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Filipino

Route of Magellan’s Voyage


In 1519
The Philippines

• Indians in 4th and 5th century BC


• Chinese in 3rd and 4th century AD
• Arabs - converted some parts to Islam in 1300 AD
• Trade center of the Orient – Sulu was frequented by
ships from China, Cambodia, Sumatra, Java, India, Arabia

PRE-HISTORIC
history of architecture

NEAR EAST
INFLUENCES
EGYPTIAN
GREEK
ROMAN
EARLY CHRISTIAN
BYZANTINE Spanish Rule:
ROMANESQUE HISTORY • 1521 Ferdinand Magellan landed
GOTHIC • 1564 Miguel Lopez de Legazpi brought Christianity
RENAISSANCE Pre-Colonial: • Systematically and efficiently Christianized most part of
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL • Immigration via land-bridges as early as 250,000 years the country
20TH C MODERN ago, and later, sea-vessels • Introduced European institution and thought
• Immigrants of Malay origin, food gatherers and hunters • Economically linked Manila with Mexico and the rest of
ISLAMIC
• 3000 BC, joined by advanced agricultural race from the world - via the Spanish Galleon Trade
INDIAN
Indonesia, with barangays as tribal system
CHINESE & JAPANESE
• laws on marriage, inheritance, ownership, crime, and • Brief occupation by the British forces (1762-1764);
FILIPINO attempted seizure by Dutch and Chinese
behavior
• elaborate animistic religion • Spanish colony until 1900's
• Nationalist movement by Jose Rizal, unsuccessful revolt
by Aguinaldo
Filipino
ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER

DESCRIPTION

Building Capability:
• Even with ties to nearby countries, our ancestors saw no
American Rule: need for large megalithic structures, etc
• Islands were sold or ceded to America, as a result of • Nevertheless showed engineering capability and
Spanish war with USA prowess with the Rice Terraces of Northern Luzon
• Continued fighting
• Democracy was introduced - allowed a self-government Settlements
called the Commonwealth Era • big villages along key trade centers
• near the sea-shore, beside rivers and streams – for
Japanese Invasion: purposes of travel, communication and sanitation
• December 1941
• Established a puppet government Filipino Architecture:
• Liberation when Gen. McArthur returned in July 1945 •shaped by the climate, terrain, vegetation, and fauna
• Independence in 1946 around it
• two elements in making a house: 1) tradition or following
• 3rd largest English-speaking country in the world the generally accepted form and structural patterns; and 2)
PRE-HISTORIC
• Citadel of Christianity and democracy in East Asia chance or “playing it by ear”, allowing minor modifications
history of architecture

NEAR EAST • Mixture of races: Malay, Chinese, Spanish, American for the builder and his family
EGYPTIAN
GREEK RELIGION • Tropical architecture
ROMAN • Islam • Light
EARLY CHRISTIAN • Roman Catholicism • Open and transparent
BYZANTINE • Protestantism, Aglipayan, Iglesia ni Kristo
ROMANESQUE
GOTHIC GEOGRAPHY & GEOLOGY
RENAISSANCE • Archipelago of 7100 islands – mountainous and
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL fragmented
20TH C MODERN • 3 main island groups: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao
• Southeast Asia, Pacific Ocean - strategic position - in the
ISLAMIC
path of Far East trade
INDIAN • major earthquake and volcanic belt
CHINESE & JAPANESE • in the path of typhoons from the Pacific
FILIPINO
CLIMATE
• Dry and wet season
• Typhoons and tropical storms
Filipino
EXAMPLES • usually with steep thatch roof
• varies across regional and ethnic lines
CAVE DWELLINGS
• earliest human habitation Cordillera Region
• Tabon Cave, Palawan had been inhabited for 30,000
years
• caves in Angono, Rizal with ancient petroglyphs

TREE HOUSES
• perched on forked branches of trees, up to 60 feet above
the ground
ISNEG
• prevented attack by animals and human enemies KALINGA
• by the Gaddang and Kalinga of Luzon
• Manobo and Mandaya of Mindanao
• Moros of Lake Lanao KANKANAI

LEAN-TOS
• winbreaks or windscreens as the first attempt at building IFUGAO
• served as shelters during a hunting or food-gathering BONTOC
journey
PRE-HISTORIC
• made of light branches and fronds, but strong enough to
history of architecture

