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AIR ENGINE

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of

DIPLOMA
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
BY

Under the guidance of -----------------------------

2004-2005

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


CERTIFICATE

Register number: _________________________

This is to certify that the project report titled “AIR


ENGINE” submitted by the following students for the
award of the degree of bachelor of engineering is record
of bonafide work carried out by them.

Done by

Mr. / Ms_______________________________

In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of


degree in

Diploma in mechanical Engineering


During the Year –(2004-2005)

_________________ _______________
Head of Department
Guide

Coimbatore –641651.
Date:

Submitted for the university examination held on


___________

_________________ ________________
Internal Examiner External
Examiner
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

At this pleasing moment of having successfully


completed our project, we wish to convey our
sincere thanks and gratitude to the management
of our college and our beloved chairman
…………………………..………… ………………, who provided
all the facilities to us.
We would like to express our sincere thanks to
our principal ………………………………………, for
forwarding us to do our project and offering
adequate duration in completing our project.
We are also grateful to the Head of
Department Prof. …………………………………….., for
her constructive suggestions & encouragement
during our project.
With deep sense of gratitude, we extend our
earnest & sincere thanks to our guide
…………………………………………………….., Department
of EEE for her kind guidance & encouragement
during this project.
We also express our indebt thanks to our
TEACHING and NON TEACHING staffs of
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT,
……………………….(COLLEGE NAME).
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AIR ENGINE
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CONTENTS
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CONTENTS

ADKNOWLEDGEMENT

SYNOPSIS

1. INTRODUCTION

2. AIR ENGINE

3. I.G ENGINE

4. BEARING WITH BEARING CAP

5. SPROCKET WITH CHAIN DRIVE

6. TURBINE WITH BLOWER ARRANGEMENT

7. WORKING PRINCIPLE

8. DESIGN AND DRAWINGS

9. LIST OF MATERIAL

10. COST ESTIMATION

11. ADVANTAGES
12. APPLICATIONS AND DISADVANTAGES

13. CONCLUSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

PHOTOGRAPHY
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SYNOPSIS
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SYNOPSIS

This project work deals with the Compressed-air engine is a pneumatic

actuator that creates useful work by expanding compressed air. They have existed in
many forms over the past two centuries, ranging in size from hand held turbines up to

several hundred horsepower. Some types rely on pistons and cylinders, others use

turbines. Many compressed air engines improve their performance by heating the

incoming air, or the engine itself. Some took this a stage further and burned fuel in the

cylinder or turbine, forming a type of internal combustion engine.

There is currently some interest in developing air cars. Several engines have

been proposed for these, although none have demonstrated the performance and long life

needed for personal transport.

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Chapter-1
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INTRODUCTION
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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
A compressed-air vehicle is powered by an air engine, using compressed air,

which is stored in a tank. Instead of mixing fuel with air and burning it in the engine to

drive pistons with hot expanding gases, compressed air vehicles (CAV) use the expansion

of compressed air to drive their pistons. One manufacturer claims to have designed an

engine that is 90 percent efficient.

Compressed air propulsion may also be incorporated in hybrid systems, e.g.,

battery electric propulsion and fuel tanks to recharge the batteries. This kind of system is

called hybrid-pneumatic electric propulsion. Additionally, regenerative braking can also

be used in conjunction with this system.

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Chapter-2
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AIR ENGINE HISTORY


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CHAPTER 2

AIR ENGINE HISTORY


HISTORY STARTS WITH TODAY'S AIR CAR INVENTORS

Angelo Di Petro’s Rotary Positive Displacement Air Engine:-

Everything I've heard about this air engine is positive. Many people have written

asking me to report on it, but the best I can do till I ride in his air car is to show you a

picture and a Based on what is said about

the engine, I think it sounds like a good

idea. It seems like a good approach to

simplifying the piston engine while lowering

friction and wear. Quoting from the website,

"The space between stator and rotor is divided in 6 expansion chambers by

pivoting dividers. These dividers follow the motion of the shaft driver as it rolls around

the stator wall.

The motor shown is effectively a 6 cylinder expansion motor...Variation of

performance parameters of the motor is easily achieved by varying the time during

which the air is allowed to enter the chamber: A longer air inlet period allows more air
to flow into the chamber and therefore results in more torque. A shorter inlet period will

limit the air supply and allows the air in the chamber to perform expansion work at a

much higher efficiency. In this way compressed air (energy) consumption can be

exchanged for higher torque and power output depending on the requirements of the

application...Motor speed and torque are simply controlled by throttling the amount or

pressure of air into the motor. The Di Pietro motor gives instant torque at zero RPM and

can be precisely controlled to give soft start and acceleration control."

From what I've read, I think this sounds like what other people have wished they

could invent. A lot of people are

counting on Mr. Di Pietro to get an air

car on the market.

Armando Regusci Loves to Build Air

Cars:-

In my correspondence with Mr.

Regusci of Uruguay, I found him a

sincere person and his design very appealing.

Like my torquerack engine, his invention does away with the crankshaft,

replacing it with sprockets and chains and freewheeling clutches, to turn a shaft. He has
built bikes and small air cars of various descriptions and is very devoted to the cause.

His website, http://www.airenergycars.com, is extensive. You can also see his video on

YouTube.com.

When I first contacted Mr. Regusci, he was assisting a university in Texas with

their plans to build an air car.

i want all you air car enthusiasts to become air car inventors, like angelo di pietro,

armando regusci, guy negre, terry miller, and all the rest. join forces with each other

and let's get off the internet and onto the highway. we know we have the best

alternative, now let's get out there and prove it.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF AIR CARS

For half a century the air-powered locomotive was a serious contender for the top

spot in transportation because of its obvious advantages: simplicity, safety, economy, and

cleanliness. Air engines were commercially available and used routinely, first as

metropolitan street transit and later for haulage in mines.


The term "air engine" disappeared from engineering textbooks after the 1930s and

the second world war. Gas engines had been perfected, the oil industry was established,

and gas was cheap.

Serious interest in air cars was rekindled by the energy glitches of the 1970s. Dozens

of inventors have patented designs for hybrid, closed cycle, and self-fueling air cars, as

well as conversions for existing engines and designs for air cars meant to stop at air

stations for refueling.

The Pneumatic Railway, 1880s to today

Like modern electric subway trains, the power supply was

provided continuously by a pipeline laid along the track. This

concept was not practical at the time it was invented (1820s)

because the materials were not available to make it work

reliably. A modern version appeared in Brazil in the 1980s, invented by Oskar H. W.

Coester, and developed by Aeromovel Global Corp.


The Mekarski Compressed Air Locomotive, 1886-1900:-

The Mekarski air engine was used for street transit. It was a single-stage engine (air

expanded in one piston then exhausted) and represented an advance in

air engine technology that made air cars feasible: the air was reheated

after leaving the tank and before entering the engine. The reheater was

a hot water tank through which the compressed air bubbled in direct

contact with the water, picking up hot water vapor which improved the

engine's range-between-fill-ups.

