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Lab Report

Experiment 1:

Equilibrium of Rigid Body.

Name :

ID :

Name :

ID :

Program : BMEGI

Course Code : EGR2214

Session : August 2018

Lecturer :

1|Page

Tables of Contents

Content Page

Introduction 3

Theory 4

Objective 5 & 11

Discussion 9 & 17

Conclusion 10 & 18

References 19

2|Page

1.0 Introduction

To understand the forces in any structure, engineers must understand how forces work

against each other. In this experiment, loads are tied to a series of strings bounded by a ring in

the middle and hung from a magnetic pulley with the angles at which the strings wrap around

the pulley is measured.

Upon calculation of the Fx and Fy components, the resultant force can be determined

and if the resultant force is close to the value zero, it indicates that the system is at equilibrium

as it abides by Newton’s First Law of Motion. The data obtained will be used to draw a free

body diagram to further proof the theory and determine if the resultant force calculated matches

the resultant force on the free body diagram. From this experiment, students learn the correct

method to set up a proper experiment to determine the equilibrium of a rigid body. This

experiment uses cords, magnetic protectors, pulley and masses to show concurrent and non-

concurrent coplanar forces and the condition needed to achieve equilibrium.

3|Page

1.1 Theory

force diagram utilize the magnitude of one force as it

starting line and then sum up the magnitudes of the

other two so that they could fit into a triangle. By

using the simple geometrical scale drawing,

magnitude of the unknown force can be found

without hassle. For instance, if we are able to

determine the Fc and Fa, we can use the simple

drawing skill to find the force Fb. Furthermore, when

all points of a force diagram meet up, it is proven that the forces are in equilibrium. In addition,

for more than three forces – a ‘force polygon’, to draw the force diagram can be tedious without

a compact numbering system and direction. Moreover, when the forces all pulled from one

same point, they are said to be concurrent. On the other hand, when the forces do not all pull

on the same point, they are said to be concurrent. Therefore, when the forces do not all pull on

the same point, they are said to be non-concurrent.

Generally, the theory for this experiment is about a particle will be in equilibrium

provided it remains stationary or has a constant velocity if originally in motion. To maintain

the equilibrium state, it is required that the resultant force acting on a particle must be equal to

zero. To simplify, Newton’s law of motion stated that

F 0 , where F is the vector sum of all forces acting on the particle. In order to apply

the equation of the equilibrium, we have to know the known and unknown forces which act on

the particle. A free-body diagram is a tool that will help to determine the forces acting on the

particle. A free body diagram is also means simply a sketch which shows the particle ‘free’

from its surrounding with all the forces that act on it. Here are three main steps:

1. Firstly, draw the outlined shape. Draw the particle at any point that is to be isolated and

free from the factors of surrounding.

2. Secondly, show all of the forces acting on the particle.

3. Thirdly, start to identify each forces. The forces which are known should be labelled

with appropriate magnitudes and directions. Letters or numberings can be used to

represent the directions and magnitudes of forces that are unknown.

4|Page

A. Experiment Force Triangle Beam Part A

2.0 Objectives

1. To show how to predict an unknown force in a force triangle using graphical (scale

drawing)

2. To prove that the force diagram should all meet up correctly for coplanar concurrent

forces in equilibrium

3.0 Methodology

Work Panel similar to the picture shown beside.

2. Secondly, hook 2 cords over the magnetic pulleys and attach load son each of their ends.

Attach a weight hanger to the third cord and slowly add weight so that the forces create

a ‘Y’ shape. Keep adding weights to the bottom weight hanger. At that moment,

remember to not count these weights yet.

5|Page

6|Page

7|Page

4.0 Results Analysis

Based on the Force diagram method mentioned in the Lab Manual, the results are as below:

Force Experimental Value, Theoretical Value, N Percentage of

N error, %

1. As mentioned in the lab report, we have to draw the free body diagram and label each

forces with magnitudes and directions following the result we have obtained. To make

it consistent, 1 cm is equal to 0.1 N. The table above shows three different result through

varying the angle and force acting (adding the mass). Based on the drawing, we are able

to determine the Fc.

2. Fc experimental value are calculated from the drawing whereas Fc theoretical value is

equal to the W = mg. In this experiment, the gravitational acceleration g that we used

is 10 m/s^2 instead of 9.81 m/s^2.

