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5G Training Course

May 17, 2017


Nokia Internal
Harri Holma and Antti Toskala
Nokia Bell Labs
5G Training Course

• 5G schedule and targets • Latency & Radio Architecture


• 3GPP standardization • Spectral Efficiency
• 5G Technology Components • Network Energy Efficiency
• Network Architecture • 5G and LTE interworking
- Core network - Multi-connectivity
- Radio network • 5G Devices
- Cloud optimization and edge cloud
• Network Slicing and QoS • MIMO / Massive MIMO
• Physical layer • 5G data rates
- Waveforms • 5G trial specifications
- Coding - Verizon trials
- Numerology - Korean Telecom trials
- Frame structure • LTE evolution
- Control channels - LTE-Advanced Pro
• Radio Protocols - 4.5G, 4.5GPro ja 4.9G
- Differences to LTE, RRC states • IoT
• Spectrum • Public Safety
• Millimiter Waves
• Spectrum auctions
• LTE and 5G update in Finland

2
Hot Topics in MWC 2017: 5G Networks and 2G Phone…

Nokia #1 brand IoT and 5G #1-2 technologies

https://www.brandwatch.com/blog/mwc-2017/
5G in Europe and Nordics Proceeding Rapidly

Telia 5G in Helsinki 2018 5G trials in Italy 2017

4
Sonera-stadionista tuli
Aki Riihilahti ”Kutsun tätä Femmaksi”
nyt Telia 5G -areena

5
5G Marketing – LTE-Advanced Features are Already Called ”5G”

AT&T 5G evolution is LTE carrier aggregation, 4x4MIMO, 256QAM etc.

Sprint Gigabit LTE gives ”5G-like Throughput”


6
5G Enables New Capabilities Beyond Mobile Broadband
100 Mbps >10 Gbps
whenever needed peak data rates

10 000
x more traffic

Extreme
Mobile
Broadband
10-100
x more devices

<1 ms
radio latency
M2M Massive Critical
ultra low cost machine machine
communication communication
10 years Ultra
on battery
reliability

7
5G Standardization &
3GPP Schedule
When are 5G specs ready?
- Full Spec 06/2018 (non-standalone 12/2017) -> Networks 2019/2020
- Before that trials (not 3GPP based) such as Korean Winter Olympics

3GPP 5G 5G study ready, 2nd phase High bands


Full 5G ready
workshop start radio specs enhancements …

5G radio study L1/L2 ready +


started Non-standalone

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021

Release 15 Release 16 Release 17 Release 18

9
5G (New Radio) Schedule in 3GPP

Enhancements
5G study items Standalone higher 5G above
(Unlicensed, Non-
completed layers, new core 52.6GHz
orthogonal multiple
access, …)
L1/L2 freeze.
Non-standalone

2017 2018 2019 2020 2021

Release 15 contains
Release 15 Release 16 Release 17 Release 18
intermediate ASN.1 freeze
for Non-standalone in
March 2018
Full ASN.1 freeze
September 2018 for full 5G
10
feature set
3GPP Agreed Release 15 timeline (03/2017 TSG RAN plenary)

11
5G work item scope
- Both Mobile Broadband and URLLC covered
• The work item scope is to specify the NR functionalities
for enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) and ultra-
reliable low-latency-communication (URLLC)
• The work item considers frequency ranges up to 52.6
GHz. The NR functionalities shall be forward compatible
and allow for smooth introduction of additional
technology components and support for new use cases.
• Backward compatibility of the NR to LTE is not required.

12
5G Schedule based on LTE History

3GPP Release 8 Telia LTE launch 12 LTE launches


March 2009 December 2009 2H/2010
LTE
2008 2009 2010

3GPP Release 15 5G launch by end- Several 5G


March 2018 2018 launches 2019
5G
2017 2018 2019

• First 3GPP LTE was launched by Telia December 2009. That was 8 months after 3GPP
completed Release 8. Total 12 LTE launches during 2H/2010.
• Note the planned std phase in 3GPP for 5G is very short, only 9 months after study,
which gives less development time compared to LTE specification time

13
5G in 3GPP specifications

3G/HSPA LTE 5G

25.xxx 36.xxx 38.xxx

• 38.80x/38.91x Study items


• 38.1xx UE and BTS requirements
• 38.2xx Physical layer
• 38.3xx Protocols
• 38.4xx Interfaces

14
Requirements and new radio physical layer technology components

• Physical layer related requirements in the 3GPP TR38.913 can be summarized as follows
• A very diverse set of deployments ranging from Indoor Hotspot to Extreme Rural coverage
• A wide range of spectrum bands up to 100 GHz and bandwidths up to 1 GHz
• Wide range of device speeds, up to 500 km/h
• Ultra-deep indoor coverage with tentative target of 164 dB MCL (Minimum Coupling Loss)
• D2D/V2V links
• Target peak rate of 20 Gbps in downlink and 10 Gbps in uplink
• Significantly improved system capacity, user data rates and spectral efficiency over LTE
• Target Control-Plane (CP) latency of 10 ms
• Target User-Plane (UP) latency of 4 ms for mobile broadband, and 0.5 ms for ultra low latency communication
• Target mobility-incurred connection interruption of 0 ms
• Target reliability of delivering a packet in 1 ms with 1-10-5 reliability
• Tentative target UE battery life of 15 years for massive MTC type terminals
• Improved UE energy efficiency while providing much better MBB data rate
• Improved network energy efficiency
• Target connection density of 1 million devices / km2
• Tight interworking with LTE
• Connectivity through multiple transmission points
• Operator-controlled sidelink (device-to-device) operation

15
5G Beyond Release 15 RAN
Phase 1 WI (Rel-15) Phase 2 WI (Rel-16)
• Main assumption: general support for stand-alone NR • Potential enhancements for eMBB support below 52.6 GHz
below 40GHz (option 2 scenario) including DC with LTE • 4G-5G interworking – remaining options
• 4G-5G interworking • 5GHz unlicensed spectrum, US 3.5 GHz for 5G (shared)?
• MIMO/Beamforming (fundamental features) • Location/positioning functionality (for regulatory needs)
• Both MBB and URLLC use cases • MIMO enhancements
• Public warning/emergency alert (for regulatory needs)
• SON functionality for Dual Connectivity • + Release 15 study outcomes (NOMA, Wireless backhaul etc.)
• RRC inactive data

Phase 1 SI (Rel-15) Phase 2 SI (Rel-16 studies towards Release 17) tentative list
• Non-orthogonal multiple access • mMTC
• Unlicensed spectrum Start during • Waveforms for > 52.6 GHz
• Wireless backhaul 2H/2017 • Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service
• Satellite 5G • Air-to-ground and light air craft communications
• V2V evaluation methodology • Extreme long distance coverage
• Further V2X work (Phase 3) subject the Phase 2( LTE • V2V/V2X using 5G
based) progress • Wi-Fi /NR interworking
• +++ many others being proposed
• Additionally: (Subject to Rel. 15 progress & approvals)
• MIMO enhancements
• Location/positioning functionality (for regulatory needs)

16 High UE Speed 5G support
5G Technology
Components
5G Key Technology Components

#1 New spectrum #2 Beamforming #4 Multi-connectivity

90 GHz 5G
3 mm
LTE
30 GHz Wi-Fi
1 cm
10 GHz
#3 Slicing and flexibility #5 Edge computing
3 GHz time
Dt

10 cm User #3
Df
• Lean carrier
• Flexible size,
frequency

User #4 User #5

User #2
300 MHz User #2
control, TDD,
User #1
User #1

User #3 User #5
1m
One tile corresponds to the smallest user allocation
bandwidth etc Gateway
18
Technology Components in 3G, 4G and 5G Networks
Number of New Technologies in 5G
3G 4G 5G <6 GHz 5G >6 GHz
OFDM,
Downlink waveform CDMA OFDM OFDM
SCFDMA
OFDM OFDMA,
Uplink waveform CDMA SCFDMA
(SCDMA) SCFDMA
Channel coding Turbo Turbo LDPC (data) / Polar (L1 contr.)
Beamforming No Only data Full support also control
Spectrum 0.8 – 2.1 GHz 0.4 – 6 GHz 0.4 – 90 GHz
Bandwidth 5 MHz 1.4 – 20 MHz Up to 100 MHz Up to 400 MHz

Network slicing No No Yes Yes


QoS Bearer based Bearer based Flow based Flow based
Small packet support No No Connectionless Connectionless

In-built cloud support No No Yes Yes


19
Network Architecture
Differences Between EPC and 5G Core Network

EPC 5G Core

RAN – core interface MME and SGW per UE Multiple N3 to UPF

Network slicing Single slice per UE Multiple slices per UE

Quality of Service model Bearer based Flow based QoS

Short packet support Connection oriented Connectionless


Transparent to Explicit linkage to cloud
Cloud native
implementation based mechanism
Authentication and
Access dependent Unified procedures
session management
21
UPF = User Plane Function
New Network Architecture for Next Generation Core

Separate control and user


plane
Shared Data Layer (SDL) for
subscriber and session
data storage
Support for local services
Enables access agnostic
core and network slicing
..

