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Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome

William E. Dunstan

ROWMAN & LITTLEFIELD PUBLISHERS, INC.

Lanham Boulder New York Toronto Plymouth, UK

Published by Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. A wholly owned subsidiary of The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc. 4501 Forbes Boulevard, Suite 200, Lanham, Maryland 20706 http://www.rowmanlittlefield.com

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Copyright 2011 by Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. All maps by Bill Nelson.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval systems, without written permission from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote passages in a review.

The cover image shows a marble bust of the nymph Clytie; for more information, see figure 22.17 on p. 370.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Information Available

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Dunstan, William E. Ancient Rome / William E. Dunstan. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7 (cloth : alk. paper)

ISBN 978-0-7425-6833-4 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN 978-0-7425-6834-1 (electronic) 1. Rome—Civilization. 2. Rome—History—Empire, 30 B.C.–476 A.D. 3. Rome—Politics and government—30 B.C.–476 A.D. I. Title. DG77.D86 2010

937 .06—dc22

2010016225

The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI/ NISO Z39.48–1992.

Printed in the United States of America

Brief Contents

List of Illustrations

xxiii

 

Preface

xxxi

Acknowledgments

xxxiii

1.

Early Italy

1

2.

Origins of Rome

19

3.

The Young Republic

41

4.

Roman Conquest of Italy

53

5.

Duel with Carthage

64

6.

Roman Conquest of the Mediterranean World

79

7.

Impact of Overseas Conquests on the Senatorial Oligarchy

91

8.

Impact of Overseas Conquests on the Economic and Social Organization of Italy

98

9.

Greek Cultural Influences on Rome

113

10.

Rival Conceptions of State and Society Plague Roman Politics: From the Gracchi to the Social War

136

11.

Sulla

151

12.

Pompey and Caesar

157

13.

Antony and Octavian Wrestle for Empire: Final Dissolution of the Old Republican Order

183

14.

Economic, Social, and Cultural Climate of the Late Republic

198

15.

Augustus and the Founding of the Roman Empire

220

16.

Augustan Social and Religious Policy

242

17.

Augustan Art and Literature and the Augustan Legacy

249

18.

From Tiberius to Nero: The Julio-Claudian Dynasty

277

19.

From Vespasian to Domitian: The Flavian Dynasty

299

20.

From Nerva to Marcus Aurelius: The Five Good Emperors

310

21.

Government, Economy, and Society in the First and Second Centuries

330

22.

Architecture and Sculpture in the First and Second Centuries

344

23.

Literature in the First and Second Centuries

374

24.

Commodus and the Severan Dynasty

394

25.

Third-Century Imperial Crisis and First Phase of Recovery

412

26.

Reorganization of Diocletian and Constantine

424

v

vi

BR IEF CONTENTS

27. Last Years of the United Empire

444

28. Society and Culture in the Later Empire

453

29. Rise of Christianity

469

30. Christian Triumph and Controversy

482

31. Dismemberment of the Roman Empire in the West

513

Epilogue: The Thousand-Year Survival of the Roman Empire in the East

524

Timeline of Political and Cultural Developments

535

Bibliography

547

Index

563

About the Author

597

Contents

List of Illustrations

xxiii

Preface

xxxi

Acknowledgments

xxxiii

1. Early Italy

1

Physical Environment

2

The Land

2

Climate and Agricultural Resources

4

Mineral Resources

5

Pre-Roman Background

5

The Remote Past

5

Early Iron Age

5

Languages of Pre-Roman Italy

6

Peoples Inhabiting Early Italy

6

Etruscans

7

Etruscan City-States

9

Etruscan Expansion

10

Etruscan Civilization

10

Economic Trends

10

Social Life

12

Religion

12

Art and Architecture

13

The Etruscan Legacy

18

2. Origins of Rome

19

Literary Sources for the History of Early Rome

19

Legends, Folktales, and Official Records

19

The Annalists and Later Historians

20

The Foundation Legend

20

Archaeological Evidence for the Beginnings of Rome

21

Early Occupation (c. 1500–700 BCE)

21

Emergence of the Roman City-State (c. 700–600 BCE)

22

Roman Kings

23

vii

viii

CONTENTS

Roman Government in the Late Regal Period

24

The King (Rex)

2

4

The Senate (Senatus)

2

4

The Curiate Assembly (Comitia Curiata)

2

5

The Army

25

The Centuriate Assembly (Comitia Centuriata)

26

Roman Social Organization in the Late Regal Period

26

The Paterfamilias and the Family

26

The Gens

27

Roman Names

27

Patricians

28

Clientage

28

Cultural Developments in the Late Regal Period

29

Early Roman Religion

29

Magic and Associated Rites

30

Deities

31

Etruscan and Greek Influences on the State Cult

34

Early Roman Worship

35

Chief Priesthoods

36

Cycle of Public Festivals

38

Festivals for the Dead

39

The Values of Early Roman Society

40

3. The Young Republic

41

Sources for the Period to 133 BCE

41

Greek and Latin Histories

41

Other Sources

42

Constitution of the Early Republic

43

The Magistracy

43

The Senate

44

The Curiate Assembly (Comitia Curiata) and the Centuriate Assembly (Comitia Centuriata)

45

Conflict of the Orders

46

Patricians and Plebeians

46

The First Secession

46

The Decemvirate and the Twelve Tables

47

Post-Decemviral Developments and Magistracies

48

Alteration in the Composition of the Governing Class

49

Development of the Tribal Assembly (Comitia Tributa)

5 1

Career of Appius Claudius Caecus

51

The Hortensian Law (Lex Hortensia)

52

4. Roman Conquest of Italy

53

Conflicts with Immediate Neighbors (c. 509–396 BCE)

