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82 CSEE JOURNAL OF POWER AND ENERGY SYSTEMS, VOL. 2, NO.

3, SEPTEMBER 2016

Application and Modeling of Battery Energy


Storage in Power Systems
Xiaokang Xu, Senior Member, IEEE, Martin Bishop, Senior Member, IEEE,
Donna G. Oikarinen, Member, IEEE, and Chen Hao, Member, IEEE

Abstract—This paper presents engineering experiences from justify the investment. According to the U.S. Department of
battery energy storage system (BESS) projects that require design Energy Global Energy Storage Database [1], as of October
and implementation of specialized power conversion systems 2015, global battery energy storage installations have reached
(a fast-response, automatic power converter and controller).
These projects concern areas of generation, transmission, and over 600 MW (Fig. 1). These installations provide various
distribution of electric energy, as well as end-energy user benefits, electric grid services including frequency regulation, voltage
such as grid frequency regulation, renewable energy smoothing support, renewable energy time-shift (arbitrage), renewable
and leveling, energy dispatching and arbitrage, power quality energy smoothing and leveling, demand reduction, and support
and reliability improvements for connected customers, islanding for power reliability, power quality, and islanding operations.
operations, and smart microgrid applications. In general, a
grid level BESS project sends an interconnect request to utility For transmission and distribution systems, the BESS has also
power grids in the project development stage. Simulation models been applied for reliability improvement as an alternative
of equipment are then sent for a system impact study (e.g., to more costly line upgrade projects. Table I summarizes
power flow and/or stability analysis), based on utility grid code five categories of typical electric grid services that can be
requirements. The system study then determines the connection’s performed by the BESS [2].
technical feasibility and impact of the project on the power grid.
In this paper, a set of new BESS models is presented that are
0.7
configured and parameterized for use in system impact studies
as well as transmission planning studies. The models, which 0.6
have been recently approved and released by the U.S. Western
Rated Power (GW)

Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), represent the steady 0.5


state and dynamic performance of the BESS in several software 0.4
platforms for power system studies based on operating project
performance experience. Model benchmarking results as well as 0.3
a real system case study are also included in the paper to show 0.2
that the parameterized and tuned models respond correctly and
as expected when system operating conditions change following 0.1
contingency events. Finally, this paper provides useful guidelines 0
in the use of new models to represent a BESS for power system
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
analysis.
Year
Index Terms—Battery energy storage, contingency, frequency
Fig. 1. Rated power of global battery energy storage installations over time
regulation, power flow analysis, power quality, power reliability,
from the US Department of Energy database, as of October 2015.
renewable energy, smart microgrid, stability analysis, state of
charge, system impact studies, transmission planning.
TABLE I
E LECTRIC G RID E NERGY S TORAGE S ERVICES

Category Description
Electric energy time-shift (arbitrage)
Bulk energy
I. I NTRODUCTION service
Electric supply capacity
Avoided renewable curtailment

B ATTERY energy storage systems (BESS) are frequently


examined and applied to serve a variety of functions
in the generation, transmission, and distribution of electric
Ancillary
services
Frequency regulation
Spinning, non-spinning and supplemental reserves
Voltage support
Black start
energy as well as providing end-energy user benefits that help Other related uses
Transmission
Transmission upgrade deferral
Manuscript received February 20, 2016; revised May 3, 2016; accepted June infrastructure
Transmission congestion relief
30, 2016. Date of publication September 30, 2016; date of current version services
Aug. 22, 2016. Distribution Distribution upgrade deferral
X. Xu (Corresponding author e-mail: xiaokang.xu@sandc.com), M. Bishop, infrastructure Voltage support
and D. G. Oikarinen are with S&C Electric Company, 5251 West Franklin services Outage mitigation
Drive, Franklin, WI 53132, USA. Power quality
Customer energy
C. Hao is with S&C Electric (China) Company Ltd., 181 Tai Shan Road, Power reliability
management
SND, Suzhou 215129, China. Retail electric energy time-shift
services
DOI: 10.17775/CSEEJPES.2016.00039 Demand charge management

2096-0042 
c 2016 CSEE
XU et al.: APPLICATION AND MODELING OF BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE IN POWER SYSTEMS 83