AMF Access and Mobility management Function


SMF Session Management Function
PCF Policy Control Function
22
The key reference points in the next generation core architecture
NG13
• NG3 compares to the
current S1 user plane
interface and N2 for the AUSF UDM
S1 control plane interface
N1 refers to the Non- NG12 NG8 NG10
Access Statum signalling
between RAN & Core NG11 NG7 NG5
AMF SMF PCF AF

NG1 NG2 NG4 NG4

User Plane User Plane DN


5G-RAN NG6
NG3 Function NG9 Function
UE NG6 AMF Access and Mobility management Function
SMF Session Management Function
AUSF Authentication Server Function
DN PCF Policy Control Function
UDM Unified Data Management function
23 UPF User Plane Function
DN = Data Network
Network orchestrator for life-cycle management of network instances
Optimized service delivery for heterogeneous use cases

Network orchestrator

Network service catalog


• Extreme Mobile Broadband
instance #3 Extreme • Basic Mobile Broadband
instance #2 Mobile instance #3
Broadband instance #2 • Massive MTC
CP
CP instance #1 UP • Critical MTC
Massive MTC UP
Critical MTC
instance #1 • Vehicle-to-Infrastructure
instance #1
• Vehicle-to-vehicle
• ...

24
Multi-connectivity
3GPP expected to have tight interworking between LTE and 5G

•First phase in many cases to rely on dual connectivity with LTE-anchor on


lower band
• The more important, the higher 5G band one is discussing.
• With below 6 GHz one can operate well in a 5G only mode, while with
higher bands it becomes more challenging – especially with mobility

25
Main Architecture Options
Non-standalone Standalone Non-standalone Non-standalone
Option 3a/x Option 2 Option 7a Option 4a
EPC 5G-CN EPC 5G-CN EPC 5G-CN EPC 5G-CN

LTE 5G LTE 5G LTE 5G LTE 5G

= User + control plane


= User plane only
26
5G-CN = 5G core network
5G architecture options and schedule (1/2)
Planned Release 15 architecture options:
Single connectivity option
• NR connected to 5G-CN (Option 2)
Dual Connectivity options:
• E-UTRA-NR DC via EPC, E-UTRA master (Option 3/3a/3x)
• E-UTRA-NR DC via 5G-CN, E-UTRA master (Option 7/7a/7x)
• NR-E-UTRA DC via 5G-CN, NR master (Option 4/4A)
Option 3X
Work on Option 4/4A will be started after the work on Options 2, 3
series and 7 series are completed

These to be ready EPC EPC EPC


by Dec 2017 with
S1-C S1-U S1-C S1-U S1-U S1-C S1-U S1-U
ASN.1 freeze 03/18

LTE eNB gNB LTE eNB gNB LTE eNB gNB

Option 3 Option 3a Option 3x


27
Customer Confidential
5G architecture options and schedule (2/2)

These to be ready by June 2018 with ASN.1 freeze September 2018

NGC NGC NGC


NG-C NG-U NG-C NG-U NG-C NG-U NG-U

gNB eLTE eNB gNB eLTE eNB gNB

Option 2 Option 7 Option 7a Option 7x

“Work on Option 4/4A will be NGC NGC


started after the work on Options 2, NG-C NG-U NG-U NG-C NG-U

3 series and 7 series are


completed” eLTE eNB gNB eLTE eNB gNB

Option 4 Option 4a

28
Customer Confidential
Tele2-Nokia confidential

Core network selection

ATTACH request

EPC
5G UE
option 3 family
((
0. System Broadcast = ”5G CN”

(( 5G CN

5G UE supporting
5G CN
REGISTRATION request ”5G CN NAS”
Note: option 3 only UE does not need to understand new broadcast information
29
Interworking –registration phase
single-registration mode vs. dual registration mode
MME
EPC NAS
EMM
AMF Either/or
Either or One NAS
1. REGISTRATION AMF state
Single mode
”capabilities dual & 5G CN NAS RM
single” 5G UE
2. Network
chooses the
mode MME
EPC NAS
EMM Can be in
3. REGISTRATION ACCEPT Can have both both and
”single” simultaneously states are
AMF independent
Dual mode
5G CN NAS RM
5G UE

Rel-15 5G UE supporting 5G CN are mandated to support single registration mode


30

Tele2-Nokia confidential
Tele2-Nokia confidential

Interworking –mobility IDLE


5G -> 4G (single-registration mode in use)

1. Tracking Area Update

EPC

4G 2. UE MM/SM context transfer

5G CN

5G
31
Tele2-Nokia confidential

Interworking –mobility IDLE


4G -> 5G (single-registration mode in use)

EPC

4G 2. UE MM/SM context transfer

5G CN

5G

1. REGISTRATION

32
Tele2-Nokia confidential

Interworking –mobility CONNECTED


5G -> 4G (single-registration mode in use, simplified)
UE eNB gNB AMF MME

1.Handover required
0. PDU session exists
2. SM context retrieved

3.Relocation request

4. SGW selection and bearer


establishment (core and eNB)

5.Relocation response
6.Handover command
7.Handover command

8.Handover Complete
9.Handover Notify

10. MME informs SGW and bearers will be


modified.
33
5G radio architecture– CU/DU Split
• Study item (RP-170818), starting from RAN3 ad-hoc meeting in June,
addressing lower layer split specification.
• Option 2 will be in Release 15
• RRC/PDCP in CU

High- Low- High- Low- High-


RRC PDCP Low-PHY RF
RLC RLC MAC MAC PHY

Data Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Option 4 Option 5 Option 6 Option 7 Option 8

High- Low- High- Low- High-


RRC PDCP Low-PHY RF
RLC RLC MAC MAC PHY

Data

34
Split option Required bandwidth Max. allowed
Backhaul impacts one way latency
[ms]

• Backhaul rates range from 4 Option 2 [DL: 4016Mb/s] [1.5~10ms]


[UL:3024 Mb/s]
Gbps all the way to the 160 Option 6 [DL: 4133Mb/s] [250us]
Gbps (100 MHz assumed, with [UL:5640 Mb/s]
Option 7a [DL:10.1~22.2Gb/s] [250us]
28 GHz band even more such [UL:16.6~21.6Gb/s]
Option 7b [DL:37.8~86.1Gb/s] [250us]
as 800 MHz (Korea) [UL:53.8~86.1 Gb/s]
• Most extreme with RF only on Option 7c [DL:10.1~22.2Gb/s]
[UL:53.8~86.1Gb/s]
[250us]

the site (option 8 not being Option 8 [DL:157.3Gb/s] [250us]


[UL: 157.3Gb/s]
addressed in 3GPP)

High- Low- High- Low- High-


RRC PDCP Low-PHY RF
RLC RLC MAC MAC PHY

Data Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Option 4 Option 5 Option 6 Option 7 Option 8

High- Low- High- Low- High-


RRC PDCP Low-PHY RF
RLC RLC MAC MAC PHY
35
Network Slicing and QoS
Network slicing – Enables different network
architectures for different service needs
Mobile broadband UE can request a service referred to as “session continuity” for a
certain application. In this case, network chooses functional entities necessary to
support mobility procedures, session management and other relevant functions such
as policy control, security.

Media
Service
Tablets / orchestrator Cars
Smartphones
Mission critical Network Health
devices orchestrator
IoT devices Applications

Platforms

Infrastructure

37
Network Slicing - Architecture principles and considerations

•Allow a mobile operator to address different •Network slicing should allow operators to
use cases, services with different demands provide services by abstracting the
on network capabilities effectively. functionality offered by the network slice
•Each network slice can be based on through open APIs exposure to 3rd party
service provider.
different architectural principles. Network
UE can be served by multiple UP slices at a
slicing is an appropriate means to keep
given time. UE can be served by any CP/UP
networks based on different architectures slice at any time. This may depend on factors
separated. such as UE capabilities, applications etc.
•Each Network slice has its own isolated set •Selection principles are critical for network
of resources, this means e.g. that deploying, slicing to be accomplished. Definition of a
maintaining and usage of a network slice multi-dimensional descriptor (e.g. application,
does not affect other network slices. service descriptor) configured in the UE and
•Network slice can also share resources reported to the network allows network select
between them. Considerations
a particular slice.
Architecture Principles Architecture Principles
38
Network slices for diverse use cases
Static use case is considered under Massive MTC umbrella

•Scalable Control plane •Highest reliability for •Optimized for Sporadic


•High-performance user control plane and user Data Transmission of
plane, potentially plane Short Data Burst
•Extreme Power Savings
distributed •User plane in edge
•Enhanced
•Mobility on demand, cloud for lowest latency monitoring/reporting (e.g.
including high-speed •Local switching location reporting)
mobility
Extreme Mobile
Critical MTC Massive MTC
Broadband

39
Multi-dimensional selection principle – use cases
Illustrations

Mobile broadband UE can request a service referred to as “session continuity” for a


certain application. In this case, network chooses functional entities necessary to
support mobility procedures, session management and other relevant functions such
as policy control, security.