53

Defensive Alliance Concluded with the Latin League (493 BCE)

53

Wars with the Aequi and Volsci (c. 500–406 BCE)

55

Conquest of Veii (c. 406–396 BCE)

55

Gallic Sack of Rome (c. 390 BCE)

56

CONTENTS

ix

Vigorous Roman Recovery and Continuing Advances in Central Italy

57

Additional Conflicts with Neighbors (389–338 BCE)

57

Final Struggle with the Latins: The Latin War (341–338 BCE)

57

Roman System for Ruling Conquered Italian Communities

58

Rome Becomes the Leading Power in Italy through the Samnite Wars

58

First Samnite War (343–341 BCE)

59

Renewed Roman Alliance with the Samnites (341 BCE)

59

Second Samnite War (326–304 BCE)

59

Third Samnite War (298–290 BCE)

60

Rome Completes the Conquest of Northern and Central Italy by Defeating the Gauls and Etruscans (285–264 BCE)

61

Invasion of Pyrrhus and the Roman Unification of Italy (280–264 BCE)

61

Reasons for Roman Success in Italy

62

Roman Rule in Italy

63

5. Duel with Carthage

64

Carthage

64

Development of the Carthaginian State

64

Carthaginian Religion

66

The Punic Wars: Carthage or Rome?

67

First Punic War (264–241 BCE)

67

Interval between the First and Second Punic Wars (241–218 BCE)

70

Second Punic War (218–201 BCE)

73

6. Roman Conquest of the Mediterranean World

79

Roman Expansion in the East (200–133 BCE)

80

Souring Relations with Philip V and Antiochus III

80

Second Macedonian War (200–196 BCE)

81

War with Antiochus III and the Aetolians (192–189 BCE)

82

Greece and Macedonia Drawn Deeper into the Shadow of Rome (188–171 BCE)

83

Third Macedonian War (171–167 BCE)

84

Rome Reduces the Hellenistic East to Client States and Provinces (168–133 BCE)

84

Roman Expansion in the West (200–133 BCE)

87

Subjugation of Cisalpine Gaul (c. 200–172 BCE)

87

Spanish Wars (197–133 BCE)

88

Third Punic War (149–146 BCE)

88

7. Impact of Overseas Conquests on the Senatorial Oligarchy

91

Rule of the Senatorial Oligarchy

91

Power of the Senate

91

Nobles Dominate the Government

92

Constitutional Changes in the Assemblies and Magistracies

93

Polybius’ Theory of a Mixed Roman Constitution

95

Administration of the Provinces

95

Roman Governors

96

x

CONTENTS

Taxation

96

Abuses in the Provinces

97

8. Impact of Overseas Conquests on the Economic and Social Organization of Italy

98

Coinage

98

Signs of Vastly Increased Upper-Class Wealth

100

Transformation of Agriculture

100

Urban Growth and the City Mob

101

Changes in Trade and Commerce

101

Rise of the Wealthiest Business Class: Transformation of the Equites

102

Members of the Ruling Elite Enjoy New Standards of Luxury

103

Daily Life

103

Advancement of Aristocratic Women

103

Meals and Clothing

104

Measuring Time

107

The Calendar

107

Games, Athletics, and Circuses

108

Marriage and Divorce

108

Homosexuality

109

Death and Burial

110

9. Greek Cultural Influences on Rome

113

The Scipionic Circle

113

Changes in Roman Education

114

Rise of Latin Literature

115

Early Poets and Dramatists at Rome

115

Writers of Roman Comedy

116

Writers of Prose

117

Philosophy

118

Skepticism

118

Stoicism

118

Epicureanism

119

Religion

119

Greek and Other Foreign Influences

119

Architecture

121

Materials and Techniques of Construction

122

Forms of Public Architecture

123

Forms of Domestic Architecture

126

Rome the City

129

Art

131

Sculpture

131

Painting

132

Roman Streets and Roads

133

Law

133

Development of Roman Private Law

133

The Ius Gentium and the Ius Naturale

135

CONTENTS

xi

10. Rival Conceptions of State and Society Plague Roman Politics: From the Gracchi to the Social War

136

Sources for the Period 133 to 27 BCE

137

Tribunate of Tiberius Gracchus (133 BCE)

138

The Tribunate as an Instrument for Change

139

Between Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus (132–124 BCE)

140

The Land Commission Remains Loyal to Gracchan Principles

140

Discontent among the Italian Allies

140

Tribunates of Gaius Gracchus (123–122 BCE)

141

Legislation of Gaius Gracchus: A Shift in Emphasis

141

Anti-Gracchans Prevail (122–121 BCE)

142

Influence of the Gracchi on Roman History

143

In the Shadow of the Gracchi

144

Rival Political Routes to Power: Optimates and Populares

144

Conquest and Colonization outside Italy

144

Rise and Eclipse of Marius (107–100 BCE)

145

Jugurthine War (111–105 BCE)

145

War with the Cimbri and the Teutones (105–101 BCE)

146

Another Sicilian Slave Revolt (104–99 BCE)

148

Marius’ Eclipse (100 BCE)

148

Tribunate of Livius Drusus (91 BCE)

149

Social War (91–88 BCE)

149

11. Sulla

151

Sulla Rises through Warfare Abroad and Violence at Home (89–82 BCE)

151

Mithridates Threatens Roman Power in the East (89–87 BCE)

151

Sulla Takes Command against Mithridates (88 BCE)

152

Cinna’s Rule (87–84 BCE)

153

Sulla Defeats Mithridates (87–85 BCE)

154

Sulla Conquers Italy in a Full-Scale Civil War (83–82 BCE)

