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Construction and Building Materials 196 (2019) 703–713

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Construction and Building Materials


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/conbuildmat

Material optimization and optimum asphalt content design of asphalt


mixture in salty and humid environment
Ke Zhang a, Yaofei Luo b,⇑, Yunze Wang c, Wenlong Li a, Gan Yu a
a
College of Information Engineering, Fuyang Normal University, Fuyang, Anhui 236041, China
b
School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhengzhou University of Aeronautics, Zhengzhou, Henan 450046, China
c
School of Civil Engineering, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050043, China

h i g h l i g h t s

 The improved boiling water test was developed to acquire the degree of stripping quantitatively.
 Anti-stripping agent AMR with dosage of 0.5–0.6% was recommended to improve the water stability.
 The design method of optimum asphalt content based on ITS for asphalt mixture was proposed.

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: To improve the water stability of asphalt mixture in coastal areas, the optimization of asphalt anti-
Received 5 July 2018 stripping agent and the design of optimum asphalt content were studied according to the characteristic
Received in revised form 20 November 2018 of salty and humid environment. Firstly, the improved boiling water test was put forward to determine
Accepted 20 November 2018
the type and dosage of anti-stripping agent suitable for salty and humid environment preliminarily.
Available online 28 November 2018
Secondly, the improvement effect of anti-stripping agent on water stability of asphalt mixture was eval-
uated. The type and optimum dosage range of asphalt anti-stripping agent were eventually determined.
Keywords:
Finally, the design method of optimum asphalt content based on indirect tensile strength (ITS) for asphalt
Salty and humid environment
Asphalt mixture
mixture in salty and humid environment was proposed. The results show that the anti-stripping agent of
Water stability PA-1 (P), HT-09 (H), AMR (A) and TJ-066 (T) all improve the adhesion between asphalt and aggregate in
Anti-stripping agent salty and humid environment, but the performance of anti-stripping agent H declines significantly after
Optimum asphalt content aging. The anti-stripping agent A is recommended to improve the water stability of asphalt mixture in
salty and humid environment. The optimum dosage range of anti-stripping agent A is 0.5–0.6% by weight
of asphalt. The temperature of 40 °C and loading rate of 5 mm/min are proposed as appropriate condition
for indirect tensile test. Replacing the stability by ITS and combining with volume indexes to determine
the optimum asphalt content could ensure good water stability of asphalt mixture in salty and humid
environment.
Ó 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction Cl will accelerate the aging of asphalt, weaken the adhesion
between asphalt and aggregate and lower the overall strength of
The sea fog with high concentration occurs frequently in coastal asphalt mixture [4]. Shi et al. [5,6] also demonstrated the damage
areas of China, which often becomes the carrier of NaCl [1]. The effect of chloride salt in deicer solution on the performance of
water with Cl will infiltrate into asphalt pavement when the sea asphalt mixture. As a result, a series of water damage such as loose
fog condenses [2]. At this time, the air humidity and chloride salt and pits of asphalt pavement occurs [7]. This phenomenon is
maintains at a high level, which forms salty and humid environ- related to the construction quality of asphalt pavement to some
ment. The asphalt pavement performance is simultaneously extent, but the main reason is the lack of selection and design prin-
affected by water and chloride salt [3]. After the action of hydrody- ciples of asphalt mixture corresponding to salty and humid envi-
namic pressure caused by vehicle load, the corrosion of water with ronment in coastal areas [8,9]. The optimization of materials
such as additives and the design of optimum asphalt content were
lack of effectiveness, which was not suitable for asphalt mixture
⇑ Corresponding author.
under the condition of salty and humid environment in coastal
E-mail addresses: hpulyf@163.com (Y. Luo), wangyunze@stdu.edu.cn (Y. Wang).

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.11.158
0950-0618/Ó 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
704 K. Zhang et al. / Construction and Building Materials 196 (2019) 703–713