Stationary IoT UE can request a service referred to as “session on demand” for a certain
application. In this case, network chooses functional entities necessary to support session on
demand (and no function selected to offer support for mobility).

Critical MTC UE can request a service referred to as “efficient user plane path” for a
certain application. In this case, network chooses functional entities necessary to
support low latency user plane path and at the same time offer support for route
optimization, as needed due to UE mobility.
40
Network slicing: Example with low latency service with more
functionality all cell edge, while traditional mobile broadband with more
centralized infrastructure
Local low
latency
service
User Plane
5G-RAN Function at
UE with edge
Low
Access Edge Core
latency Internet
service
User Plane
5G-RAN Function at
Core site
UE with
MBB service
41
5G Architecture Optimised for QoE Support
New Architecture Design is Required to Achieve a Dynamic QoE Framework

LTE Baseline for QoS 5G Baseline for QoE


In EPC/LTE, the QoS enforcement is performed at
the eNodeB for upink and Policy and Charging
Dynamic
In 5G, a framework forAdaptation
end-to-end QoS/QoE is
built into the baseline architecture.
Enforcement (PCEF) for downink. Policy decisions
are taken in the core network. Both radio and core network elements have
capabilities for real-time application awareness,
QoS differentiation is achieved by enforcing QoS QoE performance awareness and intelligence for
targets such as the delay budget, guaranteed bit dynamic policy modifications.
rate and relative throughput ratio among bearers.
Both radio and core elements are able to track the
The radio and core network enforce QoS unidirectional performance of application flows and
independently, uplink and downlink QoS are not take enforcement actions in both directions.
coordinated.

42
Dynamic Sub-service Flow Differentiation
Bearers are no longer needed for QoS differentiation need

Bearer based QoS Dynamic QoE


EPC/LTE was designed to provide QoS
differentiation per bearer - independently for uplink
Dynamic
In 5G, the QoS/QoEAdaptation
architecture shall be able to
detect and differentiate very short-lived sub-
and downlink. service flows in order to provide a good
application QoE.
During the release-8 time frame, the use case for
differentiating Internet services was not foreseen. The control plane signalling of packet filter
attributes and related policies is not necessary
The bearer model is best suited for operator when both the RAN and core are application
provided services, where the packet filters are aware and both are capable of making dynamic
easy to define and application session is long decisions on actions to achieve QoE targets.
lived.

43
Single pipe from the internet/applications
- Per packet QoS handling allows differentiating different services inside single
”pipe” from core

44
Physical Layer
5G Waveforms and Motivation

• Similar solution in uplink and downlink to allow


>52.6 GHz Single carrier efficient interference handling, sidelinks and
(self)backhauling
• OFDMA to allow efficient multiplexing of
3-52.6 GHz OFDMA multiservices in frequency which is more
important at low bands
• Single carrier to maximize power amplifier
OFDMA with uplink
<6 GHz efficiency and to allow efficient beamforming with
single carrier option minimized switching overhead

46
5G Physical Layer Multiple Numerologies
• 5G will support multiple numerologies, sub-carrier spacing of 15*2N kHz
- 15 kHz similar to LTE, good for wide area on traditional cellular bands
- 30/60 kHz for dense-urban, lower latency and wider carrier BW
- Higher sub-carrier spacings needed for >10 GHz bands to combat phase noise
• Max FFT size will be 4096 (30 kHz sub-carrier spacing with 100 MHz BW)
- Max carrier bandwidth 100 MHz below 6 GHz, above 6 GHz 400 MHz
- Min carrier bandwidth 5 MHz below, 50 MHz above 6 GHz
- Band dependent parameter as with LTE
Subcarrier spacing [kHz] 15 30 60 120 240
Possible set of numerologies (downselection expected)

Symbol duration [us] 66.7 33.3 16.7 8.33 4.17


Nominal cyclic prefix [us] 4.7 2.3 1.2 0.59 0.29
Max bandwidth [MHz] ??? 100 100 400 400
47
Scheduling interval (ms) 0.5 0.25 0.125 0.125 0.125
5G numerology & initial access & frequency bands
• The PSS/SSS structrure not fully defined,
Below 1 GHz
but will allow 1000 physical cell IDs in 5G
• 15 kHz and 30 kHz (60 kHz TBD)
- LTE was 504 different physical cell IDs Between 1 GHz and 6 GHz
- Larger use of small cells as the 15 kHz, 30 kHz & 60 kHz
motivation for this Between 24 GHz and 52.6 GHz
• Sub-carrier spacing will defined(at least for 60 kHz, 120 kHz
initial access) per frequency band 240 kHz not for data (Synch etc.)
- TSG RAN WG4 to address this
- For data likely more than a single sub-carrier spacing
will be possible, one default value Rel-15 will include
• PSS/SSS for below 6 GHz • Single PSS/SSS sub-carrier
- 15kHz or 30kHz sub-carrier spacing spacing (default) for also PBCH
• Above 6 GHz reception per band
- 120kHz or 240kHz sub-carrier spacing
48
5G frame structure

• Physical layer will support both FDD and TDD


• First phase focus on TDD, with dynamic uplink/downlink
allocation
• Structure allows pipeline processing, i.e. no need to wait
until end of frame until one can start decoding
5G pipelining LTE reference
CTRL CTRL

DMRS DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA Common RS and DATA

t t
49
Frame structure: Mini-slot

Mini-slot
• Enables low latency (also 1ms = 2 aggregated 14-symbol slots with SCS = 30 kHz
TDD with use of self- Slot 0 Slot 1
contained sub-frame mini-slot
(see next slide)
• Allows multiplexing of
MBB and URLLC use
PDCCH for eMBB UE DMRS for eMBB UE eMBB data
case
• Big hardware impact, PDCCH for URLLC UE URLLC data

thus Nokia drives to have


details clear early Exact details still to be agreed

50
Frame structure: Self-contained Sub-frame with TDD

Self-contained sub-frame
• Enables low latency with Slot 0 Slot 1
ACK/NACK feedback in
the same frame
• Important for low latency
in TDD operation
DL control DMRS eMBB data
• Qualcomm promotes
UL control
strongly in 3GPP GP

Exact details still to be agreed

51
Physical Channels

NR-PDSCH
DL shared channel 5G NodeB

NR-PBCH
Broadcast channels

NR-PDCCH NR-PUSCH
DL L1 control Channel UL shared channel

NR-PUCCH
UL L1 control channel

NR-PRACH
User Equipment Random access channel

Additionally synchronization signals (PSS/SSS)


Channel names tentative, some additional channel may still be introduced
52
Framework
Beam based system

• Selected technology components • Selected technology components


• Flexible TDD per subframe basis • DM-RS based dedicated control
• Bi-directional control in each and data
subframe • No always-on reference signals
• Same UL and DL structure for (CRS)
data • Only periodical sweeping subframes
• Beamformed common control • Support for UE side RF
plane beamforming training
• Sync, PBCH, Beam RS, PRACH • Support for UEs having hybrid transceiver
architecture especialy at 28 GHz or above

53
Sweeping subframe (beam based PSS/SSS/PBCH)
• Hybrid beamforming can transmit to one beam at the time
• Sweeping broadcast sub-frame is defined periodically (20
default periodicity) for downlink common control
- Cell search and detection, MIB acquisition, beam detection and
measurements.
• Each sweeping block is composed by PSS/SSS/PBCH
- PSS/SSS is for symbol and frame timing acquisition
- 127 sub-carriers for PSS/SSS (144 with guard) f
- PBCH is for delivering essential information including sub-frame number & BS
beam configuration
• PBCH
- Sent (tentatively) in two symbols with double bandwidth compared to
PSS/SSS PSS
- Includes demodulation RS in frequency domain
SSS
PBCH

54

t
PRACH subframes (beam based PRACH)

• Corresponding sweep for PRACH as for DL


common control can be configured in case BS
operates using hybrid architecture
• Associate PRACH resources to BS beams
• UE selects PRACH resource based on best DL
beam determined from RS measurements on
periodical DL sweep
Frequency
• Enables UE to transmit PRACH preamble when
BS is receiving using appropriate RX beam 6 RBs #1
• Enables BS to learn the preferred BS beam for
Random Access Response message TX and for


subsequent control and data
#n

GP for RTD

… CPrac CPrac
CPrach TSEQ CPrach TSEQ TSEQ TSEQ
h h

55
PRACH subframe
5G Brings 20 Gbps Peak Data Rate with Large Bandwidth

Larger bandwidth brings higher data rates – both peak and average

LTE 1.0 Gbps (5CA + 2x2MIMO)

100 2.0 Gbps (100 MHz + 4x4MIMO)