154

Sulla Exterminates His Enemies (82 BCE)

155

Sulla’s Dictatorship and Legacy (82–78 BCE)

155

Changes in Roman Political Machinery

155

Retirement and Death of Sulla (79–78 BCE)

156

12. Pompey and Caesar

157

Rise of Pompey the Great (78–60 BCE)

157

Revolt of Lepidus (78–77 BCE)

157

Command against Sertorius in Spain (77–71 BCE)

158

Command of Lucullus against Mithridates (74–66 BCE)

158

Crassus and the War against Spartacus (73–71 BCE)

159

First Joint Consulship of Pompey and Crassus (70 BCE)

160

Cicero’s Prosecution of Verres (70 BCE)

160

Pompey Defeats the Pirates and Enjoys Successes in the East (67–62 BCE)

161

Maneuverings of Crassus and Caesar (66–63 BCE)

163

Catilinarian Conspiracy (63 BCE)

164

xii

CONTENTS

Cicero’s Hope for Concord of the Orders

165

Pompey’s Return and the Aftermath (62–61 BCE)

166

Rise of Caesar (60–52 BCE)

166

Formation of the ‘‘First Triumvirate’’ (60 BCE)

166

Caesar’s First Consulship (59 BCE)

167

Banishment of Cicero (58 BCE)

168

Caesar’s Initial Conquests in Non-Roman Gaul (58–56 BCE)

168

Changes in the Political Climate at Rome (58–56 BCE)

170

Caesar Continues the Gallic Wars (56–51 BCE)

171

Caesar’s Appearance and Personality

172

Rivalry of Pompey and Caesar (54–49 BCE)

172

Deaths of Julia and Crassus (54–53 BCE)

172

Pompey Appointed Sole Consul (52 BCE)

173

Slide to Civil War (52–49 BCE)

174

Civil War Campaigns (49–45 BCE)

175

Caesar Conquers Italy and Spain (49 BCE)

175

Caesar’s Second Consulship (48 BCE)

175

Caesar Invades Greece, Egypt, and Asia (48–47 BCE)

176

Ending of the Civil War (47–46 BCE)

177

Caesar’s Activity as Dictator (46–44 BCE)

178

Comprehensive Reorganization

179

Reform of the Calendar

180

Assassination of Julius Caesar (March 15, 44 BCE)

181

13. Antony and Octavian Wrestle for Empire: Final Dissolution of the Old Republican Order

183

Aftermath of Caesar’s Assassination (44–43 BCE)

183

Antony’s Bid for Power (44 BCE)

183

Octavian Offers Opposition (44–43 BCE)

184

Triumphal Period (43–30 BCE)

186

Triumvirate Formed (43 BCE)

186

Proscriptions and Political Developments (43–42 BCE)

187

Conclusive Republican Defeat: Philippi (42 BCE)

187

Division of the Roman Provinces (42 BCE)

188

Antony Begins Reorganizing the Eastern Provinces (41 BCE)

189

Octavian Gradually Secures the West (41–33 BCE)

189

Antony’s Policies in the East (41–33 BCE)

192

Impending Conflict and Renewed Civil War (33–30 BCE)

194

14. Economic, Social, and Cultural Climate of the Late Republic

198

Economic and Social Life in Italy and the Provinces

198

Contrasts in Agriculture

198

Manufacturing and Commercial Enterprises

199

Equestrian and Senatorial Wealth

200

Existence for the Rural and Urban Population

201

Slaves and Freedmen

202

Italians and Provincials

203

Women of the Ruling and Lower Classes

203

CONTENTS

xiii

New Directions in Thought, Art, and Architecture

205

Acceleration of Hellenization

205

Education and Schools

206

Law and the Administration of Justice

206

Roman Religion and the Outside World

207

Appeal of Greek Philosophy

209

Art and Architecture

211

Latin Literary Contributions of the Ciceronian Age

213

Poetry

213

History and Related Studies

214

Scholarship

216

Cicero’s Lucid and Extensive Writings

217

15. Augustus and the Founding of the Roman Empire

220

Sources for the Period 27 BCE to 14 CE

220

Octavian Becomes the First Roman Emperor: Transformation of the Republic into the Principate

221

First Settlement of the Principate (27 BCE)

221

Second Settlement of the Principate (23 BCE)

223

Consolidation of the Principate (23–2 BCE)