The Hardie Compressed Air Locomotive, 1892-1900:-

Robert Hardie's air engine was a going concern in street transit in New York City. Air car

advocate General Herman Haupt, a civil engineer, wrote

extensively about the advantages of air cars, using the

Hardie engine as his source material and providing much of

the impetus for the New York experiment to gain support

and succeed. The engine was a one-stage expansion engine using a more advanced type

of reheating than the Mekarski engine. One of its new features was regenerative

braking.
By using the engine as a compressor during deceleration, air and heat were added to

the tanks, increasing the range between fill-ups. A 1500 horsepower steam-powered air

compressor station was built in New York City to supply the Hardie compressed air

locomotives and the Hoadley-Knight pneumatic locomotives.

The Hoadley-Knight Compressed Air Locomotive, 1896-1900:-

The Hoadley-Knight system was the first air powered transit locomotive that

incorporated a two-stage engine. It was beginning to be recognized

that the longer you keep the air in the engine, the more time it has to

absorb the heat that increases its range-between-fill-ups. Hoadley

and Knight were also supporters of Nikola Tesla's disc turbine, for which they formed a

propulsion company that didn't get off the ground.

The H. K. Porter Compound Air Locomotives, 1896-1930:-

Inventor Charles B. Hodges became the first

and only air car inventor in history to see his invention

become a lasting commercial success.


His engine was two-stage and employed an interheater between the two piston

stages to warm the partially expanded compressed air with the surrounding atmosphere.

A substantial gain in range-between-fill-ups was thus proven attainable with no cost for

the extra fuel, which was provided by the sun. The H. K. Porter Company in Pittsburgh

sold hundreds of these locomotives to coal-mining companies in the eastern U.S. With

the hopeful days of air powered street transit over, the compressed air locomotive became

a standard fixture in coal mines around the world because it created no heat or spark and

was therefore invaluable in gassy mines where explosions were always a danger with

electric or gas engines.

The European Three-Stage Air Locomotive, 1912-1930

Hodges' patents were improved upon by European engineers who increased the number

of expansion stages to three and used interheaters before all

three stages. The coal mines of France and Germany and other

countries such as Belgium were swarming with these

locomotives, which increased their range-between-fill-ups 60%

by the addition of ambient heat.


It might have become obvious to the powers-that-be that these upstarts were a

threat to the petroleum takeover that was well under way in the transportation industry;

after world war two the term "air engine" was never used in compressed air textbooks

and air powered locomotives, if used at all, were usually equipped with standard,

inefficient air motors.

The German Diesel-Pneumatic Hybrid Locomotive, 1930

Just before technical journals stopped reporting on compressed air locomotives, they

carried stories on a 1200 horsepower full-size above-ground

locomotive that had been developed in Germany. An on-

board compressor was run by a diesel engine, and the air

engine drove the locomotive's wheels.

Waste heat from the diesel engine was transferred to the air engine where it

became fuel again. By conserving heat in this way, the train's range-between-fill-ups was

increased 26%. A modern train engineer tells me that all train engines these days are

hybrids: diesel-electric. And we are supposed to consider the Toyota Prius a miracle of

modern invention?
Terry Miller, the Father of the Modern Air Car Movement:-

In 1979, Terry Miller set out to design a spring-powered car and determined that

compressed air, being a spring that doesn't break or wear out,

was the perfect energy-storing medium. From there he

developed his Air Car One, which he built for $1500 and

patented. He showed his air car from coast to coast and then

went on to other things. In 1993 he picked up his air car project

again with the help of Toby Butterfield of Joplin, Missouri.

They developed the Spirit of Joplin air car with parts mostly

donated by manufacturers. Terry's air engines demonstrated the

feasibility of building air engines with off-the-shelf parts on a small budget. His engines

used up to four consecutive stages to expand the same air over and over. They ran at a

low speed so there was plenty of time for ambient heat to enter the system and the

possibility of low-tech developers to build engines cheaply at home. Terry was

instrumental in educating the founder of Pneumatic Options on air car fundamentals.

Terry's greatest contribution--and what makes him an air car advocate, not just another

inventor--was that he published and made easily available the complete details on how to

build an engine like his. No other inventor has done this. Shortly before his death in

1997, Terry Miller gave all rights to his invention to his daughter and to Toby

Butterfield. Mr. Butterfield died in 2002.


Guy Negre and MDI:-

Currently a French inventor named Guy Negre is building an organization to

market his air car designs in several countries. A web search for air cars will turn up

hundreds of references to his company, Moteur Developpment

International (MDI). His website is at www.mdi.lu. Mr. Negre

holds patents on his unique air engine in several countries. Plans

are underway to build air car factories in Mexico, South Africa, Spain and other

countries. We wish him success and encourage you to visit his website (or one of his

licensees in Spain, Portugal, and Great Britain, theaircar.com) and support his good

work.

C. J. Marquand's Air Car Engine

Dr. Marquand has taken the highly commendable step of incorporating heat pipes into

his air engine design for the recovery of compression heat. He also

plans to use regenerative braking. It is not clear whether his engine has

been tested in a car yet. Professor Marquand is a scientist with a

number of published research articles to his credit. For further information contact: C. J.

Marquand or H. R. Ditmore, Dept. of Technology & Design, Univ. of Westminster, 115

New Cavendish St., London W1M 8JS, Tel. 0170 911 5000.
Tsu-Chin Tsao's Hybrid Air Engine for Cars

Tsu-Chin Tsao is a distinguished professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at

UCLA. He has invented a camless gasoline engine that does not idle; it

uses compressed air to start the car, and when the air is gone the engine

runs on gasoline. During deceleration, braking energy operates a

compressor to fill the air tank for the next start. This brings to mind

Buckminster Fuller's reminder in his magnum opus Critical Path, wherein he tells us how

many horses (as in horsepower) could be jumping up and down going nowhere for all the

gasoline being pointlessly burned by cars sitting at red lights at any given time. We have

nothing but admiration and respect for Professor Tsao's serious step in a perfectly good

direction, and apparently Ford Motor Company is in agreement: they are working with

Tsao's team to look into the viability of putting a pneumatic hybrid on the road to

compete with the Toyota Prius and other electric hybrids. The pneumatic hybrid is

expected to save 64% in city driving and 12% on the highway.

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Chapter-3
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I.C ENGINE
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CHAPTER 3
I.C ENGINE

Internal combustion engines are those heat engines that burn their fuel inside the

engine cylinder. In internal combustion engine the chemical energy stored in their

operation. The heat energy is converted in to mechanical energy by the expansion

of gases against the piston attached to the crankshaft that can rotate.

4.1 PETROL ENGINE

The engine which gives power to propel the automobile vehicle is a petrol burning

internal combustion engine. Petrol is a liquid fuel and is called by the name

gasoline in America. The ability of petrol to furnish power rests on the two basic

principles;

 Burning or combustions always accomplished by the production of heat.

 When a gas is heated, it expands. If the volume remains constant, the pressure

rises according to Charle’s law.