The subsequent sections in this paper discuss several battery wind energy facility. A stand-alone PCS, which includes a
energy storage engineering projects that have required design local monitoring, data collection, control, and communication
and implementation of specialized power conversion systems system, was designed, built, and installed for this project.
(fast-response, automatic power converters, and controllers). The main objective of the project was to demonstrate system
Since such projects are connected to the power grid, they benefits and effectiveness of the BESS in performing the
are generally required to submit equipment simulation models following major functions:
for system impact studies in their development stages so 1) Grid frequency regulation;
that they can meet the utility’s interconnection grid code 2) economic dispatch (arbitrage);
requirements. At the same time, we discuss in this paper new 3) renewable energy time-shifting;
simulation models that were configured, parameterized, and 4) renewable energy output smoothing;
tuned to represent BESS and that were based on actual project 5) renewable energy output leveling.
engineering experiences. Model benchmarking tests and a case
Performance data recorded from the field indicated that
study of a real power system using the parameterized and
the BESS performed as expected, meeting all of the goals
tuned models from our study demonstrate satisfactory results,
of the application project. For illustrative purposes, only two
and to the best knowledge of the authors, these new models
performance data are cited here. Fig. 3 shows the recorded
have not been tuned or used for this type of study in published
frequency regulation performance where the PCS power (blue
literature. Hence, this paper provides useful guidelines for the
line) follows the area control error (ACE) (red line) in an
use of these new models to represent a BESS for power system
automatic generation control (AGC) system with the intent
analysis.
to balance the random and rapid fluctuations in generation
and/or load on an intra-minute basis. Fig. 4 shows the recorded
II. A PPLICATION OF BATTERY E NERGY S TORAGE renewable energy smoothing performance where the blue,
Generally speaking, a utility-grade battery energy storage pink, green, and yellow lines represent the output of the BESS,
project can be deployed on the power grid at a substation, the output of the wind energy facility, the combined output of
distributed along a feeder or as a residential community-
focused system (Fig. 2). S&C Electric Company designs 1,200 400
and implements power conversion systems (PCS) for all of 900 300
these types of deployments. Three such battery engineering
600 200
PCS Power (kW)

projects [3]–[5] that were delivered with different system


applications are described next. 300 100

ACE (kW)
0 0
138 kV bus
−300 −100

−600 −200
13.8 kV bus NAS battery station
−900 −300
Two 1-MW
NAS units
−1,200 −400
3/4/10 18:00 3/4/10 18:10 3/4/10 18:20 3/4/10 18:30
2 MW Time
battery
storage
Fig. 3. PCS power (blue line) following ACE (red line) in AGC [3].

2,000 100%

250 kW 1,000
battery 80%
State of Charge (SOC)

storage
Distributed energy 0
Power (kW)

management
controller (DEM) −1,000 60%
25 kW Communications
Load battery −2,000
storage 40%

CES
units −3,000
20%
Fig. 2. Deploying battery energy storage on the grid. −4,000

−5,000 0%
0:00
0:30
1:00
1:30
2:00
2:30
3:00
3:30
4:00
4:30
5:00
5:30
6:00
6:30
7:00
7:30
8:00
8:30
9:00
9:30
10:00
10:30
11:00
11:30
12:00
12:30
13:00

A. Renewable Energy Application and Grid Frequency Regu-


lation Time
This battery energy storage project was installed to facilitate
Fig. 4. Renewable energy output smoothing by the BESS (blue line = output
the integration of wind energy onto the power grid. The project of the BESS; pink line = output of wind energy; green line = combined
is a 1 MW, 7.2 MWh sodium sulfur (NaS) BESS. This system output of wind energy and BESS measured at the point of interconnection of
is located at a newly constructed substation near an 11.5 MW the grid; and yellow line = state of charge (SOC) of battery) [3].
84 CSEE JOURNAL OF POWER AND ENERGY SYSTEMS, VOL. 2, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2016

the wind energy facility and the BESS (i.e., the net output 3) five 2.3 kW wind turbines;
at the grid point of interconnection), and the state of charge 4) two 1.2 MW emergency backup diesel generators;
(SOC) of battery, respectively. As seen in this figure, the output 5) 2 MW 12 MWh battery energy storage system.
of the BESS offsets the fast change in the wind energy output
such that the grid sees a smooth total output of both the wind Two 1.2 MW
energy facility and the BESS. backup diesel Distributed energy
Utility interconnection or generators resources management
These figures indicate that the BESS is correctly responding “point of common coupling” system (DERMS)
and static disconnect switch
as expected. 1 MW fuel cell
power plant