223

Augustan Political System

224

Social Distinctions

224

Augustus and the Senate

224

Augustus as Lawmaker

225

Administration of Justice

226

Creation of an Imperial Bureaucracy

226

Senatorial Branch of the Civil Service

226

Equestrian Branch of the Civil Service

227

Freedmen and Slaves in the Imperial Administration

228

Ordinary Roman Citizens Experience Weakened Political Influence

229

Imperial Finances

229

Administration of Rome and Italy

230

Augustus Reorganizes the Army and the Navy

232

First Branch of the Army: The Legions

232

Second Branch of the Army: The Auxiliary Forces

234

Third Branch of the Army: The Praetorian Guard

234

The Imperial Navy

235

Augustus’ Empire Building: New Frontiers and Provinces

235

The Western Frontier: Spain and Gaul

236

The Northern Frontier: Alpine and Danubian Regions

237

The Eastern Frontier and the Parthian Problem

238

The Southern Frontier: North Africa and Egypt

240

Summary of Roman Provinces at the Close of Augustus’ Reign

240

Arteries of Travel, Trade, and Communication

240

16. Augustan Social and Religious Policy

242

Concern over Falling Upper-Class Birthrate

242

xiv

CONTENTS

Augustan Social Legislation

243

Laws on Adultery and Marriage

243

Laws on Manumission

244

Augustan Religious Policy

244

Encouragement of Traditional Public Religion

244

Transformation of Priesthoods and Erection of Temples

245

Secular Games of 17 BCE

245

Growth of an Imperial Cult: The Emperor as a God

246

Augustan Ideology of Peace

247

17. Augustan Art and Literature and the Augustan Legacy

249

Architecture

249

The Capitol and the Roman Forum

250

The Forum of Augustus

252

The Palatine and the Campus Martius

254

Agrippa’s Building Program

258

Art

259

Portraiture

259

Luxury Items

260

Painting

261

Mosaics

264

Augustan Poets

264

Virgil

265

Horace

266

Propertius, Tibullus, and Sulpicia

268

Ovid

269

Latin Historians and Other Prose Writers of the Augustan Age

270

Pollio

270

Augustus

270

Livy

271

Vitruvius

271

Greek Historians and Other Prose Writers of the Augustan Age

272

Diodorus Siculus and Dionysius of Halicarnassus

272

Nicolaus of Damascus, Timagenes of Alexandria, and Strabo

272

Augustus Endeavors to Arrange the Succession

273

Role of Julia as Surrogate Heir Provider

273

The Candidates

274

Death and Legacy of Augustus

275

18. From Tiberius to Nero: The Julio-Claudian Dynasty

277

Sources for the Period 14 to 180 CE

277

The Julio-Claudian and Flavian Dynasties (14–96 CE)

277

The Five Good Emperors (96–180 CE)

278

The Julio-Claudian Emperors (14–68 CE)

279

Tiberius (14–37 CE)

280

Campaigns and Activities of Germanicus (14–19 CE)

280

Sejanus and the Power Vacuum (16–31 CE)

281

Tiberius’ Absence Damages the Integrity of the Senate

283

CONTENTS

xv

Tiberius as Administrator

284

Last Years (31–37 CE)

284

Caligula (Gaius) (37–41 CE)

285

Signs of Despotism

285

Foreign and Provincial Policies

286

Assassination (41 CE)

286

Claudius (41–54 CE)

287

Expansion of the Bureaucracy

287

Expansion of the Empire

288

Claudius and the Senate

289

Claudius and His Wives Messalina and Agrippina

289

Nero (54–68 CE)

290

Administration of Seneca and Burrus (54–62)

290

Nero Takes the Helm (59–62)

291

Outbreak of Fire in Rome and the Aftermath (64)

292

Conspiracy of Piso (65)

293

Nero’s Tour of Greece (66–67)

294

Major Crises Touching the Empire

294

Power Passes from Nero to Galba (68)

296

Anarchy and Civil War: The Long Year of the Four Emperors (68–69 CE)

297

Galba (June 68–January 69)

297

Otho (January–April 69)

297

Vitellius (April–December 69)

298

Power Passes to Vespasian (December 69)

298

19. From Vespasian to Domitian: The Flavian Dynasty

299

Vespasian (69–79)

299

Restoration of Peace in the Provinces (69–73)

300

Restoration of Army Discipline

301

Strategic Provincial Reorganization

302

Modification of the Composition of the Senate and Expansion of the Imperial Administration

302

Financial Reorganization

302

Building Projects and Teaching Endowments

303

Opposition to Vespasian

303

Vespasian’s Death (79)

304

Titus (79–81)

305

Domitian (81–96)

306

Image of Blatant Autocracy

306

Emphasis on Moral and Religious Rectitude

306

Building Program and State Finances

307

Foreign Policy and Wars

308

Revolt of Saturninus (89)

308

Final Years and Assassination (89–96)

309

20. From Nerva to Marcus Aurelius: The Five Good Emperors

310

Nerva (96–98)

310

xvi

CONTENTS

 

Adoption of Trajan (97)

311

Death of Nerva (98)

312

Trajan (98–117)

312

Administrative Policies

312

Building Program

313

Aggressive Imperialism and Military Campaigns

314

Death of Trajan (117)

317

Hadrian (117–138)

317

Love of Antinous

317

Opening of the Reign (117–118)

318

Provincial Tours (121–126, 128–134)

319

Uprising in Judea (132–135)

321

Military Policies

321

Reorganization of the Imperial Bureaucracy

322

Legal Policies

322

Social Policies

323

Building Projects

323

Succession Crisis and Bitter End (136–138)

323

Antoninus Pius (138–161)

324

New Humane Laws

324

Imperial Frontiers

325

Accession of Marcus and Verus (161)

325

Marcus Aurelius (161–180)

325

Commitment to Stoicism

326

Parthian War (162–166)

326

Devastating Effects of Plague (166–170s)

326

Persecution of Christians

327

Wars on the Danube (167–175)

327

Rebellion of Avidius Cassius (175)

328

Final Years (177–180)

328

21.

Government, Economy, and Society in the First and Second Centuries

330

Imperial and Local Government

331

Emperor and Senate

331

Imperial Bureaucracy

331

Imperial Control of the Provincial Administration

332

Municipia and Coloniae

333

Municipal Government

333

Notable Cities of the Empire

334

Western Cities

334

Eastern Cities

334

Economic Trends

336

Agriculture

336

Trade within the Empire

337

International Trade

339

Technology within the Empire

339

CONTENTS

xvii

Social Distinctions

340

Inside the Aristocratic Circle: Senators, Equestrians, and Decurions

340

Aristocratic Women

340

Outside the Privileged Circle: Humble Citizens, Slaves, and Freedmen and Freedwomen

341

Associations for the Lower Orders

342

Distinction between the Honestiores and the Humiliores

343

22. Architecture and Sculpture in the First and Second Centuries

344

Architectural Remains outside Rome

344

Architectural Transformation of the City of Rome and Vicinity

346

Architecture under the Julio-Claudians (14–68)