areas. Therefore, the material optimization and optimum asphalt ture based on ITS under the condition of salty and humid environ-
content of asphalt mixture in salty and humid environment need ment in coastal areas, thereby ensuring the cohesion of asphalt
to be studied systematically. mixture is sufficient.
The adhesion characterizes the ability of asphalt film on the sur- According to the characteristic of salty and humid environment,
face of aggregate in resisting damage or stripping [10,11]. Improv- the optimization of anti-stripping agent and the design of optimum
ing the adhesion between asphalt and aggregate, namely the water asphalt content for asphalt mixture were studied in this paper.
stability of asphalt mixture by anti-stripping agent is an effective Firstly, an image acquisition system for aggregate was developed,
measure to reduce the water damage of asphalt pavement [12– and the improved boiling water test was put forward to prelimi-
16]. However, most of current studies on anti-stripping agents narily determine the type and dosage range of anti-stripping agent
were conducted in conventional environment (pure water). The suitable for salty and humid environment. Secondly, the effect of
performance of anti-stripping agent under the coupling effect of anti-stripping agent in improving the water stability of asphalt
water and chloride in salty and humid environment was rarely mixture was analyzed by laboratory tests. Combining with the
studied [17–21]. At the same time, the index of boiling water test influence of anti-stripping agent on other aspects of road perfor-
is not quantitative and greatly affected by human factors [22,23]. mance, the type and optimum dosage range of anti-stripping agent
With the rapid development of digital image processing (DIP) tech- were eventually determined. Finally, the correlation between ITS
nology, the DIP technology is widely used in image quantitative under different test conditions and water stability of asphalt mix-
analysis [24,25]. So it is important to determine appropriate type ture were analyzed to determine the appropriate condition for
and dosage range of anti-stripping agents by boiling water test indirect tensile test. The design method of optimum asphalt con-
quantitatively according to the characteristic of salty and humid tent based on ITS for asphalt mixture in salty and humid environ-
environment. ment was proposed. The research results could provide some
In addition, the Marshall Design method is widely used for the references for improving the performance of asphalt pavement
design of asphalt mixture in China. The index of Marshall Stability under the condition of salty and humid environment in coastal
only reflects the interlock effect between aggregates, which is not areas.
sensitive to the cohesion of asphalt mixture. The cohesion reflects
the adhesive strength of asphalt and aggregate in the mixture. The
higher stability does not guarantee larger cohesion of asphalt mix- 2. Materials and methods
ture. So the water stability of asphalt pavement in coastal areas
cannot be ensured by the asphalt content determined by Marshall 2.1. Materials
Method. The Gyratory Testing Machine (GTM) design method,
Superpave design method and some design methods proposed by The SBS modified asphalt and SK90# base asphalt were selected
some scholars mostly start from high and low temperature perfor- in the paper, and the technical indexes of the two were listed in
mance of asphalt mixture, and rarely pay attention to water stabil- Table 1. The aggregates were limestone, basalt and granite from
ity [26–30]. The current design method of optimum asphalt Xi’an, and the mineral filler was limestone powder. The aggregates
content for the mixture is not suitable for salty and humid environ- used can meet the technical requirements of Chinese specification
ment. Anderson et al. [31] found that the linear correlation (JTG F40-2004).
between indirect tensile strength (ITS) of asphalt mixture under The aggregates used in improved boiling water test were basalt
appropriate condition and cohesion is good, indicating that the and granite. The coarse aggregate of asphalt mixture was basalt,
cohesion of asphalt mixture with large ITS is big. The asphalt mix- and the fine aggregate was limestone. The gradation of asphalt
ture with larger cohesion will resist the corrosion of water and mixture was AC13, which was commonly used in the project.
chloride in salty and humid environment better, which is not sub- The binder in the mixture was SK90# asphalt and SBS modified
jected to water damage such as pit and loose. Therefore, it is asphalt. The passing rate of aggregate in AC13 asphalt mixture
important to determine the optimum asphalt content of the mix- was shown in Table 2. The optimum asphalt aggregate ratio of

Table 1
Technical indexes of SBS modified asphalt and SK90# asphalt.

Items Measured value


SBS SK90#
Penetration (25 °C, 100 g, 5 s, 0.1 mm) 69 91
Penetration index 0.032 0.967
Ductility (5 °C, 5 mm/min, cm) 42 >100
Softening point (°C) 75 48.9
Density (15 °C, g/cm3) 1.031 0.979
RTFO treated at 163 °C for 85 min Mass loss (%) 0.34 0.34
Residual penetration ratio (25 °C, %) 65 72.9
Residual ductility (10 °C, cm) 23 >100

Table 2
Gradation composition of AC13 asphalt mixture.

Sieve size/mm 16 13.2 9.5 4.75 2.36 1.18 0.6 0.3 0.15 0.075
Passing ratio/% 100 96.5 80.0 53.7 37.0 25.2 17.3 11.8 9.0 5.4
K. Zhang et al. / Construction and Building Materials 196 (2019) 703–713 705

Table 3
Performance indexes of anti-stripping agent.

Anti-stripping agent Appearance Density/g cm3 Compatibility (With asphalt) Recommended dosage/%
P Dark-brown viscous liquid 0.96 Good 0.3–0.5
H Brown-yellow viscous liquid 0.94 Good 0.08–0.12
A Brown-yellow solid particle 1.01 Good 0.3–0.5
T Brown viscous liquid 0.97 Good 0.4