B. Power Reliability and Quality Application 2 MW 12 MWh


Five 2.3 kW battery energy
This battery energy storage project was installed to support wind turbines storage system
power reliability and quality for a remote town. The project is a
4 MW, 24 MWh NaS BESS designed, built and installed using
1.2 MW rooftop
a fast-response, automatic power converter and controller for solar PV system
the system.
The remote town is connected to a main substation via a 100 Fig. 6. Diagram showing component equipment of a smart microgrid
km, 69 kV transmission line built over 60 years ago. Electrical supplying electricity to a correctional facility, including the BESS [5].
storms are frequent events in the rugged area between the
main substation (about 1.6 km above sea level) and the town. In this project the PCS was designed and implemented for
Frequent outages and long repair times of this single aging the BESS with specific control system features to meet the
transmission line in this rough terrain has affected residential security needs of the microgrid. The BESS functions under
customers and other critical loads such as key computer the umbrella of a microgrid controller to manage energy
systems in the town. The project used a specialized PCS within the microgrid while maintaining system voltage and
installed within a building (shown in Fig. 5) to perform the frequency stability. It stores renewable and fuel cell energy
following major functions: overproduction, reduces peak load at the facility and hence
1) Provision of uninterrupted 4 MW power for up to 6 hours monthly demand charges, and allows the facility to respond
in the event of a radial line outage or other emergency real-time pricing information, buy power from the utility dur-
situations; ing the least expensive nonpeak hours and store and discharge
2) mitigation of voltage fluctuations and momentary out- it for use during most expensive summer peak hours. During
ages with BESS quick response capabilities; grid-connected operations, these features have the potential
3) allowing for maintenance on a future new line being built to enable the facility to be a net-zero electrical energy site.
from the main substation to the town. The site can also export power during the most expensive
summer peak electrical hours. The project provides significant
energy cost savings (up to $100,000 per year). The BESS
was designed to support islanding operation of the microgrid,
and in that operation mode improves power quality, system
reliability and security, and increases energy efficiency.
When a disturbance to the utility grid occurs, the smart
microgrid was designed to automatically disconnect from the
grid. The site loads are then served using renewable and
battery power for up to eight hours until either local utility
power is restored or conventional on-site emergency generators
are engaged.

Fig. 5. Specialized PCS installed indoor for the BESS.


III. M ODELING OF BATTERY E NERGY S TORAGE S YSTEMS
Fig. 7 is a schematic diagram to show major components
C. Smart Microgrid Application and Islanding Operation
in a typical BESS that uses an IGBT (insulated-gate bipolar
This battery energy storage project was developed to serve transistor) based DC-to-AC PCS interconnected to a battery.
as a key stability component of a smart microgrid. This project The 4 quadrant PCS converts utility AC voltage to DC voltage
was the first of its kind in the U.S. and supplies electricity for energy storage in a battery or vice versa to release battery
to a correctional facility. The facility requires 3 MW of energy back to the utility system. The L-C filter is intended
adequate and secure electricity to maintain daily operations to reduce high frequency harmonics from the pulse width
at all times. Fig. 6 shows the diagram of the smart microgrid modulation (PWM) conversion technique used in the BESS.
with integration of the following major components [5]: The modeling details of these components are discussed below.
1) 1.2 MW rooftop solar PV system; In general, a grid level BESS project makes an interconnect
2) 1 MW fuel cell power plant; request with utility power grids in the project development
XU et al.: APPLICATION AND MODELING OF BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE IN POWER SYSTEMS 85

Power Conversion System (PCS)


12.5 MVA, a power factor of 0.8 and maximum and minimum
Inverter DC bus Chopper reactive power limits of ±7.5 MVar.

Bae
Inductive (kVar)
Battery
Possible
combinations of
real and reactive
power
AC filter
Utility System
Charging (kW) Discharging (kW)

Fig. 7. Schematic diagram of a typical BESS.

