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EnergyProcedia
Procedia157 (2019) 000–000
00 (2017) 586–593
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Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment and Sustainability, TMREES18,
Technologies and Materials for Renewable
19–21 Energy,
September 2018,Environment and Sustainability, TMREES18,
Athens, Greece
19–21 September 2018, Athens, Greece
Effects of Increased Electric Vehicles into a Distribution Network
Effects of The
Increased Electric
15th International Vehicles
Symposium into aHeating
on District Distribution
and CoolingNetwork
Anestis G. Anastasiadisa*, Georgios P. Kondylisb, Apostolos Polyzakisc, Georgios Vokasa
AnestisAssessing thea*,feasibility
G. Anastasiadis of using
Georgios P. Kondylis b
the heatPolyzakis
, Apostolos demand-outdoor
c
, Georgios Vokasa
a
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of West Attica, P. Ralli & Thivon 250, 12244, Aigaleo, Greece
b

b
temperature function for a long-term district heat demand forecast
School
a of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Heroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Zografou, Greece
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of West Attica, P. Ralli & Thivon 250, 12244, Aigaleo, Greece
c
Department
School of Electrical and of Mechanical
Computer Engineering,
Engineering, TEI ofTechnical
National Western University
Greece, Megalou Alexandrou
of Athens, 1, Koukouli, Patras,
Heroon Polytechniou 9, 15780Greece
Zografou, Greece
c
Department of Mechanical Engineering, TEI of Western Greece, Megalou Alexandrou 1, Koukouli, Patras, Greece
I. Andrića,b,c*, A. Pinaa, P. Ferrãoa, J. Fournierb., B. Lacarrièrec, O. Le Correc
Abstract
a
IN+ Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research - Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
b
Abstract Veolia Recherche & Innovation, 291 Avenue Dreyfous Daniel, 78520 Limay, France
c
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a newSystèmes Énergétiques
and important et Environnement
challenge: - IMT Atlantique,
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mass penetration 44300
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Electrical Vehicles (EVs).
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Power grids face the architectures
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coincide withTheEVanalysis
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greenhouse gas emissions from the building sector. These systems require high investments which are returned through the heat
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analysisroadtakesconditions
into accountetc,driving
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profiles of EV theowners,
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sales. Due to the changed climate conditions and building renovation policies, heat demand in the future could decrease,
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conditions analysis toolbox is used
and approximates thetohourly
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impact to its
allocation ofoperation.
the energy requirements under various EV charging strategies. A steady state analysis toolbox is used to their
The main scope of this paper is to assess the feasibility of using the heat demand – outdoor temperature function for heat demand
impact to its operation.
forecast. The district of Alvalade, located in Lisbon (Portugal), was used as a case study. The district is consisted of 665
© 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
©buildings
2019 The that vary in both construction
Authors. period and typology. Three weather scenarios (low, medium, high) and three district
This
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2018 open
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Published by
by Elsevier Ltd.
the CC BY-NC-ND
Elsevier Ltd. license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
This is an open
renovation access article
scenarios under the CC
were developed BY-NC-ND
(shallow, license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
intermediate, deep). To estimate the error, obtained heat demand values were
Selection
This is an and
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under of the scientific
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The results showed that when only weather change is considered, the margin of error could be acceptable for some applications
Environment and Sustainability, TMREES18.
(the errorElectrcical
Keywords: in annualVehicles;
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lower than 20%Management;
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Keywords: Electrcical Vehicles; Smart Charging; Energy Management; Stochastic Simulation; Distribution Planning
scenarios combination considered).
The value of slope coefficient increased on average within the range of 3.8% up to 8% per decade, that corresponds to the
1.decrease in the number of heating hours of 22-139h during the heating season (depending on the combination of weather and
Introduction
renovation scenarios considered). On the other hand, function intercept increased for 7.8-12.7% per decade (depending on the
1. Introduction
coupled scenarios). The values suggested could be used to modify the function parameters for the scenarios considered, and
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1876-6102 © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Keywords:
This Heat
is an open demand;
access Forecast; Climate change license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
1876-6102 © 2018 Thearticle under
Authors. the CC BY-NC-ND
Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Selection
This is an and
openpeer-review under
access article responsibility
under of the scientific
the CC BY-NC-ND licensecommittee of Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment
(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
and Sustainability,
Selection TMREES18.
and peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment
and Sustainability, TMREES18.
1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
1876-6102 © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy,
Environment and Sustainability, TMREES18.
10.1016/j.egypro.2018.11.223
Anestis G. Anastasiadis et al. / Energy Procedia 157 (2019) 586–593 587
2 Author name / Energy Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000