asphalt mixture (SK90# asphalt) was 4.3%, which was determined 42 time/min. The load of low temperature bending test was
by Marshall Design method. applied at a rate of 50 mm/min in an environment box at
The anti-stripping agents of PA-1 (P), HT-09 (H), AMR (A), TJ- 10 °C ± 0.5 °C. The temperature of immersion Hamburg wheel
066 (T) were selected in the paper. These anti-stripping agents tracking test is 50 °C. The weight of loading wheel is 705 N, and
were developed by Xi’an Highway Research Institute, Zibo Huitong the loading rate is 52 time/min.
Oil Fine Chemical Co., Ltd., Chongqing Haimu Traffic Technology
Co., Ltd. and Tongji University respectively. The anti-stripping 2.2.3. Mechanical property test
agents of P and H belong to amine anti-stripping agent, which main The SBS modified asphalt and AC13 gradation were selected,
chemical composition is amine substance such as polyamide poly- and the Marshall Specimens with the asphalt aggregate ratio of
mer and aliphatic amine. The anti-stripping agents of A and T 4.0%, 4.5%, 5.0%, 5.5%, and 6.0% were molded. The indirect tensile
belong to non-amine anti-stripping agent, which main chemical test was carried out by using Universal Testing Machine at the
composition is non-amine substance such as phosphorus hydroxyl temperatures of 20 °C, 30 °C, 40 °C, 50 °C and the loading rate of
compound. The performance indexes of four kinds of anti-stripping 5 mm/min, 20 mm/min and 50 mm/min respectively. The evalua-
agents were shown in Table 3. tion index of mechanical property for asphalt mixture was ITS, as
shown in Eq. (1).
2.2. Test method
PT
RT ¼ 0:006287 ð1Þ
h
2.2.1. Boiling water test
The aggregate which diameter is larger than 13.2 mm was fas- Here, RT is ITS, MPa; PT is the maximum value of test load, N; h is the
tened one by one with a thin wire and placed in an oven at height of specimen, mm.
105 ± 5 °C for one hour. Then the heated aggregate was removed
and immersed in pre-heated asphalt for 45 s. Next, the aggregate 3. Optimization of anti-stripping agent in salty and humid
coated with asphalt was suspended at room temperature (25 °C) environment
for 15 min so that the excess asphalt could flow away. Finally,
the aggregate was immersed in the center of a large beaker con- Following the principle of improving the water stability of
taining boiling water and the water remains in a slightly boiling asphalt mixture and combining with other aspects of road perfor-
state. After boiling for 3 min, the stripping of asphalt film on the mance, the type and optimum dosage range of anti-stripping agent
surface of the aggregate was observed, and the adhesion grade suitable for salty and humid environment were recommended.
between asphalt and aggregate was evaluated.
3.1. Preliminary selection of anti-stripping agents
2.2.2. Road performance tests
The anti-stripping agents of P, A and T were added to SK90# 3.1.1. Improved boiling water test
base asphalt at their respective preliminary dosages. The Marshall To evaluate the adhesion between asphalt and aggregate in
Specimens made of AC13 asphalt mixture were molded, and the salty and humid environment reasonably, an improved boiling
control group was also set up (without anti-stripping agent). water test was put forward. Firstly, 5% NaCl solution was selected
Before the test, the specimens were treated by dry-wet cycle in to replace pure water to simulate the effect of salty and humid
10% NaCl solution for 12 times to simulate the corrosion of salty environment. Secondly, the image acquisition system for aggregate
and humid environment. Here, one dry-wet cycle is defined as fol- (IASA) was developed. The digital image processing technology
lows: The specimens are immersed in NaCl solution at 30 °C for was utilized to calculate the stripping rate of asphalt on the surface
12 h and then placed at room temperature in laboratory for 12 h
[1]. The freeze-thaw splitting test and dynamic water scouring
and splitting test were carried out to evaluate the effect of anti- Table 4
Grading standard of adhesion between asphalt and aggregate.
stripping agent type on water stability of asphalt mixture under
salty and humid condition. The number of samples for road perfor- Stripping Adhesion Stripping description of asphalt film on the surface
mance test was no less than three. Here, the temperature of scour- rate/% grade of aggregate

ing process is 60 °C, the pressure of dynamic water is 100 kPa, and 5 10 Asphalt film is in good condition.
the number of scouring cycle is 400 times. The solution concentra- 5–10 9 Asphalt film is in good condition with little
stripping on the corners of aggregate.
tion is consistent with the wet-dry cycle. The temperature of split-
10–15 8 Asphalt film is basically in good condition with a
ting test is 25 °C. little stripping on aggregate surface.
The Marshall Specimens and rutting plate specimens were 15–20 7 Stripping of partial asphalt film and the exposed
formed by changing the dosage of anti-stripping agent A. Then 20–30 6 area of aggregate surface is 15–30%.
the influence of anti-stripping agent dosage on rutting resistance, 30–40 5 A large amount of asphalt film is stripping, and the
40–50 4 exposed area of aggregate surface is 30–60%.
low temperature performance and water stability of asphalt mix- 50–60 3
ture in salty and humid environment was investigated by rutting 60–70 2 A large amount of asphalt film is stripping, and the
test, low temperature bending test and immersion Hamburg wheel exposed area of aggregate surface exceeds 60%.
tracking test. Here, the temperature of rutting test is 60 °C, the >70 1 A large amount of asphalt film is stripping, and the
exposed area of aggregate surface exceeds 70%.
pressure of rubber wheel is 0.7 MPa and the rolling speed is
706 K. Zhang et al. / Construction and Building Materials 196 (2019) 703–713

Fig.3. Images of asphalt and aggregate after pretreatment.

Fig. 1. Image acquisition system for aggregate.


Fig. 4. The determination of target boundary on the image.