4.2 WORKING

There are only two strokes involved namely the compression stroke and the power

stroke, they are usually called as upward stroke and downward stroke respectively.
4.2.1 UPWARD STROKE

During this stroke, the piston moves from bottom dead center to top dead center,

compressing the charge-air petrol mixture in combustion chamber of the cylinder,

at the time the inlet port is uncovered and the exhaust, transfer ports are covered.

The compressed charge is ignited in the combustion chamber by a spark given by

spark plug.

4.2.2 DOWNWARD STROKE

The charge is ignited the hot gases compress the piston moves downwards, during

this stroke the inlet port is covered by the piston and the new charge is compressed

in the crankcase, further downward movement of the piston uncovers first exhaust

port and then transfer port and hence the exhaust starts through the exhaust port.

As soon as the transfer port open the charge through it is forced in to the cylinder,

the cycle is then repeated.

4.3 ENGINE TERMINOLOGY

The engine terminologies are detailed below,


4.3.1 CYLINDER

It is a cylindrical vessel or space in which the piston makes a reciprocating

motion.

4.3.2 PISTON

It is a cylindrical component fitted to the cylinder which transmits the bore of

explosion to the crankshaft.

4.3.3 COMBUSTION CHAMBER

It is the space exposed in the upper part of the cylinder where the combustion of

fuel takes place.

4.3.4 CONNECTING ROD

It inter connects the piston and the crankshaft and transmits the reciprocating

motion of the piston into the rotary motion of crankshaft.

4.3.5 CRACKSHAFT

It is a solid shaft from which the power is transmitted to the clutch.


4.3.6 CAM SHAFT

It is drive by the crankshaft through timing gears and it is used to control the

opening and closing of two valves.

4.3.7.1CAM

These are made as internal part of the camshaft and are designed in such a way to

open the valves at the current timing.

4.3.7.2PISTON RINGS

It provides a tight seal between the piston and cylinder wall and preventing

leakage of combustion gases.

4.3.7.3GUDGEON PIN

It forms a link between the small end of the connecting rod and the piston.

4.3.7.4INLET

The pipe which connects the intake system to the inlet valve of the engine end

through which air or air fuel mixture is drawn in to the cylinder.


4.3.7.5EXHAUST MANIFOLD

The pipe which connects the exhaust system to the exhaust valve of the engine

through which the product of combustion escape in to the atmosphere.

4.3.7.6INLET AND EXHAUST VALVE

They are provided on either on the cylinder head or on the side of the cylinder and

regulating the charge coming in to the cylinder and for discharging the product of

combustion from the cylinder.

4.3.7.7FLYWHEEL

It is a heavy steel wheel attached to the rear end of the crank shaft. It absorbs

energy when the engine speed is high and gives back when the engine speed is

low.

4.4 NOMENCLATURE

This refers to the position of the crank shaft when the piston is in it slowest

position.

4.4.1 BORE(d)

Diameter of the engine cylinder is refers to as the bore.


4.4.2 STROKE(s)

Distance traveled by the piston in moving from TDC to the piston in moving from

TDC to the BDC.

4.4.3 CLEARANCE VOLUME (V)

The volume of cylinder above the piston when it is in the TDC position.

4.4.4 SWEPT VOLUME (V)

The swept volume of the entire cylinder

Vd = Vs N

Where,

Vs ------- Swept Volume

N --------- Number of cylinder

4.4.5 COMPRESSION RATIO (R)

It is the ratio of the total cylinder volume when the piston is at BDC to the

clearance volume.
4.5 ENGINE SPECIFICATION

Type of fuel used : Petrol

Cooling system : Air cooled

Number of cylinder : Single

Number of stroke : Four Stroke

Arrangement : Vertical

Cubic capacity : 100 cc

Spark Ignition Engine

A spark ignition (SI) engine runs on an Otto cycle—most gasoline engines run on

a modified Otto cycle. This cycle uses a homogeneous air-fuel mixture which is

combined prior to entering the combustion chamber. Once in the combustion chamber,

the mixture is compressed, and then ignited using a spark plug (spark ignition). The SI

engine is controlled by limiting the amount of air allowed into the engine. This is

accomplished through the use of a throttling valve placed on the air intake (carburetor or

throttle body). Mitsubishi is working on the development of a certain type of SI engine

called the gasoline direct injection engine.


Advantages

 A century of development and refinement - For the last century the SI engine has

been developed and used widely in automobiles. Continual development of this

technology has produced an engine that easily meets emissions and fuel economy

standards. With current computer controls and reformulated gasoline, today's engines are

much more efficient and less polluting than those built 20 years ago.

 Low cost - The SI engine is the lowest cost engine because of the huge volume

currently produced.

Disadvantages

The SI engine has a few weaknesses that have not been significant problems in the

past, but may become problems in the future.

 Difficulty in meeting future emissions and fuel economy standards at a reasonable

cost - Technology has progressed and will enable the SI engine to meet current standards,

but as requirements become tougher to meet, the associated engine cost will continue to

rise.

 Throttling loss lowers the efficiency - To control an SI engine, the air allowed into

the engine is restricted using a throttling plate. The engine is constantly fighting to draw

air past the throttle, which expends energy.


 Friction loss due to many moving parts - The SI engine is very complex and has

many moving parts. The losses through bearing friction and sliding friction further reduce

the efficiency of the engine.

 Limited compression ratio lowers efficiency - Because the fuel is already mixed

with the air during compression, it will auto-ignite (undesirable in a gasoline engine) if

the compression ratio is too high. The compression ratio of the engine is limited by the

octane rating of the engine.


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Chapter-4
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BEARING WITH BEARING CAP


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CHAPTER 4

BEARING WITH BEARING CAP

The bearings are pressed smoothly to fit into the shafts because if hammered the

bearing may develop cracks. Bearing is made upon steel material and bearing cap is mild

steel.

INTRODUCTION

Ball and roller bearings are used widely in instruments and machines in

order to minimize friction and power loss. While the concept of the ball bearing

dates back at least to Leonardo da Vinci, their design and manufacture has become

remarkably sophisticated. This technology was brought to its p resent state o f

perfection only after a long period of research and development. The benefits of

such specialized research can be obtained when it is possible to use a standardized

bearing of the proper size and type. However, such bearings cannot be used

indiscriminately without a careful study of the loads and operating conditions. In

addition, the bearing must be provided with adequate mounting, lubrication and

sealing. Design engineers have usually two possible sources for obtaining

information which they can use to select a bearing for their particular application:
a) Textbooks

b) Manufacturers’

Catalogs Textbooks are excellent sources; however, they tend to be overly

detailed and aimed at the student of the subject matter rather than the practicing

designer. They, in most cases, contain information on how to design rather than

how to select a bearing for a particular application. Manufacturers’ catalogs, in

turn, are also excellent and contain a wealth of information which relates to the

products of the particular manufacturer. These catalogs, however, fail to provide

alternatives – which may divert the designer’s interest to products not

manufactured by them. Our Company, however, provides the broadest selection of

many types of bearings made by different manufacturers.