3. From the first drawing, Fc value is 0.46 N and the theoretical value is 0.4 N where there

is 15 % of error.

4. Furthermore, from the second drawing, the Fc value is 0.31 N and the theoretical value

is 0.30 N with presence of 3.33 % of error.

5. Lastly, based on the third drawing, we are able to determine that the Fc value is 0.19 N

with only 5.00 % of error.

8|Page

5.0 Discussion

To determine if the rigid body is at equilibrium, a series of load is attached to the string and

suspended freely along the pulley system. The angle at which the load suspends is measured

using a magnetic protractor. Once the data is collected, a triangle is drawn according to the

measurement by letting 0.1N of load equivalent to 1cm. The resultant force (FR) when drawn

has to be approximately the same with the resultant force of the pulley system which is set up

experimentally to prove that the system is indeed in an equilibrium state. If the measurement

does not tally with the resultant force obtained from the experiment conducted, thus, the system

is not at equilibrium.

The percentage error upon calculation is quite high when compared to theoretical value due to

human error when handling and conducting the experiment.

Random errors

1) The angles measured may not be accurate as a variation in eye level can affect the angles

obtained tremendously.

2) The placement of the set up may not be exactly as shown in the lab manual and may add up

to the percentage of error and lesser accurate measurements.

3) The sensitivity of the protractor is low as the scales only measure every 5°and may come

with some manufacturing defects thus, enabling us to obtain a more precise measurement.

4) The weight of the load hanger is not taken into consideration as the weight can be considered

negligible however, may add to the percentage of error obtained. This is because the load

hanger may have different weight due to manufacturing defect and also replacement of the

hanger in not made in a set but individual replacement hence, the weight might vary.

Precautions:

1) The magnetic pulley has a strong attraction force thus, when placing the magnets, watch

out for your fingers to avoid unnecessary injuries.

2) Be careful when placing the load onto the hanger as any misplacement may cause the

load to slide off and might cause unwanted injuries.

3) Make sure students are well dressed according to the assigned dress code and wearing

fully-covered footwear at all times in the lab to avoid injury related incidents.

9|Page

6.0 Conclusions

1. The unknown forces in a force triangle are able to be predicted correctly using a

graphical scale drawing.

2. The force diagram has all meet up correctly for coplanar concurrent forces in

equilibrium.

3. The forces are all pulled from one point, therefore they are said to be concurrent.

4. A body (or any part of it) which is currently stationary will remain stationary if the

resultant force and resultant moment are zero for all the forces and couples applied on

it.

5. Use a better protractor for example; the 505P-7 Miter Saw Protractor where the scales

provided are highly sensitive and laser engrave hence, maximizing the accuracy of the

angles measured.

10 | P a g e

A. Experiment Forces Polygons - Part B

2.1 Objectives

2. To prove that the forces in a force diagram should all meet up correctly for coplanar

concurrent forces in equilibrium.

3. To prove that the link polygon method works for coplanar non-concurrent forces in

equilibrium.

Methodology

1. Repeat experiment Part A, but use four or more cords attach to one ring and additional

weights or spring balance and confirm that the theory shown in Figure works

correctly.

rings with a short cord between them and two magnetic

protractor and additional weights or spring balance.

11 | P a g e

12 | P a g e

13 | P a g e

14 | P a g e

4.1 Result Analysis

Based on the Polygon of forces method mentioned in the Lab Report, the result are as below:

Concurrent Force

Force Experimental Value, Theoretical Value, N Percentage of

N error, %

1. Fd 0.86 0.60 46.69

1. As mentioned in the lab report, we have to draw the free body diagram and label each

forces with magnitudes and directions following the result we have obtained. To make

it consistent, 1 cm is equal to 0.1 N. The table above shows three different result through

varying the angle and force acting (adding the mass). We pick Fd as the force that we

need to find.

2. Fd experimental value are calculated from the drawing whereas Fd theoretical value is

equal to the W = mg. In this experiment, the gravitational acceleration g that we used

is 10 m/s^2 instead of 9.81 m/s^2.

3. From the first drawing, Fd value is 0.88 N and the theoretical value is 0.60 N where

there is 46.67 % of error.

