris materials.
ing
c) Industrial waste landfills –designed for non-hazardous industrial process
wastes.
.ne
Advantages are,
a) No burning needed t
b) Air pollution minimal
c) Constant burying of the layers—vermin (rats, etc.) are kept to a minimum
4. What type of Problems with landfills in disposal.
• Landfills require space
• Produce methane gas (can be used for energy, or can cause climate
change)
• Leachate must be collected and treated
• Potential for water pollution

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78

• NOT a long-term remedy.


5. What is called Secure landfills?
Landfilling of hazardous solid or containerized waste is regulated more stringently
than landfilling of municipal solid waste. Hazardous wastes must be deposited in
so-called secure landfills, which provide at least 3 metres (10 feet) of separation
between the bottom of the landfill and the underlying bedrock or groundwater table.

6. Write about leachate collection system.

A secure hazardous-waste landfill must have two impermeable liners and leachate
collection systems. The double leachate collection system consists of a network of

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perforated pipes placed above each liner. The upper system prevents the

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accumulation of leachate trapped in the fill, and the lower serves as a backup.
Collected leachate is pumped to a treatment plant. In order to reduce the amount of

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leachate in the fill and minimize the potential for environmental damage, an

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impermeable cap or cover is placed over a finished landfill.

gin
7. What is meant by Leachate recirculation?

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Leachate recirculation: It is one of the simplest forms of treatment. Recirculation

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of leachate reduces the hazardous nature of leachate and helps wet the waste,
increasing its potential for biological degradation.

8. What is meant by Natural liners? .ne


Natural liners: These refer to compacted clay or shale, bitumen or soil sealants, t
etc., and are generally less permeable, resistant to chemical attack and have good
sorption properties. They generally do not act as true containment barriers, because
sometimes leachate migrates through them.

9. What is meant by Synthetic (geo-membrane) liners?

Synthetic (geo-membrane) liners: These are typically made up of high or medium


density polyethylene and are generally less permeable, easy to install, relatively

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79

strong and have good deformation characteristics. They sometimes expand or shrink
according to temperature and age.

10. What are the minimum requirements you need to consider for a sanitary
landfill?

The four minimum requirements you need to consider for a sanitary landfill are:
(i) Full or partial hydrological isolation;
(ii) Formal engineering preparation;
(iii) Permanent control;
(iv) planned waste emplacement and covering.

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1. Explain the Remedial action for disposal of MSW

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Disposal of hazardous waste in unlined pits, ponds, or lagoons poses a threat to

En
human health and environmental quality. Many such uncontrolled disposal sites
were used in the past and have been abandoned.
gin
Depending on a determination of the level of risk, it may be necessary to remediate

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those sites. In some cases, the risk may require emergency action. In other

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instances, engineering studies may be required to assess the situation thoroughly
before remedial action is undertaken.
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Problems

a) leachate generation
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leachate—water tainted with pollutants, can have heavy metals, battery acid,
cleaning fluid, pesticides, POPs.
b) methane production
buried waste promotes anaerobic bacterial action
biogas is produced (2/3 CH4, the rest H2 and CO2)
 biogas seeping underground can poison root systems of plants
 biogas can seep upward into homes and may cause explosions

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LFG = Landfill gases


c) Incomplete decomposition
 Lack of moisture content and exposure to the element slow down
decomposition of biodegradable materials buried in a landfill
 Increased water increase decomposition BUT would increase the toxicity of
the leachate
d) Settling
 settling and compaction of waste as it decomposes
 monitoring the area to maintain the level surface

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e) Land values and land use improving landfills
a) landfill siting – an example process

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 characteristics of landfill siting: high ground, significant distance above the
water table
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 initial site inspection
 initial site report (ISR)
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 Pre feasibility report
 Feasibility report
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 Environmental analysis eer
 Public hearing ing
 Plan of operation report
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 Landfill construction documentation report
 negotiation t
 arbitration
b) main parts of a landfill
Leachate collection system
Contoured flooring
Layers of soil,sand/gravel,clay in a pyramidal shape
Layers of refuse buried
c) combustion (burning) of waste

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Advantages
a) reduction of the weight and volume of trash
b) reduction of toxic substances into two types of ash -fly ash (collected from
fumes)
bottom ash (collects at the bottom of the boiler)
c) trash picked up as usual, just to a different destination
d) electricity can be produced in waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities
Resource recovery—separating materials before and after combustion

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2. Explain the priniciple and layout of sanitary landfill (Nov /Dec 2015)

The term landfill generally refers to an engineered deposit of wastes either in

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pits/trenches or on the surface. And, a sanitary landfill is essentially a landfill,

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where proper mechanisms are available to control the environmental risks
associated with the disposal of wastes and to make available the land, subsequent to
disposal, for other purposes.
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However, you must note that a landfill need not necessarily be an engineered site,

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when the waste is largely inert at final disposal, as in rural areas, where wastes
contain a large proportion of soil and dirt.