(1) Image pretreatment


Adjust the brightness, contrast, gamma and other parame-
ters of image to appropriate values, perform the denoise pro-
cessing on image and eliminate some interference on
measurement, so as to reflect the characteristic of object
clearly. Then the error caused by image itself can be reduced.
The image of asphalt and aggregate after pretreatment was
shown in Fig. 3.
(2) Selection of target area
Take the exposed aggregate surface after the stripping of
(a) Plane image (b) Lateral image asphalt film on the image as target area. According to the
difference in pixel characteristic among target area, black
Fig. 2. Image of asphalt and aggregate.
asphalt film and blue image background, the threshold is
adjusted to accurately determine the boundary of exposed
of aggregate. Finally, the 10-level grading standard was proposed aggregate surface, as shown in Fig. 4.
to reduce the difference of stripping rate belongs to the same adhe- (3) Correction and measurement of target area
sion grade. The grading standard of 10 levels was shown in Table 4. After the selection of target area in previous step, the
selected target area must be corrected to improve the accu-
racy of target selection. The pixel statistic function of IPP
3.1.1.1. Image acquisition. The IASA was developed to achieve high
software is used to count the pixel number of target area
quality image, and the image acquisition system was shown in
and complete aggregate surface.
Fig. 1. The system consists of frame, lighting system, sample table
(4) Calculation of asphalt stripping rate on the surface of aggre-
and CCD camera.
gate
The stripping phenomenon of asphalt on the surface of aggre-
According to Eq. (2), calculate the asphalt stripping rate on
gate can be captured from different angles by IASA. The error
plane and lateral images of aggregate respectively. Take
caused by the overlapping of asphalt stripping on plane and lateral
the average of the two as final asphalt stripping rate of
images should be avoided by adjusting the shooting angle of cam-
aggregate sample to evaluate the adhesion grade of asphalt
era. The light during image acquisition was keep uniform, and the
and aggregate.
plane and lateral image information of aggregate was acquired. The
image of asphalt and aggregate acquired by IASA was shown in
Fig. 2. Pixelnumberof target area
Asphaltstrippingrate ¼
Pixelnumberof completeaggregatesurface
3.1.1.2. Image processing and calculation. The Image-Pro Plus (IPP)  100%
software was used for the measurement of asphalt and aggregate ð2Þ
image. The main task was selecting the boundary of target image
and calculating the area of target image to quantitatively evaluate
the adhesion between asphalt and aggregate. The specific steps for 3.1.2. Preliminary determination of anti-stripping agent dosage
obtaining the stripping rate of asphalt on aggregate were as According to the recommended dosages of anti-stripping agents
follows: of P, H, A and T in conventional environment, the selected dosage
K. Zhang et al. / Construction and Building Materials 196 (2019) 703–713 707

Table 5
Test results of different anti-stripping agents.

Aggregate type Basalt Granite


Dosage of anti-stripping 0 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 0.3 0.4 0.5
agent/%
P Stripping rate/% 34.2 14.7 4.0 4.7 45.9 18.3 4.0 3.7
Adhesion grade 5 8 10 10 4 7 10 10
A Stripping rate/% 34.2 13.5 7.5 3.7 45.9 16.5 9.5 4.3
Adhesion grade 5 8 9 10 4 7 9 10
T Stripping rate/% 34.2 12.4 8.5 3.3 45.9 13.5 9.1 3.8
Adhesion grade 5 8 9 10 4 8 9 10
Aggregate type Basalt Granite
Dosage of anti-stripping 0 0.08 0.1 0.12 0 0.08 0.1 0.12
agent/%
H Stripping rate/% 34.2 8.1 3.9 3.7 45.9 7.3 3.3 3.0
Adhesion grade 5 9 10 10 4 9 10 10

