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www.worldhighways.com OCTOBER 2018 ISSUE 4

TECHNOLOGY
A N A LY S I N G T H E L AT E S T T E C H N O L O G Y, P R O D U C T S & S E R V I C E S

A special publication from

BIO-REPAVATION:
PUSHING THE
BOUNDARY OF BINDERS p26
ALSO:
RAP developments in Japan p22
Minnesota mines compaction data p14
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respective logos, “Caterpillar Yellow,” the “Power Edge” trade dress as well as corporate and
product identity used herein, are trademarks of Caterpillar and may not be used without permission.
WELCOME

RIGHT: Around and around it goes: in


two months the IFSTTAR Pavement
Fatigue Carousel in France can simulate
the passage of a million HGVs - 20
years of service for a pavement carrying
moderate traffic levels

EDITOR:
Mike Woof

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS:
David Arminas, Geoff Hadwick, Adam Hill

SUB-EDITOR:
Kevin O’Shea

PRODUCTION MANAGER:
Nick Bond

OFFICE MANAGER:
Kelly Thompson

DESIGNERS:
Simon Ward, Andy Taylder

CIRCULATION & DATABASE MANAGER:


Charmaine Douglas

WEB ADMINISTRATORS:
Sarah Biswell, Abbie Mcdonnell

INTERNET, IT AND DATA


SERVICES DIRECTOR:
James Howard

MANAGING DIRECTOR: f there is one message to take away from this year’s issue of your Road
Andrew Barriball

CEO:
Roger Adshead
I Surface Technology Review it’s that data is king. For example, the US state
of Minnesota’s Department of Transportation is mining data gathered
from using ground penetrating radar – GPR – to assess compaction and
uniformity of asphalt mixture compaction. Understanding the air void content is
PUBLISHING DIRECTOR: paramount to ensuring that remedial action to correct surface defects is kept to an
Geoff Hadwick
absolute minimum. In fact, issues about too little or too much air void content can be
ADDRESS: examined before the contractor has even left the site, meaning corrections can take
Route One Publishing Limited, place there and then. This eliminates the need for the contractor to return to the site
Waterbridge Court, 50 Spital Street, to make minor adjustments at major costs to the client.
Dartford, Kent DA1 2DT, UK
Tel: +44 1322 612055 Fax: +44 1322 788 063 Recycled asphalt pavement continues to be a hot topic among clients and
Email: [initialsurname]@ropl.com contractors globally. Nowhere is this more so than in Japan, as our authoritative
(eg: radshead@ropl.com) feature about the use of RAP in that country shows. The Japan Road Contractors
Association is pushing up the use of RAP and in doing so is driving down the carbon
ADVERTISEMENT SALES:
Head of Construction Sales: footprint of thousands of kilometres of paving projects. Recycled concrete aggregate
Graeme McQueen is also increasingly being favoured for base courses.
Tel: +44 1322 612069 In an effort to make binders more eco-friendly, the international Bio-Repavation
Email: gmcqueen@ropl.com
project, based in France, is showing results after months of simulated road wear.
Classified Ads / UK / North America: IFSTTAR, a major French public body for the advancement of transport technology,
Yvonne Tindall reports the successful use of bio-based additives to binders that can extend the
Tel: +44 1622 844027 wear-life of road surfaces, including that of RAP. Much work was carried out at the
Email: ytindall@ropl.com
futuristic-looking IFSTTAR Pavement Fatigue Carousel near Nantes in north-west
Italy: France. Again, some of the driving force for finding new additives is a concern about
Fulvio Bonfiglietti the environment, as the article explains.
Tel: +39 339 1010833 In this issue we also update our readers on some of the most important
Email: bonfiglietti@tiscali.it
improvements to compaction machinery and asphalt plants over this past year.
Asia / Australasia: Refinements to oscillation technologies are happening fast for compaction machinery
Roger Adshead thanks to the efforts of companies including BOMAG, Hamm and Volvo. In asphalt
Tel: +44 7768 178163 plants, Astec, Benninghoven and Intrame are again pushing the boundary for the use
Email: radshead@ropl.com
of RAP.
Published by: For highway contractors and machinery manufacturers, the coming year will be an
important one – bauma 2019 takes place in Munich in April. The latest advances and
prototypes will be presented at the greatest construction equipment show on Earth.
World Highways will be there in force to bring you comprehensive coverage. We hope
to see you in Munich.
© Route One Publishing Ltd 2018

ROAD SUFACE TECHNOLOGY


Print ISSN 2397-1088 Mike Woof, EDITOR
Online ISSN 2397-1096 mwoof@ropl.com

www.worldhighways.com ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 03


CONSTRUCTION

OPENING
NEW ROADS…
EVERYWHERE

FAE Group | Zona Produttiva 18 | 38013 Fondo (TN) Italy | Tel. +39 0463 840000 | www.fae-group.com
CONTENTS

32 29 36

14 06 34

06: BITUMEN PERFORMANCE 22: RECYCLED ASPHALT 32: SURFACE TREATMENTS


The harmonised European standard PAVEMENT Beauty can be more than skin
EN 13808 on bituminous emulsions Japan: the road ahead for RAP, deep when pavement colouring
is explained according to the national Road is applied to roads, pedestrian
Contractors Association paths and cycleways

14: COMPACTION QUALITY


Ground penetrating radar is one of 26: BINDER DEVELOPMENT 34: ONSITE - MILLING
the methods being used by the US Alternative binders could be used A Wirtgen W 60 RI works wonders
state of Minnesota to ensure the to recycle asphaltic pavement and on a Norwegian jobsite with little
correct density maintain high performance more than elbow room

19: ASPHALT PAVING 29: COMPACTION 36: ASPHALT PLANT UPDATE


RoadResource.org is up and running MACHINERY UPDATE For continuous and batching type
to help North American contractors Oscillation has come a long way plant, more RAP is the order of the day
from the early 1980s, writes Mike Woof,
editor of World Highways

www.worldhighways.com ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 05


BITUMEN PERFORMANCE

The harmonised European standard EN 13808 on bituminous emulsions¹ is


explained in relation to the requirements set up by Mandate M/124² of the
European Commission to CEN, the European Committee for Standardisation*

hen considering the interests of to allow them to develop the ad-hoc product These performance characteristics relate

W the paving industry, it appears


that standard EN 13808 leaves
too many options open, making
standards. Bituminous emulsions fall under
the scope of Mandate M/124.
to: viscosity; water effect on binder adhesion;
breaking behaviour after stabilisation of
the resting binder; hardness including
it an inefficient tool for the promotion PRESENTATION OF EN 13808: 2013 temperature dependence; resistance to
of emulsion-based road construction There are at present seven basic requirements flow/deformation including temperature
techniques. for construction works set up by the CPR: dependence; cohesion; adhesion; and release
In Europe, construction products are 1. Mechanical resistance and stability; of dangerous substances.
to be marketed under the provisions of 2. Safety in case of fire;
the Construction Products Regulation 3. Hygiene, health and the environment;
(CPR)³ which identifies basic requirements 4. Safety and accessibility in use; ABOVE: Keep on truckin’: vehicles pull up to a
applicable to construction works in all 5. Protection against noise; Eurovia asphalt plant
EU member states. Its key objective is to 6. Energy economy and heat retention;
enhance the free movement of construction 7. Sustainable use of natural resources.
products by removing technical barriers to
trade. This is achieved via the CE (European In its Mandate M/124, the Commission
“The breaking process
Conformity) marking system, which is based has only retained three of those - numbers 1, is the first step of the
on harmonised European Product Standards 3 and 4 - as being applicable to bituminous setting process of an
(EN). emulsions for road construction. In relation
The Commission has been given authority to these requirements, the Commission
emulsion for which
to identify, for each family of construction has proposed a set of performance further performance
products, the relevant basic requirements characteristics to be addressed by the indicators are given
(applying to construction works) and the
related essential characteristics (applying
Technical Committee for Bituminous
Binders (TC 336) in its product standard.
by the evolution of
to products), for which performance shall TC 336 was requested to come up with a set properties on residual
be assessed and declared. As a result, the of essential characteristics and associated binders”
Commission is required to issue a mandate test methods to assess these performance
to European Standardisation Organisations requirements.

06 ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 www.worldhighways.com


BITUMEN PERFORMANCE

RIGHT: Fashion statement: a road gets a new coat,


thanks to Eurovia

The first version of EN 13808 was


published in 2005. The adjustments to
the standard made in the frame of its first
revision (2010-2013) had to be justified
against the requirements of the CPR. This
was done in the form of an amended version
of the answer to the Mandate proposed to the
Commission in its final form in 2015.
Hereafter, we will review the essential
characteristics and the associated test
methods presented in this latest version of the
answer to the Mandate and which form the
basis of the 2013 version of EN 13808.
Essential characteristics relating to the
emulsion such as viscosity is determined via
the measurement of either an efflux time
(EN 12846-1) or of dynamic viscosity with a • Consistency at elevated service The two other stages cover the
rotating spindle (EN 13302). temperatures as measured by the softening durability issue. A stabilised binder
Adhesion is evaluated as the resistance to point test (EN 1427) or, in some cases, by obtained while continuing the
displacement by water after the emulsion a viscosity measurement (EN 12595 or EN EN 13074-1 recovery procedure by a
has broken in contact with a given aggregate 12596); further curing day at 85oC (EN 13074-2).
(reference aggregates may be defined on • Cohesion: for unmodified binders, Although there is no absolute rule, one
national level) and after a standardised curing softening point and penetration are may assume this binder to be close to the
procedure (EN 13614). deemed to give sufficient information on binder after one or two years - stage 1 of
Breaking behaviour is assessed by exposing cohesion. For polymer-modified emulsions, durability.
the emulsion to reactive mineral (filler) cohesion is to be evaluated via three An aged binder obtained by applying
material. Depending on the intended use possible methods: for surface dressing a further PAV (pressure ageing vessel)
and stability of the emulsion, the type of applications, only the pendulum test (EN accelerated ageing procedure (EN 14769)
filler and operating process may be different 13588) is to be used, whereas cohesion to the stabilised binder - stage 2 of
(EN 13075-1, EN 13075-2 or EN 12848). The may also be determined from tensile (EN durability.
breaking process is the first step of the setting 13587) or force-ductility (EN 13589) tests
process of an emulsion for which further for emulsions used in emulsion-aggregate PERFORMANCE CLASSES
performance indicators are given by the mixtures. These characteristics and test For each emulsion characteristic, EN
evolution of properties on residual binders. methods apply to the residual binder over 13808 lists several so-called performance
all its service life. The TC 336 answer to the classes, which correspond to specification
CHARACTERISTICS OF Mandate considers three stages as being ranges, maximum or minimum levels,
RESIDUAL BINDERS relevant; for the values measured through the
The characteristics relate to the mechanical • The binder “once applied on the road”, associated performance test (Table 1).
performance requirements such as hardness, which is the binder obtained after a The presentation of EN 13808 suggests
resistance to flow/deformation, cohesion and plate recovery procedure allowing the that the standard does not entirely fulfil
their dependence upon temperature: elimination of the residual water (recovered the objectives assigned to harmonised
• Consistency at intermediate service binder according to EN 13074-1). This product standards. This is due both to the
temperatures as measured by the needle binder is assumed to represent the very design of the standard and the intrinsic
penetration test (EN 1426); early stage of service life. nature of the retained test methods. ➔

Performance classes
Technical requirement Standard
Unit Class 0 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class n°
(mandated or voluntary characteristics) test
empty empty
Requirement N°1 EN… x
or NR or DV
empty empty
Requirement N°2 EN… y
or NR or DV
© EUROVIA

empty empty
Requirement N°p EN… z
or NR or DV

NR: No Requirement
Specification ranges, lower or higher limits
DV: Declared Value