346

Building Program of Nero (54–68)

346

Architecture under the Flavians (69–96)

349

Building Program of Vespasian (69–79)

349

Building Program of Titus (79–81) and Domitian (81–96)

352

Architecture under the Five Good Emperors (96–180)

354

Building Program of Trajan (98–117)

354

Roman Public Baths and Latrines

358

Building Program of Hadrian (117–138)

359

Sculpture

367

Monumental Relief

367

Portrait Sculpture

370

23. Literature in the First and Second Centuries

374

The Silver Age of Latin Literature

374

Curbs on Literary Activity under Tiberius and Caligula (14–41)

375

History

375

Technical Writing

375

Poetry

376

Literary Efforts Encouraged under Claudius and Curtailed under Nero (41–68)

376

Satire

376

Prose Works and Tragedy

377

Epic Poetry

378

The Novel

378

Technical Writing

380

History

380

Freedom of Expression Curbed under the Flavians (69–96)

380

Epigram

381

Flavian Epic

381

Rhetoric

382

Jewish History

382

Latin Literature Flourishes under the Five Good Emperors (96–180)

383

History

383

Literary Letters

384

Satire

384

xviii

CONTENTS

Biography

385

Rhetoric and Scholarship

386

The Novel

386

Revival of Greek Literature under the Five Good Emperors (96–180)

387

Travel Writing

388

Philosophical Essays and Biographies

388

Philosophy and History

388

History

389

Satiric Dialogues

389

Second Sophistic

390

Greek Scientific Writing

390

Medicine

390

Astronomy and Geography

391

Philosophy in the First and Second Centuries

392

Stoicism

392

24. Commodus and the Severan Dynasty

394

Sources for the Period 180 to 395

395

Historical Accounts Relating to the Third Century

395

Christian Writers of the Third Century

395

Christian Writers of the Fourth and Early Fifth Centuries

395

Historical Accounts Relating to the Fourth Century

396

Collections of Imperial Laws

396

Minor Sources

397

Commodus (180–192)

397

Pertinax (193)

398

Empire Auctioned to Didius Julianus (193)

399

Septimius Severus (193–211) and the Severan Dynasty (193–235)

399

Civil Wars and Parthian Expeditions (193–199)

400

Imperial Policies

401

Julia Domna and Her Literary Circle

404

Campaign in Britain and Death of Severus (208–211)

405

Caracalla (211–217)

405

Geta’s Murder and the Bloody Aftermath (211–212)

405

Caracalla’s Policies

405

German and Parthian Wars (213–217)

406

Macrinus (217–218)

407

Julia Maesa Engineers Macrinus’ Downfall (218)

407

Elagabalus (218–222)

407

Julia Maesa Acts to Save the Dynasty (222)

408

Severus Alexander (222–235)

409

Julia Mamaea Guides the Imperial Government

409

Danger from Sassanid Persia (226–233)

410

Danger from Germany and the Death of Alexander (233–235)

410

25. Third-Century Imperial Crisis and First Phase of Recovery

412

Disintegration

412

Symptoms of Crisis

412

CONTENTS

xix

Maximinus Thrax (235–238)

413

Gordian III (238–244)

414

Philip the Arab (244–249)

414

Decius (249–251)

414

Joint Reign of Valerian (253–260) and Gallienus (253–268)

415

Eclipse of Roman Power in the East

415

Disintegration of Imperial Defenses in Europe

416

Defeat of Goths and Siege of Mediolanum (268)

417

Policies of Gallienus

417

Claudius Gothicus (268–270)

418

Aurelian (270–275)

419

Reunification of the Empire

419

Internal Policies

421

Tacitus (275–276)

422

Probus (276–282)

422

Carus, Numerian, Carinus (282–285)

422

26. Reorganization of Diocletian and Constantine

424

Diocletian and the Tetrarchy (285–305)

424

Division of Authority: Diocletian and Maximian as Dual Emperors (286–293)

425

The Tetrarchy (293–312)

425

Diocletian’s Other Innovations

427

Final Persecution of Christians (299–311)

430

Abdication of Diocletian and Maximian (305)

431

Assessment of Diocletian’s Reign

432

Reign of Constantine (306–337)

432

Rise to Master of the West (306–312)

432

New Policy Concerning Christianity

435

Death of Maximinus Daia (313)

436

Empire Divided between Constantine and Licinius (313–324)

436

Constantine and the Church

437

Secular Policies

437

Founding of Constantinople (324)

440

Death of Constantine (337)

441

Assessment of the Reign

442

27. Last Years of the United Empire

444

Dynasty of Constantine (337–363)

444

Accession of Three Emperors Leads to Civil War (337–340)

444

Rule by Constantius II and Constans (340–350)

444

Constantius II as Sole Augustus (353–360)

445

Julian and the Revival of Polytheism (361–363)

446

Reign of Jovian (363–364)

447

Reign of Valentinian I (364–375) and Valens (364–378)

447

Wars of Valentinian I (365–375)

447

Valens Defends the East (365–378)

448

xx

CONTENTS

Reign of Gratian (375–383) and Theodosius I (379–395)

449

Valentinian II Proclaimed Western Coruler (375)

449

Gratian Appoints Theodosius I as Augustus of the East (379)

449

Theodosius Confronts the Visigoths (379–382) Imperial Crises and the Permanent Partition of the Empire

449

(383–395)

450

Victory of Orthodox Christianity

451

28. Society and Culture in the Later Empire

453

Increasing Economic and Social Regimentation

454

State Financial Burdens

454

Late Roman Social Distinctions

454

Secular Literature

456

Greek Writers of the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Centuries