stage and is required to submit simulation models of equip-


ment for a system impact study (e.g., power flow and/or sta-
bility analysis), which is required by grid code requirements.
Such a study determines the technical feasibility and impact Capacitive (kVar)
of the connection of the project on the power grid.
There are a few existing battery models available in some Fig. 8. BESS operating in 4 quadrants in the P-Q diagram.
software tools [6], [8] such as “CBEST” or “BATT.” However,
these models were developed for specific battery storage For BESS operations, a discharging or charging condition
projects; additionally, they lack a universality or generic nature may be represented by setting an equivalent machine’s MW
and are often associated with manufacturer’s proprietary infor- output to positive generation or negative generation. This can
mation or user defined black box models. Further, these exist- be used to model the device capability to regulate frequency
ing models have several limitations, such as lack of flexibility as one example, if reacting to an appropriate up/down control
for plant level controls (frequency/power or voltage/reactive signal. Reactive power output of the BESS may be set in a
power), no modeling logic for the state of charge (SOC) similar manner reflecting the capability to vary reactive power
of battery or no interfacing with other plant level controller output to control terminal voltage, or voltage at some other
models for master/slave control applications. system point.
In view of the above, based on project operating experience,
a set of new generic models, which were recently approved B. Modeling in Stability Analysis
and released by the U.S. Western Electricity Coordinating In stability analysis, a BESS is modeled using three WECC
Council (WECC), have been configured, parameterized, and generic model modules focusing on grid frequency regulation
tuned to represent the steady state and dynamic performance and voltage support [12], [13], as shown in Fig. 9 to Fig.
of the BESS for power system simulations in several software 12. The battery energy storage control module (REEC C) is
platforms [6]–[10]. These models can perform the functions a recently developed and approved model, which needs to
of grid frequency regulation and voltage support at the trans- interact with two renewable energy system models (REGC A
mission level. One attractive benefit of the models is they are and REPC A) to represent the BESS in dynamic simulations
generic in nature without involving manufacturer’s proprietary for frequency regulation and voltage control at the transmis-
and confidential control system information. Acceptance, use sion level. More details of these modules are described in the
or validation of generic models for renewable or energy stor- following paragraphs.
age projects or other control devices in power system studies 1) Generator/converter Module (REGC A): This module
has become a highly desirable practice for organizations such accepts and processes real and reactive current commands
as independent system operators (ISOs), regional reliabil- from the electrical control module, with feedback from termi-
ity organizations (RTOs) or transmission service providers nal voltages for lower voltage active current and high voltage
(TSPs) [11]. Use of generic models precludes the need for reactive current management systems, while outputting real
NDA agreements with developers and equipment suppliers and reactive current injections into the network model.
allowing bulk system data sharing among many stakeholders 2) Electrical Control Module (REEC C): This module
in regional organizations. acts on active and reactive power references from the plant
controller module, using a terminal voltage feedback signal
for specifying a prescribed reactive control response during
A. Modeling in Power Flow Analysis dynamic system events. Feedback from the generator power
In power flow analysis, a BESS is modeled as a machine output for monitoring the state of charge (SOC) of the BESS
connected to the power grid via its associated transformers, and settings for appropriate active current limits is also used
and which can operate in 4 quadrants in the P-Q diagram, in this block. This module provides real and reactive current
as shown in Fig. 8. In this model setup, appropriate values commands to the generator/converter module by selecting real
for MW power rating, machine MVA base, power factor, and or reactive power control priorities.
reactive capability of the BESS need to be specified. For 3) Plant Controller Module (REPC A): This module pro-
example, a 10 MW BESS may assume a machine base of cesses frequency and power measurements and computes
86 CSEE JOURNAL OF POWER AND ENERGY SYSTEMS, VOL. 2, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2016

REPC_A Vt REEC_C Vt REGC_A


Vreg
Vref Plant level Qext Iqcmd’ Iqcmd Iq
Qref Q control
V/Q control Current
Qbranch Generator Network
Pref limit
model solution
Pbranch Plant level Ipcmd’ logic Ipcmd Ip
Pref P control
Freqref P control
Freg
Pqflag
= 1 (P priority) SOC/Pgen
= 0 (Q priority)

Fig. 9. Overall model structure of a BESS using WECC generic models.

Iqrmax
Iqcmd -1 Iq +
× Iolim
Upward rate limit on Iq active when Qgen0 > 0 1 + sTg -
Downward rate limit on Iq active when Qgen0 < 0 Iqrmin
Vt
Vt ≤ Volim Vt > Volim
+ 0
Khv
LVPL & -
0 Interface
rrpwr High voltage reactive
Volim to
Ipcmd current management
1 Ip network
Low model
1 + sTg
voltage
Low voltage
Lvplsw LVPL power gain active current
logic 1 management
0 Lvpl1
V 1
×
1 + sTfltr
1 0 V
V
Zerox Brkpt lvpnt0 lvpnt1

Fig. 10. WECC generic generator/converter model REGC A [12].

dbd1,dbd2 Iqh1
If (Vt < Vdip) or (Vt > Vup) 1 Vt_filt Verr Iqv
then Vt - Kqv
1 + sTrv
Voltage_dip = 1 + Iql1
else
Voltage_dip = 0 Vref0 (user defined)
Freeze state if Voltage_dip = 1

PFFlag Vmax Iqmax iqinj


1 Qmax VFlag Vmax
Pe
1
× + + Kqp + Kqi 1 QFlag + Iqmax
1 + sTp + Kvp + Kvi 1
- s +
0 s
pfaref tan Qmin 0
Vmin - Iqcmd
Qgen Vmin Iqmin
0
Qext Vt_filt Iqmin
(Qext is initialized to a
1
constant, or can be ÷ 1 + sTiq
connected to an external VDL1
0.01

model.) Current
limit PQflag
VDL2
logic 0 - Q priority
Vt_filt Freeze state if Voltage_dip = 1
1 - P priority

d max
dP Pmax Ipmax
(Pref is initialized to a 1 Pord Ipcmd
Pref 1 + sTpord ÷ +
constant, or can be
+ Ipmin
connected to an external d min
dP Pmin
Paux
model.)
Vt_filt
0.01
SOCmax
If SOC >= SOCmax
1 - SOC
Pgen Ipmin=0
Ts else if SOC <= SOCmin
+
SOCmin Ipmax = 0
SOCini

Fig. 11. WECC generic electrical control model REEC C [13].