TABLE 1. General structure of specification tables in EN 13808

www.worldhighways.com ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 07


BITUMEN PERFORMANCE

➔ Some of the specified characteristics accordance with the requirements of the but it considerably weakens the efficiency
(binder content, sieve residue, storage Mandate (a single performance test for each of the standard as a help to the industry for
stability…) do not relate to the essential property) but finds its explanation in the promoting emulsion-based road construction
characteristics identified in the answer to following considerations: techniques.
Mandate M/124 but are important for the • Different tests may be necessary;
emulsion industry and its customers. This • The willingness of each European Union IMPROVEMENTS TO EN 13808
raises an important fundamental question: member state to keep its technical A first step in the move towards a more
should product standards only address the background and thus to carry on with the satisfactory version of EN 13808 would be
requirements of CPR (which is in line with methods used so far. to specify emulsion properties in relation
a policy of suppressing barriers to trade by to the intended use. This is permitted by
limiting the number of requirements to a The existence of several possible the provisions of the CPR and likely to be
strict minimum) or may they also include performance tests also explains the extensive a definite progress through an optimised
additional requirements deemed necessary use made in EN 13808 of the NR (No definition of requirements. One may define
for proper design and use? Requirement) performance class. Indeed, it several emulsion types while considering the
So far, the introduction of such must be possible not to select a property if different application areas and analysing the
voluntary additional characteristics has inappropriate in relation to the intended use corresponding performance requirements in
been supported by member states through of the emulsion or a test method if the latter the sense of Mandate M/124. This leads to
their positive formal votes on the two is not practiced in a certain member state. a provisional number of six emulsion types,
successive versions of EN 13808. Some of This is in line with the policy of avoiding any belonging to either of two basic families, for
the added voluntary characteristics (efflux unnecessary barriers to trade but very hard example, spraying and coating emulsions.
time at 85oC, penetration power, Fraass to understand from a technical point of view: Their description in terms of performance
breaking point, elastic recovery) are more if a characteristic is recognised as essential, requirements is given in Table 2.
questionable since they do in fact relate to then it should be specified on a compulsory It is hoped that all emulsions on the
basic performance characteristics (viscosity, basis in all member states. European market may fall under one or the
breaking behaviour, hardness and cohesion) Finally, it may be said that the present other of these emulsion types. From this
identified by the Mandate. Their presence structure of EN 13808 fully justifies its name, analysis, one may then define the relevant
in EN 13808 indicates shortcomings of the for example, it is a framework for specifying essential characteristics applying to the
present answer to the Mandate which will bituminous emulsions rather than a product emulsion as such and to the different states of
have to be sorted out at the standard’s next standard as such. It is up to the producers the residual binder, ie:
revision. and other stakeholders at national level to • The binder obtained just after the breaking
Especially for essential characteristics, identify the characteristics and the adequate of the emulsion;
another feature of EN 13808 - but not performance classes to be retained for a given • A binder representative of the major part
specific to it - is the coexistence of several end-use. This was somehow the price to be of service life;
possible performance tests. This is not in paid for achieving an apparent harmonisation • A binder representative of late service life. ➔

Type General description Typical application


Emulsions which are used for spraying applications and for which:
t#SFBLJOHCFIBWJPVSBOEBEIFTJWFCPOEUPBHHSFHBUFTJTBLFZSFRVJTJUF
A Surface dressing
t5IFSFTJEVBMCJOEFS BGUFSCSFBLJOHPGUIFFNVMTJPO
XJMMCFEJSFDUMZFYQPTFEUPUSBöDBOE
SPRAYING APPLICATIONS

environmental constraints over a prolonged period of time.

Emulsions which are used for spraying applications and for which:
Tack-coat
t#SFBLJOHBOECPOEJOHIBTUPCFBDIJFWFEPOUPBOFYJTUJOHTVSGBDFBOEOPUUPBTQSBZFEBHHSFHBUF
B t5IFSFTJEVBMCJOEFS BGUFSCSFBLJOHPGUIFFNVMTJPO
JTOPUJOUFOEFEUPCFEJSFDUMZFYQPTFEUPUSBöD
Curing layers
or environmental constraints for a long time. Fog-seals

Emulsions which are used for spraying applications and for which:
t5IFNBJOPCKFDUJWFJTUPQFOFUSBUFBOFYJTUJOHTVSGBDFPGVOCPVOENBUFSJBMTBTEFFQMZBTQPTTJCMF
C t5IFSFTJEVBMCJOEFSJTJOUFOEFEUPTUBCJMJ[FUIFVQQFSQBSUPGUIFVOCPVOEMBZFSCVUUIFSFJTOP
Impregnation
particular requirement with regard to mechanical performance and durability.

Emulsions which are used for coating applications and which have to be formulated specifically
in relation to a given type of aggregate and a targeted aggregate grading curve. Formulation
of the emulsion and assessment of the performance of the final aggregate-emulsion mixture Micro-surfacing
COATING APPLICATIONS

D is done via specific (sometimes proprietary) test methods. Type D emulsions are intended Cold mixes for wearing courses
for wearing course mixes and may be more or less fluxed depending on the desired level
of storability and requested mechanical performance.
Similar description as for Type D emulsions except that Type E is to be used for mixes which are
E intended to be overlayed (typically gravel-emulsions). Type E should therefore not be highly fluxed.
Gravel-emulsion

Type F emulsions are used for open-graded cold mixes intended to be used for small and local
© EUROVIA

Storable mixes
F repair operations. There are no strong mechanical nor durability requirements for such mixes.
These emulsions are generally heavily fluxed to ensure storability over a certain period of time. Open-graded cold mixes for small repairs

TABLE 2. Emulsion types, as defined by performance requirements in line with Mandate M/124

08 ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 www.worldhighways.com


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BITUMEN PERFORMANCE

➔ As in the present EN 13808, these binders is, however, most important for Type A of the EN 12271 (surface dressings) standard
may be assimilated to the recovered binder emulsions, for which the dependency upon rather than of EN 13808. If maintained within
(EN 13074-1), the stabilised binder (EN shear rate needs to be considered. For other EN 13808, filler tests would then probably lose
13074-2) and the long-term aged (PAV- emulsion types, efflux time may be sufficient their status of performance tests and return to
EN 14769) stabilised binder. The need to in the first instance. their original status of identification tests for
characterise a recovered binder is closely For coating applications, breaking differentiating rapid-, medium- and slow-
linked to the possible presence of an amount behaviour and adhesion should be assessed setting emulsions.
of flux oil, which could extend significantly on the final product in the frame of the An important issue is to further improve
the initial setting or hardening period. If corresponding harmonised standards. or find alternatives to the plate tests used for
this amount of flux oil is sufficiently low, it For type C emulsions (impregnation), the recovery and stabilisation. Fractioning the
may be assumed that the initial recovered penetration power test (EN 12849) should emulsion into its components (water, bitumen,
binder will rapidly evolve towards the binder theoretically be adequate. Yet this test is not volatile flux) without altering those could be
representative of the major part of service much practiced and needs to be reconsidered. one route to explore. Another one could be
life (stabilised binder) and thus not require a No good alternative is in sight for the by keeping the plate tests and testing directly
specific characterisation. filler test (EN 13075-1) in the case of the obtained residues without having to
The set of essential characteristics for tack-coat applications (type B emulsions). further disturb them through dynamic shear
which performance would have to be For surface dressing emulsions (type A) rheometer (DRS) testing.
declared - ideally all of them should be this test should also be kept for the time From a theoretical point of view, there are
compulsory - for each emulsion type is being, solely to verify that one deals with already good ideas for truly performance-
summarised in Table 3. a rapid setting emulsion. This is, however, related tests on residual binders. DSR and BBR
waiting for a procedure which would be (bending beam rheometer) are the natural
IMPROVED TEST METHODS applied in conjunction with reference or candidates, especially since these tests are
Many of the test methods called by EN job site aggregates and include a measure already considered for the ongoing revisions
13808 are often blamed for either their for immediate adhesion. This could be of the EN 12591 (paving bitumen) and EN
inadequateness or their lack of fidelity. Here an improved version of the present TS 14023 (polymer-modified bitumen) product
are some suggestions for improvement: 16346 procedure (breaking behaviour standards. Their practical implementation
More work should be devoted to replacing and immediate adhesivity with 2/4 mm will however be made difficult by the missing
efflux time by dynamic viscosity. This issue aggregate) and should ideally rather be a part background experience and field validation.

Spraying applications Coating applications


Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E Type F
Emulsion as such
Binder content x x x x x x
Viscosity x x x Min. value Min. value Min. value
Breaking with filler x RV RV RV RV RV
Penetration power x
Water effect on binder adhesion Min. value Min. value

Binder obtained just after the breaking of the emulsion


Setting ability (a) x x

Binder representative of the major part of service life


Penetration x x x x x x
Softening Point x x x x x x
Cohesion (polymer and latex modified) x x x
© EUROVIA

Binder representative of late service life


Low temperature property (e.g. Fraass) x x

Min. value A single performance class, in the form of a minimum value, should be sufficient.
RV Not an Essential Characteristic but a Reported Value could be requested.
Only applicable to emulsions containing a significant amount of flux oil
The associated performance criterion is the difference in Softening Point between the binder
(a) representative of the major part of service life and the binder obtained just after the breaking
of the emulsion.
Not likely to be relevant.

TABLE 3. Essential characteristics, for which performance should be declared

10 ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 www.worldhighways.com


BITUMEN PERFORMANCE

PERSPECTIVES References 3. Regulation (EU) No 305/2011 of the European


The EN 13808 standard can certainly be 1. EN 13808, Bitumen and bituminous binders Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 2011
improved to better fit the expectations of both – Framework for specifying cationic bituminous laying down harmonised conditions for the
the European Commission and the paving emulsions, May 2013. marketing of construction products and repealing
industry. But there are indeed serious hurdles 2. European Commission, Mandate M/124 to Council Directive 89/106/EEC, April 2011.
to overcome. These include the willingness CEN and CENELEC concerning the execution of
of EU member states, since they may satisfy standardisation work for harmonised standards on
themselves with the present standard which is road construction products, July 1998.
sufficiently open to enable them to continue
with the specification system they are used to.
Another hurdle is the readiness of the
EU Commission, in the frame of its policy
Slurry Seal – Micro Surfacing
against trade barriers, to accept new essential
characteristics and/or new associated
performance classes. Those will have to be
endorsed by the Commission via Delegated
Acts (Article 60 of the CPR), a procedure for THE MOST
which the timeframe is not known.
The lack of pre-normative research in
the field of bituminous emulsions could
COST-EFFECTIVE
be a third hurdle. There is generally
little experience and there are only a few
WAY OF EXTENDING DURABLE
LIFE TO ROADS
laboratories which could conduct such
projects. Funding will also be difficult to find.
Funding is even more problematic for field
validation studies. The fall-back position, Now that the technology
which has, for instance, been envisaged for has proven its worth,
DSR and BBR data in the tentative revised EN considering the 2,3 and
4-year-old projects are
12591 (paving bitumen) standard, consists still durable despite
in introducing the request to report data the harsh weather here
in the Philippines, the
on new performance characteristics within technology has now been
the standard, in the hope that those could accepted and specified.

be confronted to field experience over time. On the other hand, after


But since this procedure requires additional 5 years, we never had a
major problem with the
data to be measured, it could be interpreted VSS Macropaver 10b.
negatively by the Commission as imposing
Rommel B Valencia
new constraints on trade. Roadex Construction
Under those circumstances, it is quite clear Corporation
Shell Instapave Luzon
that the future of EN 13808 will be primarily applicator

- and probably exclusively - conditioned


by the willingness of the paving industry
to actively invest in its development and
validation. Rugged and Reliable
Rugged and reliable large production machine for slurry
seal and microsurfacing. High quality workmanship helps
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technical department of Eurovia, a subsidiary DEALERS ACROSS
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based in Paris. It is reproduced with the kind Since its creation, today’s Macropaver has proven to be
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www.worldhighways.com ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 11


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COMPACTION QUALITY

CONTINUOUS
ASSESSMENT OF
COMPACTION QUALITY
In-place density is a critical factor for ensuring the durability of hot-mix
asphalt pavement. Several ways exist for measuring this density, according to
the US state of Minnesota’s Department of Transportation*

urrently, a target compaction by measuring the surface dielectric profile, When electromagnetic waves emitted into

C density is widely used to evaluate


asphalt mixture compaction
quality. Density is commonly
which is dependent on the compaction level.
Unlike coring, GPR measures continuously,
providing nearly 100% coverage of
the pavement by the transmitter encounter
a boundary between two materials with
different dielectric properties, such as air and
assessed in core samples that are extracted constructed layers. The Minnesota the pavement surface, part of the waves are
at random locations along a pavement. Department of Transportation (MnDOT) has reflected back to the receiver (Fig. 2).
However, this approach is not only labour- been evaluating the technology and plans to The received waves include information
intensive and destructive, but provides little implement it for compaction quality control about the dielectric constant of HMA
information about the pavement’s overall of hot-mix asphalt - HMA (Fig. 1). material, which is related to HMA
compaction quality. compaction density. The higher the dielectric
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a SURFACE DIELECTRIC PROFILER constant, the higher the density (Fig. 3).
non-destructive testing technology used to Like X-ray technology, GPR uses Regression curves relating HMA dielectric
evaluate the density and uniformity of asphalt electromagnetic radiation to image constant to the measured air void content of
mixture compaction. GPR identifies the real- pavement conditions. A GPR system has two the core allow the SDP to directly output the
time, in-place compaction level of pavement components: a transmitter and a receiver. in-field relative compaction.

