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Advanced Engineering

Systems in Motion:
Dynamics of Three
Dimensional (3D) Motion
Dr. Wayne Whiteman
Director of the Office of Student Services
and Senior Academic Professional
School of Mechanical Engineering

This course is an advanced study of bodies in motion as applied to


engineering systems and structures.

School of Mechanical Engineering


Module 24 Learning Outcome
 Define Principal Axes and Principal Moments
of Inertia

2
Recall, in general, the inertia matrix about any point in a body is:
 I xx I xy I xz  - Inertial Property Matrix (Inertia Matrix)
 
I F   I xy I yy I yz  - Symmetric
 I xz I yz I zz  - Includes info about mass, shape, and geometry
 
If, for a particular coordinate orientation: I xy  I xz  I yz  0
I  0 0 
Such that:  xx 

I B  0 I yy 0 
 
 0 0 I zz 

Then x, y, z axes are called principal axes
The moments of inertia with respect to the principal axes are
called principal moments of inertia, I  , I  , I 
xx yy zz
3
Recall Moment of Momentum (Angular Momentum)
For Mass Center C  I xxC I xyC I xzC   x 
  C   B
H C   I xy C
I yy I yzC   y 
 I xzC I yzC I zzC   z 
 
 F
Consider B / F   iˆ where x,y,z is centered at C
(x-axis is parallel to angular velocity)

Then H C  I xx  iˆ  I xyC  ˆj  I xzC  kˆ
Used with permission from “Engineering
C Mechanics: Dynamics,” McGill/King, 4th Ed, 2003

 
H C is parallel to  iff I xy  I xz  0
C C

Then x is defined as a principal axis


(the products of inertia vanish)
 
H C parallel to  defines a principal axis

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Principal Axes
 
H C parallel to  defines a principal axis
B

Note: F
For a body spinning about a principal axis,
motion continues about that axis without Used with permission from “Engineering
Mechanics: Dynamics,” McGill/King, 4th Ed, 2003
any need for external moments to
maintain that motion.