XU et al.: APPLICATION AND MODELING OF BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE IN POWER SYSTEMS 87

VcompFlag Vref
Ibranch |Vreg – (Rc+jXc)· Ibranch|
1 1 - +
Vreg 1 + sTfltr
0 Qmax
+ dbd emax
+ 1
Qbranch Kc RefFlag Kp + Ki 1 + s Tft
1 + s Tfv Qext
0 s
emin
- Qmin Freeze state
1 if Vreg < Vfrz
1 + sTfltr +
Qref

Plantpref
Pmax Freqflag
+ femax 0
Pbranch 1 - Kpg + Kig 1 Pref
1 + sTp 1 + sTlag 1
0 + s
fdbd1, fdbd2 Ddn femin
- + Pmin
Freq
+ +
Freqref Dup
0

Fig. 12. WECC generic plant controller model REPC A [12].

Pad-mounted
active power output of the BESS to emulate frequency/active Interconnection Station Collector transformer
transmission line transformer system equivalent
power control. It also processes voltage and reactive power equivalent
Renewable
measurements and calculates reactive power output of the generator
BESS to emulate volt/var control at the plant level. This equivalent
Point of connection
module provides active and reactive power references to the Power factor
to the bulk power correction
Plant level reactive
electrical control module. system compensation capacitors
(if applicable) (if applicable)
Although a BESS allows for independent control of active
and reactive power, in most power system studies, priority is Fig. 13. WECC benchmark test system.
typically given to active power and frequency control since
this is generally the primary purpose of the BESS in most
0.25
Battery Discharging Power (MW)

system applications. PSLF Powerworld PSS®E


0.20

IV. M ODEL B ENCHMARKING T ESTS AND A P OWER 0.15


S YSTEM C ASE S TUDY
0.10

A. Model Benchmarking Tests 0.05

S&C Electric Company has been working with WECC and 0.00
several commercial software vendors to verify and benchmark 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Time (s)
implementation of the new battery energy storage model
(REEC C) in widely used transmission planning and operation Fig. 14. Battery discharging MW power after a positive 2% step change in
software tools. The purpose of these tests is to make sure the the plant setpoint.
new battery energy model performs properly and uniformly
across software platforms. Fig. 13 shows the WECC bench-
mark test system for renewable energy system models that was 0.00
Battery Charging Power (MW)

used for this purpose. The equivalent generator in the figure PSLF POWERWORLD PSS®E
was configured to represent a BESS using the parameterized −0.05
models described in Section III. The BESS was set to control
−0.10
frequency and voltage at the point of interconnection (POI).
Various simulations were run for verifying the functionality −0.15
of these models. For illustrative purposes, only a set of
−0.20
step responses are discussed here. Fig. 14 and Fig. 15 show
battery discharging or charging power responses in MW after −0.25
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
a positive or negative 2% step change applied at the plant Time (s)
MW setpoint at 1 sec. These plots show the expected and
almost identical responses from three software tools (PSSR
E, Fig. 15. Battery charging MW power after a negative 2% step change in the
TM plant setpoint.
PSLF and PowerWorld Simulator [6]–[9]).
88 CSEE JOURNAL OF POWER AND ENERGY SYSTEMS, VOL. 2, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2016