4. Furthermore, from the second drawing, the Fd value is 1.05 N and the theoretical value

is 0.80 N with presence of 31.25 % of error.

5. Lastly, based on the third drawing, we are able to determine that the Fd value is 0.91 N

with 51.67 % of error compared to the theoretical value 0.60 N.

15 | P a g e

Non-concurrent Force

N error, %

1. Fc 0.13 0.10 40.00

1. As mentioned in the lab report, we have to draw the free body diagram and label each

forces with magnitudes and directions following the result we have obtained. To make

it consistent, 1 cm is equal to 0.1 N. The table above shows three different result through

varying the angle and force acting (adding the mass). We pick Fc as the force that we

need to find.

2. Fc experimental value are calculated from the drawing whereas Fc theoretical value is

equal to the W = mg. In this experiment, the gravitational acceleration g that we used

is 10 m/s^2 instead of 9.81 m/s^2.

3. From the first drawing, Fc value is 0.14 N and the theoretical value is 0.10 N where

there is 40.00 % of error.

4. Furthermore, from the second drawing, the Fc value is 0.33 N and the theoretical value

is 0.30 N with presence of 10.00 % of error.

5. Lastly, based on the third drawing, we are able to determine that the Fc value is 0.24 N

with 20.00 % of error compared to the theoretical value 0.20 N.

16 | P a g e

5.1 Discussion

The percentage error is significantly high when compared to the theoretical value and may be

caused by random errors. The data obtained may not be valid to proof the theory for the

experiment where the resultant force drawn should be relatively similar with the calculated

value to be considered a valid result.

1) The way of setting up the experiment may be incorrect to determine the unknown force of

the polygon. Wrong set up of the experiment will drastically affect the result and cause high

percentage of error as certain way of set up may contradict with the law of equilibrium thus,

not applicable.

2) The method of determining the unknown force of the polygon by drawing are subjected to

error as the drawing method may be incorrect and also human error when trying to draw a

polygon with precise measurements and angles.

Understanding equilibrium of a rigid body and methods to discover the unknown force is vital

for an engineering before constructing or placing any object as it may harm the life of others if

not calculated correctly.

For Example:

driving tour designated location. The placement of a traffic light

must not be randomly placed and any height and hanging at angles

based on a technicians favourability. Thus, as an engineer, we

must know the forces or the tensions acting on the cable in order

to support the traffic light which can be said W = mg. We have to

ensure the angles are at the right order to support the weight of the

traffic light and hence, having the ability to determine the

unknown force of a polygon will come in handy when dealing with

more complex traffic system.

17 | P a g e

6.1 Conclusions

1. Link polygon method works for the coplanar non-concurrent forces in equilibrium.

2. The forces are said to be concurrent as they all pulled from one point.

3. Based on the experiment procedure-concurrent forces, the forces in the force diagram

meet up correctly for the coplanar concurrent forces in equilibrium.

4. Based on the experiment procedure – non concurrent forces, for some of the forces that

do not pull on the same point, they are said to be non-concurrent.

5. A body (or any part of it) which is currently stationary will remain stationary if the

resultant force and resultant moment are zero for all the forces and couples applied on

it.

6. Use a better protractor for example; the 505P-7 Miter Saw Protractor where the scales

provided are highly sensitive and laser engrave hence, maximizing the accuracy of the

angles measured.

18 | P a g e

7.0 References list

amazon.com/images/I/51btSmvO8CL.jpg

2. Hibbler, Yap, 2013, Mechanics for Engineers Statics Thirteenth Edition, Pearson.

[ONLINE] Available at:

http://www.ae.msstate.edu/vlsm/non_con_force/non_concurrent_forces/equilibrium.ht

m. [Accessed 01 October 2015].

http://emweb.unl.edu/NEGAHBAN/EM223/note11/note11.htm. [Accessed 01

October 2015].

Equilibrium of a Rigid Body. [ONLINE] Available at:

http://www.ae.msstate.edu/vlsm/non_con_force/non_concurrent_forces/equilibrium.ht

m. [Accessed 01 October 2015].

[ONLINE] Available at:

http://www.physics.louisville.edu/cldavis/phys298/notes/equilibrium.html. [Accessed

01 October 2015].

19 | P a g e

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