FIG 1. A MnDOT SDP system with three antennas

FIG 2. A GPR system FIG 3. Example of the relationship between dielectric constant and core density

14 ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 www.worldhighways.com


COMPACTION QUALITY

FIG 5. MnDOT vehicle-mounted


FIG 4. MnDOT SDP and rolling density SDP meter data collection

The SDP system can collect data from


behind the final roller compactor (Fig. 4)
or the device can be mounted on a vehicle
(Fig. 5).
In 12 MnDOT field studies, the non-
destructive SDP successfully determined
the relative compaction levels of pavement.
The profile in Fig. 6 shows a typical result
where higher dielectric locations (yellow/
red) indicate greater compaction and lower
dielectric values (green/blue) indicate lower
compaction. FIG 6. On-site
The MnDOT Office of Materials and Road identification of high
Research has also developed a statistical and low-density areas
method to assess compaction density
and uniformity. Fig. 7 shows an air void • Statistical approach: Assesses the • Uniformity assessment: Assesses
distribution based on SDP measurements from compaction quality of the entire project compaction uniformity. Fig. 8 compares
a 7mile (11.2km) project. Producing this air through mean and standard deviation air the compaction uniformity of two projects.
void distribution using core samples would void content. For this project, the mean air The standard deviation in Project 1 is
have required more than 1 million cores. This void content was at 6.78% and 97.5% of the smaller than in Project 2, indicating
distribution provides several quantitative project had an air void content of less than that the compaction in Project 1 is more
compaction quality measurements: 9%. uniform than in Project 2. ➔

FIG 7. Air void distribution FIG 8. Compaction


of a 7mile project uniformity assessment

www.worldhighways.com ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 15


COMPACTION QUALITY

➔ • Joint versus mat: Assesses longitudinal


joint compaction. Fig. 9 shows air void
distributions of a longitudinal joint and
a mainline. The longitudinal joint has a
higher mean air void content than the
mainline. The relative difference in air void
content can be used for longitudinal joint
compaction quality control. For example,
the longitudinal joint mean air void
content should not be more than 1.3 times
the mainline mean air void content.

FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS
AND RESEARCH:

DATA INPUT TO VETA


SDP measurements are imported into
VETA, an intelligent construction
(IC) software, for comparison with IC,
thermal (IR) and other data to determine
the most critical factors in achieving
proper compaction. In Fig. 10 the SDP
measurements are compared with paver
speed and mixture temperature profile from
IR. MnDOT and a consultant are improving FIG 9. Air void comparison of
VETA software so that SDP data can be input longitudinal joint and mainline
to the software.

CALIBRATION
Under calibration is automated core selection,
the rational model and coreless calibration.
In automated core selection, to assess FIG 10. Rolling density meter, paver
compaction quality, the SDP hot-mix speed and IR comparison using VETA
asphalt pavement surface dielectric constant
measurements must be converted to
density. Traditionally, this dielectric-density
relationship has been established using field
core samples, first by selecting dielectric
constants and then finding corresponding
field locations of these dielectric constants
using an on-site display similar to that shown
in Fig. 3.
To make this process less biased and more
user-friendly for contractors and agency
inspectors, MnDOT developed an automated
core selection process based on GPS
coordinates using the Core Locator software
to automatically determine core locations
based on user-specified criteria. MnDOT
takes cores at 10th and 90th percentile
locations that meet stability requirements.
Surveyors can directly input the core locator
data to the GPS controller to navigate to the
identified core locations.
In the rational model for calibration, the
accuracy of the dielectric-density model
will affect the accuracy of the field density
distribution. Conventionally, an exponential
model is used to describe this relationship
(Fig. 11). Considering physical constraints,

16 ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 www.worldhighways.com


COMPACTION QUALITY

MnDOT researchers proposed a modified FIG 11. Models to convert dielectric to air void content
model that better describes the relationship,
showing more stability at critical high air void
locations (Fig. 11).
In coreless calibration, the calibration
should be completed ideally without field
core samples. To eliminate the need for field
cores, the MnDOT Office of Materials and
Road Research, in collaboration with GSSI
(Geophysical Survey Systems Incorporated),
has been conducting research on using the
SDP to measure the dielectric constant of a
gyratory specimen.
These gyratory specimens are already
available as part of daily paving operations
and can be tested in a controlled laboratory
environment. They also can be fabricated at
the full range of air void contents required
for calibration. If an SDP can measure the
dielectric constant of each specimen, then
the dielectric-density relationship can be
established in the laboratory, eliminating the
need for calibration field cores.
While the conventional SDP arrangement ➔

www.worldhighways.com ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 17


COMPACTION QUALITY

➔ cannot be used on gyratory specimens due


to size effects, initial results show promise
for directly calibrating the dielectric constant
to air void content without field cores. The
research involves an experimental design that
places a spacer to slow the waveform speed,
which allows for collection at the necessary
distance away from the smaller gyratory
specimen. Mathematical models can account
for the necessary changes in experimental
design when using a spacer material with a
known dielectric constant and height.
The relationship between air void content
and dielectric measurements is shown in Fig.
12a, along with pictures of the spacer-only
measurement (Fig. 12b) and the spacer with
target 14% air void puck (Fig. 12c).
By taking measurements of air void content
ranging from less than 4% to more than
15% air voids on the top and bottom of the
specimens, researchers observed a significant
correlation (R-squared = 0.97), suggesting the
viability of coreless calibration in the future.

SENSITIVITY STUDY FIG 12A. Relationship between air void content and dielectric measurements in a gyratory specimen
The density of a compacted asphalt mixture is
affected by the specific gravity and volumetric
proportion of each component. The dielectric MNDOT QC/QA PROGRAMME uniformity, including longitudinal joint
constant measured by SDP is also affected compaction (QC and QA).
by the mixture’s components. Knowing how To ensure the quality of the entire pavement • Post-compaction: Measure pavement
the mixture’s dielectric constant is affected by surface, MnDOT has created a quality smoothness using inertial profilers to
each component is key to successfully using control and assurance (QC/QA) process for ensure a smooth pavement surface for
an SDP in construction projects. For example, pavement construction. The process provides improved ride quality and to reduce vehicle
contractors often change an aggregate type or a continuous and full coverage assessment dynamic impacts on pavement (QA).
gradation during the paving process. method at each stage, from mixture
Since this change affects the mixture placement to post-construction: SUMMARY
dielectric constant measured by an SDP, • Mixture placement: Use IR to measure
MnDOT needs to establish guidelines for compaction temperature to minimize GPR is an effective QC/QA tool for asphalt
contractors so they know when to notify the mixture segregation (QC). pavement compaction. The statistical method
agency about any changes. Researchers are • Mixture compaction: Use IC to ensure developed by MnDOT can be used for
planning a sensitivity study and will develop compaction uniformity (QC). compaction acceptance. Future efforts will
guidelines for contractors about changes to • Post-compaction: Use SDP to assess HMA include outreach and training to help highway
mixture components. density to ensure compaction quality and agencies and local contractors become
better informed about IR, IC and GPR
technologies and their impacts to the level
and uniformity of in-place density and
pavement smoothness.

*The authors Shongtao Dai and Kyle Hoegh


are researchers in the Minnesota Department
of Transportation

FIG 12B & 12C. Experiment setup for measuring the dielectric constant of a gyratory specimen

18 ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 www.worldhighways.com


ASPHALT PAVING

RIGHT: Morsky Construction has it


covered in Saskatchewan, Canada
(photo: VSS Macropaver)

RoadResource.org as a go-to website for surfacing information is now live

hen RoadResouce.org went live agencies to find out about emulsion-based Even so, says Hogue, there was concern

W – quietly - in July it was the end


of two years of hard work by
three major US associations for
treatments or – importantly – to compare
them.
Other agencies, sometimes only a few
among some people that opening up data and
comparing methods would reduce the use
of one method in favour of another one, or
pavement preservation. kilometres down the road, were all at sea several others. In other words, the advice had
But there was no grand party or ceremonial because of a lack of in-house engineering to be impartial and empirically-based and
pushing of the “go live” button, says Doug knowledge. So the question was, says Hogue, not be a commercial activity that pushed one
Hogue, vice president and general manager of where would these agencies go to know method of preservation over another.
VSS Macropaver. when to use a low-cost fog seal - a diluted “This concern was understandable,” says
“For all of us in the industry July is a busy slow-setting asphalt emulsion applied to the Hogue. “Our associations are made up
period that left little time to celebrate on the surface of an older oxidised pavement surface of suppliers, contractors and equipment
opening day,” says the 51-year-old chartered – versus microsurfacing. Or when to use a manufacturers. Everyone brings a different
mechanical engineer and graduate from scrub seal versus full-blown recycling. interest to the table. Some have a more
California Polytechnic State University. “An agency had to go to ISSA to learn regional view and some have a more global
Despite the launch event flying under the about microsurfacing, maybe over to AEMA view with differing opinions. But the
radar, the website is nonetheless an important to learn about fog sealing and finally to discussion easily gravitated toward the need to
resource for road owners and agencies. It ARRA to learn about recycling. Maybe, or work together.”
aims to educate on the proper use of road maybe not, an agency would know about There was a soft launch only for members
surfacing, from slurry to microsurfacing, these sites,” he says. “While on some sites of the three associations in February and
explains Hogue, who is also vice president some of the information was behind log-ins then it went live in late July for anyone to
of ISSA - International Slurry Surfacing and some was presented simply as papers at use. “All the associations hope it will be used
Association. annual meetings or workshops and not even internationally and the units are English and
Along with members from the Asphalt on the website. So a need was recognised metric. But right now, the website’s currency is
Emulsion Manufacturers Association for agencies to have one place to learn about only US and Canadian dollars. The majority of
(AEMA) and the Asphalt Recycling and processes and compare them.” our membership is US and Canadian so that is
Reclaiming Association (ARRA), he was from where we have sound cost data.”
heavily involved in the website’s development. PPRA AS A PLATFORM Cost figures for repairs generated by adding
They worked closely, despite some initial But AEMA realised that creating such a the project’s parameters including road
concerns about data and client sharing, to put website was too big for one association. They condition can only be guidelines. But the
the one-stop shop together. came to the table through the PPRA and results can be shared with an agency for all to
The project’s nascence was in 2016. AEMA asked ISSA and ARRA if they would join in see, where project costs can be adjusted and
was completing a marketing study to find a project. Budgets were put together, each where the agency’s money is best spent to get
ways to double the use of asphalt emulsions. association had committees of like-minded the best or desired road improvements. “This
But importantly, the marketing study found people and an outside website creator was is what the treatment toolbox on the site is all
that there really was no place to go for approached. about,” he says. ➔