MHz

5G 1000 MHz 4x4MIMO 20 Gbps


2000 MHz 2x2MIMO

56
More use of beamforming expected

• With higher frequency


bands, the use of larger
number of antennas is easier
- Also partly compesating the
worse link budget with high
bands
• In the 24- 29 GHz range also
UE can be have directivity (4
antennas for example)
• Most likely form is hybrid
beamforming, not fully
digital. BTS thus can TX/RX
57 to single beam at the time
5G Channel Decoding Selection
• LDPC, Turbo and Polar have similar link
performance for data intensive applications –
capacity approaching iterative decoding
• LDPC has clear benefit over Turbo and some
over Polar for implementation complexity
• LDPC was chosen for the channel encoding
solution, Polar will be used for L1 control coding

LDPC Turbo Polar


Area 10-20 0.3-0.5 0.5-3
efficiency Gbps/mm2 Gbps/mm2 Gbps/mm2
Energy 4-60 2000 10-100
efficiency pJ/bit pJ/bit pJ/bit
58
LDPC = Low Density Parity-Check Code
Low-density parity check (LDPC) codes
LDPC codes are block codes with parity-check matrices that contain only a very small number of non-zero
entries.
Encoding :
Example of parity check matrix (PCM).
• H matrix should be used to find the relevant generator
matrix.
• Basically done by performing Gauss-Jordan elimination and
making the H as,
𝐻 = [𝐴 , 𝐼𝑁−𝐾 ] 𝑁 = 𝑐𝑜𝑑𝑒𝑑 𝑏𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑘 𝑠𝑖𝑧𝑒, 𝐾 = 𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑜 𝑏𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑘 𝑠𝑖𝑧𝑒
Tanner graph representation of PCM.
• Generator matrix obtain as,
𝐺 = [𝐼𝐾 , 𝐴𝑇 ]

Decoding :
• Decoding algorithms are called message-passing algorithms.
• The operation can be explained by the passing of messages
along the edges of a Tanner graph.
Bold lines shows a cycle-6, preventing lower • Messages pass back and forward between the bit and check
cycles generally provides a good LDPC code. nodes iteratively to decode the codeword.
59
5G LDPC codes.
Code structure
• Quasi-cyclic LDPC (QC-LDPC) is adopted for kb (nb – kb)
eMBB data channel.
𝑃1,1 𝑃1,2 𝑃1,1 𝑃1,𝑛𝑏
C
𝑃2,1 𝑃2,2 𝑃2,1 𝑃2,𝑛𝑏 A B
𝐇= .
.. ... . .. …….. ..
.. .. .. ..
.
𝑃𝑚𝑏,1 𝑃𝑚𝑏,2 𝑃𝑚𝑏,3 𝑃𝑚𝑏,𝑛𝑏 mb = (nb – kb)
E
o 𝑃𝑖,𝑗 is a cyclic-permutation matrix obtained from the D
zero matrix or the 𝑧 × 𝑧 cyclically shifted identity
matrix to the right.
o 𝑃𝑖,𝑗 often represented as a numerical entry.

• Proposed code structure is not used in any other standard (significantly different from the Wi-Fi,
Wimax).
• IR HARQ is supported by the rate compatible design.
• Maximum number of info columns (kbmax) is 22
• 8448 bits is the maximum code block size
• Code is extended from rate 22/25 to 1/3.
• Discussions are ongoing to support separate base graphs for shorter and larger block sizes.

60
Polar Codes
• Polar code is a new and promising channel coding scheme to approach communication channel
capacity.
• Polar code always operate with N mother codeword size, where 𝑁 = 2𝑛 , 𝑛 ∈ ℤ+
• Encoding,
N=2 N=4

𝐻 = [𝐴 , 𝐼𝑁−𝐾 ] 𝑁 = 𝑐𝑜𝑑𝑒𝑑 𝑏𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑘 𝑠𝑖𝑧𝑒, 𝐾 = 𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑜 𝑏𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑘 𝑠𝑖𝑧𝑒

𝐺 = [𝐼𝐾 , 𝐴𝑇 ]

• 𝑢𝑖 refer to the input bits of the encoder, and 𝑥𝑖 refer to the output/encoded bits of the encoder.
• For W 2 case, one channel is degraded and the other one is upgraded.
• As the number of layers grows up, the polarization effect becomes more and more visible.
• 𝑢𝑖 will have different ranking on reliability, and most reliable positions are used for information bits. Unreliable
positions (frozen bits) use zeros or predetermined pattern.

61
5G Polar Coding
• eMBB control channels use polar codes. First time to be used in standards.
• Polar code alone is not suitable for smaller blocks. Concatenated polar constructions are proposed
in ongoing 3GPP discussions.
o E.g. CRC concatenated Polar codes, Parity concatenated polar codes, Other (Hash sequence, CRC + Parity)

• Polarization pattern is generally channel dependent, but eMBB control channels consider robust
polarization patterns that could work well across different SNR points.
• Rate matching is needed to support block sizes other than 𝑁 = 2𝑛 , 𝑛 ∈ ℤ+ .
• Concerns of IR HARQ support and the latency of decoding were main reasons for not picking polar
codes for data channels.

62
Protocols
UE/gNB gNB/UE
Transmitting Receiving
side side

5G radio protocols
New AS Mapping of QoS flow to DRB Packet delivery to the
corresponding PDU
sublayer tunnel/session according to

• The stack has the same


Marking of QoS flow ID QoS flow ID

structure (except due QoS)


Header Decompression (u-
Sequence numbering plane only)

Reordering &

but functionality distribution PDCP


Header Compression (u-plane
only)
Duplicate detection

is not the same Integrity Protection (c-plane


only)
Integrity Verification (c-plane
only)

• The key driver is to Ciphering Deciphering

Packet routing or duplication Removal of duplicated packets

facilitate higher data rates


Sequence numbering

and efficient processing


Segmentation &

- Avoid having to create large


Reassembly of SDU
Resegmentation

RLC
RLC/PDCP packets only once Retransmission (ARQ) Error correction through ARQ

grant is available, rather enable


pre-generation of headers & Scheduling/ Priority handling

MAC/RLC packets Multiplexing Demultiplexing

MAC Retransmission (HARQ) Error correction through HARQ

64
Radio Interface (Uu)
For multi-connectivity and CA
SDAP = Service Data Adaptation Protocol
TSG RAN WG2 key decisions
User Plane Data Flow Agree, with new SDAP layer for QoS mapping
SDU SDU SDU

SDAP
New AS layer
Header SDU Header SDU Header SDU

PDU

Radio bearer#x Radio bearer#y


n n+1 m
PDCP SDU PDCP SDU PDCP SDU
PDCP
Header PDCP SDU Header PDCP SDU Header PDCP SDU

PDCP PDU

RLC SDU RLC SDU RLC SDU

RLC Header RLC SDU Header RLC SDU Header


RLC Data
segment
Header
RLC Data
segment

RLC PDU

MAC SDU MAC SDU MAC SDU MAC SDU

MAC
Sub- Sub- Sub- Sub-
MAC SDU MAC SDU MAC SDU MAC SDU
65 Header Header Header Header
MAC PDU
Changes from LTE layer 2 functions:
• Segmentation and re-segmentation are based on segmentation offset, to
handle retransmissions in connection with that.
• Complete PDCP PDUs can be delivered out-of-order from RLC to PDCP after
RLC SDUs are reassembled.
• PDCP reordering is always enabled if in order delivery to layers above PDCP
is required. (LTE re-ordering was in the RLC layer)
• Concatenation is performed for RLC PDUs in MAC, i.e. no concatenation in
RLC like in LTE.
- MAC sub-headers are interleaved with MAC SDUs
- Duplication of PDCP PDU is supported for control and user planes in case of multi-connectivity.
• - SDAP layer is introduced over PDCP for QoS scheme supported by
NextGen Core.

66
5G RRC states

• The new state, NR


RRC_CONNECTED
RRC_Inactive being added
to 5G FFS/Connection
- Recall LTE had only RRC_connected and inactivation
RRC_Idle

• This aims for reduction of NR


signaling, similar to RRC_INACTIVE
Cell_PCH/URA_PCH with 3G Connection
• With RRC_inactive: establishment/release
- UE location is know FFS
- UE context stored at least in one BTS
- CN – RAN connection established
NR
RRC_IDLE

67
Dual Connectivity options Option 3x combines the benefits of both world –
LTE as master (3/3a) Enables bearer split with nimimal impact to
LTE eNodeB

S1 or N3 S1-U/N3
S1-U or N3

NewAS New AS
New AS New AS
sublayerLTE sublayerNR
New AS New AS
sublayer LTE sublayerNR
sublayerLTE sublayerLTE Xx/Xn
Xx/Xn PDCPLTE PDCPNR PDCPLTE PDCPNR
PDCPLTE PDCPLTE

RLCLTE RLCLTE RLCNR


RLCLTE RLCNR RLCLTE RLCLTE RLCNR

MACLTE MACNR MACLTE MACNR MACLTE MACNR


MeNB (LTE) SgNB (NR)
MeNB (LTE) SgNB (NR) MeNB (LTE) SgNB(NR)

Dual Connectivity (3/7) Dual Connectivity Dual Connectivity


option – bearer split at (3a/7a) option – user (3x/7x) option – bearer
eNB plane traffic split at split at gNB
68 core network
Note: New AS sub-layer with new core (option 7)
Spectrum
5G Coverage Footprint