Mindanao & Sulu Region


NEAR EAST withstand a strom
EGYPTIAN • Negritos of Zambales
GREEK • Agtas of Palanan, Isabela
ROMAN BADJAO SAMAL
EARLY CHRISTIAN BAHAY KUBO or NIPA HUT
BYZANTINE • “balai” and spanish “cubo” or cube – cube-shaped house,
ROMANESQUE from its boxy appearance
GOTHIC • primitive style of dwelling probably started around 200
RENAISSANCE BC, with the coming of iron tools
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL • well- adapted to tropical climate
YAKAN MARANAO
20TH C MODERN • of wood, rattan, cane, bamboo, palm leaves, cogon and
nipa
ISLAMIC
INDIAN Elevated one to five feet from the ground - silong Panay Region
CHINESE & JAPANESE • protection from the moist ground and flood Other Regions Ivatan, Mangyan, Subanun, Mandaya
FILIPINO • protection from vermin and other animals
• enclosed area as sleeping quarters
• silong used for storage for tools and crops, an animal
enclosures, or burial ground
Filipino
SPANISH HOUSES: BAHAY-NA-BATO FIRST FLOOR:
• Zaguan, for caroza
Evolved from the Bahay Kubo: a tropical house • Quadra, horse stable
• Steep, hip roof • Bodega, storeroom
• Post and lintel construction
• Elevated living quarters SECOND FLOOR:
• Economy of materials • Stairway
• Space flowing from one room to next • Caida, ante-sala from stairs
• Light and airy structure • Sala, living room
• Comedor, dining room
Spanish, Neo-Classical, Gothic, and Baroque influence: • Cocina, kitchen
• grandeur and solidity • Dispensa, pantry
• Ornamentation • Letrina or Comun, toilet
• Baño, bath
Vigan Houses, Antillan Houses, Ivatan Houses • Azotea, open terrace
• Aljibe, water cistern
• Cuarto, Alcoba, Dormitorio
• Entresuelo, vault
• Balcon, balcony
• Patio, courtyard
PRE-HISTORIC
history of architecture

NEAR EAST
EGYPTIAN
GREEK
ROMAN
EARLY CHRISTIAN
BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE
GOTHIC
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL
20TH C MODERN

ISLAMIC
INDIAN
CHINESE & JAPANESE
FILIPINO
Filipino
SPANISH CHURCHES Taal Church, Batangas
• by Fr. Martin Aguirre
Calasiao, Pangasinan • biggest church
• 2nd best bell tower
• by Fr. Ramon Dalinao Sta. Ana Church, Manila
• by Fr. Vicente Ingles
Laoag Church, Ilocos Norte • restored by Juan Nakpil
• by Fr. Joseph Ruiz
• sinking belltower Sto. Domingo Church, QC
• by Jose Maria Zaragosa
Las Pinas Church
• by Fr. Diego Cera Sto. Nino, Cebu
• by Diego de Herrera
Loboc, Bohol
• biggest number of murals on walls and ceilings UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE LIST
• San Agustin, Intramuros
Manila Cathedral • Miagao Church, Ilo-ilo
• by Bishop Domingo Salazar • San Agustin, Paoay, Ilocos Norte
• Sta. Monica, Ilocos Sur
Miagao Church, Ilo-ilo
PRE-HISTORIC
• by Fr. Fernando Comporedondo
history of architecture

NEAR EAST
EGYPTIAN Morong Church, Rizal
GREEK • exquisite Spanish Baroque style
ROMAN • by Fr. Blas dela Madre
EARLY CHRISTIAN
BYZANTINE Panay Church
ROMANESQUE • largest bell, from 30 sacks of coins donated by
GOTHIC townspeople
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL Quiapo Church
20TH C MODERN • restored by Juan Nakpil and Jose Maria Zaragosa

ISLAMIC
San Agustin Church
INDIAN • by Fr. Juan Macias
CHINESE & JAPANESE
FILIPINO San Sebastian
• one of first steel buildings
• steel from Belgium by Eiffel
Filipino
ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY IN THE PHILIPPINES

SCHOOLS

Escuela Practica Y Profecional de Artes Oficio de Manila


• 1890
• taught maestros de obras

Liceo de Manila
• MO-P “Maestros de Obra-Practica”
• MO-A “Maestros de Obra-Academia”

Escuela de Ingenieria Y Arquitectura


• Closed after one year

Mapua Institute of Architecture (1925)