www.worldhighways.com ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 19


ASPHALT PAVING

➔ The Toolbox hopefully will get the ball


rolling for both contractor and agency to have
a better relationship based on a more in-depth
upfront analysis of the best processes to get
the most life out of a road. If a process fails,
agencies have been known to shy away from
them right out of hand for up to a decade.
Using RoadSurface.org can also allay an
agency’s fear about the contractor not being
upfront with them about which process to use.
It’s an open book discussion about processes
that can boost trust in the private sector.
This is particularly true when using the site’s
life cycle cost calculator that considers what
would happen with different interventions to
extend the life of a road.
“The cost calculator takes a much longer
term view than saying to the agency let’s
spend the money you have available on this
process this year and worry about next year
when it comes,” says Hogue. “We know
some of this goes on…but the associations INNOVATION cracks and potholes with slurry and then
are saying we need to increase use of the Typically, a road that has large cracks and using overlay with an asphalt rubber chip.
processes, but correctly for agency and potholes would not be a candidate for slurry This acts as a stress-absorbing interlayer
contractor benefit. That is what RoadResource or microsurfacing which is a wearing course. because of the flexible asphalt rubber.
is about.” “But our sister company, VSS International, “Then they would come on top of that
It is hoped that RoadResource.org will the largest US west coast contractor, has with microsurfacing. Those two would
also promote innovation by contractor and done some innovative thinking over the past typically be called a cape seal [a chip seal
agency, says Hogue, who has been with decade. This included filling depressions, covered with a slurry or microsurface]. When
VSS Macropaver for nearly 26 years. “My microsurfacing is on top of a chip, you fill all
main interest has always been machines but the voids between the chips and it really looks
along the way I’ve had to learn a lot about ABOVE: Saving roads in Sacramento, like a newly paved road. So, you’ve levelled
the chemistry of asphalt. In our processes California (photo: VSS Macropaver) it by filling the voids, you’ve addressed the
chemistry is very important to the function of BELOW: Doug Hogue: ISSA, AEMA and ARRA cracking issue through the flexible layer of
the machines.” pulled together to create RoadResource.org chip seal. There has been years of extended
life to a road that would have been at the end
of its life.”
It’s way too early for any constructive
user feedback. But some comments on
social media have users noting “light-bulb
moments” concerning different rehabilitation
processes, he says. There has already been
some discussion about translating the site
into other languages but that will depend on
its success.
“We in the industry feel the website
remains a work in progress. We like the
product but we can even now see areas for
improvement. Commenting can be done
through the PPRA’s Twitter and Facebook
pages. Social media at this point is the
comment forum.”
The focus now is getting the site known
among agencies by publicising it, starting this
autumn, including targeted email shots to
more than 9,000 people at road agencies.
Road Resource / PPRA
www.roadresource.org
VSS Macropaver
www.macropaver.com

20 ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 www.worldhighways.com


RECYCLED ASPHALT PAVEMENT

Japan is leading the way with the use of recycled asphalt mix,
writes Osamu Kamada of the Japan Road Contractors Association

n Japan, recycled aggregates are

I often produced from the waste


material created when asphalt
mixtures are used in repair
100
Virgin mixtures Recycled mixtures
100

works. Japanese contractors are encouraged


Production of asphalt mixtures

Ratio of recycled mixtures (%)


80 80
to use recycled asphalt mixtures using
well-established rejuvenator standards and
long-standing road surface design methods,
(×1,000,000 t)

60 60
all based on the Marshall Stability Test. The
additional amount of rejuvenator, or virgin
asphalt, is determined by penetration or 40 40
indirect tensile coefficient measurements.
In recent years, the mix ratio for reclaimed
asphalt pavement in recycled asphalt 20 20
mixtures has reached about 50% nationally
and about 70% in the Tokyo metropolitan
area. The general recycling rate of asphalt 0 0
1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 2013 2016
mixture exceeds 98% and recycled materials
Year
are widely used in the construction of base
course. For base-course materials, other
industrial waste such as iron and steel slag, FIG 1. Production of virgin and recycled asphalt mixtures in Japan1
concrete debris waste and waste glass are also
used.
The Japanese pavement industry is In order to encourage the use of RAP, the
helping to establish and reinforce the Japan Road Association issued a Manual of
country’s ecological credentials by using a Pavement Recycling in 2004 which established “There are about 1,000
wide variety of recycled materials. In Japan, the design method for the recycled asphalt asphalt plants in use
many recycling technologies for asphalt mixture. The ratio of recycled asphalt mixture
pavement have been in use since the 1970s. to total shipment quantity is increasing. As
today and around 90%
The recycling rate of asphalt mixture reached shown in Figure 1, it reached 76% in 2016¹. of them can produce
99.5% in 2012, while the proportion of In addition, the mixing ratio of RAP used recycled materials”
reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) has for dense-graded asphalt mixture has also
increased recently. Currently, more than 60% increased, up to 50.7% nationally and 61.4% in
of waste asphalt mixtures are used for asphalt the Kanto region. In the Tokyo metropolitan
mixtures containing RAP. area, it reached 69.1%.

22 ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 www.worldhighways.com


RECYCLED ASPHALT PAVEMENT

PRODUCTION OF ASPHALT MIXTURES

There are about 1,000 asphalt plants in use Parallel heating method Drum dryer method
today and around 90% of them can produce Asphalt Filler
Additive Filler
recycled materials. Most of them are Additive
batch-type and the manufacturing capacity Asphalt
Surge
is mostly between 45-120tonnes/hour. Recycled bin
Japanese asphalt plant can be divided into aggregates Dryer Burner
Hot
three types: drum dryer method, parallel Dryer
bin
heating method and indirect heating Recycled Virgin
Dryer
method. aggregates aggregates
The most commonly used type is Mixer Mixer
the parallel heating method (Figure 2), Virgin aggregates Burner
representing approximately 70% of the total.
For this type, the mixing ratio of RAP used
for dense-graded asphalt mixture reaches FIG 2. Typical asphalt mixture plant in Japan2
between 30% and 60%².
The drum dryer is the most effective
method for increasing the ratio of RAP in RAP SAMPLING AND MATERIALS The indirect coefficient is calculated as
recycled asphalt mixture. For this type, the TESTING follows:
ratio of RAP can reach 60% or more. It is The representative RAP and virgin aggregates • Indirect tensile coefficient (MPa/mm)
mainly used in the Tokyo metropolitan area, are sampled. The extraction test and the = σt / X
but this only represents about 10% of the RAP recovery test, both classified by • Indirect tensile strength = σt (MPa)
total. predetermined particle size, are conducted. =(2×P)/ (π×d×L).
The aggregate particle size and the Where:
MIX DESIGN METHOD OF RECYCLED penetration, or the indirect tensile coefficient, • X = Amount of displacement
ASPHALT MIXTURE are then measured. • P = Maximum load at break
The current standard specifies that the • d = Thickness of the specimen
DESIGN PROCEDURE penetration is 20 or more, or the indirect • L = Specimen’s diameter
The mix design procedure of a recycled tensile coefficient is 1.7 MPa or less, in order
asphalt mixture comprises three stages: to make effective use of RAP, including DETERMINATION OF THE RAP MIXING
1. Recycled aggregates are collected and low penetration using modified asphalt, RATIO AND COMBINED GRADING
subjected to material tests to determine which has been widely used in recent years. Combined grading is required to adjust the
whether they can be used as RAP. The indirect coefficient is measured by the mixing ratio of RAP and the number of
2. The amount of rejuvenator, or virgin indirect tensile test. Specimens of 100% RAP additives is adjusted to satisfy the quality
binder, and the mixing ratio of RAP are are compacted and tested using an indirect criteria of the recycled asphalt mixture.
determined. In addition, the provisional tensile strength test at 20°C. The loading When a rejuvenator is used, the mixing ratio
asphalt blend content, which is the key speed is 50mm/min. of RAP and combined grading is determined
value when conducting the Marshall and the amount of rejuvenator, which will
stability test, is determined. be the designed penetration or the indirect
3. For the mixture determined by these tensile coefficient, is added. When making
conditions, the Marshall Stability Test is adjustments for virgin asphalt, the mixing
conducted in the same manner as for the
“The current standard ratio of RAP is determined to satisfy the
virgin asphalt mixture and the optimum specifies that the target value of the penetration or the indirect
asphalt content is determined. The outline penetration is 20 or tensile coefficient. The target value of
at each stage is described next. recycled asphalt mixture is shown in Table 2
more, or the indirect and the indirect test using recycled asphalt
tensile coefficient is 1.7 mixture is conducted in the same procedure
MPa or less” as for RAP. ➔
TABLE 2. Design ranges of asphalt
TABLE 1. Quality requirement of RAP. mixtures containing RAP

Characteristic Requirement Penetration IDT Coefficient


Area
(1/10 mm) (MPa/mm)
Asphalt Content More than 3.8%

Characteristic of Penetration of recover asphalt More than 20 (1/10 mm) General 40/60 0.60-0.90
recovered asphalt Indirect tensile coefficient Less than 1.7 (MPa/mm)
Cold and Snow
60/80 0.40-0.60
Percent Passing the 75 +m sieve Less than 5% Region

www.worldhighways.com ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 23


RECYCLED ASPHALT PAVEMENT

➔ DETERMINING THE ADDITIVE


AMOUNT OF REJUVENATOR 100
The restoration of penetration or indirect Designed penetration
tensile coefficient of recycled asphalt

Penetration (1/10 mm)


mixture is conducted using rejuvenator or 50
virgin asphalt. The following part describes
how to determine the additive amount of
rejuvenator.
Amount of rejuvenator to
Adjusting for penetration meet designed penetration
The mixing ratio of RAP and combined
grading is determined and the penetration
of old asphalt recovered from RAP
is measured. Then, the penetration 10
0 5 10 15
is obtained by changing the amount Amount of rejuvenator (% by weight of RAP asphalt)
of rejuvenator added in old asphalt
containing RAP (RAP asphalt).
The optimum relation between the FIG 3. Determining additive amount of rejuvenator using penetration
additive amount of rejuvenator and the
penetration is obtained (figure 3). The
additive amount of rejuvenator to reach
the designed penetration, is determined.
Afterwards, the Marshall Stability Test is 1.2
conducted on specimens, to which new 1.1 Target range of indirect
asphalt is added. 1.0 tensile coefficient
Indirect tensile coefficient

0.9
(MPa/mm) (1/10 mm)

Adjusting for indirect tensile coefficient. 0.8


The mixing ratio of RAP and combined 0.7
grading are determined as well as the 0.6
provisional asphalt content, with reference 0.5
0.4 Amount of rejuvenator
to past records or optimum asphalt
to meet designed indirect
contents of virgin asphalt mixtures. 0.3
tensile coefficient
Specimens, in which the additive amount 0.2
of rejuvenator is changed, are produced 0.1
and the indirect tensile test is conducted. 0.0
0 5 10 15 20 25
The relation between the additive amount Amount of rejuvenator (% by weight of RAP asphalt)
of rejuvenator and the indirect tensile
coefficient is obtained (Figure 4). The
additive amount of rejuvenator, which is
the designed indirect tensile coefficient, FIG 4. Determining additive amount of rejuvenator using indirect tensile coefficient
is determined. Afterwards, the Marshall
Stability Test is conducted by changing the
amount of new asphalt. TABLE 3. Criteria of rejuvenator

STANDARD OF REJUVENATOR
PROPERTIES Item Standard
Current criteria for rejuvenator used in Kinematic viscosity (60 °C) 80 - 1,000 (mm2/s)
Japan are shown in Table 3. Dosage rates Flash point More than 250 (°C) “Dosage rates for
for rejuvenators were typically about 5-10%
by weight of the RAP binder. It will usually Ratio of viscosity after thin-film
Less than 2 (%)
rejuvenators were
work out to approximately 0.25-0.3%
oven test 60 °C) typically about
by weight of the total mixture. Whether Ratio of mass change
on thin film oven test
Within ± 3 (%) 5-10% by weight of
some rejuvenators are affected by being
repeatedly recycled is under investigation Density (15 °C) Report
the RAP binder”
in laboratory tests³. A recent study Composition Report
indicates that repeated recycling using a
paraffin-rich rejuvenator may cause the
composite binder to become stiff and more
brittle4. Further study on the repeated use
of rejuvenator is required.