• Extreme local capacity with mm waves


• Match LTE 2 GHz with 5G 3.5 GHz massive MIMO
• Full coverage with 700 MHz or 900 MHz

5G mm- Extreme local


waves data rates 10 Gbps
5G 3500
mMIMO High rates with
1 Gbps
LTE1800 1800 MHz grid

LTE800
Deep
5G 700 100 Mbps
indoor
/900
70
Assumptions: Okumura-Hata model, downlink
Coverage Comparison of 3500 MHz Macro Cells is +8 dB vs uplink and mMIMO gain 6 dB
compared to 2x2MIMO

Coverage difference
3500 + mMIMO • 3500 MHz downlink with
3500 MHz massive MIMO can exceed
2600 MHz
existing 1800 MHz outdoor
coverage
2100 MHz
• 3500 MHz downlink can match
1800 MHz even 800 MHz with lower
800 MHz downlink data rate
-12.0 -8.0 -4.0 0.0 4.0 8.0 12.0
• Indoor coverage still needs
dB attention with low bands
Downlink Uplink

71
Low Band FDD for Coverage – 3.5 GHz TDD for Capacity

5G3500 downlink
• Uplink coverage is shorter
5G3500 uplink than downlink coverage.
Therefore, uplink in weak
LTE1800 downlink
signal should use low band.
LTE/5G1800 uplink • Solution: 5G FDD for uplink
and 5G 3.5 GHz TDD for
downlink
5G uplink LTE uplink 5G uplink • 5G and LTE multiplexed in
Blanked PUCCH Blanked PUCCH FDD in frequency domain
PUCCH

PUCCH
with PUCCH blanking
PUCCH allocation PUSCH allocation PUCCH allocation

72
NR frequency ranges/bands after RAN#75
Frequency range/LTE band Operators whose request is included in the frequency range
DOCOMO, KDDI, SBM, CMCC, China Unicom, China Telecom, KT, SK Telecom,
3.3-4.2 GHz
LG Uplus, Etisalat, Orange, Telecom Italia, British Telecom, Deutsche Telekom
4.4-4.99 GHz DOCOMO, KDDI, SBM, CMCC, China Unicom, China Telecom,
DOCOMO, KDDI, SBM, CMCC, KT, SK Telecom, LG Uplus, Etisalat, Orange,
24.25-29.5 GHz
Verizon, T-mobile, Telecom Italia, British Telecom, Deutsche Telekom
31.8-33.4GHz Orange, Telecom Italia, British Telecom
37-40 GHz AT&T, Verizon, T-mobile Not all of these will be ready during
1.427-1.518G Etisalat 2017, but later bands can be added
1710-1785MHz/1805-1880MHz (Band 3) CMCC, China Telecom as Release independent. Release 15
2500-2570MHz/2620-2690MHz (Band 7) CHTTL, British Telecom will have some FDD bands also.
880-915MHz/925-960MHz (Band 8) CMCC More bands to be added later such as
832–862MHz/791–821MHz (Band 20) Orange
US 600 MHz (TMO-US)
703-748MHz/758–803MHz (Band 28) Orange, Swisscom, Telecom Italia, Telefonica, Vodafone
2496-2690MHz (Band 41) Sprint, China Telecom, C-Spire, China Unicom
1710-1780MHz/2110-2200MHz (band 66) T-mobile, Dish
73
1920-1980MHz/2110-2170MHz (Band 1) China Unicom, China Telecom
What will change for existing LTE bands with 5G?
- Higher spectrum occupancy (bandwidth occupancy) for same spectrum
mask, some companies propose even bigger change here
LTE
5 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20 MHz
Subcarrier spacing 15 kHz
Subcarriers 300 600 900 1200
BW occypancy (%) 90 90 90 90

5G
5 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 40 MHz
Subcarrier spacing 15 kHz 30 30
Subcarriers* 300 624 948 1272 624 1272
BW occypancy (%) 90 93.6 94.8 95.4 94.8 95.4

74
* Tentative numbers from 3GPP, both uplink and downlink

For more proposed numbers, see R4-1705207, “Way Forward on Spectral Utilization”
Example 5G Spectrum Usage in Major European City

= 700 MHz 700 MHz layer


= 3500 MHz - Wide coverage with indoor penetration
- Massive IoT and ultra reliable low latency
= 25 GHz
- Reusing existing sites for 800/900 MHz

3.5 GHz layer


- Dense urban coverage
- Supports enhanced mobile broadband
- Reusing existing sites for 1800/2100/2600 MHz

25 GHz layer
- Hot spots like airports and stadiums
- Supports full enhanced mobile broadband
- Data rate 10 Gbps

75
Legacy Network Shut Downs

• 2016: Telstra and AT&T • 2019: Verizon (CDMA)


• 2017: Singtel, M1, Starhub, Optus, VHA, • 2020: Swisscom
Taiwan Mobile • 2020: Telenor Norway (3G)

Telstra (done), Optus, Singtel, M1, Taiwan VHA AUS Verizon Swisscom,
AT&T (done) Starhub (04/17) (06/17) (09/17) (CDMA) Telenor

2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021

Most operators keep 2G and 3G running until 2020

76
New Spectrum – New Challenges

Below 6 GHz Above 20 GHz

Bandwidth Limited <200 MHz Large >1000 MHz

Interference Interference limited Coverage (noise) limited

Cell size Large >1 km Small <1 km

Antenna elements Medium number Large number

Interference control for Beamforming for


enhancing efficiency enhancing cell range
77
Spectrum Availability at Millimeter Waves (USA Case)

• A lot more spectrum is available at


mmWaves
• USA opened up 10.85 GHz
spectrum: 3.85 GHz of licensed
spectrum in the 28 to 40 GHz bands
and an unlicensed band from 64 to
71 GHz.
• FCC also released Rule Making on
the following new bands: 24 to 25,
32, 42, 48, 51, 70 and 80 GHz.
• Initial 5G uses 28 GHz and 39 GHz

78
5G on Unlicensed Bands

Release 15 for licenced bands.


Part of 3GPP Release 16
Release 16 also for unlicensed.

Large number of spectrum For example 5 GHz, 37 GHz and 60


options considered GHz

Standalone unlicensed Standalone unlicensed and dual


operation included connectivity with licensed bands

Regulatory aspects and Listen-before-talk and other co-


fairness considered existence solutions

79
Millimeter Wave
Propagation
Propagation Considerations for 5G

Path Loss Diffraction Atmospheric/Rain

Reflections Scattering Penetration Losses

81
Line-of-Sight (LOS) Results for 2 – 28 GHz

• Similar path loss exponents for all


frequencies
• 22 dB offset between 2 GHz and 28
GHz

82
Indoor Penetration Loss Measurements
Brick, cement, high
isolation windows
20-60dB
Penetration loss measured
at 28, 39, 73 GHz

Softer materials <15dB

83
Measurements at 28 GHz – Outdoor to Outdoor

A = 700 m line-of-sight (LOS) G = 300 m nLOS


B = 800 m non-LOS I = 570 m VLOS
C = 450 m LOS J = 750 m NLOS 1 Gbps with 300-700 m
D = 450 m VLOS K = 860 m NLOS
E = 350 m NLOS L = 350 LOS line-of-sight connection
84 F = 300 m LOS
Measurements at 28 GHz – Outdoor to Indoor

• 1 Gbps at balcony
• 200 m distance from the
• 400 Mbps by the window
base station to the house
• Below 200 Mbps indoors
85
Measurements at 73 GHz with 1 GHz Bandwidth
2.5
Throughput (Gbps)

1.5

0.5 Street canyon AP


UD

LOS (Minatomirai, Yokohama)


00 50 100 150
50 m 100 m 150 m
Distance from AP (m)
Maxm Range : more than 160 m (LOS)
20 Maxm Throughput: ~2.1 Gbps

15 AP
SNR (dB)

10

5
50 m
0

-5 0 50 100 150 Shopping mall


Distance from AP (m) 100 m
86
LOS LOS and NLOS (Roppongi, Tokyo)
LOS NLOS
Latest Spectrum Auctions
88
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
German 2100
UK 2100
USA AWS-3
Australia 700 (TPG)
Canada AWS
Canada 700
Italy 2100
Thailand 900
Hongkong 850 + 900
Australia 700
Poland 800
Austria multiband
Australia 700 (Vodafone)
USA 600
Italy 800
Ireland 800
US 700
France 700
France 800
Austria 2100
Germany 800
India 900
Dutch Multiband
Belgia 800
Thailand 1800
Taiwan multiband
Spain 800
US AWS-3

Greece 800
Portugal 800
UK 800
Sweden 800
Croatia 800
Czech 800
Australia 700 MHz Auction

India 800
US AWS
Finland 800
Australia 700 MHz

Hungary multiband
Denmark 800
US 600 MHz

New Zealand 700


German 1800
EUR/MHz/pop

Norway multiband
Venezuela AWS+2600
German 900
Sweden 1800
Taiwan2600 FDD
India 2100 FDD
Hong Kong 2600
German 700
Korea 1800+2600
Denmark 2600
India 1800
Sweden 2600
Taiwan2600 TDD
Germany 2100
France 2600
German 1500
India 2300 TDD
UK 2600
Italy 2600
Belgium 2600
Greece 2600
Chile 700
Norway 2600
Australia 2600
Portugal 2600
Poland 2600
Brazil 2600
Austria 2600
Germany 2600
Spain 2600
Norway 2100
in April 2017

the recent history


paid 890 MEUR for

highest ever paid in


• New operator (TPG)

spectrum in Australia
2x10 MHz of 700 MHz

• TPG price is one of the


US 600 MHz Auction Completed in April 2017

• T-Mobile acquired 2x15 MHz ..