• 1st school of Architecture

Adamson University
• 2nd school of architecture
PRE-HISTORIC
history of architecture

NEAR EAST UST College of Architecture (1930)


EGYPTIAN • 3rd school of architecture
GREEK
ROMAN ORGANIZATIONS
EARLY CHRISTIAN • Philippine Architects Society
BYZANTINE • Philippine Institute of Architects
ROMANESQUE • League of Philippine Architects
GOTHIC • Association of Phil. Government Architects
RENAISSANCE • In 1975, PIA + LPA + APGA = United Architects of the
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL Philippines
20TH C MODERN

ISLAMIC
INDIAN
CHINESE & JAPANESE
FILIPINO
Filipino
EARLY AMERICAN PERIOD

Daniel Burnham - city plan of Manila and Baguio


William Parsons
Juan Arellano
Tomas Mapua - 1st registered architect in country
Alejandro Legardo
Antonio Toledo Manila Hotel
Carlos Barredo • 1st hotel in Asia, 1st with elevator
• Originally by William Parsons, renovated by Locsin in
Masonic Temple, Escolta 1975
• 1st concrete building in Escolta

Philippine Normal School


• Phil. Normal University

University of the Philippines


• Padre Faura

National Museum Philippine General Hospital


PRE-HISTORIC
• 1st was the Legislative Building • by William Parsons
history of architecture

NEAR EAST
EGYPTIAN Intendencia Building
GREEK • adjacent to Manila Cathedral
ROMAN
EARLY CHRISTIAN Luneta Hotel
BYZANTINE • 2nd hotel in Asia
ROMANESQUE • French Baroque style
GOTHIC UST Main Building
RENAISSANCE Army and Navy Club • by Roque Rueno
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL • rest and recreation for American soldiers
20TH C MODERN
De La Salle College
ISLAMIC
• by Tomas Mapua
INDIAN
CHINESE & JAPANESE Rizal Monument
FILIPINO • obelisk

Sta. Isabel College Post Office Building


• by Juan Arellano
Filipino
COMMONWEALTH PERIOD

Juan Nakpil - 1st National Artist for Arch.


Pablo Antonio - 2nd National Artist for Arch.
Enrique Bautista
Gonzalo Barreto
Fernando Ocampo
Andres Luna y San Pedro FEU Main Building
Leandro Locsin - 3rd National Artist for Arch. • by Pablo Antonio

Agriculture & Finance Building

Crystal Arcade, Escolta

Quezon Institute
• By Juan Nakpil

Lyric Theater, Escolta Metropolitan Theater


• By Juan Nakpil • by Juan Arellano

PRE-HISTORIC
history of architecture

Ideal Theater, Avenida Rizal


NEAR EAST • by Pablo Antonio
EGYPTIAN
GREEK Jai Alai Building - demolished in 2001
ROMAN • Art Deco, streamline style
EARLY CHRISTIAN
BYZANTINE Ambassador Hotel
ROMANESQUE • by Fernando Ocampo, 1st skyscraper (4 storeys) College of Engineering and Liberal Arts, UP Diliman
GOTHIC • by Cesar Concio
RENAISSANCE Syquia Apartments, Malate
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL • by Pablo Antonio
20TH C MODERN
Natividad Building, Escolta
ISLAMIC
• by Andres Luna y San Pedro
INDIAN
CHINESE & JAPANESE Regina Building, Escolta
FILIPINO • by Andres Luna y San Pedro

The Church of the Risen Lord, UP by Cesar Concio


Filipino

The Iglesia Ni Cristo Cathedrals


• by Carlos Santos Viola

The Quezon Monument


• by Federico Ilustre

The Meralco Building


• by Jose Zaragoza

PRE-HISTORIC
history of architecture

NEAR EAST
EGYPTIAN
GREEK
ROMAN
EARLY CHRISTIAN
BYZANTINE The Central Bank of the Philippines
ROMANESQUE Philippine Heart Center • by Gabriel Formoso
GOTHIC • by Jorge Ramos
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL
20TH C MODERN

ISLAMIC
INDIAN
CHINESE & JAPANESE
FILIPINO

The Quiapo Mosque Asian Institute of Management


• by Jorge Ramos • by Gabriel Formoso
Filipino
by Leandro Locsin:

