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Advanced reading comprehension –

missing sentences
Five sentences have been removed from the text below. Read the text and then
match the missing sentences. Write the letter of the appropriate sentence in the
box. There is one sentence that you do not need.

Indian heart disease ‘more severe than in West’


Heart disease in Indians is often more severe and occurs in younger people than in
developed countries, a study has found. Publishing their findings in The Lancet last
week, an Indian-Canadian team of researchers analysed data on 20,937 people who
suffered heart attacks, collected from 89 centres spread across 50 cities in India
from 2001–2005.

The researchers found that 60 per cent of the patients had a severe form of heart
disease, compared with around 40 per cent in developed countries. Indian patients
are also younger, with a mean age of 57 years rather than 63–68 years.

The poorer patients receive medical attention late, for reasons including lack of
awareness of the symptoms and poor access to ambulances. Poorer Indians are
also less likely to receive treatments proven to save lives. The study indicates that
higher death rates in poor patients are not because of differences in risk factors, but
because of differences in treatment.

“Prior to this study, we did not have data of similar nature and magnitude from a
developing country,” Denis Xavier, associate professor at St. John’s National
Academy, Bangalore, and lead author of the study, told SciDev.Net.

Between 1990 and 2020, the number of men with heart disease in developing
countries is expected to increase by 137 per cent, and women by 120 per cent,
compared to 30–60 per cent in developed countries. “India is a likely representative
of other nations facing similar socioeconomic challenges,” says Kim Eagle,
cardiology professor at the University of Michigan Medical Center, United States,
and author of an accompanying comment article about the research in The Lancet.

Eagle says India — and developing countries in general — could take cues from
developed countries’ successful strategies to reduce risk factors for heart disease,
such as banning smoking from public places, increasing taxes on tobacco and
promoting awareness of diet.
Missing sentences:

A) And the actual number of deaths could be higher as many patients might have
died before reaching the hospital, the researchers say.
B) Another important finding of the study is that rich people often seek treatment
abroad, mainly in the US.
C) They then compared this data with similar studies in developed countries.
D) Eighty per cent of the 7.1 million deaths due to heart disease in 2001 took place
in poor countries, and India is expected to account for 60 per cent of the heart
disease burden by 2010.
E) “The increasing obesity epidemic, high rate of smoking in certain populations, and
variable availability of modern medications and treatments creates a situation where
coronary prevention efforts are far from optimal,” he told the Science and
Development Network.
F) Three-quarters of Indian heart disease patients are from low socioeconomic
backgrounds.
ANSWERS

Indian heart disease ‘more severe than in West’

Heart disease in Indians is often more severe and occurs in younger people than in
developed countries, a study has found.
Publishing their findings in The Lancet last week, an Indian-Canadian team of
researchers analysed data on 20,937 people who suffered heart attacks, collected
from 89 centres spread across 50 cities in India from 2001–2005.
C
The researchers found that 60 per cent of the patients had a severe form of heart
disease, compared with around 40 per cent in developed countries. Indian patients
are also younger, with a mean age of 57 years rather than 63–68 years.
F
The poorer patients receive medical attention late, for reasons including lack of
awareness of the symptoms and poor access to ambulances.
Poorer Indians are also less likely to receive treatments proven to save lives. The
study indicates that higher death rates in poor patients are not because of
differences in risk factors, but because of differences in treatment.
A
“Prior to this study, we did not have data of similar nature and magnitude from a
developing country,” Denis Xavier, associate professor at St. John’s National
Academy, Bangalore, and lead author of the study, told SciDev.Net.
D
Between 1990 and 2020, the number of men with heart disease in developing
countries is expected to increase by 137 per cent, and women by 120 per cent,
compared to 30–60 per cent in developed countries.
“India is a likely representative of other nations facing similar socioeconomic
challenges,” says Kim Eagle, cardiology professor at the University of Michigan
Medical Center, United States, and author of an accompanying comment article
about the research in The Lancet.
E
Eagle says India — and developing countries in general — could take cues from
developed countries’ successful strategies to reduce risk factors for heart disease,
such as banning smoking from public places, increasing taxes on tobacco and
promoting awareness of diet.
Are the following statements TRUE or FALSE?

1. We use did to make question and negative sentences in past simple tense.
2. We use present simple to talk about regular actions and things that are
always true.
3. Present perfect and present perfect continuous describe the same time.
4. Present simple tense is used to talk about past actions in unfinished time.
5. Second conditional represents a time in the past that did not happen.
6. Infinitive and ing form are used in the majority of tenses.
7. S form is only used with present perfect tense.
8. In present perfect the action is past and the time is finished.
9. We need infinitive form to make questions and negative sentences in past
simple.
10. It is incorrect to use do and does as auxiliary verbs in present simple.
11. Present simple for third person (he, she, it) uses infinitive form of the verb.
12. Future continuous tense uses ing form of the verb.
13. After will we must use infinitive form.
14. It is incorrect to use was and were as auxiliary verbs in past continuous
tense.
1. Would you mind _______________ your high heels indoors, please?
2. Trevor _______________ early today because he wanted to go jogging.
3. ‘Can I use your laptop?’ ‘Sorry, I’ve just __________ it __________.’
4. I had to _______________ on the train today because there wasn’t a free
seat.
5. I _______________ the lift and pressed the button for the second floor.
6. Ronnie _______________ and started to relax immediately.
7. Maya _______________ her phone and began to laugh.
8. I saw Kay _______________ the nightclub with Darren.
9. Please _______________! The play is about to start.
10. We were _______________ our roller blades, when we met Jerry.
11. He shouted, ‘_______________ – and don’t come back!’
12. He _______________ his car keys from the table and left the room.
13. I _______________ the tram early and walked the rest of the way.
14. Lenny left the house and _______________ the garden.
15. Can I borrow your pen? I’ll __________ it __________ in a minute.
16. We _______________ the heating when we got home, because it was
cold.
17. Can I _______________ these brochures to read at home?
18. Do _______________! It’s great to see you again!
19. ‘Are you staying in?’ ‘No, I’m _______________.’
20. Mia was _______________ the bus when she dropped her phone.
Write the sentences and complete them by choosing the best option below:
1. My favourite books are by...
a) they. b) Dostoyevsky. c) Rob. d) Dostoyevsky’s nan.
2. Can you change the...
a) stars? b) light? c) cupboard? d) channel?
3. Do you know what vowels...
a) is? b) are? c) were? d) be?
4. Who wants another...
a) piece of cake? b) exam? c) sprouts? d) meetings?
5. Debbie came last in the...
a) marathone. b) competitor. c) runner. d) race.
6. Let me see that toy...
a) list. b) catalogue. c) free marketing. d) book.
7. There’s a hole in my garage...
a) doors. b) toolbox. c) roof. d) car.
8. Mushrooms don’t agree with...
a) you. b) me. c) our. d) hers.
9. I never want to see him...
a) later. b) at once. c) tomorrow. d) again.
10. Sport is the main thing in...
a) my garden. b) my home. c) my house. d) my life.
11. They won’t get back...
a) in a minute. b) in time. c) in the garden. d) to bus.
12. The cows seemed really...
a) happiness. b) quietly. c) peace. d) contented.