For this reason, we are interested in providing a condensed overview of the

subject matter in an objective manner, using data obtained from different texts,

handbooks and manufacturers’ literature. This information will enable the reader

to select the proper bearing in an expeditious manner. If the designer’s interest

exceeds the scope of the presented material, a list of references is provided at the

end of the Technical Section. At the same time, we are expressing our thanks and are

providing credit to the sources which supplied the material presented here.
Construction and Types of Ball Bearings

A ball bearing usually consists of four parts: an inner ring, an outer ring, the balls

and the cage or separator.

To increase the contact area and permit larger loads to be carried, the balls run in

curvilinear grooves in the rings. The radius of the groove is slightly larger than the radius

of the ball, and a very slight amount of radial play must be provided. The bearing is thus

permitted to adjust itself to small amounts of angular misalignment between the

assembled shaft and mounting. The separator keeps the balls evenly spaced and prevents

them from touching each other on the sides where their relative velocities are the greatest.

Ball bearings are made in a wide variety of types and sizes. Single-row radial bearings

are made in four series, extra light, light, medium, and heavy, for each bore, as illustrated

in Fig. 1-3(a), (b), and (c).

100 Series 200 Series 300 Series Axial Thrust Angular Contact Self-aligning

Bearing Fig. 1-3 Types of Ball Bearings

The heavy series of bearings is designated by 400. Most, but not all,

manufacturers use a numbering system so devised that if the last two digits are multiplied

by 5, the result will be the bore in millimeters.


The digit in the third place from the right indicates the series number. Thus,

bearing 307 signifies a medium-series bearing of 35-mm bore. For additional digits,

which may be present in the catalog number of a bearing, refer to manufacturer’s details.

Some makers list deep groove bearings and bearings with two rows of balls. For

bearing designations of Quality Bearings &

Components (QBC), see special pages devoted to this

purpose. The radial bearing is able to carry a

considerable amount of axial thrust. However, when

the load is directed entirely along the axis, the thrust type of bearing should be used. The

angular contact bear- ing will take care of both radial and axial loads. The self-aligning

ball bearing will take care of large amounts of angular misalignment. An increase

in radial capacity may be secured by using rings with deep grooves, or by employing a

double-row radial bearing. Radial bearings are divided into two general classes,

depending on the method of assembly. These are the Conrad, or nonfilling-notch type,

and the maximum, or filling-notch type. In the Conrad bearing, the balls are placed

between the rings as shown in Fig. 1-4(a). Then they are evenly spaced and the separator

is riveted in place. In the maximum-type bearing, the balls are a (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

100 Series Extra Light 200 Series Light 300 Series Medium Axial Thrust Bearing

Angular Contact Bearing Self-aligning Bearing Fig. 1-3 Types of Ball Bearings Fig. 1-4

Methods of Assembly for Ball Bearings (a) Conrad or non-filling notch type (b)

Maximum or filling notch type


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Chapter-5
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SPROCKET WITH CHAIN DRIVE


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CHAPTER 5

SPROCKET AND CHAIN DRIVE

This is a cycle chain sprocket. The chain sprocket is coupled with another

generator shaft. The chain converts rotational power to pulling power, or pulling power to

rotational power, by engaging with the sprocket.

The sprocket looks like a gear but differs in three important ways:

1. Sprockets have many engaging teeth; gears usually have only one or two.
2. The teeth of a gear touch and slip against each other; there is basically no slippage in a

sprocket.
3. The shape of the teeth is different in gears and sprockets.

Figure Types of Sprockets

Engagement with Sprockets:


Although chains are sometimes pushed and pulled at either end by cylinders,

chains are usually driven by wrapping them on sprockets. In the following section, we

explain the relation between sprockets and chains when power is transmitted by

sprockets.

1. Back tension

First, let us explain the relationship between flat belts and pulleys. Figure 2.5

shows a rendition of a flat belt drive. The circle at the top is a pulley, and the belt hangs

down from each side. When the pulley is fixed and the left side of the belt is loaded with

tension (T0), the force needed to pull the belt down to the right side will be:

T1 = T0 3 eµu

For example, T0 = 100 N: the coefficient of friction between the belt and pulley, µ

= 0.3; the wrap angle u = ¼ (180).

T1 = T0 3 2.566 = 256.6 N

In brief, when you use a flat belt in this situation, you can get 256.6 N of drive

power only when there is 100 N of back tension.

For elements without teeth such as flat belts or ropes, the way to get more drive

power is to increase the coefficient of friction or wrapping angle. If a substance, like


grease or oil, which decreases the coefficient of friction, gets onto the contact surface, the

belt cannot deliver the required tension.

In the chain's case, sprocket teeth hold the chain roller. If the sprocket tooth

configuration is square, as in Figure 2.6, the direction of the tooth's reactive force is

opposite the chain's tension, and only one tooth will receive all the chain's tension.

Therefore, the chain will work without back tension.

Figure Flat Belt Drive


Figure Simplified Roller/Tooth Forces

Figure The Balance of Forces Around the Roller

But actually, sprocket teeth need some inclination so that the teeth can engage and

slip off of the roller. The balances of forces that exist around the roller are shown in

Figure 2.7, and it is easy to calculate the required back tension.


For example, assume a coefficient of friction µ = 0, and you can calculate the back

tension (Tk) that is needed at sprocket tooth number k with this formula:

Tk = T0 3 sin ø k-1 sin(ø + 2b) Where:

Tk= back tension at tooth k


T0 = chain tension
ø= sprocket minimum pressure angle 17 64/N(š)
N= number of teeth
2b = sprocket tooth angle (360/N)
k= the number of engaged teeth (angle of wrap 3 N/360); round down to the nearest

whole number to be safe

By this formula, if the chain is wrapped halfway around the sprocket, the back

tension at sprocket tooth number six is only 0.96 N. This is 1 percent of the amount of a

flat belt. Using chains and sprockets, the required back tension is much lower than a flat

belt. Now let's compare chains and sprockets with a toothed-belt back tension. Although

in toothed belts the allowable tension can differ with the number of pulley teeth and the

revolutions per minute (rpm), the general recommendation is to use 1/3.5 of the allowable

tension as the back tension (F). This is shown in below Figure 2.8. Therefore, our 257 N

force will require 257/3.5 = 73 N of back tension.

Both toothed belts and chains engage by means of teeth, but chain's back tension is

only 1/75 that of toothed belts.


Figure 2.8 Back Tension on a Toothed Belt

Chain wear and jumping sprocket teeth

The key factor causing chain to jump sprocket teeth is chain wear elongation (see

Basics Section 2.2.4). Because of wear elongation, the chain creeps up on the sprocket

teeth until it starts jumping sprocket teeth and can no longer engage with the sprocket.

Figure 2.9 shows sprocket tooth shape and positions of engagement. Figure 2.10

shows the engagement of a sprocket with an elongated chain.

In Figure 2.9 there are three sections on the sprocket tooth face:

a: Bottom curve of tooth, where the roller falls into place;


b: Working curve, where the roller and the sprocket are working together;
c: Where the tooth can guide the roller but can't transmit tension. If the roller, which

should transmit tension, only engages with C, it causes jumped sprocket teeth.
The chain's wear elongation limit varies according to the number of sprocket teeth

and their shape, as shown in Figure 2.11. Upon calculation, we see that sprockets with

large numbers of teeth are very limited in stretch percentage. Smaller sprockets are

limited by other harmful effects, such as high vibration and decreasing strength;

therefore, in the case of less than 60 teeth, the stretch limit ratio is limited to 1.5 percent

(in transmission chain).