24 ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 www.worldhighways.com


RECYCLED ASPHALT PAVEMENT



Blast furnace
Iron and steel NJMMJPOUPOOFT
“In 2016, the amount slag
slag

of blast furnace slag


produced was 21.7 20.6% Converter slag 39.2%
million tonnes, converter Steel slag 41.4%
NJMMJPOUPOOFT
slag was 10.4 million NJMMJPOUPOOFT
Electric arc
tonnes and electric arc NJMMJPOUPOOFT furnace slag 43.8%
furnace slag was 2.35
million tonnes” Production amount of slag UPOOFT
 NJMMJPOUPOOFT
Ratio of using as road material (%)

FIG 5. Type of iron and steel slag and ratio of using as road material7

MIX DESIGN IRON AND STEEL SLAG pavement but also waste materials generated
In Japan, the Marshall Stability Test is used Iron and steel slag is crushed slag generated from other construction sites or industries
for the design of asphalt mixture and to in the steel manufacturing process. It is are used as pavement materials and
determine the design of recycled asphalt largely divided into blast furnace slag and contribute to the high rate of recycling.
mixture. The procedure is the same as for steel slag, with steel slag further divided into Hopefully, further usage will be promoted
virgin asphalt mixture: the asphalt blend converter slag and electric arc furnace slag. to build a recycling-based society.
content of test specimen is centred on In 2016, the amount of blast furnace slag
the provisional asphalt content, which is produced was 21.7 million tonnes, converter *This article was presented as a paper at
determined and changed every 0.5% during slag was 10.4 million tonnes and electric PPRS 2018 in Nice, France, in March and first
the Marshall Stability Test. Optimum asphalt arc furnace slag was 2.35 million tonnes. appeared in the February/March 2018 edition
content meeting the criteria of the percentage As shown in Figure 5, as a proportion of of RGRA, based in Paris. It is reproduced with
of air voids, the Marshall Stability Test, the recycling to road materials, blast furnace slag the permission of the publishers.
aggregate void filled with asphalt and the was 14%, converter slag was 39.2%, electric
flow value is then determined. If the recycled arc furnace slag was 43.8% and iron and steel References:
asphalt mixture meets the criteria of virgin slag as a whole was 41.4%. Japanese pavement 1. Japan Asphalt Mixture Association, “Annual
asphalt mixture, it is deemed equivalent to a makes a significant contribution to iron and report of asphalt mixture statistics”, 2016.
virgin mixture. steel slag recycling. 2. Japan Road Association, Manual of Pavement
Recycling, 2010.
RECYCLING OF BASE-COURSE MATERIAL OTHER WASTE MATERIALS 3. Atsushi Kawakami, “Influence of rejuvenator
Other materials, such as waste glass, general composition on the properties of repeatedly
RECYCLED CONCRETE AGGREGATE waste materials and sewage sludge molten recycled asphalt and asphalt mixtures”, 4th
In the Japanese pavement industry, waste slag are also used for base course. General International Symposium on Asphalt Pavement &
materials generated not only in the industry waste materials and sewage sludge molten Environment, 2017.
itself but also at construction sites in other slag are produced by melting general wastes, 4. Takashi Kanou, Hiroyuki Nitta, Iwao Sasaki,
fields and sectors are used as recycled sewage wastes and incinerated ash. It is called Itaru Nishizaki and Kazuyuki Kubo, “Study
materials for base course. The most widely “eco-slag” in Japan. In 2010, 763,000 tonnes on the recycle method of the asphalt mixture
used recycled material is concrete debris. of eco-slag were produced, 626,000 tonnes which considered recycle repeatedly”, Journal of
The recycle rate of concrete debris waste was were recycled and 32.2% was used as road pavement engineering Vol.14, Japan Society of
99.3% in 20125. materials. Civil Engineers, 2010.
The standards relating to recycled concrete 5. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and
aggregate are specified by Japan Industrial CONCLUSION Transportation, “Result of investigation
Standards. Recycled concrete aggregates are construction by-products”, 2014.
expected to be used in the cement concrete Japanese legislation called the Basic Act on 6. Material Industries Division, Manufacturing
field. However, the use of recycled concrete Establishing a Sound Material Cycle Society Industries Bureau, Ministry of Economy, Trade
aggregates in this area was about 6% of the was passed in 2000. The amount of waste and Industry: Year Book of Crushed Stone
total in 20086. Most is used in roads and the materials from construction sites is about Statistics, 2016.
foundations of structures. As recycled base- 20% of all industrial waste. Also introduced 7. Nippon Slag Association, “Annual report of iron
course materials, they are widely used for in 2000 was the Construction Material and steel slag”, 2016.
recycled crushed stone and recycled crusher Recycling Law that further encourages 8. Haruto Tsuboi, “Trend of production and
run. Pavement contributes to the recycling of effective recycling. In the pavement industry, utilization of eco-slag, environmental purification
concrete debris in Japan. not only recycled materials generated from technology”, 2013.

www.worldhighways.com ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 25


BINDER DEVELOPMENT

The Bio-Repavation project in France has deepened our


knowledge of alternative binders for recycled asphaltic pavement*

he main objective of the Bio- • a bio-based additive from pine chemistry Each technology has reached Technology

T Repavation project was to prove


that alternative binders could
be used to recycle asphaltic
designed to increase recycled asphalt
content to 70%, even 100% in theory:
Sylvaroad RP1000, from Arizona
Readiness Level 8 and is ready to be tested on
a network as a structural or binder layer.

pavement with the same level of performance Chemical; RESULTS


as conventional solutions using petroleum • a bio-based additive designed to increase Physico-chemical interaction between aged
bitumen. compatibility between fresh bitumen and binder, biomaterials and fresh bitumen
To do so, the project consortium (see box) recycled asphalt: epoxidised methyl soyate; have been fully assessed, characterised
proposed to create an accelerated pavement • a bio-bitumen designed for full and quantified based upon comprehensive
testing facility where three pavement replacement of fresh bitumen – Biophalt, laboratory tests. Biomaterials restore most
solutions using bio-materials could be tested supplied by Effiage (see box). physical properties of the aged bitumen.
in a short period to simulate long-term use After 30 months of collaborative work Hence, blend-design laws have been
in roads. - including testing at the IFSTTAR site in established as well as ageing kinetics for the
The idea was that the performances Nantes, north-western France - all objectives
of the three solutions could be evaluated have been achieved. This has led to several ABOVE & BELOW: Preparing the pavement and
by measuring the traffic level needed for important results for future implementation collecting data at the IFSTTAR site in Nantes,
the pavement solution to reach a distress using European and US specification systems. north-west France
mechanism and also by investigating the
binder physico-chemical evolution using a
non-destructive method.
Bio-Repavation would also assess the
environmental impacts of the combined use
of bio-binders and high content of recycled
asphalt (RAP) in asphalt mixes.
Special attention would be given to
airborne emissions that would be directly
measured in the laboratory. The data
obtained would be used to perform a risk
assessment as well as a life cycle assessment
for the Bio-Repavation technologies.
Three alternative materials were used to
help recycling and were evaluated in the
project:

26 ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 www.worldhighways.com


BINDER DEVELOPMENT

ON A CAROUSEL under the pavement of one of the Combined with laboratory tests, Although the focus has been
rings to reproduce seasonal hydric such as for the Bio-Repavation on new pavements, the facility
The big wheel keeps on turning, cycles by controlling the level of the project, these trials provide input has studied maintenance and
for 35 years to be precise. In this water table. for models, making it possible to strengthening techniques,
time the IFSTTAR Pavement Fatigue In two months the carousel can calibrate pavement design and wearing courses to avoid rutting,
Carousel - one of the world’s simulate the passage of a million strengthening techniques, or to help road equipment including pipes
largest road design facilities - has HGVs - 20 years of service for road construction firms develop and trench systems, as well as
constantly been modified to keep a pavement carrying moderate new products and techniques. pavement instrumentation and
pace with developments in highway traffic levels, explains Pierre The carousel has been used to condition survey systems. It has also
engineering techniques. Hornych, IFSTTAR’s director of test over 130 pavement structures. been used to validate most of the
The carousel near Nantes in LAMES - Laboratory for Modelling, Most of the operations at the formulations for materials used on
north-west France allows the Experimentation and Survey of facility are financed by contracts French roads.
effect of several decades of heavy Transport Infrastructures. with industry. For several years now, the studies
goods vehicle (HGV) traffic to be conducted on the carousel have
concertinaed into only weeks and increasingly focussed on pavement
months. durability. This has included the
At first, the carousel consisted use of recycled materials, the
of two rings with a diameter of repair of new urban pavements
40m and a 6m-wide pavement on and the testing of new devices
which 13tonne loads could travel to be installed in roads that have
at 100kph. The facility now has been developed as part of the
three rings, each of which can test 5th Generation Road for energy
several structures at the same time. recovery and the powering of
A concrete tank has been installed electric vehicles.

three biotechnologies. European Union and has been designed: GB5 type mix (with 50% used and using a low binder content of 4.5%.
US systems give similar overall behaviour in RAP and 70% RAP) using aggregate packing At the lab level the US and European
the high- and low-temperature domains, even concept (by maximising their interlock). Union, the GB5 alternative mixes
if levels of regeneration measured by both This mix is very dense, with a 3-4% air void manufactured with the three biomaterials
methods are not strictly comparable. content. It also exhibits a high modulus, even ensured excellent rutting resistance at
A new type of base/binder course mix if a relatively soft organic binder matrix is high temperature while providing superior ➔

HOW GREEN ARE MY ADDITIVES


Epoxidised methyl soyate is a yellowish viscous liquid of
organic compounds obtained from the epoxidation of soybean
oil. Patented by Adventus & ADM/ISU, it starts with soybean
oil which, through esterification, produces methyl soyate. This
goes through epoxidation to produce epoxidised methyl soyate.
This is then blended with virgin binder and recovered RAP
binder. Biophalt, produced by Effiage in France, is a vegetable
binder containing polymers. According to the company, it is
“a translucent pale-coloured binder made by processing pine
derivatives”. It is composed of pitch, rosin (a solid form of resin)
and elastomers. It consists 90% of bio raw materials. Pitch is
composed of fatty acids that help for the rejuvenation of the old
binder. Elastomers improve ductility and resistance to ageing.
Sylvaroad RP1000: The pine additive is derived from Crude Tall
Oil, a renewable raw material produced as a by-product of the
paper industry. According to the manufacturer Arizona Chemical,
less than 1kg of the pine chemical Sylvaroad RP1000 additive
is needed per tonne of asphalt to restore the original properties
and meet the most challenging pavement requirements for
rutting and cracking. The water sensitivity is restored to the level
of a new mix. This is particularly relevant for wearing courses,
says the company.
The additive improves the low-temperature performance of
mixes in surface layers without compromising high-temperature
performance. It also recovers fatigue resistance for base
layers while maintaining an adequate modulus. The additive
upgrades the old binder toward the required bitumen grade and
remains active in the mix, which ensures optimal asphalt mix
performance.