456

Latin Writers of the Fourth and Fifth Centuries

458

Architectural and Sculptural Initiatives

459

Architecture

459

Sculpture and Monumental Relief

461

Popular Belief Systems

463

Magic and Astrology

463

Traditional Roman Religion

464

Mystery Cults

464

Manichaeism

466

Philosophy

467

Plotinus and Neoplatonism

467

29. Rise of Christianity

469

Life and Teaching of Jesus of Nazareth

469

Baptism by John the Baptist

470

Public Ministry

471

Days in Jerusalem

472

The Nazarenes: Jews Receptive to Jesus in Jerusalem

474

Life and Career of Paul

474

Apostle to the Gentiles

474

Formulator of Christian Theological Doctrines

475

Deaths of Paul and Peter

477

Disappearance of the Nazarenes

478

Christianity in the Roman World

478

Spread of Pauline Christianity

478

Unpopularity of Judaism and Christianity

478

Periodic Roman Persecution of Christians

479

Conversion of Constantine (312)

480

30. Christian Triumph and Controversy

482

Organization of the Church

482

Distinction between Clergy and Laity

482

Bishops

482

Priests and Deacons

484

CONTENTS

xxi

Minor Orders

485

Women Leaders in the Church

485

Rise of Christian Monasticism

485

Evolution of a Canon of Scripture

487

Christian Worship

488

The Seven Sacraments

488

The Calendar

489

Burial, Art, and Places of Worship

490

Christian Catacombs

490

House Churches

492

Early Christian Basilicas

493

Mosaics

496

Manuscript Illumination

498

Sculpture in Relief

498

Early Development of Christian Thought and Literature

500

Greek Writers of the Second and Third Centuries: Clement of Alexandria and Origen

500

Latin Writers of the Third Century: Tertullian and Cyprian

501

Polytheist Writers Fight Back: Celsus and Porphyry

501

Christian Attacks on Polytheism

502

Christian Quarrels

503

Early Doctrinal Controversies

503

Unbridled Fourth-Century Ecclesiastical Disputes

505

Eusebius of Caesarea and the Writing of Ecclesiastical History

507

Theological Giants of the Late Latin Church: Jerome, Ambrose, Augustine

507

Jerome

507

Ambrose

509

Augustine

510

31. Dismemberment of the Roman Empire in the West

513

Partition of the Empire (395)

513

Barbarian Invasions (395–493)

514

Loss of Aquitania and Spain: The Visigoths

514

Loss of Africa: The Vandals

515

Loss of Gaul: The Burgundians and the Salian Franks

516

Loss of Britain: The Saxons and Others

517

Ravages of Attila and the Huns

518

Last Feeble Emperors of the Roman Empire in the West (456–480)

518

Italy under Odoacer and Theodoric (476–526)

520

Kingship of Odoacer

520

Kingship of Theodoric

520

Theories for the Collapse of the Empire in the West

521

Epilogue: The Thousand-Year Survival of the Roman Empire in the East

524

Emperors at Constantinople in the Fifth and Early Sixth Centuries

525

Reign of Justinian (527–565)

526

Justinian’s Codification

526

xxii

CONTENTS

Religious Policies and the Monophysite Controversy

526

The Empress Theodora

529

Partial Restoration of Imperial Power in the West (533–553)

529

Timeline of Political and Cultural Developments

535

Bibliography

547

Index

563

About the Author

597

Illustrations

Map 1.1.

Ancient Italy and Sicily

2

Map 1.2.

Languages of pre-Roman Italy

7

Map 1.3.

Peoples of early Italy

8

Figure 1.1.

Etruscan parade chariot, c. 530 BCE

9

Figure 1.2.

Engraved mythological scene on the back of an Etruscan

bronze mirror, fourth century BCE

11

Figure 1.3.

Drawing of a wall painting showing an Etruscan banqueting

scene, tomb of the Triclinium at Tarquinia, c. 470 BCE

14

Figure 1.4.

Illustration of an Etruscan double sarcophagus of painted

terra-cotta, from Cerveteri, c. 529 BCE

14

Figure 1.5.

Detail of an Etruscan terra-cotta statue of Apollo, from Veii,

c. 500 BCE

15

Figure 1.6.

The bronze Capitoline Wolf, early Italian or Etruscan, c.

500–480 BCE

16

Figure 1.7.

Etruscan bronze Chimera from Arezzo, fourth century BCE

16

Figure 1.8.

Detail of the reconstruction of an Etruscan temple

17

Map 2.1.

Rome at the end of the regal period

22

Figure 2.1.

Reconstruction of the Capitoline temple at Rome

30

Figure 2.2.

Drawing of an enthroned Jupiter gracing a wall painting from

the House of the Dioscuri at Pompeii

33

Figure 2.3.

Drawing of a Roman relief showing the preparatory moment

for the sacrifice of an ox

35

Figure 3.1.

Etruscan wall painting showing two men wrestling, tomb of

the Augurs at Tarquinia, c. 520 BCE

45

Figure 3.2.

Sanitized drawing of the richly engraved Ficoroni Cista, late

fourth century BCE

50

Map 4.1.

The expansion of Rome in Italy, c. 406–264 BCE

54

Map 5.1.

The Mediterranean world, c. 264–200 BCE

65

Figure 6.1.

Marble head of a youthful Alexander the Great, c. 338 BCE

80

Map 6.1.

Roman territory in 133 BCE

90

Figure 8.1.

Roman silver coin (denarius) depicting a helmeted image of

the warrior goddess Roma and the mounted Dioscuri

99

xxiii

xxiv

ILLUSTRAT IONS

Figure 8.2.

Drawing of a mildly erotic wall painting from Herculaneum

showing a wine-drinking young man and his barely veiled female lover

105

Figure 8.3.