Figure 2.9 Sprocket Tooth Shape and Positions of Engagement


Figure 2.10 The Engagement Between a Sprocket and
an Elongated Chain

Figure 2.11 Elongation Versus the Number of Sprocket Teeth

In conveyor chains, in which the number of working teeth in sprockets is less than

transmission chains, the stretch ratio is limited to 2 percent. Large pitch conveyor chains

use a straight line in place of curve B in the sprocket tooth face.


A chain is a reliable machine component, which transmits power by means of tensile

forces, and is used primarily for power transmission and conveyance systems. The

function and uses of chain are similar to a belt. There are many kinds of chain. It is

convenient to sort types of chain by either material of composition or method of

construction.

We can sort chains into five types:

Cast iron chain.

Cast steel chain.

Forged chain.

Steel chain.

Plastic chain.

Demand for the first three chain types is now decreasing; they are only used in

some special situations. For example, cast iron chain is part of water-treatment

equipment; forged chain is used in overhead conveyors for automobile factories.

In this book, we are going to focus on the latter two: "steel chain," especially the

type called "roller chain," which makes up the largest share of chains being produced,

and "plastic chain." For the most part, we will refer to "roller chain" simply as "chain."
NOTE: Roller chain is a chain that has an inner plate, outer plate, pin, bushing, and roller.

In the following section of this book, we will sort chains according to their uses,

which can be broadly divided into six types:

1. Power transmission chain.

2. Small pitch conveyor chain.

3. Precision conveyor chain.

4. Top chain.

5. Free flow chain.

6. Large pitch conveyor chain.

The first one is used for power transmission; the other five are used for

conveyance. In the Applications section of this book, we will describe the uses and

features of each chain type by following the above classification.

In the following section, we will explain the composition of power transmission

chain, small pitch chain, and large pitch conveyor chain. Because there are special
features in the composition of precision conveyor chain, top chain, and free flow chain,

checks the appropriate pages in the Applications section about these features.

Basic Structure of Power Transmission Chain

A typical configuration for RS60-type chain is shown in Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1 The Basic Components of Transmission Chain

Connecting Link
This is the ordinary type of connecting link. The pin and link plate are slip fit in

the connecting link for ease of assembly. This type of connecting link is 20 percent lower

in fatigue strength than the chain itself. There are also some special connecting links

which have the same strength as the chain itself. (See Figure 1.2)

Tap Fit Connecting Link

In this link, the pin and the tap fit connecting link plate are press fit. It has fatigue

strength almost equal to that of the chain itself. (See Figure 1.2)

Figure 1.2 Standard Connecting Link (top)


and Tap Fit Connecting Link (bottom)

Offset Link

An offset link is used when an odd

number of chain links is required.

It is 35 percent lower in fatigue

strength than the chain itself. The

pin and two plates are slip fit.

There is also a two-pitch offset

link available that has fatigue strength as great as the chain itself. (See Figure 1.3)
Figure 1.3 Offset Link

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter-6
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
COMPRESSED AIR ENGINE
PRINCIPLE
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER 6

COMPRESSED AIR ENGINE PRINCIPLE

A compressed-air vehicle is powered by an air engine, using compressed air, which

is stored in a tank. Instead of mixing fuel with air and burning it in the engine to drive

pistons with hot expanding gases, compressed air vehicles (CAV) use the expansion of

compressed air to drive their pistons. One manufacturer claims to have designed an

engine that is 90 percent efficient. Compressed air propulsion may also be incorporated

in hybrid systems, e.g., battery electric propulsion and fuel tanks to recharge the batteries.

This kind of system is called hybrid-pneumatic electric propulsion. Additionally,

regenerative braking can also be used in conjunction with this system.

1. ENGINE:-

A Compressed-air engine is a pneumatic actuator that creates useful work by

expanding compressed air. They have existed in many forms over the past two centuries,
ranging in size from hand held turbines up to several hundred horsepower. Some types

rely on pistons and cylinders, others use turbines.

Many compressed air engines improve their performance by heating the incoming air,

or the engine itself. Some took this a stage further and burned fuel in the cylinder or

turbine, forming a type of internal combustion engine. One can buy the vehicle with the

engine or buy an engine to be installed in the vehicle. Typical air engines use one or more

expander pistons. In some applications it is advantageous to heat the air, or the engine, to

increase the range or power.

2. TANKS:-

The tanks must be designed to safety standards appropriate for a pressure vessel, such

as ISO 11439.

The storage tank may be made of:

 steel,

 aluminium,

 carbon fiber,

 Kevlar,
 Other materials or combinations of the above.

The fiber materials are considerably lighter than metals but generally more expensive.

Metal tanks can withstand a large number of pressure cycles, but must be checked for

corrosion periodically. One company stores air in tanks at 4,500 pounds per square inch

(about 30 MPa) and hold nearly 3,200 cubic feet (around 90 cubic metres) of air.

The tanks may be refilled at a service station equipped with heat exchangers, or in a

few hours at home or in parking lots, plugging the car into the electrical grid via an on-

board compressor.

3. COMPRESSED AIR:-

Compressed air has a low energy density. In 300 bar containers, about 0.1 MJ/L

and 0.1 MJ/kg is achievable, comparable to the values of electrochemical lead-acid

batteries. While batteries can somewhat maintain their voltage throughout their discharge

and chemical fuel tanks provide the same power densities from the first to the last litre,

the pressure of compressed air tanks falls as air is drawn off. A consumer-automobile of
conventional size and shape typically consumes 0.3-0.5 kWh (1.1-1.8 MJ) at the drive

shaft per mile of use, though unconventional sizes may perform with significantly less.

4. EMISSION OUTPUT:-

Like other non-combustion energy storage technologies, an air vehicle displaces the

emission source from the vehicle's tail pipe to the central electrical generating plant.

Where emissions-free sources are available, net production of pollutants can be reduced.

Emission control measures at a central generating plant may be more effective and less

costly than treating the emissions of widely-dispersed vehicles.

Since the compressed air is filtered to protect the compressor machinery, the air

discharged has less suspended dust in it, though there may be carry-over of lubricants

used in the engine.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter-7
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

WORKING PRINCIPLE
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER 7

WORKING PRINCIPLE

Today, internal combustion engines in cars, trucks, motorcycles, aircraft,

construction machinery and many others, most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. The

four strokes refer to intake, compression, combustion (power), and exhaust strokes that

occur during two crankshaft rotations per working cycle of the gasoline engine and diesel

engine.

The cycle begins at Top Dead Center (TDC), when the piston is farthest away

from the axis of the crankshaft. A stroke refers to the full travel of the piston from Top

Dead Center (TDC) to Bottom Dead Center (BDC).