www.worldhighways.com ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 27


BINDER DEVELOPMENT

➔ fracture resistance at low temperature and mixing temperature in order to remain below
good fatigue life at intermediate temperature. organic compound emission of conventional
These results demonstrate the rejuvenating mix for each technology. BIO-REPAVATION
effect of the biomaterials at the mix level. The life cycle assessment shows that the CONSORTIUM
High amount of RA can be incorporated three Bio-Repavation technologies reduce the
in hot mix asphalt if appropriately selected consumption of non-renewable resources and • IFSTTAR - Institut français des sciences
additives/binders are added to reactivate the even increase the use of renewable resources et technologies des transports, de
aged RA binder. in the case of the Biophalt mix. l’aménagement et des réseaux (French
It has been proven that it is possible to Nevertheless, it has been found that land Institute of Science and Technology for
manufacture these mixes in a conventional use is always negatively affected. Moreover, Transport, Spatial Development and
asphalt plant and to lay and compact at full when biogenic carbon is included, the Networks) (France – project coordinator –
scale these road materials with 50% of RA climate change indicator is positively affected evaluated durability at full scale at its test
while reducing the amount of fresh bitumen for all three Bio-Repavation technologies. facility in Nantes)
- up to full replacement. The durability of The acquisition of aggregates and bitumen
the mixes in terms of rutting and fatigue, are generally the most critical process in • EIFFAGE Infrastructures Gestion et
assessed using an accelerated pavement terms of environmental impact. In this Développement (France – produced an
testing facility, is very good since the three sense, increasing the use of RA processed alternative design test for binder and
innovative materials behave better that the at the asphalt plant is the most important carry mix, Biophat)
reference material, namely EME2. EME2 is factor to consider in order to reduce the
used largely in Europe for high-performance environmental impact. • Iowa State University of Science and
base courses. However, this general statement can Technology (US - based in the city of
Surprisingly, the structural initial design change in the peculiar case of Biophalt Ames - produced a bio-asphalt)
had underestimated the lifetime for the three mix where, due to the high content of the
innovative mixes. The final full-scale result specific bio-material used (2.8% in weight • Arizona Chemical (Netherlands, producer
should allow defining a methodology to more of mixture), its supply impact is the most of pine-based chemicals and since 2015
precisely design these innovative structures relevant. This is the case when the transport has been owned by Kraton Performance
from lab tests. Moreover, it is interesting distance to acquire raw materials is over Polymers, a specialist in styrenic block
to note that the binder ageing evaluation 500km. copolymers; supplied Sylvaroad for the
from the in-situ micro-sampling technique The proof of concept has been project)
confirms the macroscopic observation on the demonstrated: the innovative pavement
test sections. mixes assessed in the Bio-Repavation • Western Research Institute (US – based
Measurements of fume emissions were international project behave better than in the city of Laramie in the state of
performed on the materials to quantify total a conventional reference mix. They now Wyoming – carried non-destructive in-situ
organic compounds generated at different provide durable solutions, assessed by a full- evaluation)
manufacturing temperatures. This laboratory scale accelerated test and an environmental
study shows a strong link between the mixes’ analysis, to build roads using high-rate • University of Nottingham, Transportation
composition and their emission potential. recycling and involving biomaterials as Engineering Centre (UK - conducted life-
Moreover, it allows defining of a limiting additive or alternative to bitumen. cycle and risk assessment)

*A video of the project is available:


https://ifsttar.libcast.com/mast-lames/ BELOW: Years of road wear is accelerated to cover
biorepavation only months during testing in Nantes

28 ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 www.worldhighways.com


COMPACTION MACHINERY UPDATE

Compaction machinery using oscillation has been


available for some time but is now becoming
increasingly popular – Mike Woof reports

scillation systems are by no means urban areas, without the risk of damage to of over-compaction or of fracturing the

O new with regard to compaction


equipment. The German
manufacturer Hamm began
nearby buildings or underground utilities.
For the same reason, this means that
compactors using oscillation can be operated
aggregates present in the asphalt mix.
Given its long experience with oscillation,
it should be no surprise that Hamm
pioneering the use of compaction equipment around sensitive computing equipment or now has the widest range of compaction
featuring oscillation, carrying out its first field electronics, again without risk of disruption. machines with this feature. However, other
trials with the system in 1983. Once testing Another important benefit of compaction manufacturers are now competing in this
was complete, the firm began offering its first by oscillation is that this allows operation specialist segment, having developed their
production machines with this technology. on bridge decks. When compacting asphalt own machines also.
However, these were seen as specialised tools pavement on a bridge deck, the compaction As a leading player in the compaction
and it took time for demand to grow. As road forces are localised instead of being market, BOMAG was one of the first to offer
engineers began to appreciate the benefits of transmitted, preventing resonances occurring a rival range of oscillation machines. The
oscillation, so the technology became more in the bridge structure that would potentially company has now had oscillation compactors
widely accepted. cause damage. in its line-up for some time and continues
There are key advantages with oscillation In addition, oscillation type compaction to develop its technology. The latest models
systems over conventional vibration exciters also suits use with flexible pavements and feature the firm’s Tango4 oscillation system,
for compaction. The conventional vibration thin lifts, ensuring a longer lasting running along with the benefit of split drums. The
system compacts the material by a vertical surface. Using oscillation there is no risk firm’s oscillation system allows the forces to ➔
motion, however with oscillation the moving
drum remains in permanent contact with the
ground, as Hamm points out. According to
the company, oscillation generates tangential
shear forces to the material and this delivers
better compaction results.
There are several important reasons that
oscillation type compaction is now used
more widely. A key advantage is that the
forces generated by an oscillating drum
do not travel as far as those generated by
a conventional vibration type drum. As
the compaction forces from oscillation
do not bounce back upwards from base
layers, these machines can be operated in

ABOVE: BOMAG now has an oscillation


compactor with split drums
RIGHT: Caterpillar’s oscillation system is said
to be reliable and allow high-quality working

www.worldhighways.com ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 29


COMPACTION MACHINERY UPDATE

HYBRID COMPACTION
Hamm is pushing the boundaries further
with its 9tonne class hybrid compactor, now
available as a production model.
Featuring a hydraulic hybrid technology,
BELOW: Volvo CE’s DD 105 OSC model features oscillation on the rear drum the machine is able to store energy in its
accumulator and then release it when
required, reducing overall fuel consumption.
Because the system delivers hydraulic power
at start-up when peak power is required,
this means the machine can operate with
a 55.4kW diesel rather than the 85kW
unit that would otherwise be needed. This
smaller engine uses less fuel, generates less
noise and has a lower cooling requirement.
The HD+ 90i PH hybrid tandem roller
has been tested extensively and the system
is said to offer savings on fuel, as well as
operating costs, while delivering the same
compaction performance as a conventional
machine.
The hydraulic system functions as an
auxiliary drive, supplying a maximum
short-term load of up to 20kW and
the accumulator then recharges as the
compactor is being driven.
The firm offers a number of variants,
➔ be directed, while the split drums mean that Power is delivered by a Cat C4.4 diesel including double vibration (VV), double
the machine can compact curves without supplying 106kW, while an Eco-mode and vibration with split drum (VV-S), one
risking damage to the road surface. With automatic speed control help to reduce fuel oscillation and one vibrating drum (VO),
these split drums, the machines can be used consumption. one oscillation and one split vibrating drum
for compaction in urban areas with narrow Similarly, Volvo CE is also offering an (VO-S), as a combi roller (VT) and as a combi
streets, while maximising surface quality. asphalt compactor featuring oscillation, the roller with split vibrating drum (VT-S).
This new development of the Tango system first of a new range. The DD 105 OSC is
uses a direct drive and has no need for said to deliver high compaction forces while
drive belts. The firm claims that this gear- offering a low fuel consumption. The new
driven system is maintenance-free and was OSC machine shares the same dimensions as
developed so as to allow the machine to have the conventional DD 105, with vibration on
split drums, an arrangement not possible the front drum and oscillation for the rear
with the earlier belt-driven system. To drum.
maximise working life, the drums are made The new machine is equipped with the
from a high-quality steel that is said to allow firm’s latest Compact Assist package, which
a service life of 6,000hours. Volvo CE claims helps optimise compaction
Also now competing in the segment for quality and performance. The package maps
oscillating is Caterpillar, with its CB10 model. the number of compaction passes as well
This 10tonne class machine has conventional as mat temperatures and density values,
vertical vibration in the front drum as well allowing consistency and quality.
as oscillatory vibration in the rear drum. The The 10tonne class DD 105 OSC is
oscillatory system uses a pod-style eccentric around 500kg lighter than the standard
weight technology developed in-house and 10.5tonne DD 105 and the two share the forward view that maximises visibility to the
the company offers a two-year/2000-hour same 1.68m drum widths and 1.2m drum drum edges, as well as the water spraying
service interval. According to the company, diameters. Drum frequency is 39Hz, while system and working area. Meanwhile the off-
its novel belt-drive provides twice the load high centrifugal forces are claimed and the set steering is said to improve the operator’s
capacity of timing belt systems. machine has a choice of eight amplitude view of any kerbs and obstructions., further
The front drum has conventional vibration settings. Both the DD 105 and the new DD aided by the sliding and rotating seat that
and is available in two amplitude, five 105 OSC model as driven by a Volvo D3.8 allows a better field of view over the mat and
amplitude, or the firm’s in-house developed diesel that delivers 85kW and meets Tier 4 drum edges.
Versa-Vibe system. Final emissions requirements. However the introduction of oscillation
The newly designed centre-articulating According to Volvo CE, the new drum type compaction is by no means restricted
hitch is said to ensure that the drums remain vibration system reduces start-up power to European and US manufacturers. Chinese
in contact with the mat at all times, as well consumption by 50%, while the eco mode equipment builders too have seen the need
as allowing a smoother ride over uneven lowers fuel consumption by up to 30% for oscillation type systems to meet the
surfaces. The machine is available with an without impacting performance. In addition, country’s need for high-quality compaction.
optional offset hitch that extends coverage engine output adapts to the working With so many major new road bridges
up to 170mm when the machine is being requirements, furthering lowering fuel use. being built in China, oscillation technology
used next to kerbs, gutters or barrier wall. The design of the cab has a pillarless is needed by contractors to ensure asphalt

30 ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 www.worldhighways.com


COMPACTION MACHINERY UPDATE

BELOW: Hamm pioneered oscillation, having


first tested the system on a compactor in 1983
and its technology is extremely well-proven

surfaces on bridge decks are compacted


correctly.
XCMG has been one of the firms to
respond to this demand with its XD143S, a
14tonne class machine. This features high
frequency vibration on the front drum and
oscillation on the rear drum.
Although the company says that it has
offered oscillation on previous generation
compactors, this is the first to combine
oscillation with a high-frequency vibration.
The compactor also features sophisticated
electronic engine and compaction controls.
XCMG claims that its innovative compaction
system and high-frequency capability ABOVE: Meeting a need for compacting BOMAG
allow it to be used for high output paving asphalt surfaces on bridge decks, XCMG www.bomag.com
operations and also suit it to use with thin has developed the XD143S Caterpillar
lifts. Meanwhile the oscillation system means www.cat.com
that the machine can be used for compacting Hamm
asphalt surfaces in urban areas or on bridge said that the machine is offered in China www.hamm.eu
decks. and it will be available for Asian markets. Volvo CE
The XD143S is powered by a Deutz diesel However it is not yet clear if a Tier 4 Final/ www.volvoce.com
rated at 111kW, which meets the China Stage Stage IV version will be available for sale in XCMG
III emissions requirements. The company the US and Europe. www.xcmg.com

www.produzionepropria.com ph.S.Gasparato

Ecological anti-kerosene surface treatment


resink
Asphalt technology for the road industry

RESIN K-EC is an ecological anti-kerosene surface treatment


resistant to the disruptive action of fuels and oils. Available in a High-tech additives for the road industry
wide range of colours, it is suitable for industrial parking areas, roa
d industry
sin

deposits of refineries, service areas, petrol stations, airports


Serv g the

ce 1967
in

and all those areas where it is necessary to protect the pavement


from hydrocarbon-based substances. www.iterchimica.it

www.worldhighways.com ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 31


SURFACE TREATMENTS

The pavement colouring system Resin K-EC from Iterchimica


can do more than make roads safe, according to research in Italy*

ultural development and Interaction between vehicles and bicycles used in airport pavements, Resin K-EC limits