of anti-stripping agents of P, A and T is 0.3–0.5% by weight of in salty and humid environment. The anti-stripping agent H will
asphalt, and the dosage of anti-stripping agent H is 0.08–0.12% also improve the adhesion between asphalt and aggregate under
for salty and humid environment. The control group without salty and humid condition before aging, but its performance decli-
anti-stripping agent was set. The improved boiling water test of nes seriously after short-term aging. The anti-stripping agent H is
asphalt and aggregate was performed in 5% NaCl solution. The not suitable for salty and humid areas.
results were shown in Table 5.
As shown in Table 5, four kinds of anti-stripping agents can 3.2. Optimal selection of anti-stripping agents
improve the adhesion between asphalt and aggregate in salty
and humid environment, but the improvement effect of various The freeze-thaw splitting test and dynamic water scouring and
anti-stripping agents is different. The amine anti-stripping agents splitting test of asphalt mixture added with anti-stripping agents
of P and H show significant effect when the dosage is smaller than of P, A and T at their preliminary dosages were carried out. The
that of non-amine anti-stripping agents of A and T. According to effect of anti-stripping agent on water stability of asphalt mixture
the test results of adhesion between asphalt and aggregate mixed in salty and humid environment was evaluated.
with different dosages of anti-stripping agent, the dosages of anti-
stripping agents of P, H, A and T were preliminarily recommended 3.2.1. Freeze-thaw splitting test
as 0.4%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 0.5% by weight of asphalt respectively in Under the condition of salty and humid environment, the
salty and humid environment. freeze-thaw splitting test of asphalt mixture mixed with different
anti-stripping agents before and after aging was carried out. The
3.1.3. Preliminary determination of anti-stripping agent type results were shown in Fig. 5.
Various anti-stripping agents were added to SK90# base asphalt Fig. 5 illustrates that the tensile strength ratio (TSR) of unaged
at respective preliminary dosages, and then the rolling thin film asphalt mixture without anti-stripping agent is 69.4%, which can-
oven test (RTFOT) was carried out. The control group without not meet the requirement of related specification (JTG F40-2004).
anti-stripping agent was also set. The improved boiling water test The water stability of asphalt mixture added with anti-stripping
of asphalt and aggregate was conducted in 5% NaCl solution, and agents of P, A and T improves significantly. The improvement effect
the results were shown in Table 6. of anti-stripping agents of P and A is slightly better than that of
From Table 6, it can be seen that after short-term aging, the per- anti-stripping agent T. After short-term and long-term aging, the
formance of anti-stripping agents of P and H declines to a certain TSR of asphalt mixture mixed with different anti-stripping agents
extent. Particularly, the decreasing range of anti-stripping agent is ranked as anti-stripping agent A > anti-stripping agent T > anti-
H is larger, which adhesion grade with granite only reaches 7th stripping agent P > control group. When compared with unaged
level. However, the adhesion between asphalt and aggregate mixed asphalt mixture, the TSR of various asphalt mixture decreases to
with anti-stripping agent is still better than that of control group. different extents. The decrease range of anti-stripping agent P is
After aging, the adhesion grade of anti-stripping agent P with largest. The reduction of anti-stripping agent A and anti-stripping
basalt and granite is higher than that of anti-stripping agent H agent T is almost the same, which is smaller than that of
by one level. The property of anti-stripping agents of A and T is anti-stripping agent P. The durability of non-amine anti-stripping
almost the same after aging, and the adhesion grade with basalt agents of A and T is better than that of amine anti-stripping
and granite can still reaches 10th level. agent P.
The anti-stripping agents of P, A and T all show good anti-aging Obviously, the anti-stripping agents of P, A and T can improve
performance. These anti-stripping agents well improve the adhe- the water stability of asphalt mixture to various degrees in salty
sion between asphalt and aggregate at their preliminary dosages and humid environment. The effect of non-amine anti-stripping

Table 6
Improved boiling water test results of anti-stripping agents after aging.

Basalt Granite
Control group P H A T Control group P H A T
Stripping rate/% 46.5 9.4 12.3 4.3 4.1 57.8 8.9 18.7 4.4 4.5
Adhesion grade 4 9 8 10 10 3 8 7 10 10
708 K. Zhang et al. / Construction and Building Materials 196 (2019) 703–713

was also compared with TSR. Fig. 6 shows the external change of
Marshall Specimen before and after dynamic water scouring.
As shown in Fig. 6, various kinds of anti-stripping agents all
improve the resistance to water scouring of asphalt mixture, but
there is a significant difference in scouring and splitting strength
ratio of asphalt mixture added with various anti-stripping agents.
The resistance to water scouring of asphalt mixture mixed with
different anti-stripping agents is ranked as anti-stripping agent
A > anti-stripping agent T > anti-stripping agent P > control group.
The anti-stripping agent A has the best effect on improving the
water stability of asphalt mixture in salty and humid environment.
The increase range of scouring and splitting strength ratio of
asphalt mixture improved by anti-stripping agent P is smallest,
which is related to the poor stability and durability itself.
It can be seen from Fig. 7 that there is sufficient asphalt and fine
aggregate on the surface of Marshall Specimen before dynamic
water scouring, and the color is bright. After the scouring of
dynamic water, the asphalt film wrapped on the surface of aggre-
gate in specimen is damaged, and some of asphalt film has been
Fig. 5. TSR of asphalt mixture mixed with anti-stripping agent. stripped off. The mass loss and void ratio of specimen gradually
increase with the extension of scouring time. The specimen surface
resembles to the pockmarking phenomenon of asphalt pavement
caused by the loss of fine aggregate under the scouring of dynamic
water. Compared with freeze-thaw splitting test, the dynamic
water scouring and splitting test can better distinguish the differ-
ence in performance of various anti-stripping agents.
In summary, after short-term and long-term aging treatment,
the TSR of asphalt mixture mixed with anti-stripping agent A is
greater than that of asphalt mixture added with anti-stripping
agent P and T. The scouring and splitting strength ratio of asphalt
mixture mixed with anti-stripping agent A is largest, which scour-
ing resistance to dynamic water is superior to other asphalt mix-
ture. Therefore, anti-stripping agent A is recommended to
improve the water stability of asphalt pavement under the condi-
tion of salty and humid environment in coastal areas.

3.3. Determination of optimum dosage of anti-stripping agent

Fig. 6. Scouring and splitting strength ratio of asphalt mixture.