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This practice is generally designated as non-engineered disposal method. When

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compared to uncontrolled dumping, engineered landfills are more likely to have
pre-planned installations, environmental monitoring, and organised and trained
workforce. Sanitary landfill implementation, therefore, requires careful site
selection, preparation and management.
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The four minimum requirements you need to consider for a sanitary landfill are:
(i) Full or partial hydrological isolation;
(ii) Formal engineering preparation;
(iii) Permanent control;
(iv) planned waste emplacement and covering

Principle

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The purpose of land filling is to bury or alter the chemical composition of the
wastes so that they do not pose any threat to the environment or public health.
Landfills are not homogeneous and are usually made up of cells in which a discrete
volume of waste is kept isolated from adjacent waste cells by a suitable barrier. The
barriers between cells generally consist of a layer of natural soil (i.e., clay), which
restricts downward or lateral escape of the waste constituents or leachate.
Land filling relies on containment rather than treatment (for control) of wastes. If
properly executed, it is a safer and cheaper method than incineration . An
environmentally sound sanitary landfill comprises appropriate liners for protection

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of the groundwater (from contaminated leachate), run-off controls, leachate
collection and treatment, monitoring wells and appropriate final cover design

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3. Explain the life cycle of a landfill. (Nov /Dec 2014)

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Planning phase: This typically involves preliminary hydro-geological and geo-

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technical site investigations as a basis for actual design.
Construction phase: This involves earthworks, road and facility construction and
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preparation (liners and drains) of the fill area.

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Operation phase (5 – 20 years): This phase has a high intensity of traffic, work at

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the front of the fill, operation of environmental installations and completion of
finished sections.
Completed phase (20 – 100 years): This phase involves the termination of the .ne
actual filling to the time when the environmental installations need no longer be
operated. The emissions may have by then decreased to a level where they do not
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need any further treatment and can be discharged freely into the surroundings.
Final storage phase: In this phase, the landfill is integrated into the surroundings
for other purposes, and no longer needs special attention.
Landfill processes
The feasibility of land disposal of solid wastes depends on factors such as the type,
quantity and characteristics of wastes, the prevailing laws and regulations, and soil
and site characteristics. Let us now explain some of these processes.

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(i) Site selection process and considerations: This requires the development of a
working plan – a plan, or a series of plans, outlining the development and
descriptions of site location, operation, engineering and site restoration.
Considerations for site include public opinion, traffic patterns and congestion,
climate, zoning requirements, availability of cover material and liner as well, high
trees or buffer in the site perimeter, historic buildings, and endangered species,
wetlands, and site land environmental factors, speed limits, underpass limitations,
load limits on roadways, bridge capacities, and proximity of major roadways, haul
distance, hydrology and detours.

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(ii) Settling process: The waste body of a landfill undergoes different stages of
settling or deformation. Figure below illustrates these stages:

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The three stages shown in the figure above are described below:
Primary consolidation: During this stage, a substantial amount of settling occurs.
This settlement is caused by the weight of the waste layers. The movement of
trucks, bulldozers or mechanical compactors will also enhance this process. After
this primary consolidation, or short-term deformation stage, aerobic degradation
processes occur.

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Secondary compression: During this stage, the rate of settling is much lower than
that in the primary consolidation stage, as the settling occurs through compression,
which cannot be enhanced.
Decomposition: During the degradation processes, organic material is converted
into gas and leachate. The settling rate during this stage increases compared to the
secondary compression stage, and continues until all decomposable organic matter
is degraded. The settling rate, however, gradually decreases with the passage of
time.
To appropriately design protective liners, and gas and leachate collection systems, it

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is, therefore, necessary to have a proper knowledge of the settling process of wastes.
(iii) Microbial degradation process: The microbial degradation process is the

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most important biological process occurring in a landfill. These processes induce
changes in the chemical and physical environment within the waste body, which

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determine the quality of leachate and both the quality and quantity of landfill gas

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(see Subsection 4.3.2). Assuming that landfills mostly receive organic wastes,