1. INTAKE stroke: On the intake or induction stroke of the piston , the piston descends

from the top of the cylinder to the bottom of the cylinder, reducing the pressure inside the
cylinder. A mixture of fuel and air is forced by atmospheric (or greater) pressure into the

cylinder through the intake port. The intake valve(s) then close.

2. COMPRESSION stroke: With both intake and exhaust valves closed, the piston

returns to the top of the cylinder compressing the fuel-air mixture. This is known as the

compression stroke.

3. POWER stroke.: While the piston is close to Top Dead Center, the compressed air–

fuel mixture is ignited, usually by a spark plug (for a gasoline or Otto cycle engine) or by

the heat and pressure of compression (for a diesel cycle or compression ignition engine).

The resulting massive pressure from the combustion of the compressed fuel-air mixture

drives the piston back down toward bottom dead center with tremendous force. This is

known as the power stroke, which is the main source of the engine's torque and power.

4. EXHAUST stroke: During the exhaust stroke, the piston once again returns to top

dead center while the exhaust valve is open. This action evacuates the products of

combustion from the cylinder by pushing the spent fuel-air mixture through the exhaust

valve(s).

In our project we have to modified these four strokes into totally two stoke with

the help of inner CAM alteration. In air engine we can design a new CAM which is

operate only Inlet stroke and exhaust stroke. Actually in four stroke engine the inlet and
exhaust valve opens only one time to complete the total full cycle. In that time the piston

moving from top dead center to bottom dead center for two times. A stroke refers to the

full travel of the piston from Top Dead Center (TDC) to Bottom Dead Center (BDC).

In our air engine project, we have to open inlet and exhaust valve in each and

every stroke of the engine so that it will convert the four stroke engine to two stroke

engine by modifying the CAM shaft of the engine.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter-8
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DESIGN AND DRAWINGS


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER 8

DESIGN AND DRAWINGS


1. DESIGN OF BALL BEARING

Bearing No. 6202

Outer Diameter of Bearing (D) = 35 mm

Thickness of Bearing (B) = 12 mm

Inner Diameter of the Bearing (d) = 15 mm

r₁ = Corner radii on shaft and housing

r₁ = 1 (From design data book)

Maximum Speed = 14,000 rpm (From design data book)

Mean Diameter (dm) = (D + d) / 2

= (35 + 15) / 2

dm = 25 mm

2. ENGINE DESIGN CALCULATIONS:-

DESIGN AND ANYLSIS ON TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION FOR TWO-

STROKE ENGINE COMPONENT USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD:


SPECIFICATION OF FOUR STROKE PETROL ENGINE:

Type : four strokes

Cooling System : Air Cooled

Bore/Stroke : 50 x 50 mm

Piston Displacement : 98.2 cc

Compression Ratio : 6.6: 1

Maximum Torque : 0.98 kg-m at 5,500RPM

CALCULATION:

Compression ratio = (Swept Volume + Clearance Volume)/ Clearance Volume

Here,

Compression ratio = 6.6:1

∴ 6.6 = (98.2 + Vc)/Vc

Vc = 19.64

Assumption:

1. The component gases and the mixture behave like ideal gases.

2. Mixture obeys the Gibbs-Dalton law


Pressure exerted on the walls of the cylinder by air is P₁

P₁ = (M₁RT)/V

Here,

M₁ = m/M = (Mass of the gas or air)/(Molecular Weight)

R = Universal gas constant = 8.314 KJ/Kg mole K.

T₁ = 303 ºK

V₁ = V = 253.28 x 10¯⁶ m³

Molecular weight of air = Density of air x V mole

Here,

Density of air at 303ºK = 1.165 kg/m³

V mole = 22.4 m³/Kg-mole for all gases.

∴Molecular weight of air = 1.165 x 22.4

∴P₁ = {[(m₁/(1.165 x 22.4)] x 8.314 x 303}/253.28 x 10¯⁶

P₁ = 381134.1 m₁
Let Pressure exerted by the fuel is P₂

P₂ = (N₂ R T)/V

Density of petrol = 800 Kg/m³

∴P₂ = {[(M₂)/(800 x 22.4)] x 8.314 x 303}/(253.28 x 10¯⁶

P₂ = 555.02 m₂

Therefore Total pressure inside the cylinder

PT = P₁ + P₂

= 1.01325 x 100 KN/m²

∴381134.1 m₁ + 555.02 m₂ = 1.01325 x 100 ------------------------- (1)

Calculation of air fuel ratio:

Carbon = 86%

Hydrogen = 14%
We know that,

1Kg of carbon requires 8/3 Kg of oxygen for the complete combustion.

1Kg of carbon sulphur requires 1 Kg of Oxigen for its complete combustion.

(From Heat Power Engineering-Balasundrrum)

Therefore,

The total oxygen requires for complete combustion of 1 Kg of fuel

= [ (8/3c) + (3H₂) + S] Kg

Little of oxygen may already present in the fuel, then the total oxygen required for

complete combustion of Kg of fuel

= { [ (8/3c) + (8H₂) + S ] - O₂} Kg

As air contains 23% by weight of Oxygen for obtain of oxygen amount of air

required = 100/23 Kg

∴Minimum air required for complete combustion of 1 Kg of fuel

= (100/23) { [ (8/3c) + H₂ + S] - O₂} Kg

So for petrol 1Kg of fuel requires = (100/23) { [ (8/3c) x 0.86 + (8 x 0.14) ] }

= 14.84 Kg of air
∴Air fuel ratio = m₁/m₂ = 14.84/1

= 14.84

∴ m₁ = 14.84 m₂-------------------------- (2)

Substitute (2) in (1)

1.01325 x 100 = 3.81134 (14.84 m₂) + 555.02 m₂

∴m₂ = 1.791 x 10¯⁵ Kg/Cycle

Mass of fuel flow per cycle = 1.791 x 10¯⁵ Kg cycle

Therefore,

Mass flow rate of the fuel for 2500 RPM

[(1.791 x 10¯⁵)/3600] x (2500/2) x 60

= 3.731 x 10¯⁴ Kg/sec

Calculation of calorific value:

By Delong’s formula,

Higher Calorific Value = 33800 C + 144000 H₂ + 9270 S

= (33800 x 0.86) + (144000 x 0.14) + 0


HCV = 49228 KJ/Kg

Lower Calorific Value = HCV – (9H₂ x 2442)

= 49228 – [(9 x 0.14) x 2442]

= 46151.08 KJ/Kg

LCV = 46.151 MJ/Kg

Finding Cp and Cv for the mixture:

We know that,

Air contains 77% N₂ and 23% O₂ by weight

But total mass inside the cylinder = m₁ + m₂

= 2.65 x 10¯⁴ + 1.791 x 10¯⁵ Kg

= 2.8291 x 10¯⁴ Kg

(1) Weight of nitrogen present = 77% = 0.77 Kg in 1 Kg of air

∴In 2.65 x 10¯⁴ Kg of air contains,

= 0.77 x 2.65 x 10¯⁴ Kg of N₂

= 2.0405 x 10¯⁴ Kg

Percent of N₂ present in the total mass


= (2.0405 x 10¯⁴/2.8291 x 10¯⁴)