The dosages of 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7%, 0.8% and 0.9% by weight of
agent is generally better than that of amine anti-stripping agent. asphalt were selected to study the influence of dosage of anti-
After the treatment of short-term and long-term aging, the TSR of stripping A on water stability, high and low temperature perfor-
asphalt mixture added with anti-stripping agent A is largest. mance of asphalt mixture in salty and humid environment.

3.2.2. Dynamic water scouring and splitting test 3.3.1. Influence of dosage on water stability of asphalt mixture
The scouring and splitting strength ratio of asphalt mixture The immersion Hamburg wheel tracking test of asphalt mixture
with and without anti-stripping agents was shown in Fig. 6, which added with different dosages of anti-stripping agent A was

Fig. 7. External change of Marshall Specimen.


K. Zhang et al. / Construction and Building Materials 196 (2019) 703–713 709

conducted at 50 °C. The indexes of stripping number and change


rate of rutting depth were used to evaluate the water stability of
asphalt mixture. The test results were shown in Figs. 8 and 9.
It can be seen from Fig. 8 that when the dosage of anti-stripping
agent increases from 0.5% to 0.6%, the rutting depth trend of
asphalt mixture tends to be gentle with the increase of rolling
number. This demonstrates that the water stability of asphalt mix-
ture improves as the dosage of anti-stripping agent increases
within a certain range. However, when the dosage of anti-
stripping agent continues to increase, the rutting depth of asphalt
mixture increases steeply, indicating that the dosage of anti-
stripping agent exceeds the optimum range. The final rolling num-
ber of asphalt mixture increases first and subsequently decreases
with the increase of anti-stripping agent dosage, and reaches peak
value when the dosage is 0.6%. After the dosage of anti-stripping
agent exceeds 0.6%, the final rolling number of asphalt mixture
decreases drastically. Fig. 10. Relationship of dynamic stability and rutting depth with anti-stripping
As shown in Fig. 9, the change rate of rutting depth decreases agent dosage.

first and then increases with the increase of anti-stripping agent


dosage. The stripping number of asphalt mixture increases first
3.3.2. Influence of dosage on rutting resistance of asphalt mixture
and then decreases as the dosage of anti-stripping agent increases.
The rutting test of asphalt mixture mixed with different dosages
When the dosage of anti-stripping agent exceeds 0.6%, the change
of anti-stripping agent A was carried out. The change of dynamic
rate of rutting depth increases rapidly and the stripping number
stability and rutting depth of asphalt mixture with the variation
decreases quickly. Therefore, the optimum dosage range of anti-
of anti-stripping agent dosage was shown in Fig. 10.
stripping agent A is recommended as 0.5–0.6% by weight of asphalt
Fig. 10 illustrates that the dynamic stability of asphalt mixture
based on the water stability of asphalt mixture.
increases first and then decreases with the increase of antis-
tripping agent dosage, and reaches peak value corresponding to
the dosage of 0.7%. The rutting depth of asphalt mixture decreases
first and then increases with the increase of anti-stripping agent
dosage. The rutting depth is smallest when the dosage is about
0.7%. Obviously, the addition of stripping agent A within a certain
dosage range will improve the high temperature performance of
asphalt mixture. But after the dosage exceeds a certain amount,
the rutting resistance of asphalt mixture will be adversely affected.
Therefore, based on the high temperature performance of asphalt
mixture, the dosage of anti-stripping agent A in salty and humid
environment should be less than 0.7% by weight of asphalt.

3.3.3. Influence of dosage on low temperature performance of asphalt


mixture
The low temperature bending test of asphalt mixture mixed
with different dosages of anti-stripping agent A was carried out.
The relationship between the index of low temperature bending
test and the dosage of anti-stripping agent was shown in Fig. 11.
As can be seen from Fig. 11, with the increase of the anti-
Fig. 8. Rutting depth of mixture added with different anti-stripping agent dosages. stripping agent dosage, the change law of maximum bending strain

Fig. 9. Relationship between water stability and anti-stripping agent dosage. Fig. 11. Relationship of low temperature index and anti-stripping agent dosage.
710 K. Zhang et al. / Construction and Building Materials 196 (2019) 703–713