firstly a controllable load that we are able to optimally control at convenient time frames and secondly, it may store
and inject energy, acting as a storage device, [1].
Nowadays, a significant number of EVs use power grids around the world to charge and sometimes to discharge
their batteries. There are several categories of EVs. The Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs), the Hybrid Electric
Vehicles (HEVs) and the Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are the most common types of EVs available in
the market today. Moreover, the battery storage system on a HEV might be larger, smaller or equal than that of a
PHEV, since the conventional engine is responsible for the propulsion of the vehicle most of the time. On the
contrary, BEVs usually have large battery storage systems, since this is their only source of power responsible for
their move [2], [3].
The impact of EVs as an emerging electrical load for power grid has drawn increasing attention most recently.
The possible challenge for power grids lies in that the penetration of large number of EVs may trigger extreme
surges in demand at rush hours, and therefore, harm the stability and security of the existing power grids.
Nevertheless, there are also potential opportunities for power grids. An optimal scenario is to dig the potential of
EVs as moveable energy storage devices, which means EVs withdrawing electricity from grid at off-peak hours and
then feeding back energy deposited in the onboard batteries to grid at peak hours [4], [5].
The interconnection of EVs in distribution grid urges the need to examine several issues such as the impact on
the grid, the way that EVs should charge/discharge and the limitations of this process as well as the benefit or not of
the Distribution System Operator (DSO) in such conditions. Furthermore, when the operation of a small distribution
power system is focused on the e.g. economic optimization of its Distributed Energy Resources (DER), it becomes
crucial to know for example where and how many EVs could connect, when it would be better to connect and under
what rules they should charge/discharge and which is the best charging technology. The effect of EVs under various
charging and discharging strategies in distribution networks has been studied in many papers [6-11], [12].
The main purpose of this paper is to perform a steady-state analysis of a distribution power system with different
levels of EV deployment and considering different charging strategies, in order to identify the variation of buses’
voltages. The estimation of voltage profiles of distribution system buses is crucial for each DSO because when the
number of Electric vehicles is increased the total load demand increases and simultaneously the voltage are steadily
decreasing. In the case of high penetration of EVs, voltage boundaries are violated and this affects the power
network security. Initially a stochastic simulation of the energy needs of an EV is carried out taking into account the
type of vehicle and the level of charging power and the behavior of the owner. Various charging strategies were
considered to distribute the daily energy needs of EVs on an hourly basis. The charging time series of EVs obtained
are then used as an input to the steady-state analysis of the distribution grid. The results of each charging strategy
are compared to each other and conclusions are conducted. Matlab software is used for all cases of studies.

2. Charging strategies of electric vehicles

The existence of many strategies is due to intense EV mobility and to their ability to operate either as
controllable loads (which means that charging takes place depending on the owners’ desire) or as storage units,
which provide energy when needed. In this paper, two (2) charging strategies are examined [13], [14], [15]:

 Dumb Charging. In this case, EVs begin to charge as soon as they are connected to the charging spot. Time of
connection does not have a specific value but depends on the normal distribution of return after transportations.
The mean value of the distribution is 19:00 p.m. and its width is four (4) hours.
 Smart Charging. This technique is about technically controlled charging, which requires the installation of an
intelligent vehicle controller (in correspondence with smart controllers installed on the load and on production
units) who also sets the charging of EVs. Charging follows the load demand curve and EVs are charged at low
demand hours. The lower the grid load, the higher becomes EVs’ charging. In other words, this case is about
valley filling.
588 Anestis G. Anastasiadis et al. / Energy Procedia 157 (2019) 586–593
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3. Mathematical formulation and computational procedure

The software that has been developed in order to include more cases of charging and to be able to be applied for
the cases of electrical vehicle integration in urban, semi urban and rural areas is an amendment of the equivalent
cases that exist in references [1], [12], [13]. It comprises three parts as Figure 1 shows. The first is an estimate of the
daily energy needs of each EV, the second is the calculation of the hourly time series of charging, which depends on
the strategy adopted and the time series of load and production of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the
examined bus and the third is the steady-state analysis (power load flow analysis) for daily, monthly or annual
period with an hourly time step.
For every electrical vehicle type, a random variable is inserted for its involved variable sizes (e.g., charging type,
battery type etc.), for every period of the day and according to the number of trips it makes. All the departure hours
during the day are considered to be random values that follow normal distribution, since that is the most accurate
representation of the drivers’ attitude. All the data for the accurate calculation of the involved variables are found in
the aforementioned references.