2x20 MHz of FDD spectrum –
great starting point for 5G
• Comcast and Dish acquired
some spectrum

89
5G Spectrum – US Example

Verizon 5G at 28 GHz

Sprint 5G at 2.5 GHz

T-Mobile 5G at 600 MHz

90
Latency and Radio
Network Architecture
Latency Evolution – New Radio and New Architecture Required

End-to-end latency
25
Transport + core • Strong evolution in latency with
20 BTS processing new radios
UE processing • HSPA latency 20 ms
15
Scheduling • LTE latency 10 ms
ms
10 Buffering • 5G latency 1 ms
Uplink transmission • Low 5G latency requires new
5 Downlink transmission radio and also new architecture
with local content
0
HSPA LTE 5G

92
Example Live LTE Network Latency Measurements
Teliasonera Network in Helsinki

Speedtest 13 ms Ping 11.1 – 13.8 ms

• 80% of end-to-end latency in Sonera network in Helsinki is caused


by LTE radio
• If Sonera deploys 5G radio on the current backhaul architecture,
there will be a major latency improvement. They could achieve <4
ms latency.
93
LTE Latency in Opensignal Measurements

• Open Signal measurements show


an average LTE latency of 50 ms
• Most of the latency is not caused
by LTE radio but by transport &
internet

94
Architecture Evolution to Radio Cloud

Antenna site Low Faster


• Antenna + RF Transport Local cloud latency scalability
• Delay critical
processing Ethernet transport • Edge computing
• Non-delay critical processing
• Multiconnectivity

Nokia AirScale
base station Nokia AirFrame
data center

95
RAN Architecture Split Options

High- Low- High- Low- High-


RRC PDCP Low-PHY RF
RLC RLC MAC MAC PHY

Data Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Option 4 Option 5 Option 6 Option 7 Option 8

High- Low- High- Low- High-


RRC PDCP Low-PHY RF
RLC RLC MAC MAC PHY

Data
High layer split Low layer split

96
Flexible Radio Architecture in 5G
100 MHz, 3-sector, 64TX/RX Massive MIMO

CPRI Low layer split High layer split


Layer 3 Layer 3 Layer 3
Edge cloud
Layer 2 Layer 2 Layer 2 high
Layer 1 high Layer 1 high

Layer 1 low 1-5 Gbps


5 ms
1-5 Gbps
1 ms
1 Tbps
<0.3 ms Layer 2 low
Layer 1 low Layer 1
Antenna site RF RF RF
97
Setup Delay Must be Considered as Well Setup time in LTE today
LTE setup time distribution (idle -> eRAB)
6000

• RRC connection setup 5000

Number of samples
• Uplink resource allcation 4000

3000

2000
Latency 100 ms
RRC idle because of RRC 1000

setup delay 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100110120130140150
Milliseconds
RRC connected but no Latency 30 ms
uplink resources because of Connected latency
allocated scheduling delay

RRC connected and


uplink resources Latency 10 ms
allocated
98
5G Brings Connectionless Protocol – True Always-On

LTE
• Typically 500 packet calls
RRC signalling RRC per subscriber per day
RRC idle
connected • Lot of RRC signalling

5G
Minimized signalling • Maintain RRC connection
RRC connected RRC • Minimize signalling and
RRC idle power consumption
inactive connected

RRC = Radio Resource Control


99
Contention Based Access

• UE autonomous transmission with any preamble and without any allocation from
the network. Practical for small amount of data.
• Minimized signaling which is good from the latency and from the UE power
consumption point of view.

UE BS • 1st step = preamble + data


• 2nd step = response

Preamble + data

Response

100
Latency Evolution with 4.9G and 5G

4G 4.9G 5G Solution

Connected with
10 ms 2 ms 1 ms Shorter TTI
uplink resources

Connected without Contention based access,


30 ms <10 ms 1 ms
uplink resources pre-scheduled uplink

Idle 100 ms <50 ms 1 ms Connected inactive state

• Connected state latency can be reduced with 2-symbol TTI in 4.9G


• Setup time and resource allocation causes longer latency for the first packet in 4.9G

101
Example Wi-Fi Network Latency
Nokia Office Wi-Fi in Espoo and Public Wi-Fi in Helsinki

• Wi-Fi radio gives 1.9-2.4 ms latency


• 5G must be equal or better than existing Wi-Fi!

102
Spectral Efficiency
5G Technology Components for Enhancing Spectral Efficiency vs LTE

Technology component Gain

Lean carrier +20%


Total gain
Enhanced inter-cell cancellation +20%
+50..80%
without
Improved spectral usage +10%
mMIMO
Dynamic TDD 0..+30%
Gain values
preliminary

104
Expected Downlink Spectral Efficiency

bps/Hz/cell

Spectrum Bandwidth Antennas 5G 4.5G/4.9G

700 MHz 10 MHz 2x2MIMO 3.0 2.0

2100 MHz 20 MHz 4x4MIMO 4.5 3.0

3500 MHz 100 MHz mMIMO 64x4 13.5 7.5

Assumptions
• LTE 2x2 efficiency 2.0
• 5G is +50% vs LTE
• 4x4 gain is +50%
• mMIMO gain is +150% in LTE and +200% in 5G
105
Lean Carrier
5 ms

Reference
LTE
signals

5G

Minimized inter-cell interference from reference signals

106
5G Flexible Reference Signals (Lean Carrier) Benefits

LTE cell must transmit reference signals four times every millisecond.
5G cell can transmit reference signal more flexibly
Zero users – zero power consumption
Lower power consumption
(LTE: zero users – 50% power consumption)
Less interference from Minimized intercell interference improves
reference signals capacity
User specific reference signals for
More efficient beamforming
beamforming support
1 ms
R0 R0
LTE reference
R0
signals
R0 R0

107
5G Inter-Cell Interference Coordination and Cancellation

• Inter-cell interference is the main limiting


factor for the radio performance at low • 5G enables coded interference
bands (<6 GHz) cancellation (but complex for
UE) while LTE uses coding
• Gain of inter-cell intererence cancellation is
over the whole bandwidth
not limited by Shannon formula but only the
• 5G enables simple control
system design and receiver algorithms 
channel interference
room for improvement in theory
coordination because of
Inter-cell interference frequency localization
• 5G can potentially allow over-
the-air signalling for the inter-
cell interference coordination

108
5G Enhanced Spectral Utilization (1)

LTE 90% usage


20 MHz • 5G can improve spectral utilization
compared to LTE
18 MHz • LTE spectrum usage is 90% of the channel
spacing. The utilization can be increased in
5G, even more than 95%. The difference
comes from tighter RF requirements: tighter
5G usage >95%
emission, Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio
20 MHz
(ACLR) and selectivity requirements both for
Tx and Rx.
19.2 MHz

109
5G Enhanced Spectral Utilization (2)

LTE 5x20 MHz


100 MHz

• Wideband 5G carrier is more efficient than


18 MHz 18 MHz 18 MHz 18 MHz 18 MHz multicarrier LTE
• Faster load balancing
• Less common channel overhead
5G 100 MHz • No unnecessary guard bands between
100 MHz carriers. LTE uses 10% for guard bands.