C the continuous need for


communication in all its different
forms have transformed the
near intersections has also been studied
in Christchurch, New Zealand, where a
total of 18 sites were analysed. The results
the phenomenon known as FOD - foreign
object damage - caused by aggregates chipped
out from the top asphalt surface.
perception of the road from a simple channel showed that drivers are much less likely to Resin K-EC must be applied manually
of communication to a component of a invade coloured areas dedicated to bicycles through a rubber-blade squeegee at average
system capable of satisfying the fundamental compared to non-coloured areas4. Given this daily temperatures between 15-35°C.
necessities of modern society. This means result, coloured pavements and surfaces can Pavements must also be free of moisture and
that in order to confront and solve a problem enhance the experience for vulnerable users show little deterioration. For new pavement
linked to road conditions, several factors and make them safer5. surface layers, it is recommended to apply
must be assessed; the first is safety¹. Besides guaranteeing a higher level of Resin K-EC at least 20 days after the laying
The three elements that determine road safety, surface treatments make an important of the asphalt. Two or more coats can be laid
safety levels are infrastructure, vehicles and contribution to the architectural and aesthetic down with the average amount being about
users. Infrastructure can, in fact, push the value of an area6. They can also improve the 1.5 kg/m². However, before applying a second
user into error or prevent him or her from quality of the physical surface by lending it coat, it is important to verify that the first
making the right decision. Incorrect design an anti-kerosene protection – a feature much coat has properly hardened.
and management of road infrastructure must needed for airport aprons where planes park
be mitigated to guarantee the lowest possible for any length of time or where refuelling is TEST RESULTS
levels of safety risk, especially for vulnerable normally carried out. One test was at the Centro Sperimentale
road users, be they pedestrians, cyclists or Stradale di ANAS - ANAS Experimental
motorcyclists². ANTI-KEROSENE Road Centre. To verify and certify Resin
Possible measures to reduce accident rates Specifically designed to be applied on K-EC’s resistance to kerosene and oils, a test
include speed mitigation strategies, reduction flexible pavements, Resin K-EC is an was developed according to the UNICHIM
of risk exposure, protection of vulnerable environmentally friendly anti-kerosene N°394 - PAR 6.4 and PAR 6.3 method. This
users, mitigation of accident consequences product resistant to the disruptive action used different reagent solutions including jet
and adjustment of infrastructure and of fuels and oils in general. It is based on A1 kerosene, lubricating oil for t.d. engines
mobility, depending on the infrastructure. polymeric resins in water dispersion but is SW 15/40 super-multigrade and a mixture of
One practical measure is the use of colouring very concentrated, stable, non-flammable isothane and toluene as fuel.
treatments to road surfaces to highlighting and free of aliphatic solvents, aromatic oils Tests showed the resistance of the product
roundabouts, cycle paths and fast-track and tar. It is also available in a wide range of to the reagents used, since the tested
lanes for public transport. This increases the colours. specimens showed no defects - bubbles,
surface’s visual impact and keeps drivers – as Resin K-EC is designed to be applied on all softening, corrosion, cracks, detachments
well as users of such surfaces - alert. types of closed pavement - low voids content or colour variations. Only in the case of fuel
Studies have shown that bus lanes, - and is suitable for industrial parking areas, did the product show a slight rubbery effect
cycle-pedestrian paths and intersections refinery pavements, service areas, petrol immediately after prolonged contact with the
highlighted with coloured pavements have stations and airports. Once applied and reagent solution. But after a few hours, the
increased drivers’ awareness of cyclists³, hardened, the product is completely insoluble surface resumed its initial consistency.
as witnessed in cities throughout Europe, in water or solvents based on hydrocarbon Further tests were carried out by
Canada and the US. and/or benzene and their derivatives. When the Laboratorio Principale Prove e

32 ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 www.worldhighways.com


SURFACE TREATMENTS

Sperimentazioni at the Ciampino Military Air


Force Base near Rome. The experiments were
divided into two phases.
The first validation phase was conducted at
the A.M. laboratory on existing pavements,
with the aim of assessing the penetration
over time of hydraulic oil and kerosene. The
results obtained clearly showed that the use
of Resin K-EC reduced penetration to only
15mm against a 200mm penetration in the
case of non-treated pavements.
The second phase of full-scale
experimentation was carried out on an
existing pavement at Decimomannu Airport
in Sardinia. The aim of the second phase was
to evaluate not only the solvent action of the
hydrocarbon products in the presence of an
anti-kerosene, but also pavement resistance
to the aircrafts’ static-dynamic cycles, the
variation of surface adhesion before and after
the waterproofing treatment and its duration
in time. visible damage caused by the penetration of *The authors are Loretta Venturini, technical
Installation of Resin K-EC was done hydraulic oils and kerosene. There was also director at Iterchimica, and Lorenzo Sangalli,
manually using a rubber-blade trowel to no rutting or deformation. Only superficial technical area manager at Iterchimica.
cover about 900m². Two coats of Resin K-EC disintegrations of any kind were found.
were laid 24 hours apart. Bibliography
During the following four years CONCLUSIONS [1] La qualità del servizio di viabilità ed il
the Laboratorio Principale Prove e The use of surface treatments for the Livello di Servizio Globale GLS quali parametri
Sperimentazioni monitored the intervention colouring of pavements can have different fondamentali per le scelte tecniche, economiche e
to assess the effectiveness of the product characteristics. Besides ensuring safety as strategiche relative alle iPasquale Colonna –
over time as a function of the pavement well as architectural integrity and creating P. Colonna, S. D’Amoja, M. Maizza, V. Ranieri
deterioration and its persistence over time. pleasing aesthetics, tests have shown - QUADERNO AIPCR, C4, XXIV Convegno
The last monitoring carried out demonstrated that Resin K-EC can also prevent surface Nazionale Stradale - St. Vincent, Giugno 2002.
that, although there were numerous performance decay that can come about [2] Metodi di valutazione dell’efficacia degli
kerosene stains, the pavement showed no because of fuel and oil spillage. interventi per la riduzione degli incidenti stradali
analisi prima-dopo e costi-benefici applicate
ad alcuni interventi realizzati a Brescia – M.
Palamenghi - SISTAN, Comune di Brescia, Unità
di Staff Statistica, Rapporto di Ricerca N. 15,
Collana CONOSCERE PER DECIDERE, Brescia,
26 gennaio 1999.
[3] Effectiveness of a Green, High-Visibility Bike
Lane and Crossing Treatment - A. W. Sadek, A.
Dickason J. Kaplan - TRB 2007 Annual Meeting
CD-ROM.
[4] Effects on Motor Vehicle Behavior of Color
and Width of Bicycle Facilities at Signalized
Intersections – G. Koorey – ResearchGate,
The use of colouring November 15, 2009.
[5] Road safety audit: di una strada di futura
products such as Iterchimica’s costruzione in Manfredonia, Tesi di Laurea M.
Resin K-EC for airport aprons R. Curci - Ingegneria Civile – Sezione Trasporti,
are important to reduce DISTART – A. A. 2007 – 2008. [6] Chapter 10:
Pedestrian Facility Design; Access Minneapolis
surface deterioration - Design Guidelines for Streets & Sidewalks -
October 26, 2009.

www.worldhighways.com ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 33


ONSITE - MILLING

NORWEGIAN DUTY
FOR WIRTGEN W 60 RI
ime is money, especially in the Norwegian company’s first machine was a set value with just one hand while remaining

T Scandinavia where the short


road construction season makes
efficiency and flexibility a key
type W 500 small milling unit.
Last year, Asfalt Remix expanded and
updated its fleet of around 20 machines,
comfortably seated.
When the milling drum is lowered into
the working position on a parallel track,
factor for machines. That’s particularly true adding two Wirtgen W 60 Ri small milling the machine then mills to exactly the same
on small job sites, where work has to be machines along with three Wirtgen large depth as before. In total, four buttons on the
completed quickly but reliably day after day. milling machines of type W 220. W 60 Ri can be customised with a range of
As soon as the job is done, machines must The small milling machines more than functions, allowing each operator to adapt
be quickly loaded and ready to speed off to proved their flexibility and versatility over the small milling machine perfectly to their
the next project. That’s exactly what the the season, according to Eyvind Brynildsen, own working style and the requirements of a
W 60 Ri small milling machine from Wirtgen junior director of Asfalt Remix. “The particular job site. In Norway, where surface
delivers. Norwegian milling service provider sophisticated machine concept, together with courses are mainly milled to a depth of 4cm,
Asfalt Remix - which uses exclusively other invaluable details, delivers the edge that this function saves a lot of time.
Wirtgen machines for its core business, cold ultimately is the key to economic success.” Also, the display on the multifunctional
milling - recognises this advantage. The W 60 Ri has many easy-to-use added armrest shows much important information
Headquartered near Oslo, Asfalt Remix - and automated functions that mark the including job data - the milled area and the
the country’s largest milling service provider machine out as excellent, noted milling
- has been serving customers throughout machine operator Jon Anders Fjeld. For
Norway for more than 20 years. Asfalt Remix instance, the height of the machine can be ABOVE: Close call: for those tight site jobs,
has been using machines from Wirtgen for adjusted using the multifunctional armrest. It Norway’s Asfalt Remix has opted for two
its milling jobs since it was founded in 1995 – means he can adjust the height and save the Wirtgen W 60 Ri small milling machines

34 ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 www.worldhighways.com


ONSITE - MILLING

number of trucks loaded - the filling level of site, travelling at up to 12kph in the 4-wheel Much in demand in Scandinavia is high-
the tank, the advance rate and the selected version and 8kph in a 3-wheel configuration. operator environment, such as Wirtgen’s
milling drum speed. This information enables Relocating to the start of the next milling Operator Comfort System. Since the cabin
the operator to organise the work optimally, track is also speedy, because the machine can can be shifted and swivelled hydraulically,
as well as any stops for refuelling and reverse with the milling drum activated. the machine operator can quickly get himself
changing cutting tools. In manoeuvres, the offset arrangement of into the best position for optimum visibility.
the front wheels allows the machine to drive Even reversing manoeuvres can be carried
TRANSPORT MADE EASY up against obstacles or edges. Wirtgen has out conveniently while seated, because the
Apart from the actual milling work, also equipped the machine with particularly cabin can be turned 110° in either direction
manoeuvring is a major part of the day- large front wheels to minimise wear while from any position.
to-day work of a small milling machine reducing surface load on the base. “We have fitted two of our new large
operator. On many days, Fjeld has to work In all manoeuvres, steering can be milling machines with this cabin,” said
on four or more job sites. To ensure this tight performed optionally using the joystick Brynildsen. Camera transmission, precise
schedule can be kept, Wirtgen allows the rear on the multifunctional armrest or – if the joystick control and a powerful automatic
wheel to swivel in: 30 seconds is all it takes. locking angle is to be particularly great – climate control system with heating, cooling
The milling drum has no contact with the using the steering wheel. Once the rear wheel and fan functions create pleasant working
ground, so the pavement is not damaged by is swivelled in, it is automatically steered conditions with optimal protection from the
the manoeuvring. as well. This design reduces the turning weather and first-class all-round visibility,
The W 60 Ri also moves swiftly from the radius. Since small milling machines often whatever the conditions outside. “Operators
transport vehicle to its position on the job have to turn in the tightest of spaces, this can concentrate on their work and deliver
feature additionally speeds up the work while quality.”
maximising cost-efficiency. When they collected their five new
“Since the cabin can be Accurate automatic leveling is done using W 60 Ri milling machines, Brynildsen, all the
Wirtgen’s PRO PLUS “that further increases company’s milling machine operators
shifted and swivelled the precision of the milling results and leads and the workshop team travelled to the
hydraulically, the to high quality”, said Brynildsen. Wirtgen headquarters in Windhagen for
machine operator can In the large milling machine segment, intensive training. “We were able to get to
too, premium solutions from Wirtgen know the new developments in detail,” said
quickly get himself into deliver added value. One example from the Brynildsen.
the best position for Norwegians’ portfolio is the sound-insulated Wirtgen
optimum visibility” operator’s cabin. www.wirtgen.com