Drawing of a wall painting from Herculaneum showing two

leisured women watching another having her hair styled

105

Figure 8.4.

Drawing of a privileged Roman citizen, his toga carefully

draped over his left shoulder and arranged in graceful folds.

106

Figure 8.5.

Greek vase painting strongly suggesting a romantic connection

between a man and a boy, c. 490 BCE

109

Figure 8.6.

Modest limestone relief depicting the funerary procession of

an ordinary man to the place of his inhumation (burial) or cremation, from the ancient Italian town of Amiternum, first century BCE

110

Figure 8.7.

Reconstruction of a columbarium (common tomb resembling

a dovecote) erected for the freedmen of Livia, wife of the emperor Augustus

112

Figure 9.1.

Drawing of the upper elements of the Ionic and Corinthian

orders (styles of buildings)

124

Figure 9.2.

Woodcut of a well-preserved Roman pseudoperipteral temple,

the so-called Maison Carre´ e, at Nıˆmes (ancient Nemausus) in southern France, constructed around the turn of the first century BCE

125

Figure 9.3.

Model of the upper part of the sanctuary of the temple

complex at Praeneste (modern Palestrina), probably erected in the second century BCE

126

Figure 9.4.

Reconstruction of a street corner and spacious house in

Pompeii

127

Figure 9.5.

Reconstructed longitudinal section of a luxurious town house

in Pompeii

128

Figure 9.6.

Reconstruction of the colonnaded garden gracing the House

of the Little Fountain at Pompeii

129

Figure 9.7.

Posthumous marble statue of the Roman general Marcus

Claudius Marcellus, c. 20 BCE

132

Map 10.1.

Roman territory in 121 BCE

145

Figure 11.1.

Posthumous portrait bust of Sulla, c. 50 BCE

152

Figure 12.1.

Marble portrait head of Pompey, first half of the first century

BCE

162

Figure 12.2.

Marble portrait bust of Cicero, c. 40–30 BCE

165

Figure 12.3.

Marble statue of Julius Caesar, late first century BCE

173

Map 12.1.

Approximate extent of Roman territory at Julius Caesar’s

death in 44 BCE

179

Figure 12.4.

Artistic recreation of Julius Caesar rejecting the crown

181

Figure 13.1.

Silver coin (denarius) showing Brutus’ head on the obverse

and celebrating the murder of Julius Caesar by daggers on the reverse, minted in 42 BCE

184

Figure 13.2.

Artistic impression of Fulvia, wife of Mark Antony, repeatedly

stabbing the tongue of Cicero’s decapitated head

188

ILLUSTRAT IONS

xxv

Figure 13.3.

Silver coin (denarius) showing Mark Antony with his lover

Queen Cleopatra, struck 32 BCE

193

Figure 13.4.

Artistic recreation of the decisive naval battle at Actium in 31

BCE

195

Figure 14.1.

Drawing of a wall painting showing the mythical figures Leda

and Tyndareus, from the House of the Tragic Poet at Pompeii

208

Figure 14.2.

Reconstruction of the interior of the first stone theater at

Rome, erected by Pompey and completed by 55 BCE

212

Figure 15.1.

Cast of an agate intaglio likening the nude Octavian to

Neptune, c. 30 BCE

221

Figure 15.2.

Roman gold coin (aureus) featuring Octavian’s head on the

obverse and showing him wearing a toga, sitting in a magistrate’s chair, and holding out a scroll on the reverse, minted in 28 BCE

230

Figure 15.3.

Drawing depicting a Roman standard bearer and two

legionaries ready for combat

233

Map 15.1.

The Roman Empire at the death of Augustus in 14 CE

236

Figure 16.1.

Cameo depicting dowager empress Livia enthroned as a

goddess and holding a bust of the deified Augustus, after 14 CE

247

Map 17.1.

Rome at the death of Augustus in 14 CE, showing many of

the landscape-transforming projects he sponsored

250

Figure 17.1.

The Roman Forum in the age of Augustus

251

Figure 17.2.

Reconstruction of the Arch of Titus, Rome, erected in the late

first century

252

Figure 17.3.

Reconstruction of the Basilica Julia, Rome, begun by Julius

Caesar in 54 BCE

253

Figure 17.4.

The Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace), erected

13–9 BCE

256

Figure 17.5.

Detail of the sacrificial procession on the upper south panel of

the Ara Pacis Augustae

257

Figure 17.6.

Artistic recreation of bathers in a caldarium (hot room)

258

Figure 17.7.

Idealized marble statue of Augustus from Prima Porta, perhaps

a posthumous copy of a lost bronze original

260

Figure 17.8.

The Gemma Augustae, a cameo glorifying Augustus and the

imperial family, early first century

261

Figure 17.9.

Erotic wall painting from a room in the House of the

Centenary at Pompeii

262

Figure 17.10. Central picture panel of a wall painting from the House of the Vettii at Pompeii, showing the notorious Ixion and other mythological figures

263

Table 17.1. Genealogical chart of the family of Augustus

273

Figure 18.1.

Artistic impression of the reputed sensual pleasures of Tiberius

on the island of Capreae (modern Capri)

282

Figure 18.2.

A gold coin (aureus) showing Nero face to face with his

mother Agrippina on the obverse and an oak wreath on the reverse, struck in 54 CE

291

xxvi

ILLUSTRAT IONS

Map 18.1.

Palestine at the time of the Jewish revolt in Judea, 66–73 CE

295

Figure 19.1.

Artistic recreation depicting Emperor Vespasian with a model

of the Colosseum (originally called the Flavian Amphitheater), erected 70–80 CE

304

Figure 20.1.