95-99 MHz

110
Dynamic TDD

• Major gains in cases where access point to access point interference was not
a factor or could be mitigated. Such cases are lightly loaded systems,
clustered pico deployment, highly asymmetric downlink/uplink traffic load and
in noise-limited systems.
• Dynamic TDD could be utilized also in 3.5 GHz in low loaded cases

DL control UL control
DL data UL
AP1
+55%
Interference

DL UL data
AP2
111
Uplink Improvement with OFDM

Blue = Black =
SC-FDMA OFDM • OFDM gives clearly higher
efficiency vs SC-FDMA
• OFDM has benefits for low
latency and high velocity
• Uplink OFDM has benefits in
interference management
because also downlink uses
OFDMA
• Uplink OFDM enables flexible
duplexing
• Coverage loss is <1 dB
compared to SC-FDMA

112 Uplink simulation with 4x4MIMO


Network Energy Efficiency
5G Brings Major Improvement in Energy Efficiency

• Network level power savings


-50% at the typical operation
-40% -55% -80% point of 10..20% network
utilization (over 24h period
and whole network)
• Idle base station power
savings -80%

114
Potential Improvement in Small Cell Power Consumption

Small cell power consumption [W}


70
60
50
• If the power consumption
40
gets very, then also other
30 LTE
5G
energy sources (like solar
20
panels) get more practical
10
0
100 % 20 % 10 % 0%
Avg Load [%]

115
5G Device Aspects
5G Minimizes IoT Device Power Consumption

Sync + RRC Data Inactivity RRC


setup transmission timer release

LTE
>10 s • Major potential in improving IoT
device battery life time
• LTE connection duration >10 s today
5G <0.1 s even for the small data transmission
• 5G solutions: RRC inactive state and
non-orthogonal uplink
• Factor of 100x improvement potential

117
Application LTE
iPhone 7 Teardown RF parts
processor baseband
LTE modem is very small
part of smartphone
Memory
complexity and just 7%
of direct cost
Bluetooth /
Wi-Fi

Trans- RF
118
ceivers diversity
Qualcomm Snapdragon X50

• 5 Gbps with 800 MHz and MIMO


• 28 GHz
• Paired with 1 Gbps LTE modem with dual connectivity
• Sampling 2H/2017

119
World's First Connection based on 5G Task Force Pre-standard
February 13, 2017

• Nokia AirScale base station


• Nokia AirFrame data center solution
• Intel 5G mobile trial platform
• Spectrum 28 GHz
• Video streaming over the air to the devicea

120
4x4MIMO
T-Mobile USA has Nationwide 4x4MIMO

• 400 Mbps with 20


MHz, 4x4MIMO
and 256QAM
• Less spectrum 
use more
antennas

122
4x4MIMO Measurements in T-Mobile Network in Minneapolis (Nokia)

• Average gain in
drive tests +55%
• Most gain comes
from 4RX UE with
higher probability of
Rank 2
• No need for 4TX
base station except
for peak rate
marketing

123
Massive MIMO
Massive MIMO technology – Active Adaptive Antennas

+45o polarity
Number of transmitters Number of antenna
define the number of elements defines the
simultaneous beams that antenna gain which

8 vertical dipoles
can be created. TRX1 controls coverage.
More transmitters gives More antenna elements
more capacity TRX2 gives more coverage
But more transmitters also But more antenna
increases weight, power elements increases the
consumption & cost size of the antenna
TRX63 especially at low
frequencies
TRX64

125
Massive MIMO Schemes in 3GPP

• Multiple elevation beams (8)


Cell specific
• Semi static beams
beams • Applicable for both TDD/FDD

(2)

UE specific • UE specific beams


• Dynamic beamforming
beams • Applicable for TDD (1 )

Column-1 Column-2 Column-3 Column-4


16 TXRUs 16 TXRUs 16 TXRUs 16 TXRUs

New codebook • New codebook for 12..16 antennas


in Releases 13- in Release 13 and 64 antennas in X 0  X k  XVl 0 
Release 14 W1    W1   H l' 
14  0 X  0 X  XV 
k'
H

Rel-10 Rel-13
126
Drivers and Enablers for Massive MIMO

Capacity requirements Technology capability 3GPP specs support

• Most macro networks • Active antenna is • 3GPP brings mMIMO


will get congested becoming technically support in Releases 13-
• Spectrum <3 GHz and and commercially 14 for LTE and in
base station sites will feasible Release 15 for 5G
run out of capacity by • Massive MIMO requires
2020 active antenna

All three components are happening now


127
Massive MIMO Gives 4x Throughput

Field performance with TD-LTE2600 Simulated gains with TDD and FDD

mMIMO Gains (64TX vs 2TX)


4x throughput 5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

0.0
TDD FDD

128
Massive MIMO Gain with More Antennas

128TX
Cell edge [Mbps]

• 3.5x cell throughput and


64TX 2.2x cell edge with 64TX
• 5.5x cell throughput and
3.5x cell edge with 128TX
2TX
• TD-LTE with TM8
3.5x assumed
5.5x

Cell throughput [Mbps]


129
Massive MIMO Gain with More TRXs (RF Chains)

128TX
64TX
• 128-port antenna with varying
32TX number of RF chains
8TX • 64 RF chains gives 3x cell
3x throughput and 2x cell edge
3.5x throughput vs 8TX

130
Sectors vs MIMO vs Beamforming (mMIMO)
Reference Point 2x2MIMO 64T64R
Massive MIMO
4T4R MIMO 6-sector
beamforming
4TX: +20%
Capacity gain +40..60% +100..200%
4RX: +35%

Coverage gain +3 dB +1..2 dB +3..6 dB

No change (2RX)
Peak rate No change No change
+100% (4RX)
4TX: all UEs R9 (TDD)
UE support All UEs
4RX: very few R13/14 (FDD)
Dual x-pol Dual beam
Site solution Active antenna
antenna antennas
Mainly at 1.8-2.6 >2 GHz in
Band Any band
GHz practise

131 Coverage and Capacity solution Long term high


peak rate in congested areas band solution
10 – 20 x Capacity with 5G
5x More Spectrum with 2 – 4x More Efficiency

2.6 GHz 3.5 GHz

20 MHz 100 MHz

10-20 x
2 bps / Hz 4-8 bps / Hz

40 Mbps 400-800 Mbps 5G 3500 with


LTE2600 with cell throughput cell throughput massive MIMO
2x2 MIMO beamforming
132
Hot Spot Capacity
Data Traffic in Olympic Games – High Expectations for Tokyo 2020

Total data during Olympics [TB]


3 500 3250 • Rio 2016 traffic 3250 TB
3 000 • London 2012 traffic 1150 TB
2 500 • Helsinki 1952 telegram traffic 4.5M
2 000 words corresponding to 30 MB
TB
1 500
1150 • Growth of 2.8x from London to Rio
1 000 in 4 years
500
3.00E-05
• Growth of 100.000.000x from
0 Helsinki to Rio in 64 years
Helsinki 1952 London 2012 Rio 2016
• We must prepare far beyond
10000 TB traffic in Tokyo

134
Mass Events – Super Bowl Example

• NRG Stadium, Houston, Texas


• 70k spectators
• Total duration 4 hours?
• Verizon added 23 new cell sites, 220 small cells and 24
nodes on wheel. AT&T added 500+ cell sites in 40
MUSD investment.
• Total mobile data approx 30 TB: Verizon 11 TB, AT&T
10 TB, Sprint 5 TB and T-Mobile 4 TB

• Average stadium throughput 1.7 Gbps


• Average data usage 400 MB/sub/game or 100 MB/sub
/hour which is very high usage
135
https://www.wirelessweek.com/blog/2017/02/numbers-mobile-usage-super-bowl-51
http://www.techrepublic.com/article/how-the-nfl-and-nrg-stadium-are-preparing-for-
record-breaking-data-usage-during-super-bowl-51/
5G Simulations
cm-Wave Simulations at 28 GHz
– 1.6 Gbps Average User Data Rate with 800 MHz and Dual Stream MIMO

• 28 GHz frequency
• Average data rate 1.6 Gbps • 800 MHz bandwidth
• Cell edge 0.6 Gbps • 8x2 MIMO antenna
• 2 users per cell

Inter-Site Distance 50, 70


and 100 m
Average
1.6 Gbps
Cell edge
0.6 Gbps 2000 4000 6000
137
mm-Wave Simulations at 72 GHz
– 5 Gbps Average User Data Rate with 2 GHz Bandwidth and 2x2MIMO

Average user data rate • 72 GHz frequency


6.0 • 2 GHz bandwidth
5.0 • 2x2 MIMO
4.0 • 4 sectors per access point
Gbps 3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
• Average up to 5.1 Gbps
75/km2 150/km2 187/km2
• Cell edge up to 550 Mbps
Access point density

138
>1000x Higher Capacity than Today’s Hotspots
Maximum Throughput per Operator per km2

Spectrum 5G at
Per operator in
[MHz] mm
downlink
>1 Tbps
2000 MHz 5G at /km2
cm
600 MHz 5G/LTE 100 Gbps
<6 GHz /km2
200 MHz LTE 10 Gbps
today /km2
1 Gbps
40 MHz /km2
Site density [/km2]

20/km2 50/km2 150/km2 300/km2


139
5G in Early Trials
Verizon Specs Available http://www.5gtf.org/

141
From Trial Specs to 3GPP

Korean Telecom Verizon 3GPP Phase 1


Status Specs published 11/16 Specs published 07/16 On-going, first specs 12/17

Use case Mobile Broadband Mobile (fixed) broadband Initially mobile broadband
Architecture Dual-connectivity with LTE Standalone 5G towards Dual connectivity and
and towards EPC EPC standalone, EPC or new core
with standalone
Sub-carrier spacing 75 kHz (0.2 ms sub-frame) 75 kHz (0.2 ms sub-frame) 60 kHz (2x, 4x, 8x of LTE, full
set TBC)
Channel coding (MBB use QC-LDPC from 802.11n / + QC-LDPC from 802.11n QC-LDPC, new design (not
case, for data) IIR HARQ. LTE based control LTE based control signaling from 802.11n). New control
signaling coding coding signaling coding