4. Case study network

The typical grid to be examined is that of an island or a standalone grid, where the power injection from the
upstream network is not possible. The examined network is a simplified, IEEE-15 bus system, Figure 2. The total
number of buses is 15 and total number of branches is 14, the base voltage is 11 kV, the base MVA is 100 MVA (1
per unit-p.u.), the total real power load is 1226.4 kW and the total reactive power load is 1251.179 kVAr. The
branch and bus data employed for the system is acquired from [16], Table 1. Bus-1 is swing or slack bus, rest all
other buses are load buses. A network like the one studied represents also the modern urban networks, In fact, the
power demand in each bus of the network varies between 40-140 kW which is equivalent to the consumption of 8-
30 households. For the needs of the study, the mean 24-hour monthly values of the year were used as base load data
with the total demand per month being equivalent to 250 households approximately, as seen in Figure 3 [17]. This
load is distributed proportionally for each bus; consequently, certain buses present augmented demand and others
decreased one. The simulation is performed for the average day of January, since the peak demand is 150 kW. It is
one of the most challenging situations. Furthermore, morning hours are considered as the minimum load hours in the
study (“valley” hours, 01:00-07:00); consequently, the charging process is takes place only then for the smart charge
case. Finally, the scenarios for EV penetration in 3 buses of the grid at a 30%-30%-40% ratio are presented in Table
2. It is important to underline that the different demand curve characteristics for each different consumer category
but even the different diversity factor values within the same category also affect the total EV demand curve.

Table 1. Test data for 15 bus radial distribution network


Branch Send End Resistance Reactance P Q
Number Bus Bus (Ω) (Ω) (kW) (kVar)
1 1 2 1.35309 1.32349 44.10 44.991
2 2 3 1.17024 1.14464 70.00 71.414
3 3 4 0.84111 0.82271 140.0 142.82
4 4 5 1.52348 1.02760 44.10 44.991
5 2 6 2.55727 1.72490 140.0 142.82
6 6 7 1.08820 0.73400 140.0 142.82
7 6 8 1.25143 0.84410 70.00 71.414
8 2 9 2.01317 1.35790 70.00 71.414
9 9 10 1.68671 1.13770 44.10 44.991
10 3 11 1.79553 1.21100 140.0 142.82
11 11 12 2.44845 1.65150 70.00 71.414
12 12 13 2.01317 1.35790 44.10 44.991
13 4 14 2.23081 1.50470 70.00 71.414
14 4 15 1.19702 0.80740 140.0 142.82
4 Author name / Energy Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000
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PART 1 DEFINE DAILY ENERGY NEEDS OF THE EV

Initialization of Fleet
Number of EVs: i = 1…N

Type Allocation of EV Fleet


L7e M1 N1 N2
1% 88% 10% 1%

Battery Size (Pbat(i))


Random Variable, IEC 61851-1
Initial State of Charge (SOC): 100%
Charging Level-1 Charging Level-2 Charging Level-3
Pch (i, t) = 3 - 10 kW Pch (i, t) = 10 - 20 kW Pch (i, t) = > 40 kW
with Probability, P1i with Probability, P2i with Probability, P3i

Battery Consumption
Pcons (i, t) = (Charging Efficiency)ꞏ(Battery Coefficient)ꞏ(Trip Distance) or
Pcons (i, t) = (0.15)ꞏ(0,16 kWh / km)ꞏ(Trip Distance)
Trip Distance: Exponential Distribution (~50 km/EV)

Constrains
Charging of EV (PEV(i, t)) and SOC(i, t)
PEV(i, t) ≤ Pch(i, t)
SOC(i, t) = SOC(i, t-1) + PEV(i, t) – Pcons(i, t)
SOC(i, t) = Pbat(i) - Pcons (i, t) > 0,1ꞏ Pbat(i)
SOC(i, t) ≤ Pbat(i)

PART 2 CHARGING OF EVs

FLEET ENERGY NEEDS DATA OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND LOAD DEMAND

CHARGING STRATEGIES
STRATEGY A STRATEGY B
DUMB CHARGING VALLEY FILL CHARGING
PEV(i, t) = min(Pch(i, t), Pbat(i) – SOC(i, t)) Ptotal(t) = Pload(t) – PRES(t) + Σi=1,…NPEV(i, t)
Unplanned “plug and play” connection of EVs into the Grid Min(Max(Ptotal(t)) – Min(Ptotal(t)))

Calculation of Hourly Time Series of Grid Loading which is under study

PART 3 STEADY STUDY ANALYSIS

Load Flow Analysis of Snapshot of Hour h

Results Recording : Bus Voltages, Branches, Power Losses etc.