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microbial processes will dominate the stabilisation of the waste and therefore
govern landfill gas generation and leachate composition. Soon after disposal, the

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predominant part of the wastes becomes anaerobic, and the bacteria will start

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degrading the solid organic carbon, eventually toproduce carbon dioxide and
methane. The anaerobic degradation process undergoes the following stages:
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Solid and complex dissolved organic compounds are hydrolysed and fermented by
the fermenters primarily to volatile fatty acids, alcohols, hydrogen and carbon
dioxide.
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An acidogenic group of bacteria converts the products of the first stage to acetic
acid, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.
Methanogenic bacteria convert acetic acid to methane and carbon dioxide and
hydrogenophilic bacteria convert hydrogen and carbon dioxide to methane.
The biotic factors that affect methane formation in the landfill are pH, alkalinity,
nutrients, temperature, oxygen and moisture content.
Enhancement of degradation

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Enhancement of the degradation processes in landfills will result in a faster


stabilisation of the waste in the landfill, which enhances gas production, and we can
achieve this by:
Adding partly composted waste: As the readily degradable organic matter has
already been decomposed aerobically, the rapid acid production phase is overcome,
and the balance of acid and methane production bacteria can develop earlier and the
consequent dilution effect lowers the organic acid concentration.
Recirculating leachate: This may have positive effects since a slow increase in
moisture will cause a long period of gas production. During warmer periods,

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recirculated leachate will evaporate, resulting in lower amounts of excess leachate.

4. Explain the leachate collection and treatment. (Nov /Dec 2014)

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Leachate Formation

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Leachate can pollute both groundwater and surface water supplies. The degree of

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pollution will depend on local geology and hydrogeology, nature of waste and the
proximity of susceptible receptors. Once groundwater is contaminated, it is very
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costly to clean it up. Landfills, therefore, undergo siting, design and construction
procedures that control leachate migration.
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Composition and properties
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Leachate comprises soluble components of waste and its degradation products enter

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water, as it percolates through the landfill. The amount of leachate generated
depends on:
 water availability;
 landfill surface condition;
 refuse state;
 condition of surrounding strata.
The major factor, i.e., water availability, is affected by precipitation, surface runoff,
waste decomposition and liquid waste disposal. The water balance equation for
landfill requires negative or zero (―Lo‖) so that no excess leachate is produced. This
is calculated using the following formula:
Lo = I – E – aW

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i.e. I – E < aW
where, Lo = free leachate retained at site (equivalent to leachate production minus
leachate leaving the site); I = total liquid input;
E = evapotranspiration losses; a = absorption capacity of waste;
W = weight of waste disposed.
Common toxic components in leachate are ammonia and heavy metals, which can
be hazardous even at low levels, if they accumulate in the food chain. The presence
of ammoniacal nitrogen means that leachate often has to be treated off-site before
being discharged to a sewer, since there is no natural bio-chemical path for its

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removal. Leachate composition varies with time and location.

Leachate migration

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It is generally difficult to predict the movement of escaped leachate accurately. The

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main controlling factors are the surrounding geology and hydrogeology. Escape to
surface water may be relatively easy to control, but if it escapes to groundwater

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sources, it can be very difficult both to control and clean up. The degree of

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groundwater contamination is affected by physical, chemical and biological actions.

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The relative importance of each process may change, however, if the leachate
moves from the landfill to the sub-surface region.
Control ing
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The best way to control leachate is through prevention, which should be integral to
the site design. In most cases, it is necessary to control liquid access, collection and
treatment, all of which can be done using the following landfill liners: t
Natural liners: These refer to compacted clay or shale, bitumen or soil sealants,
etc., and are generally less permeable, resistant to chemical attack and have good
sorption properties. They generally do not act as true containment barriers, because
sometimes leachate migrates through them.
Synthetic (geo-membrane) liners: These are typically made up of high or medium
density polyethylene and are generally less permeable, easy to install, relatively
strong and have good deformation characteristics. They sometimes expand or shrink
according to temperature and age.

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Note that natural and geo-membrane liners are often combined to enhance the
overall efficiency of the containment system. Some of the leachate collection
systems include impermeable liner, granular material, collection piping, leachate
storage tank; leachate is trucked to a wastewater treatment facility.
Treatment
Concentrations of various substances occurring in leachate are too high to be
discharged to surface water or into a sewer system. These concentrations, therefore,
have to be reduced by removal, treatment or both. The various treatments of
leachate include:

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Leachate recirculation: It is one of the simplest forms of treatment. Recirculation
of leachate reduces the hazardous nature of leachate and helps wet the waste,

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increasing its potential for biological degradation.
Biological treatment: This removes BOD, ammonia and suspended solids.