Reconstruction of tombs on the famous Appian Way (Via

Appia)

314

Figure 20.2.

Model of a second-century insula (multistory apartment

block) at Ostia, the port city of Rome

315

Figure 20.3.

Artistic impression of Trajan cheering charioteers racing at

breakneck speeds

316

Map 20.1.

The Roman Empire about 120 CE

318

Figure 20.4.

Second-century circular relief showing Hadrian offering a

sacrifice to fresh-faced Apollo, whose features closely resemble those of Antinous, the emperor’s cherished young lover

320

Figure 21.1.

Reconstruction of the Parthenon and other magnificent

structures gracing the Athenian Acropolis, reflecting the massive building program launched by Pericles in the mid- fifth century BCE

335

Map 21.1.

Trade in the Roman Empire

337

Figure 21.2.

The Gemma Claudia, a cameo showing Emperor Claudius

and his new wife Agrippina the Younger facing her parents Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder, c. 49 CE

341

Figure 22.1.

Photograph of the remaining columns of the mammoth

Olympieum, or temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens, begun in the sixth century BCE and completed about 130 CE

345

Figure 22.2.

Nineteenth-century lithograph of an elaborate first-century

tomb cut into the rose sandstone gracing the rich caravan city of Petra

347

Map 22.1.

Imperial Rome

348

Figure 22.3.

Reconstruction of the exterior of the Colosseum (Flavian

Amphitheater), begun by Vespasian in 70 CE and completed by Domitian ten years later

350

Figure 22.4.

Illustration of a sanitized Roman relief from the imperial

period depicting armed men fighting a lion, panther, and bear in a public show

352

Figure 22.5.

The Arch of Titus, Rome, erected shortly after the emperor’s

premature death in 81

353

Figure 22.6.

Reconstruction of the mammoth Basilica Ulpia, Rome,

dedicated in 112

355

Figure 22.7.

Eighteenth-century engraving of the Column of Trajan,

Rome, dedicated in 113

357

Figure 22.8.

Reconstruction of the Pantheon of Hadrian, Rome, begun

c. 118

360

Figure 22.9.

Reconstruction of the interior of the Pantheon, the temple of

all the gods

361

ILLUSTRAT IONS

xxvii

Figure 22.10. Photograph of the mystical column of light gracing the interior of the Pantheon, admitted by the circular opening, or oculus, at the apex of the dome

363

Figure 22.11. The Canopus-Serapeum, the long colonnaded pool-like canal lined with marble statues, at Hadrian’s extraordinary villa near Tibur (modern Tivoli), begun c. 118

364

Figure 22.12. Reconstruction of the enormous temple of Venus and Roma, Rome, designed by Hadrian, constructed c. 121–139 Figure 22.13. Reconstruction of the Mausoleum of Hadrian, constructed c.

365

 

130–139

366

Figure 22.14. Drawing of one of the relief panels, Spoils from the Temple of Jerusalem, from inside the passageway of the Arch of Titus, showing soldiers carrying looted treasures in the triumphal procession after crushing the Jewish uprising in the year 70

367

Figure 22.15. Drawing of the opposite relief panel, Triumph of Titus, showing the victor riding in his four-horse triumphal chariot accompanied by divine and human figures

368

Figure 22.16. Photograph of the lower band of relief on the Column of Trajan, Rome, dedicated 113

369

Figure 22.17. Marble bust christened Clytie by an eighteenth-century English collector, regarded as a portrait of a privileged first- century Roman woman or a clever construct of the eighteenth century (also see front cover)

370

Figure 22.18. Marble sculpture of Hadrian’s beloved Antinous, c. 125–138 Figure 22.19. Gilt bronze equestrian portrait of Marcus Aurelius, Rome, c.

371

 

177

372

Figure 23.1.

Reconstruction of the younger Pliny’s palacelike seaside villa

at Laurentium near Rome

385

Figure 24.1.

Marble bust portraying Commodus in the guise of Hercules,

c.

190

398

Figure 24.2.

Circular painting on a wooden panel depicting Septimius

Severus and his family, with his younger son Geta defaced,

c.

200

400

Figure 24.3.

Roman gold coin (aureus) commemorating the arrival, in 219,

of the emperor Elagabalus in Rome from his native Emesa in Syria

408

Figure 25.1.

Artistic recreation of Queen Zenobia of Palmyra as a royal

captive in Aurelian’s magnificent triumphal procession

420

Figure 26.1.

Porphyry statue, dated about 300, representing the tetrarchy,

a four-man ruling committee established by Diocletian

426

Map 26.1.

The dioceses and provinces of the Roman Empire under

Diocletian and Constantine

428

Figure 26.2.

Roman gold coin (solidus) depicting Constantine alongside

the radiate Sol Invictus (Invincible Sun) and describing the emperor as the god’s companion, minted 316

434

Figure 26.3.

The Chi-Rho monogram, interpreted by Christians as a

symbol for Christ and by non-Christians as a symbol for the Roman god Sol Invictus

435

xxviii

ILLUSTRAT IONS

Map 26.2.

Constantinople in the fifth century

441

Figure 27.1.

Artistic impression depicting powerful Bishop Ambrose

barring Emperor Theodosius I from the cathedral at Mediolanum (modern Milan) in 390

451

Figure 28.1.

Reconstruction of one of the four bathing areas in the colossal

frigidarium (cold hall) of the Baths of Caracalla, Rome, built 212–216

460

Figure 28.2.

Reconstruction of the Basilica Nova, the last great basilica

constructed in Rome, completed c. 312

461

Figure 28.3.

The triple-passageway Arch of Constantine, Rome,

commemorating Constantine’s victory, in 312, over his rival Maxentius at the