Check Constrains
- Branches thermal limits
- Maximum and Minimum Voltage limitation: Vmax, buses ≤ 1,08ꞏVnominal, Vmin, buses ≥ 0,92ꞏVnominal
- Mean Voltage, Vmean, buses must stay within the limits [0.95 1.05] of the nominal value
- Voltage Deviation, Vdev, in all buses must be below 3%, Vdev = [(Vmax - Vmin) / 2ꞏVnominal]ꞏ100%

Repeat the above Procedure for all i=1…N, d=1…365, h=1…8760

TERMINATE

Fig. 1. Framework of the Proposed Methodology


Author name / Energy Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000 5
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Fig. 2. Single Line Diagram of 15-Bus Radial Distribution System

Table 2. Electrical vehicles’ penetration scenarios in study


Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Scenario 4 Scenario 5 Scenario 6
0 EVs 10 EVs 20 EVs 30 EVs 40 EVs 50 EVs

5. Results

Results are presented separately for the two different charging methods and for the peak hour (19:00), Figures 3,
4, 5.

 
Fig. 3. Total EVs Load Demand for the Scenario 6 (similar graphs for the other scenarios)
6 Anestis
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Fig. 4. Voltages in buses 4,7 and 11 for Dumb Charging Strategy (Peak Hour: 19:00)

 
Fig. 5. Voltages in buses 4,7 and 11 for Smart Charging Strategy (Peak Hour: 19:00)

In the Dumb Charging Strategy where the EVs’ load is limited, the effect on grid’s voltage is not significant.
Nevertheless, as the load increases (high penetration of EVs), the voltage is steadily decreasing. In the case of very
high penetration (Scenario 5, 6), voltage boundaries are violated from the high-base-load bus (bus number 11). This
is due to the fact that the mass integration of EVs leads to rapid load demand increase and, consequently, causes
high voltage drop. In the case of smart charging, EVs penetration does not affect the grid’s voltage boundaries.
Charging during the night hours, when the load is limited, does not lead to a high load demand because of the EVs.
Figures 6, 7 focus to the power injection in the lines where EVs are connected (buses 4, 7, 11). Power injection
has a different course from the buses’ voltage. Load increase leads to an increase of the power in the grid’s lines,
which, beyond a certain point, get overloaded. In Dumb Charging, augmentation of power injection in the lines is
observed only in the case of massive insertion of EVs into the grid. Unlike the previous cases, in Smart Charging,
the maximum injection in the power lines is constant. Penetration of a large number of EVs does not have an impact
on the operational boundaries, since the charging process takes place in periods of low base demand (morning
hours). So, in the case of smart charging, the uniform way of charging during the night hours, does not affect the
maximum demand, and, consequently, the maximum power injection.
592 Anestis G. Anastasiadis
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Fig. 6. Power injection in buses 4, 7 and 11 for Dumb Charging Strategy

 
Fig. 7. Power injection in buses 4, 7 and 11 for Smart Charging Strategy

6. Conclusions

In this paper the impacts of large EV deployment to selected distribution networks is evaluated. A model of
stochastic simulation of the energy needs of EV is developed which takes into account various parameters. Two
charging strategies are proposed in order to determine EV charging on an hourly basis. A steady state analysis (load
flow) is performed in order to determine the variation of buses voltages. The results indicate that the node voltage
levels are within the accepted minimum-maximum range in the case of Smart Charging Strategy (i.e. Fill Valley).
However, Dumb Strategy leads to large voltage deviations that exceed the acceptable limit even for a small number
of vehicles. In other words, a proper charging strategy can mitigate the voltage problems and allow higher levels of
EV penetration in the case of Smart Charging Strategies (i.e., valley filling).
It is obvious that focusing on more charging strategies combined with different levels of renewables penetration
in various buses of the distribution grids can lead to interesting conclusions regarding the maximum allowable EV
penetration, the minimization of active power losses, the control of power lines’ congestion, the maximization of
renewables integration etc. These matters are to be studied in future work.
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