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Petroleum Refining Fourth Year Dr.Aysar T.

Jarullah

6- Lubricating Oils
The remaining part at the bottom of the atmospheric distillation - above 350 0C is regarded
the source for base lubricating oils extraction via vacuum distillation in order to prevent
cracking process.

6.1 Compositions
Lubricating oil is distinguished from other fractions of crude oil by their usually high
(>400 0C) boiling point, as well as their high viscosity. Materials suit able for the
production of lubricating oils are comprised principally of hydrocarbons containing from 25
to 35 or even 40 carbon atoms per molecule. The composition of lubricating oil may be
substantially different from the lubricant fraction from which it was derive d, as wax (norm al
paraffins) is remove d by distillation or refining by solvent extraction and adsorption
preferentially removes non hydrocarbon constituents as well as poly nuclear aromatic
compounds and the multiringcyclo paraffins.

6.2 Manufacture
The production of lubricating oils is well established and consists of four basic processes: (1)
distillation to remove the lower-boiling and lower-molecular weight constituents of the
feedstock, (2) solvent refining, such as deasphalting, and hydrogen treatment to remove the
nonhydrocarbon constituents and to improve the feedstock quality, (3) dewaxing to remove
the wax constituents and improve the low-temperature properties, (4) and clay treatment or
hydrogen treatment to prevent instability of the product.

6.3 Properties
Lubricating oil may be divided into many categories according to the types of service they
are intended to perform. However, there are two main groups: (1) oils used in intermittent
service, such as motor and aviation oils, and (2) oils designed for continuous service, such as
turbine oils. This classification is based on the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) J 300
specification and shown in Table below. The single grade oils (e.g., SAE 20, etc.) correspond
to a single class and have to be selected according to engine manufacturer specifications,
operating conditions, and climatic conditions. At -20°C, a multigrade lubricating oil such as
SAE 10W -30 possesses the viscosity of a 10W oil and at 100°C, the multigrade oil possesses
the viscosity of a SAE 30 oil.
Petroleum Refining Fourth Year Dr.Aysar T. Jarullah

The main properties of lubricants, which are usually indicated in the technical characteristics
of the product, are:

Viscosity
 This indicates the resistance of a liquid to flow.
 Oil with higher viscosity can stand greater pressure without being squeezed out of the
lubricating surfaces. However, the high internal friction of the oil may offer greater
resistance to the movement of the lubricating parts. An oil of lower viscosity offers less
resistance to the moving parts but the oil can be easily squeezed out of the lubricating
surfaces. It is therefore important to select a lubricating oil of appropriate viscosity to
achieve optimum lubrication effect.
 Viscosity changes with temperature. Hence, the measuring temperature must be
specified whenever the viscosity of a liquid is stated. When temperature rises, a liquid
becomes less viscous. Similarly, a liquid becomes thicker when temperature drops.
 Viscosity Index (VI) is an indication of how the viscosity of a liquid varies with
temperature. A high VI means the liquid does not thin out so much when temperature
rises. VI improver additives that are usually high molecular weight polymers can
increase the VI of lubricating oil. Figure 26 below is used to find the V.I.
 Increase in oil viscosity achieved by addition of polymers can be partially lost again
through degradation of the polymer molecules by shear stress such as heavily loaded
gears. Oil that can resist viscosity change due to shear are said to have high shear
stability.

Fig. 26: Viscosity index


Petroleum Refining Fourth Year Dr.Aysar T. Jarullah

Pour Point
The pour point refers to the minimum temperature at which a lubricant continues to flow
when cooled. Below the pour point, the oil tends to thicken and to cease to flow freely.
There is term is called (zero %wax), which is the amount of oil that should be removed to
reach 0 °F. The following Table is used for this purpose (C.F is k).

The following Figure (27) is shown the relation between the V.I, k and the amount of wax
that should be removed.

Fig. 27: relation between the V.I, k and the amount of wax
Petroleum Refining Fourth Year Dr.Aysar T. Jarullah

Ex: Oil has B.P = 40 F and k=12.2. Find V.I?

Sol.
From Table above, the amount of wax = 8,
From Fig. above, V.I = 73.

Flash Point
The flash point is the minimum temperature at which vapours from lubricants mixed with air
and progressively heated in a standard laboratory receptacle, becomes inflammable. There is
a closed flashpoint (Penskin Martens) and an open flashpoint (Cleveland). In addition to
defining the limits of use and the precautions to be taken for moving or storage it is also
useful as an indication of possible contamination from fuels (which have lower flashpoints
than lubricants).

6.4 Additives
A large number of additives are used to impart performance characteristics to the lubricants.
The main families of additives are:

 Antioxidants
 Detergents
 Anti-wear
 Metal deactivators
 Corrosion inhibitors, Rust inhibitors
 Friction modifiers
 Extreme Pressure
 Anti-foaming agents
 Viscosity index improvers
 Demulsifying/Emulsifying