= 72.125 %

(1) Percentage of oxygen present in 1 Kg of air is 23%

Percentage of oxygen present in total mass

= (0.23 x 2.65 x 10¯⁴)/(2.8291 x 10¯⁴)

= 21.54 %

(2) Percentage of carbon present in 1 Kg of fuel 86%

Percentage of carbon present in total mass

= (0.866 x 1.791 x 10¯⁵)/(2.8291 x 10¯⁴)

= 5.444%

(3) Percentage of Hydrogen present in 1 Kg of fuel 14%

Percentage of Hydrogen present in total mass

= (0.14 x 1.791 x 10¯⁵)/(2.8291 x 10¯⁴)

= 0.886 %
Total Cp of the mixture is = ∑msi Cpi

Cp = (0.72125 x 1.043) + (0.2154 x 0.913)

+ (0.54444 x 0.7) + (8.86 x 10¯³ x 14.257)

Cp = 1.1138 KJ/Kg.K

Cv = ∑msi Cvi

= (0.72125 x 0.745) + (0.2154 x 0.653)

+ (0.05444 x 0.5486) + (8.86 x 10¯³ x 10.1333)

= 0.8 KJ/Kg.K

(All Cvi, Cpi values of corresponding components are taken from clerks table)

n For the mixture = (Cp/Cv)

= 1.11/0.8

n = 1.38

Pressure and temperature at various PH:

P₁ = 1.01325 x 100 bar

= 1.01325 bar
T₁ = 30ºC = 303 K

P₂/P₁ = (r)ⁿ¯¹

Where,

P₁ = 1.01325 bar

r = 6.6

n = 1.38

∴P₂ = 13.698 bar

T₂ = (r)ⁿ¯¹ x T₁

Where,

T₁ = 303 K

∴T₂ = 620.68 K

P 4
2

Heat Supplied by the fuel per cycle

Q = MCv

= 1.79 x 10¯⁵ x 46151.08

Q = 0.8265 KJ/Cycle

0.8265 = MCv (T₃ - T₂)

T₃ = 4272.45 K

(P₂ V₂) / T₂ = (P₃ V₃) / T₃

Where,

V₂ = V₃

∴P₃ = (T₃ x P₂)/T₂

Where,

P₃ = 94.27 bar
P₄ = P₃ / (r)ⁿ

∴P₄ = 6.973 bar

T₄ = T₃ / (r)ⁿ¯¹

= 2086.15 K

POINT POSITION PRESSURE (bar) TEMPERATURE


POINT-1 1.01325 30 ºC 303 K
POINT-2 13.698 347.68 ºC 620.68 K
POINT-3 94.27 3999.45 ºC 4272.45 K
POINT-4 6.973 1813.15 ºC 2086.15 K

DESIGN OF ENGINE PISTON:

We know diameter of the piston which is equal to 50 mm

Thickness of piston:

The thickness of the piston head is calculated from flat-plate theory


Where,

t = D (3/16 x P/f)½

Here,

P - Maximum combustion pressure = 100 bar

f - Permissible stress in tension = 34.66 N/mm²

Piston material is aluminium alloy.

∴t = 0.050 (3/16 x 100/34.66 x 10⁶/10⁵)½ x 1000

= 12 mm

Number of Piston Rings:

No. of piston rings = 2 x D½

Here,

D - Should be in Inches = 1.968 inches

∴ No. of rings = 2.805

We adopt 3 compression rings and 1 oil rings

Thickness of the ring:

Thickness of the ring = D/32

= 50/32

= 1.5625 mm
Width of the ring:

Width of the ring = D/20

= 2.5 mm

The distance of the first ring from top of the piston equals

= 0.1 x D

= 5 mm

Width of the piston lands between rings

= 0.75 x width of ring = 1.875 mm

Length of the piston:

Length of the piston = 1.625 x D

Length of the piston = 81.25 mm

Length of the piston skirt = Total length – Distance of first ring from top of

The first ring (No. of landing between rings x

Width of land) – (No. of compression ring x

Width of ring)

= 81.25 – 5 – 2 x 1.875 – 3 x 2.5

= 65 mm
Other parameter:

Centre of piston pin above the centre of the skirt = 0.02 x D

= 65 mm

The distance from the bottom of the piston to the

Centre of the piston pin = ½ x 65 + 1

= 33.5 mm

Thickness of the piston walls at open ends = ½ x 12

= 6 mm

The bearing area provided by piston skirt = 65 x 50

= 3250 mm²

3. DESIGN OF CHAIN SPROCKET DRIVE:

DESIGN OF CHAIN DRIVE:

STEP 1: DETERMINATION OF TRANSMISSION RATIO

n₁ = 20
n₂ = 16

Transmission ratio, (i) = z₂/z₁ = n₁/n₂

= 20/16 = 1.26 1.25 (approx)

STEP 2: SELECTION OF NO. OF TEETH ON DRIVER SPROCKET

z₁ = 15

z₂ = i z₁

= 1.25 x 15 = 19

STEP 3: CENTER DISTANCE

a = (30 to 50)p

a = 150 mm

p max = a/30 = 150/30 = 5 mm

P min = a/50 = 150/50 = 3 mm


P = 9.525 is chosen

STEP 4: SELECTION OF CHAIN

Assume the chain to be Duplex

From table 7.72

For duplex DR 50

10 A-Z DR 50 is chosen

STEP 5 : TOTAL LOAD ON THE DRIVING SIDE CHAIN

Σp = pt + pc + ps

pt = 102 x 0.75/0.0476 = 160.71 kgf

v = No. of teeth on driver sprocket x pitch x rpm/60 x 1000

= 15 x 9.525 x 20/60 x 1000 = 47.62 mm/sec

pt = 102 x 0.75 /0.0476 = 160.71 kgf

pc = wv²/g

(From page 7.72) for duplex DR 50 (P.No. 7.72)

w = 1.78 kg/m
pc = 1.78 x (0.0476)²/9.81 = 4.8 kgf

Tension due to staging by chain,

ps = 6 x1.78 x 0.5 = 5.34 kgf

Σ₁p = 5.34 +4.8+160.71 = 170.85 kgf

STEP 6: DESIGN LOAD

Design load = Ks x Σp

Ks = k₁k₂k₃k₄k₅k₆

k₁ = Load factor = 1.25

k₂ = 1 for adjustable supports

k₃ = 1 for a = 30 to 50 p

k₄ = 1 for horizontal drives (P.no. 7.76)

k₅ = 1 for drop lubrication

k₆ = 1.25 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1.25

∴k = 1.5625
Design load = 1.5625 x 170.85

= 266.95 kgf

STEP 7: FACTOR OF SAFETY

FOS = Breaking load/Total load = [b]

For DR 50

Breaking load = 4440 kgf

FOS = 4440/170.85 = 25.98

(Page no. 7.77)

n = 11 for pitch is 20 and 16 rpm

[11.26]

Design is safe

STEP 8: BEARING STRESS ON ROLLERS

Induced stress (σ) = pc x ks /A


A = 1.4 cm² = 140 mm

Σ = 160.71 x 1.5625/140

= 1.79 kgf/mm²

STEP 9: ALLOWABLE BEARING STRESS (σ)

σ = 2.24 kgf/mm²

σ = 1.79 < 2.24

Design is safe.