ASPHALT SHREDDING WITH FAE


Gravel road bases have a new smoothing-out
treatment with the MTL, a multipurpose light-stone
crusher from Italian firm FAE.
The MTL was developed for customers with 104kW
to 179kw tractors who need soil stabilisation, rock
slab grinding, stone crushing and asphalt shredding at
a maximum depth of 280mm.
The MTL fits between the small RSL for tractors
with 60-142kW of power and the medium MTM for
tractors with power between 179-268kW.
Internal frame guards are secured with screws both
centrally and on the sides to ensure the MTL is robust
and reliable. Flexibility of use is ensured by a variable
geometry crushing chamber, an adjustable grid on
rear door and an adjustable Hardox counter-blade.
The depth gauge has been redesigned to help
operators efficiently monitor depth. A height-
adjustable gearbox allows adjustments regardless of
the size of the tractor and the operating angle.
There are also interchangeable internal anti-wear
plates made of Hardox.
FAE Group
www.fae-group.com

www.worldhighways.com ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 35


ASPHALT PLANT UPDATE

arm asphalt solutions and new

W technology for recycled asphalt


have been a high R&D priority for
manufacturers of both continuous
Increased use of recycled materials and batching type plants.
The US has long been a strong market
continues to be a key goal for asphalt plant for continuous type plants and Swiss firm
Ammann is working to expand its presence
manufacturers and European companies are in North America. The firm exhibited at
CONEXPO in Las Vegas during 2017, bringing
targeting the US market, reports Mike Woof the first ever complete plant to the show. It
followed this up with a presence at the World
of Asphalt 2018 event in Houston in March
this year. Ammann says that it is making this
move to take advantage of growing interest in
North America for batching plants.
The Fayat Group and the Wirtgen Group
already have footholds in North America
with their road machines. But whether Fayat’s
Marini-Ermont or Wirtgen’s Benninghoven
asphalt plant businesses will follow suit
remains to be seen.
Ammann faces tough competition from US
firms such as Astec, one of the leading North
American asphalt plant suppliers. Astec is best
known for its continuous type equipment but
the firm could also address the demand for
batching plants, offering an extensive range of
up-to-date mobile and fixed units.
Europe is primarily perceived as a market
for batching plants - Astec has had a sales
presence across Europe for many years,
supplying a number of units. Fayat’s Ermont
facility in France builds also an extensive line
of continuous plants.
While North American firms have preferred
US plants for many years, Ammann has
now supplied its first plant into this market.
A Universal ABP HRT (High Recycling
Technology) Asphalt-Mixing Plant began
producing mix in Columbus, Ohio, in
December 2017.
According to Ammann, the ABP HRT plant
is aimed at asphalt manufacturers wanting
to incorporate large percentages of RAP into
mixes without sacrificing production capacity
and quality. The HRT is a two-in-one plant
featuring warm and cold recycling systems that
can be used simultaneously.
Ammann offers two warm recycling
systems. One is the conventional concurrent
flow dryer for RAP additions of up to 60%.
The second is Ammann’s latest development
in warm recycling - the RAH100, which can
use 100% RAP, depending on the quality of the
feed material.
The firm says that a key visual difference
Ammann has had success with its HRT plants between the HRT and conventional plants
in Europe and is now taking aim at the US is the vertical stacking of the RAP-bearing
components. This configuration reduces wear

36 ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 www.worldhighways.com


ASPHALT PLANT UPDATE

RIGHT: Astec’s Double Barrel Green and the Green


Pac warm mix systems allow producers to lower
their overall operating costs
BELOW: Benninghoven’s ECO range: the company
is refining its batching plant technology with an
alternative to the skip track

and sticking and shortens the travel distance


of hot RAP material.
The plant has a production capacity
of 400tonnes/hour and can use foamed
bitumen, pigments and other additives.
In the US, Asphalt Drum Mixers - ADM -
is now offering a range of baghouse options
for its portable and stationary asphalt plants
as well as for similar competitive models.
The baghouses collect dust generated by
plant operations and release clean, filtered
air into the atmosphere, ensuring an
effective management of plant dust. The
baghouses are said to be more than 99.8%
efficient and comply with the US’ strict EPA
(Environmental Protection Agency) clean the housing, decreasing air velocities and batching plant sector, with significant updates
air regulations. preventing premature bag wear. In addition, for such units that the company took over
Dirty air and dust created by the maintenance personnel are said to be able to from Barber Greene. Astec is working on
aggregate drying process are directed from quickly and easily access the screw conveyors advanced technologies for the production
the dryer into the baghouse, which features to clean out the excess dust by removing the of warm asphalt and the use of RAP with
an oversized precleaner air entry. The airtight hopper access plates. the firm’s continuous plants and parallel
bags act as filters, collecting dust as the air Safety features include a caged roof-access developments for the batching sector are
moves through the baghouse. This prevents ladder, top perimeter tubular guardrail and likely.
the dust from being expelled into the solid-steel toe-stop kickplate. The relocatable The firm has also developed its latest
atmosphere, while an exhaust fan forces out baghouses feature a heavy-duty I-beam generation foamed bitumen system, explains
the clean, filtered air. structural frame with high-temperature Mike Varner, chief engineer at Astec. “We
The 397gm capacity, 204oC-rated fibreglass blanket insulation and a thin listened to the customers. They said if the
Nomex bags are housed in 3mm thick aluminum insulation jacket. water pressure is increased, they see a greater
galvanised steel cages to prevent them from One of the latest developments from Astec effect of bitumen foaming.
collapsing. Internal grids installed above Industries is the Silobot inspection system for “We used all the components from the
the hopper serve as a bag catcher. Airtight, asphalt plant silos and batching plants. The original system so we have frontwards
lift-off doors on the roof allow for easy bag second generation Silobot will be offered as a compatibility. We did redesign it to reduce
removal. An optional primary knockout service through Astec’s parts department. the footprint and we increased the water
box features a baffle plate incorporated into Astec is also gearing up its presence in the pressure by a factor of 10 but we used the
same pumps. We wanted to do so to control
the pressure in a specific range. Having fewer
nozzles allows the increase in pressure.”
Varner said that not only is the new system
more compact, it is also around 75% lighter,
The plants fit inside making it easier to transport from one facility
standard shipping to another.
container sizes to Astec Industries continues to refine its
premium counter-flow aggregate drum dryer,
maximise mobility the Double Barrel XHR. This features an
external asphalt mixer and is offered with a
range of features, allowing it to produce up to
360tonnes/hour of mix with up to 65% RAP/
RAS content. This dryer is designed for a
long wear life, with stainless steel used for the
internal flights so as to lower maintenance
needs.
Meanwhile, Benninghoven claims that its
asphalt transfer system boosts the capabilities
of the firm’s ECO mixing plant range. The
newly developed alternating chute unit fitted
to the firm’s ECO asphalt plant is said to be a
key development for the sector, with a patent
pending.
The ECO asphalt plant is offered with
output ranging from 100-320tonnes/hour. ➔

www.worldhighways.com ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 37


ASPHALT PLANT UPDATE

LEFT: Fayat is offering a continuous plant that


can use 100% RAP
BELOW: Intrame’s plants have longer drying
drums to accommodate a higher proportion of
RAP - up to 50%

materials. The project, started in April 2017,


is supported by the French Environment
and Energy Management Agency. It covers
everything from inception and design to
prototyping and a demonstration plant for
on-site testing.
Spanish asphalt plant manufacturer Intrame
is now offering a full range of Flow-Mix
continuous plants, with outputs from 100-400
tonnes and which can handle up to 50% RAP
in the feed.
“Today, everything is about RAP,” says
Antonio Morón Hodge, chief executive
of Intrame. “Customers are interested in
the ability to add more RAP, to use lower
➔The firm says that the ECO units can be technology that allows it to use feed material temperatures and to mix with bitumen
operated as stationary plants, but can also containing up to 100% recycled asphalt foaming emulsion.”
handle fast location changes without problems. pavement (RAP). The plant has been Intrame’s plants have longer drying drums
The plants fit inside standard shipping developed in partnership with Eurovia’s to allow a higher proportion of RAP - up to
container sizes to maximise mobility. Technical and Research Division in a bid to 50% - to be introduced into the mix. As with
The ECO plant has large service openings, increase the use of RAP for road building. all Intrame’s continuous plants, the Flow-Mix
LED lighting, simplified lubrication and an Importantly, the TRX 100% has been range has a separate mixer rather than relying
electric and compressed air connection for designed with a high level of mobility for rapid on mixing everything in the drum; this leads
maintenance tools as well as an 800mm-wide setting up close to roadbuilding sites. The bulk to a more homogenous mix and hence a better
platform width. Weighing and mixing is said of the RAP for the feed can then be sourced quality of pavement, explains Hodge.
to be efficient and a key development is its new from milling materials produced by the site, Intrame’s 140tonne/hour Flow-Mix 140
alternating chute container. The firm relies thus cutting down on transport costs while continuous plant can be used together with
on loading skip technology as a link between shrinking the contractor’s carbon footprint. its recently developed Asflow 20 control
mixer and loading silo, with the skip volume The patented TRX 100% technology, based system that can be used for the firm’s
corresponding to the volume of the mixer. The on the drying of asphalt aggregates at low continuous and batching plants. Intrame says
mixer drains the asphalt vertically downwards temperature, is said to reuse and preserve the that it has sold two such plants to date, one
into the skip, which then positions itself above binder in the asphalt. This is achieved through to a customer in Burkina Faso, the other into
the targeted loading silo pocket and drains longer mix times, together with an innovative Mauritania.
the stored mixed goods downwards. This is a heating system. According to the firm, the “We have increased our presence in South
proven technology for excluding segregations TRX 100% is the most efficient mobile America with a new network of dealers.
in the mixed goods. recycling solution on the market. And with recent deals in South Africa and
But for the new ECO asphalt mixing plant The plant forms part of Eurovia’s project to Australia, we are increasing our presence
range, Benninghoven has developed a new construct roads made entirely from recycled globally.”
cost-efficient alternative to the skip track.
The alternating chute unit features a purely
mechanical structure which is not subject
to malfunctions. The design means that no
sensor system, motors or brakes are required,
while reliability is ensured. The system is said
to offer fast and load-free positioning for silo
selection. Separation effects in the end product
are minimised through cross-mixing in the
material transfer. Meanwhile, the geometry of
the Benninghoven loading mixed materials
storage silos ensures mass flow instead of core
flow, further preventing segregation in the
mix.
The firm claims efficient mixing due to the
design of the mixer with its optimum fill level
and large dimensions. The larger plants in the
ECO range include cold and hot recycling
feed, bag feed, foam bitumen, granulate feed,
fibrous material feed and adhesive feed.
From Marini-Ermont comes the TRX
100% asphalt plant. It uses a low-temperature

38 ROAD SURFACE TECHNOLOGY 2018 www.worldhighways.com


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