of asphalt mixture is not obvious. In the dosage range of 0.5–0.9%, discrimination is high when the test temperature is below 40 °C.
the maximum bending strain of asphalt mixture increases and However, when the test temperature rises above 40 °C, the ITS val-
decreases alternately, but the variation range is small. In addition, ues of different asphalt mixture are getting close to each other, so it
the maximum bending strain of asphalt mixture can meet the is difficult to distinguish the influence of asphalt aggregate ratio on
requirement of related specification at each dosage, and the varia- ITS value of the mixture. To ensure the ITS of asphalt mixture have
tion of anti-stripping agent dosage has little influence on maxi- sufficient sensitivity and accuracy with the variation of asphalt
mum bending strain of asphalt mixture. The flexural tensile aggregate ratio, the test temperature of indirect tensile test should
strength increases first and then decreases with the increase of not be too high.
anti-stripping agent dosage, which gets peak value corresponding At different test temperatures, the ITS of asphalt mixture
to the dosage of 0.7%. Therefore, 0.5–0.7% by weight of asphalt is increases with the increase of loading rate. But the increasing trend
suggested as the optimum dosage range of anti-stripping agent A of ITS value is not consistent at different ranges of loading rate. At
on the basis of the low-temperature cracking resistance of asphalt the temperature of 20–40 °C, the ITS of asphalt mixture increases
mixture. sharply when the loading rate increases from 5 mm/min to
Following the principle of improving water stability of asphalt 20 mm/min. Then the ITS of asphalt mixture increases slowly with
mixture while taking into account the high and low temperature the increase of loading rate. When the temperature exceeds 50 °C,
performance, the optimum dosage range of anti-stripping agent the ITS of asphalt mixture increases sharply with the increase of
A in salty and humid environment is recommended as 0.5–0.6% loading rate. The ITS increases linearly within the whole range of
by weight of asphalt according to the influence of anti-stripping loading rate from slow to fast. Obviously, the appropriate test tem-
agent dosage on water stability, rutting resistance and low temper- perature and loading rate are important for analyzing the ITS of
ature performance of asphalt mixture. asphalt mixture.
Further, the ITS of asphalt mixture under different test condi-
tions all increases first and then decreases with the increase of
4. Design of optimum asphalt content in salty and humid
asphalt aggregate ratio. The ITS corresponding to various test con-
environment
ditions can reach peak value in the range of asphalt aggregate ratio.
The ITS has good sensitivity to the variation of asphalt aggregate
4.1. Results of indirect tensile test
ratio. The maximum ITS of asphalt mixture can be guaranteed
when the asphalt aggregate ratio is appropriate. This is because
The indirect tensile test was carried out by using universal test-
that the structural asphalt film cannot form completely on the sur-
ing machine at the temperatures of 20 °C, 30 °C, 40 °C, 50 °C and
face of aggregate when the asphalt content is low. With the
the loading rates of 5 mm/min, 20 mm/min, 50 mm/min respec-
increase of asphalt content, the area of structural asphalt film on
tively. The test results were shown in Table 7.
the surface of aggregate in the mixture gradually increases. At this
It can be seen from Table 7 that the test temperature has a sig-
time, the ITS of the mixture increases significantly with the
nificant influence on ITS of asphalt mixture. When the temperature
increase of asphalt content. The maximum value of ITS occurs
is lower, the ITS of asphalt mixture is larger, and the ITS of asphalt
when the asphalt content ensures the formation of structural
mixture gradually decreases with the increase of temperature. The
asphalt film on complete surface of aggregate. As the asphalt con-
ITS of asphalt mixture shows the same trend with the variation of
tent continues to increase, the free asphalt gradually generates
temperature at different loading rates. With the rise of test temper-
around structural asphalt film on the surface of aggregate. Then
ature, the difference in ITS values of the mixture with various
the ITS of asphalt mixture gradually decreases with the increase
asphalt aggregate ratios is not significant. Under this condition,
of free asphalt content. However, the asphalt content needed for
the influence of asphalt aggregate ratio on ITS of asphalt mixture
maximum value of ITS is not the same when the test conditions
gradually weakens. Specifically, the difference in ITS value of
are different, which indicates that the reasonable condition of indi-
asphalt mixture with various aggregate ratios is obvious and the
rect tensile test is important to the design of asphalt content.

Table 7 4.2. Determination of test condition based on water stability for


The ITS of mixtures under different test conditions kPa. indirect tensile test
Temperature/°C Asphalt aggregate ratio/% Loading rate/(mmmin1)
Starting from the water stability of asphalt mixture, the correla-
5 20 50
tion analysis of ITS under different test conditions and the TSR of
20 4.0 817.11 1000.05 1057.27
freeze-thaw splitting test was conducted to determine the appro-
4.5 867.33 1108.63 1137.69
5.0 759.01 1196.11 1283.69
priate condition of indirect tensile test suitable for the design
5.5 620.17 1064.53 1167.70 parameter of asphalt mixture in salty and humid environment.
6.0 530.29 962.55 1044.89 According to the requirement of China’s current specification
30 4.0 326.49 518.53 577.57 (JTG E20-2011), the freeze-thaw splitting test of asphalt mixture
4.5 370.87 568.35 601.97 with asphalt aggregate ratio of 4.0%, 4.5%, 5.0%, 5.5% and 6.0%
5.0 387.23 624.14 623.50 was carried out. The relationship between ITS of asphalt mixture
5.5 364.14 507.33 605.53
under different test conditions with TSR was shown in Fig. 12.
6.0 311.64 493.19 573.21
Fig. 12 illustrates that the correlations between ITS of asphalt
40 4.0 200.06 329.68 371.80
mixture under different test conditions with TSR are different,
4.5 211.50 383.67 405.59
5.0 284.62 374.51 375.52 and the difference between each other is obvious. Among different
5.5 262.88 335.81 371.98 test conditions, the linear correlation of ITS and TSR is highest when
6.0 245.58 301.92 335.94 the test temperature is 40 °C and loading rate is 5 mm/min, which
50 4.0 145.84 205.34 190.73 reaches above 0.98. Under this test condition, the TSR of asphalt
4.5 153.97 218.96 278.62 mixture gradually increases with the increase of ITS. Namely, the
5.0 157.37 216.56 252.88
larger the ITS of asphalt mixture under appropriate condition, the
5.5 155.28 199.24 239.05
6.0 148.16 197.43 238.83
stronger the resistance to water damage in salty and humid envi-
ronment. The ITS under suitable test condition can reflect the mois-
K. Zhang et al. / Construction and Building Materials 196 (2019) 703–713 711