STEP 10: LENGTH OF THE CHAIN

Lp = 2ap + (z₁+z₃)/2 + ((z₂-z₁)/2π)π²/ap

Ap = a₀/p = 150/150875 = 11.44

Lp = 15 links

Length of chain (l) = Lp x p

= 15 x 0.043 = 66.55
STEP 11: CORRECTED CENTRE DISTANCE

a = (e + √(e²-8m))/4

Where,

e = lp-((z₁+z₂)/2)

m = ((z₂-z₁)2π)²

= 162.5 mm

STEP 12: SPROCKET DIAMETER

d1 = (p/sin(180/Z₁))

= 66.5 mm

d₂ = (p/sin(180/Z₂))

= 85 mm

SPECIFICATIONS:

1) Type of chain= A-Z DR 50 roller chain


2) Center distance = 162.5 mm

3) No. of teeth on the pinion sprocket = 15

4) No. of teeth on the wheel sprocket = 19

5) Length of the chain = 62.5 mm

6) Diameter of piston sprocket = 66.55 mm

7) Diameter of wheel sprocket = 85 mm

DESIGN OF RATCHET AND PAWL:

STEP 1:

Module (m) = D/Z

= 130/28

= 64 mm

P = 2N4/D (Page 7.85)

P = 75 (Assume)

75 = 2 Mt/130

Mt = 4875

STEP 2:

B = ψm

Ψ = 1.5 (Assume)
B = 1.5 x 4.64

= 6.96

STEP 3:

m = 2 x ∛Mt/zψ[σh]

= 2 x ∛(875/28 x 6.96 x 300)

= 2 x 0.4368 = 0.873

STEP 4:

Diameter of the pawl pins:

d = 2.71 x ∛p/2[σh](b/2+a₁)

= 2.71 x ∛ (5/600x(6.96/2 x 15))

= 55 mm

STEP 5:

SPECIFICATIONS:

Diameter of the ratchet = 130 mm

Width of the ratchet = 15 mm

No. of teeth of the ratchet = 28 Teeth


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Chapter-9
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

LIST OF MATERIALS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CHAPTER-9

LIST OF MATERIALS

Sl. No. Qty. Material


PARTS
i. Frame Stand 1 Mild Steel
ii. Air Tank 1 M.S
iii. Gate Valve 1 M.S
iv. Bearing with Bearing Cap 1 M.S
v. Engine 1 100 Cc
vi Chain with Sprocket 1 M.S
viii. Connecting Tube 1 meter Plastic
ix. Bolt and Nut - M.S
x Wheel Arrangement 1 -

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter-10
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

COST ESTIMATION
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER-10

COST ESTIMATION
1. MATERIAL COST:-

Sl. No. Qty. Material Amount (Rs)


PARTS
i. Frame Stand 1 Mild Steel
ii. Air Tank 1 M.S
iii. Gate Valve 1 M.S
iv. Bearing with Bearing Cap 1 M.S
v. Engine 1 100 Cc
vi Chain with Sprocket 1 M.S
viii. Connecting Tube 1 meter Plastic
ix. Bolt and Nut - M.S
x Wheel Arrangement 1 -

TOTAL =

2. LABOUR COST
LATHE, DRILLING, WELDING, GRINDING, POWER HACKSAW, GAS CUTTING:
Cost =

3. OVERHEAD CHARGES

The overhead charges are arrived by “Manufacturing cost”

Manufacturing Cost = Material Cost + Labour cost


=
=

Overhead Charges = 20% of the manufacturing cost


=
TOTAL COST

Total cost = Material Cost + Labour cost + Overhead Charges


=
=

Total cost for this project =

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Chapter-11
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ADVANTAGES
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER-11
ADVANTAGES
1. compressed air to store the energy instead of batteries. Their potential advantages over

other vehicles include:

2. Reducing pollution from one source, as opposed to the millions of vehicles on the

road.

3. Transportation of the fuel would not be required due to drawing power off the

electrical grid. This presents significant cost benefits. Pollution created during fuel

transportation would be eliminated.

4. Compressed air technology reduces the cost of vehicle production.

5. There is no need to build a cooling system, fuel tank, Ignition Systems or silencers.

6. The mechanical design of the engine is simple and robust.

7. Low manufacture and maintenance costs as well as easy maintenance.

8. Compressed-air tanks can be disposed of or recycled with less pollution than batteries.

9. The tank may be able to be refilled more often and in less time than batteries can be

recharged, with re-fueling rates comparable to liquid fuels.

10. Lighter vehicles would mean less abuse on roads resulting in longer lasting roads.

11. The price of fueling air powered vehicles will be significantly cheaper than current

fuels.

12. Refueling can be done at home using an air compressor

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Chapter-12
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

APPLICATIONS AND
DISADVANTAGES
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER-11

APPLICATIONS AND DISADVANTAGES


APPLICATIONS

1. Two wheeler Application

2. Four wheeler Applications

DISADVANTAGES

1. Like the modern car and most household appliances, the principal disadvantage is the

indirect use of energy.

2. The temperature difference between the incoming air and the working gas is smaller. In

heating the stored air, the device gets very cold and may ice up in cool, moist climates.

3. Refueling the compressed air container using a home or low-end conventional air

compressor may take as long time..

4. Tanks get very hot when filled rapidly. It very dangers it some time bloused.

5. Only limited storage capacity of the tanks. So we not take drive on long time.

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Chapter-13
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CONCLUSION
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CHAPTER 13

CONCLUSION
This project work has provided us an excellent opportunity and experience, to use

our limited knowledge. We gained a lot of practical knowledge regarding, planning,

purchasing, assembling and machining while doing this project work. We feel that the

project work is a good solution to bridge the gates between institution and industries.

We are proud that we have completed the work with the limited time successfully.

The AIR ENGINE is working with satisfactory conditions. We are able to understand

the difficulties in maintaining the tolerances and also quality. We have done to our ability

and skill making maximum use of available facilities.

In conclusion remarks of our project work, let us add a few more lines about our

impression project work. Thus we have developed an “AIR ENGINE” which helps to

know how to achieve compressed air vehicle. The application of pneumatics produces

smooth operation. By using more techniques, they can be modified and developed

according to the applications.


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BIBLIOGRAPHY
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
AUTOMOBILE ENGG. - N.M AGGARWAL

S.K.KATARIA & SONS

ADVANCES IN AUTOMOBILE ENGG. - S.SUBRAMANIAM

ALLIED PUBLISHERS LTD.

THEORY & PERFORMANCE OF - J.B.GUPTA

ELECTRICAL MACHINES S.K.KATARIA & SONS

PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL

ENGINEERING AND ELECTRONICS - V.K.METHTA

CYBER REFERANCE

www.visionengineer.com

www.tpup.com
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PHOTOGRAPHY
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PHOTOGRAPHY