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Leachate from land filled waste can be readily degraded by biological means, due to

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high content of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The common methods are aerated

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lagoons (i.e., special devices which enhance the aerobic processes of
degradation of organic substances over the entire depth of the tank) and activated

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sludge process, which differs from aerated lagoons in that discharged sludge is

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recirculated and is often used for BOD and ammonia removal. While under
conditions of low COD, rotating biological contactors (i.e., biomass is brought into
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contact with circular blades fixed to a common axle which is rotated) are very
effective in removing ammonia. In an anaerobic treatment system, complex organic
molecules are fermented in filter. The common types are anaerobic filters, anaerobic
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lagoon and digesters.
Physicochemical treatment: After biological degradation, effluents still contain
significant concentrations of different substances. Physicochemical treatment
processes could be installed to improve the leachate effluent quality. Some of these
processes are flocculation-precipitation. (Note that addition of chemicals to the
water attracts the metal by floc formation). Separation of the floc from water takes
place by sedimentation, adsorption and reverse osmosis.

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5. Explain the Environmental Effects of Landfill

The environmental effects of a landfill include wind-blown litter and dust, noise,
obnoxious odour, vermin and insects attracted by the waste, surface runoff and
inaesthetic conditions. Gas and leachate problems also arise during the operation
phase and require significant environmental controls. In what follows, we will
describe some of the major environmental effects below:

(i) Wind-blown litter and dust are continuous problems of the ongoing landfill

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operation and a nuisance to the neighbourhood. Covering the waste cells with soil
and spraying water on dirt roads and waste in dry periods, in combination with

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fencing and movable screens, may minimise the problem of wind-blown litter and

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dust. However, note that the problem will remain at the tipping front of the landfill.
(ii) Movement of waste collection vehicles, emptying of wastes from them,

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compactors, earthmoving equipment, etc., produce noise. Improving the technical

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capability of the equipment, surrounding the fill area with soil embankments and

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plantations, limiting the working hours and appropriately training the workforce
will help minimise noise pollution.

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(iii) Birds (e.g., scavengers), vermin, insects and animals are attracted to the landfill

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for feeding and breeding. Since many of these may act as disease vectors, their

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presence is a potential health problem.
(iv) Surface run-off, which has been in contact with the land filled waste, may be a
problem in areas of intense rainfall. If not controlled, heavily polluted run-off may
enter directly into creeks and streams. Careful design and maintenance of surface
drains and ditches, together with a final soil cover on completed landfill sections,
can help eliminate this problem.

(v) An operating landfill, where equipment and waste are exposed, appears
inaesthetic. This problem may be reduced by careful design of screening soil
embankments, plantings, rapid covering and re-vegetation of filled sections.

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(vi) Gas released, as a result of degradation or volatilisation of waste components,


causes odour, flammability, health problems and damage of the vegetation (due to
oxygen depletion in the root zone). The measures to control this include liners, soil
covers, passive venting or active extraction of gas for treatment before discharge
into the atmosphere.
(vii) Polluted leachate appears shortly after disposal of the waste. This may cause
groundwater pollution and pollution of streams through sub-surface migration.
Liners, drainage collection, treatment of leachate, and groundwater and downstream
water quality monitoring are necessary to control this problem.

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Industrial /Practical Connectivity of the subject

Solid Waste Management is one of the essential obligatory functions of the Urban
Local Bodies in India. This service is falling too short of the desired level of
efficiency and satisfaction resulting in problems of health, sanitation and
environmental degradation. Most urban areas in the country are plagued by acute
problems related to solid waste. Due to lack of serious efforts by town/city
authorities, garbage and its management has become a tenacious problem and this
notwithstanding the fact that the largest part of municipal expenditure is allotted to
it. Barring a few progressive municipal corporations in the country, most local

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bodies suffer due to non-availability of adequate expertise and experience, thereby
the solid waste is not properly handled resulting into creation of environmental

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pollution and health hazards. It is reiterated that the local bodies lack technical,
managerial, administrative, financial and adequate institutional arrangements. As
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such, it is very necessary to provide proper guidance to such Urban Local Bodies so

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as to make them efficient in managing the solid waste generated in their respective
cities and towns.
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University Question Bank

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