ture susceptibility of asphalt mixture. Shi et al. [32,33] also studied optimum asphalt content of the mixture is designed based on ITS
the influence of chloride salt solution on the ITS of asphalt mixture. in combination with the volume indexes of Marshall Design
It was found that the ITS in the weakest deicer solutions is greater Method. The specific steps are as follows:
than the specimens conditioned with water. The index of ITS was
used to determine the dosage of additives such as nanoclad and (1) Draw the figure of relationship between asphalt aggregate
carbon microfiber for asphalt mixture. The addition of nanoclay ratio and the indexes of asphalt mixture (bulk density, ITS,
and carbon microfiber would improve the mixture’s moisture sus- Marshall stability, void ratio, voids filled with asphalt
ceptibility performance. Such benefits are especially significant (VFA) and voids in mineral aggregate (VMA)), as shown in
when the asphalt mixture is conditioned in water or chloride- Fig. 13.
based deicer solutions. In the paper, the optimal asphalt content (2) Take the asphalt aggregate ratio corresponding to maximum
based on the index of ITS under suitable test condition can guaran- bulk density as a1, the asphalt aggregate ratio corresponding
tee the water stability of asphalt mixture in salty and humid to target void ratio as a2, the asphalt aggregate ratio corre-
environment. sponding to median value of VFA as a3, the asphalt aggregate
In short, the test condition of 40 °C and 5 mm/min can ensure ratio corresponding to maximum ITS as a4. Calculate the ini-
that the index of ITS is sensitive to the variation of asphalt content, tial value of optimum asphalt aggregate ratio of the mixture
and the correlation between ITS and TSR of asphalt mixture is good. according to the following Equation:
The temperature of 40 °C and loading rate of 5 mm/min are recom-
mended as appropriate test condition for indirect tensile test. The
ITS under this condition is proposed as mechanical parameter for
OAC1 ¼ ða1 þ a2 þ a3 þ a4 Þ=4 ¼ 4:90%
the design of optimum asphalt content, which ensures the asphalt
mixture based on ITS resist the corrosion of salty and humid envi- (3) Read out the variation range of asphalt aggregate ratio for
ronment better. each index of asphalt mixture (without VMA) that meets
the requirement of specification. Calculate the average value
4.3. Design of optimum asphalt content based on ITS of OACmin and OACmax as OAC2 in accordance with the fol-
lowing Equation:
With reference to the requirement of Chinese specification (JTG
F40-2004), the ITS under the test condition of 40 °C and 5 mm/min OAC2 ¼ ðOACmin þ OACmax Þ=2 ¼ 4:65%
is selected to replace the stability of asphalt mixture. Then the

Fig. 12. Relationship between ITS and TSR of asphalt mixture.


712 K. Zhang et al. / Construction and Building Materials 196 (2019) 703–713

Fig. 13. Relationship between indexes of mixture and asphalt aggregate ratio.

(4) Take the median value of OAC1 and OAC2 as optimum mixture can resist the corrosion effect of salty and humid environ-
asphalt aggregate ratio of the mixture based on the index ment better.
of ITS, then OAC = 4.78%
In Fig. 12(c), the peak value of Marshall Stability does not occur 5. Conclusions
within the variation range of asphalt aggregate ratio. If the opti-
mum asphalt aggregate ratio is determined by traditional Marshall An improved boiling water test was put forward to analyze the
Design method, OAC01 = a2 = 4.70%. Then the optimum asphalt adhesion between asphalt and aggregate quantitatively. The
aggregate ratio designed by Marshall Method is OAC = (OAC01 details are as follows: (1) 5% NaCl solution is selected to replace
+ OAC2)/2 = 4.68%. pure water to simulate the effect of salty and humid environment.
Compared with the optimum asphalt content determined by (2) The image acquisition system for aggregate (IASA) is developed
different methods, the optimum asphalt content based on ITS is to achieve high-quality image. (3) The 10-level grading standard is
slightly larger than that designed by conventional Marshall proposed to distinguish the difference of adhesion grade between
Method. The conception of design method for optimum asphalt asphalt and aggregate.
content based on ITS is clear. The design index of ITS starts directly The anti-stripping agents of P, H, A and T can improve the adhe-
from the water stability of asphalt mixture, which ensures the sion between asphalt and aggregate in salty and humid environ-
asphalt mixture have large cohesive force. Therefore, the asphalt ment before aging, but the performance of anti-stripping agent H
K. Zhang et al. / Construction and Building Materials 196 (2019) 703–713 713

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