B. Real Power System Study and one rated ±8 MW/10 MVA. The application goal was
There are various applications with a BESS in power sys- to mitigate the frequency issues and compensate for the lost
tems as summarized in Table I. For example, at transmission energy caused by loss of generation or separation following
level, a BESS may be used for frequency regulation, spinning fault events. The BESS system parameters in the models
reserves or voltage control. In practice, frequency regula- used in the studies represent the S&C PureWave R
Storage
tion/regulating reserve (bi-directional) is generally the primary Management System (SMS) [10] as the system interface to
objective of a BESS. The U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory batteries. These BESS systems are located close to loads and
Commission issued Order 755 in October 2011, “Frequency can supply or absorb up to 4 MW or 8 MW power when
Regulation Compensation in Organized Wholesale Power Mar- imbalance in generation and load in the system occurs, thus
kets” [14] for regulating resources including energy storage. mitigating frequency excursions caused by such an imbalance.
ISOs/RTOs in North America have implemented or are im- Several contingencies involving loss of generation or sep-
plementing the FERC order. Currently, there are increasing aration of the system were simulated. These contingencies
numbers of battery energy storage projects interconnected or cause under-frequency and/or over-frequency conditions in the
being interconnected with the power grid to provide frequency system. When loss of generation occurs, the BESS responds to
regulation services. For example, PJM has a number of battery the frequency changes by charging or discharging the battery,
energy storage projects in operation and are participating in along with other remaining online generators. For illustrative
grid frequency regulation services in real-time markets. purposes, two such contingency cases are described in this
In the system planning stage, system studies are often re- section.
quired to be performed to quantify frequency regulation effects The first contingency case is a 5-cycle, 3-phase fault at
or responses from battery storage projects in steady state the high side of a generator step-up transformer resulting in
and dynamic conditions. Hence, modeling of these projects the tripping of two generators (about 10% of total generation
in power system studies is important to produce useful and forced off-line). Fig. 17 shows the system frequency response
meaningful results. with the BESS (green line) and without the BESS (red line).
Modeling guidelines described in the previous section have During the fault, the system frequency increases and the BESS
been executed in several power system case studies. For responds by absorbing real power (charging). After the fault
illustrative purposes, only one such study is discussed in this event is cleared, the system frequency starts dropping and the
section, which is focused on grid frequency regulation and BESS discharges to produce power. Without the BESS, the
active power control with the parameterized and tuned models system frequency drops as much as 1.5% (red line). With
performed using PSS R
E [6]. In this study, priority is real the BESS, it drops by about 0.65% (green line). As shown
power control as it is the primary purpose of the BESS. in the figure, in the steady state the final system frequency
An one-line diagram of an isolated power system as mod- settles at a higher value with the BESS (green line) than
elled in the PSS R
E program is shown in Fig. 16. The without the BESS (red line). The final steady state frequency
power system includes 132 kV and 66 kV as the principle value and the allocation of the lost generation are determined
network, with a total load approaching 100 MW. This is by the frequency control droop function of the BESS and
an isolated system with generation that is mainly hydro and the governor droop characteristics of the remaining online
diesel as prime movers. Contingencies frequently cause loss generators.
of generation or separation of the system and hence frequency
0.01
stability issues and service outages for customers are common
Frequency Deviation (p.u.)

on the system. For simulation purposes, four BESS systems 0.005


were applied on the system, three rated ±4 MW/5 MVA each 0
Green = with BESS
−0.005

−0.01 Red = without BESS

−0.015

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Time (s)

Fig. 17. BESS regulating under-frequency condition.

Fig. 18 shows the MW output of one BESS in response


to the under-frequency condition following the contingency.
The BESS makes up for the lost generation (by discharging
battery energy) to supply the loads and reduces the frequency
deviation in both steady state and dynamic conditions, as
compared to the case without the BESS.
The second contingency case was a 5-cycle, 3-phase fault
Fig. 16. Isolated power system with multiple BESSs. at a 138 kV bus with the tripping of a line splitting the system
XU et al.: APPLICATION AND MODELING OF BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE IN POWER SYSTEMS 89

5
priority is given to voltage and reactive power control, the
4
BESS may be comparable to other reactive support devices
3
BESS Output (MW)

such as STATCOMs [15], [16].


2
1
1
0 Red = BESS discharging (MW)
−1 0

BESS Output (MW)


−2
−1
−3
Red = BESS charging (MW)
−4 −2
−5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 −3
Time (s)
−4
Fig. 18. BESS in charging/discharging (absorbing/producing MW).
−5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Time (s)
into two parts: One part has a generation shortage causing the
system frequency to drop and the other part has a generation Fig. 20. BESS in charging (absorbing MW).
surplus causing the system frequency to rise.
Fig. 19 shows the system frequency response with the BESS 1.1
(green line) and without the BESS (red line) in the part of the Red = without BESS
system with the generation surplus. During the fault, without
1
the BESS, the system frequency rises as much as 3.7% (green

Bus Voltage (p.u.)


Green = with BESS
line); with the BESS, the system frequency rises by about
2%. As shown in the figure, in the steady state condition, 0.9
the final system frequency settles at a lower value with the
BESS (green line) than without the BESS (red line). The 0.8
BESS reduces the frequency deviation in both steady state
and dynamic conditions, as compared to the case without the 0.7
BESS. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Time (s)
0.05
Fig. 21. BESS regulating voltage.
Frequency Deviation (p.u.)