The New Istana, Brunei


SM Megamall
• by Antonio Sindiong

PRE-HISTORIC
history of architecture

NEAR EAST The Cultural Center of the Philippines


EGYPTIAN
GREEK
ROMAN
EARLY CHRISTIAN
BYZANTINE
ROMANESQUE
GOTHIC
RENAISSANCE
18TH-19TH C REVIVAL The Parish of the Holy Sacrifice, UP Diliman
20TH C MODERN

ISLAMIC
INDIAN
CHINESE & JAPANESE
FILIPINO

Robinson’s Galleria
• by William Coscolluela The Philippine Stock Exchange
history of architecture
history of architecture
history of architecture
history of architecture
Types of Vaults Famous Building Groups Biggest Churches
QUIZ: 1.
2.
1.
2.
1.
2.
3. 3. 3.
4. 4. 4.
5.
5 Orders of Architecture Campanile vs Belfry
1. Chinese vs Japanese Pagodas
2. 1.
3.
4. Types of Domes 2.
5. 1.
2.
Egypt Methods of Natural Lighting 3. Types of Crosses
1. 1.
2. 2.
3. Periods of Renaissance
1. Types of roofs
Gateways 2. 1.
1. Egyptian – 3. 2.
2. Greek – 4. 3.
3. Indian – 4.
4. Chinese – 12 Architects of St. Peter’s 5.
history of architecture

5. Japanese – 1. 6.
2. 7.
Pyramid vs. Ziggurat 3.
1. 4. 5 Points of New Architecture
5. 1.
2. 6.
7. 2.
3. 8. 3.
9. 4.
10. 5.
11.
Hellenic vs Hellenistic 12.
Art Noveau Styles
Architects of Stuart Period, Britain 1. France –
1st Phase - 2. Germany –
2nd Phase - 3. Austria –
4. Italy –
5. Spain -
Types of Vaults Famous Building Groups Biggest Churches
QUIZ: 1. Wagon/ Barrel/ Tunnel Vault
2. Wagon with Intersecting Vault
1. Pyramids at Giza
2. The Acropolis, Athens
1. St. Peter’s, Rome
2. Seville Cathedral
3. Cross Vault 3. Pisa Cathedral 3. Milan Cathedral
4. Hemispherical Dome/ Cupola 4. St. Peter’s, Rome 4. Cologne Cathedral
5. St. Paul’s, London
5 Orders of Architecture Campanile vs Belfry
1. Doric Belfry - attached to church Chinese vs Japanese Pagodas
2. Ionic Campanile - detached from church 1. Chinese - octagonal plan, Japanese
3. Corinthian - square
4. Tuscan Types of Domes 2. Chinese - 9 or 13 storeys,
5. Composite 1. Simple Japanese - 5 storeys
2. Compound
Egypt Methods of Natural Lighting 3. Melon, Serrated, Onion or Bulbous Types of Crosses
1. Clerestory shape 1. Latin cross
2. Skylight 2. Greek cross
3. Temple door Periods of Renaissance
1. Early Renaissance Types of roofs
Gateways 2. High Renaissance 1. Gable
1. Egyptian - Pylon 3. Baroque 2. Hip
2. Greek - Propylaeum 4. Rococo 3. Hipped gable
3. Indian - Torana 4. Mansart
4. Chinese - Pai-lou 12 Architects of St. Peter’s 5. Gambrel
history of architecture

5. Japanese – Torii 1. Donato Bramante 6. Butterfly


2. Giuliano da Sangallo 7. Rainbow
Pyramid vs. Ziggurat 3. Fra Giocondo
1. Pyramids have sloping faces; 4. Raphael 5 Points of New Architecture
ziggurats have diminishing faces 5. Baldassare Peruzzi 1. Framework structurally independent
2. Pyramids used stone as building 6. Antonio da Sangallo of walls
material, ziggurats used mud-bricks 7. Michelangelo 2. Free-standing façade
3. Pyramids have sides facing the 8. Giacomo della Porta 3. Roof garden
cardinal points, ziggurats have 9. Domenico Fontana 4. Open planning
corners facing the cardinal points 10. Vignola 5. Cube form elevated on stilts or
11. Carlo Maderna columns
Hellenic vs Hellenistic 12. Bernini
Hellenic - religious architecture Art Noveau Styles
Hellenistic - civic architecture Architects of Stuart Period, Britain 1. France – Le Modern Style
1st Phase - Inigo Jones 2. Germany – Jugendstil
2nd Phase - Christopher Wren 3. Austria – Sezessione
4. Italy – Stile Liberty
5. Spain - Modernismo