0.04

0.03 V. C ONCLUSION

0.02 Red = without BESS


This paper presented power system applications of some
battery energy storage engineering projects for which S&C
0.01 Electric Company designed and implemented power conver-
Green = with BESS sion and control systems. These projects served such functions
0 as grid frequency regulation, renewable energy smoothing
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Time (s) and leveling, energy dispatching and arbitrage, power quality
and reliability, and islanding operations, and smart microgrid
Fig. 19. BESS regulating over-frequency condition. applications in power systems, etc. A grid level BESS project
usually makes an interconnect request with utility power grids
Fig. 20 shows the MW output of one BESS in response to in the project development stage and is required to submit
the over-frequency condition following the contingency. The simulation models of equipment for a system impact study
BESS absorbs the surplus generation (through charging of the (e.g., power flow and/or stability analysis), which is required
battery up to its power rating) and reduces the frequency by utility grid code requirements. This study determines the
deviation in both steady state and dynamic conditions, as technical feasibility and impact of connection of the project on
compared to the case without the BESS. the power grid. This paper also presents a set of new battery
While the BESS mainly regulates power and frequency, storage models that S&C has configured, parameterized and
it may also provide voltage and reactive support within its tuned for use in system impact studies as well as transmis-
MVA rating. Fig. 21 shows a simulation plot of the voltage sion planning studies. These parameterized and tuned models
response with the BESS (green line) and without the BESS properly represent the steady state and dynamic performance
(red line) following one contingency described previously. As of the BESS in several software platforms for power system
shown in the dynamic voltage plot, the BESS provides voltage simulations based on operating project engineering experience,
support to keep the voltage closer to nominal as compared as demonstrated in benchmarking tests and case studies. This
to the case without the BESS. In this case, the priority is paper provides useful guidelines for the use of new models to
real power control as a setting for these simulations. When represent a BESS for power system analysis.
90 CSEE JOURNAL OF POWER AND ENERGY SYSTEMS, VOL. 2, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2016

ACKNOWLEDGMENT voltage support using distributed static compensation,” in Proceedings of


the IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, National Harbor,
The authors gratefully acknowledge the discussions from MD, USA, Jul. 27–31, 2014, pp. 1–5.
[16] X. K. Xu, M. Bishop, M. J. S. Edmonds and D. G. Oikarinen, “A
Dr. Jay Senthil of Siemens Power Technologies International new control strategy for distributed static compensators considering
(PTI), Dr. James Weber of PowerWorld Corporation, Dr. Juan transmission reactive flow constraints,” IEEE Transactions on Power
Sanchez-Gasca of General Electric International, Inc., Dr. Xi Delivery, vol. 30, no. 4, pp.1991–1998, Aug. 2015.
Lin and Dr. Pouya Zadehkhost of Powertech Labs Inc. with
regards to implementation and testing of the new battery Xiaokang Xu (M’92–SM’00) received the B.S.
energy storage models in the software platforms. Discussions and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from
on these models from the WECC Modeling Validation Work the Southeast University, Nanjing, China in 1982
and the Graduate School of China Electric Power
Group and Renewable Energy Modeling Task Force are also Research Institute (CEPRI), Beijing, China, in 1984,
appreciated. respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engi-
neering from Western University, London, Canada,
in 1999.
R EFERENCES Currently, he is Principal Engineer of the Global
Strategic Studies Group at S&C Electric Company in
[1] Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability. (2015, Oct.). Franklin, WI, USA. His primary work areas include
DOE global energy storage database. [Online]. Available: http://www. modeling, simulation and application of FACTS devices and energy storage
energystorageexchange.org systems, transmission voltage stability analysis, transmission planning and
[2] A. A. Akhil, G. Huff, A. B. Currier, B. C. Kaun, D. M. Rastler, S. reliability assessment, and renewable energy integration.
B. Chen, A. L. Cotter, D. T. Bradshaw, and W. D. Gauntlett. (2013, Previously, he was with CEPRI in Beijing, China, Ontario Hydro in Toronto,
Jul.). DOE/EPRI 2013 electricity storage handbook in collaboration with Canada, CAE Electronics Ltd. in Montreal, Canada, and Power Technologies
NRECA. SAND2013-5131. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, Inc. (PTI and now Siemens PTI) in Schenectady, NY, USA.
NM and Livermore, CA. [Online]. Available: http://energy.gov/sites/
prod/files/2013/08/f2/ElecStorageHndbk2013.pdf
[3] J. Himelic and F. Novachek. (2011, Dec.). Sodium sulfur battery Martin Bishop (M’78–SM’85) received the B.S.
energy storage and its potential to enable further integration of wind and M.E. degrees in electric power engineering from
(wind-to-battery project). Final Report (Milestone 6). Xcel Energy. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA,
Denver, CO. [Online]. Available: https://www.xcelenergy.com/staticfiles/ and an MBA from Keller Graduate School of Man-
xe/Corporate/Renewable%20Energy%20Grants/Milestone%206%20 agement, Milwaukee, WI, USA.
Final%20Report%20PUBLIC.pdf Currently, he is Manager of the Global Strategic
[4] Electric Transmission Texas, LLC (ETT). (2009, Sep. ) Presidio NaS Studies Group at S&C Electric Company, Franklin,
battery project. Austin, TX. [Online]. Available: http://www.ettexas.com/ WI USA. His primary responsibilities include busi-
projects/presnas.asp ness development for reactive compensation systems
[5] County of Alameda. (2012, Mar.). Smart microgrid project overview, and large energy-storage applications using S&C
fact sheet and components diagram. Oakland, CA. [Online]. Available: inverter-based products. Prior to S&C, he was with
http://www.acgov.org/pdf/SRJMicrogrid.pdf the Systems Engineering Department at Cooper Power Systems, Franksville,
[6] Siemens Power Technologies International (PTI). (2016, May). PSS R
E WI, USA for approximately 20 years where he supervised a group that
Revision 33.8 program operation manual and model library. Schenec- performed industrial studies, power-quality measurements, and designed filter
tady, NY. systems for large industrial plants. He also participated in the design and
[7] PowerWorld Corporation. (2015, Sep.) PowerWorld simulator manual development of new relay protection systems using Rogowski coil current
version 18. Champaign, IL. [Online]. Available: http://www.powerworld. sensors. He began his career with the Westinghouse Electric Corporation,
com/products/simulator/overview Pittsburgh, PA, USA, in the Advanced Systems Technology organization.
[8] General Electric International, Inc. (2016, Apr.). PSLFTM user’s manual
version 19.0 02. Schenectady, NY.
[9] Powertech Labs Inc, (2015, Sep.) DSAToolsTM Version 15. Surrey, BC, Donna G. Oikarinen (M’93) is Senior Electrical
Canada. [Online]. Available: http://www.dsatools.com/ Engineer, Global Strategic Studies group at S&C
[10] S&C Electric Company. Global Strategic Studies Group Report. (2015, Electric Company. She joined S&C in 2011, working
Sep.). Instructions on modeling the S&C PureWave R
SMS (stor- on power system and harmonic studies to analyze
age management system) using WECC generic battery energy stor- systems for capacity, stability, transfer capability,
age model, Franklin, WI. [Online]. Available: http://www.sandc.com/ power quality, renewable energy interconnections
support/dynamic-simulation-models.asp and applications for reactive compensation systems
[11] X. K. Xu, M. Bishop, D. G. Oikarinen and O. Lock, “Validation and large energy storage applications using S&C
of a static var system model for a renewable project for grid code inverter based products. Prior to S&C she worked
compliance,” in Proceedings of the 7th IEEE PES Asia-Pacific Power for AMSC in Network Planning and Applications
and Energy Engineering Conference, Brisbane, Australia, Nov. 15–18, Group, Wisconsin Public Service Corp. in the areas
2015, pp. 1–5. of transmission planning, substation engineering, and distribution planning
[12] WECC Modeling and Validation Work Group. WECC Renewable En- and operations. She has a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from
ergy Modeling Task Force Report. (2014, Apr.). WECC wind plant Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI USA and is a member of
dynamic modeling guidelines. Salt Lake City, UT. [Online]. Available: Tau Beta Pi, Eta Kappa Nu, and Omicron Delta Kappa.
https://www.wecc.biz/Reliability/WECC%20Wind%20Plant%20
Dynamic%20Modeling%20Guidelines.pdf
[13] WECC Modeling and Validation Work Group. WECC Renewable En- Chen Hao received the B.E. degree in electronic
ergy Modeling Task Force Report. (2015, Mar.). Adhoc Group on BESS engineering from Harbin Engineering University,
Modeling. WECC energy storage system model – Phase II. Salt Lake Harbin, Heilongjiang, China, in 2004.
City, UT. [Online]. Available: https://www.wecc.biz/Reliability/WECC% He has been with S&C Electric (China) Company
20Approved%20Energy%20Storage%20System%20Model%20- Ltd. since 2009 as a power quality engineer in charge
%20Phase%20II.pdf of marketing and technical support for power quality
[14] Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). (2011, Oct.). Order products including UPS, STATCOM and energy
755. Frequency regulation compensation in the organized wholesale storage products. Prior to S&C, he worked for AC
power markets. [Online]. Available: http://www.ferc.gov/whats-new/ Power Corp for 4 years to provide technical support
comm-meet/2011/102011/E-28.pdf for UPS, variable frequency power supply and other
[15] X. K. Xu, M. Bishop, E. Camm, and M. J. S. Edmonds, “Transmission inverter-based devices.