Frequency band 28 GHz 28/39 GHz Above and below 6 GHz


Beamforming Hybrid Hybrid Digital and hybrid
Mobility Via LTE Yes (but fixed wireless case) Full mobility
Multiple access CP-OFDM CP-OFDM CP-OFDM (< 40 GHz)
142
5G UE RF aspects (vs LTE)

• Support for high frequency bands, such as 28 GHz


- How large can single band be, can we have combined Europe/US/Korea -> 5.25 GHz band
- From 24.25 GHz until 29.5 GHz (Europe 24.25 until 27.5 )

• Directivity at higher frequencies at UE side


- Higher frequency enables multiple antenna elements
- Thus antenna array in the UE as well possible

• Also 3.4 – 3.8 GHz in the early phase


- Japan has 4.5 GHz band (4.4 – 4.9 GHz)

• Later to cover above 52.6 GHz


- including unlicensed band around 60 GHz

143
15 GHz Demo Shows 19 Gbps

• 15 GHz • 400 MHz


• Over the air • 8x8 MIMO
• TDD • 256QAM

144
Measured Round-Trip Latency with 73 GHz PoC

• Round trip time <2 ms


• One way latency <1 ms
• Lowest latency is seen for
balanced TDD ratio of 50%
• Latency is largest for most
unbalance ratios of 10% and
90%

145
Example services envisaged for 2018 olympics
- Virtual reality, synch view, hologram display…

146
Preparations for 5G
Technology Requirements Towards 5G

New spectrum 700 MHz + 3500 MHz + mmWave

New network architecture Edge computing with radio clouds

New services IoT, public safety, industry 4.0

New beamforming antennas Active antenna site solution

New small cells New deployment solutions

148
5G Radio Design Targets

Gain vs LTE Target value


20 Gbps
10x data rates 20 Gbps

10x lower latency <1 ms

10x lower IoT power <10 µWh per tx


1 ms
5x energy efficiency <2 kWh/TB

3x spectral efficiency >10 bps/cell/Hz

149
4.5G/4.9G
5G Evolution Path 10 Gbps / 1 ms
2019+

5G
2018+
5G
Low latency
2017+
4.9G Beamforming
Cloud radio
§
Today
4.5G 1 Gbps LTE
Unlicensed
Pro
600 Mbps
4.5G IoT
Public Safety

151
4.9G Boosts LTE Capabilities by 10x

LTE Release 8 4.9G 5G capabilities on LTE


10x data rate
10x lower latency
150 Mbps - 5G capabilities on top of
10x larger coverage LTE network
10-20 ms 10x battery life - 5G technologies on top
latency of LTE network
10x lower IoT cost
10x more capacity
152
LTE Carrier Aggregation Enables up to 1 Gbps

• Latest devices support already 600 Mbps some even 1 Gbps


• Carrier aggregation is most efficient solution for increasing average and cell
edge data rates  more consistent data rates
2017
2016
1 Gbps
2015
600 Mbps 3-5CA or
2014 450 Mbps 4x4MIMO
2013 300 Mbps
3CA 256QAM
2012 3CA
150 Mbps 2x2 MIMO
20+20 MHz
150 Mbps 2x2 MIMO
10+10 MHz
20 MHz 2x2 MIMO
2x2 MIMO
153
LTE Data Rates in Drive Tests During 2016/2017 – Average Up to 80 Mbps

P3 Drive test data rates in cities


100
90
80.7 77.7
80 • Typical LTE networks
70 63.8 62.7 59.9 show 60 Mbps in urban
60 56.2 55.7
Mbps 50
areas in P3 drive testing
44.4 43.1
40 34.2
• Best performance by
30
21.6
28.1
21.6 21.8
27.1 27.9 Telia in Sweden (with
20.7
20 15.1 Nokia radio) average 81
10 Mbps
0
Telia / T-Mobile / Vodafone / A1 / Austria Telstra / Swisscom T-Mobile / Vodafone / EE / UK
Sweden Netherlands Spain Australia Germany New Zealand
(2017)

Downlink Uplink

154
LTE Data Rates in Finland in Drive Testing – Urban & Roads

• Elisa is clearly fastest


41.3
35.9 36.6 • Telia and DNA are similar
Mbps
Mbps Mbps • Measurements done in 35 cities
and in the interconnecting roads
with 5183 km driving and 1M
samples. Samsung Note 4 with
Cat 6 capability used.

155
ECE Results 2017 vs 2016

Data Rate in ECE Testing with Cat 6 Device


45 41.3 • Elisa data rate has improved by
40 37.1 36.0 36.6 35.4 35.9 +11% from 2016. The expected
35
30
reason is that Elisa has invested
25 more into carrier aggregation
Mbps
20 capacity upgrades
15
10
• Measurements done in 35 cities and
5 in the interconnecting roads with
0 5183 km driving and 1M samples.
Elisa Telia DNA
November 2016 May 2017
Samsung Note 4 with Cat 6
capability used.

156
LTE 1 Gbps in Field – 3CCA Results with 4x4MIMO on 2600 MHz

• Average throughput 249


Mbps which is corresponds
to 4.15 bps/Hz
• Peak rate approx 500 Mbps
• LTE2600 with 4x4MIMO on
average 96 Mbps in 20 MHz
which is 4.8 bps/Hz
• LTE700 with 2x2MIMO 54
Mbps which is 2.7 bps/Hz

Telstra with Ericsson radio

157
100 Mbps >10 Gbps

IoT whenever needed

10 000
x more traffic
peak data rates

Extreme
Mobile
Broadband
10-100
x more devices

<1 ms
radio latency
M2M Massive Critical
ultra low cost machine machine
communication communication
10 years Ultra
on battery
reliability
Massive IoT on Top of LTE Networks

LTE-
NB-IoT
Advanced
Deep indoor coverage with
Coverage 140-145 dB 164 dB
+20 dB link budget
Operation time with Deploy and forget from
1 year 10 years
with two AA batteries battery life point of view
Lower cost chip set enables
Device cost Reference -85%
<5 USD (2 USD?) modules

159
LTE IoT Optimization for Low Device Cost

Release 12 introduced low complexity Release 13 further reduced


UE category with lower data rate, half complexity with narrowband RF and
duplex and single antenna lower data rate

Release 8 Release 8 Release 12 Release 13 Release 13


Category 4 Category 1 Category 0 Cat-M NB-IoT 200 kHz
Downlink peak rate 150 Mbps 10 Mbps 1 Mbps 1 Mbps 30 kbps
Uplink peak rate 50 Mbps 5 Mbps 1 Mbps 1 Mbps 60 kbps
Number of antennas 2 2 1 1 1
Duplex mode Full duplex Full duplex Half duplex Half duplex Half duplex
UE receive bandwidth 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 1.4 MHz 0.2 MHz
Modem complexity 100% 80% 40% 20% <15%

160
Coverage Optimization for IoT
Solutions:
• Narrowband (3.75 kHz)
130- transmission
• Retransmissions
140 dB 145-
150 dB
164 dB
• Substantially better
indoor coverage for low
Video, rate IoT
Voice IoT
multimedia • Enables IoT installation
in deep indoors like
>1 Mbps >10 kbps >300 bps basements

161
LTE MTC UE Categories for Release 13 & Release 14
Release 13 Release 14 (Preliminary)
eMTC NB-IoT FeMTC NB-IoT

Non-BL UE
Cat. M1 Cat. NB1 Cat. M2 Cat. NB2
in CE

Downlink peak rate <1 Mbps <26 kbps ~4 Mbps ~27 Mbps ~127 kbps
Uplink peak rate <1 Mbps <62 kbps ~7 Mbps ~7 Mbps ~159 kbps
Number of antennas 1 1 1 1 1

Full/Half Full/Half
Duplex mode Half duplex Full/Half duplex Half duplex
duplex duplex

UE receive bandwidth 1.4 MHz 200 kHz 5 MHz* 20 MHz* 200 kHz

UE transmit power 20/23 dBm** 20/23 dBm 20/23 dBm 20/23 dBm 14/20/23 dBm

162 *In idle with 1.4 MHz bandwidth


** 14 dBm in Release 14
Release 15 LTE MTC evolution
• Work items approved with some controversy
• The sub-PRB resource allocation objective for MTC seen by some as threat to NB-IoT
• From Nokia side we have customers for both tracks

• When there is good timing for 5G based mMTC remains to be seen (study in Release 16)

For MTC agreed scope includes: For NB-IoT agreed scope includes:
• Support higher UE velocity • Further latency and power consumption reduction
• Lower UE power class • Narrowband measurement accuracy improvements
• Improved latency • NPRACH reliability and range enhancements
• Improved power consumption • NB-IoT small cell support
• Improved spectral efficiency • Reduced system acquisition time
• Improved load control • UE differentiation
• Support of TDD
• UE feedback …

163
Proprietary IoT Options
Sigfox by Connected Finland LoRa by Digita (also by Espotel)

”nationwide by spring 2017” ”85% population coverage”


164
Sigfox Coverage in Finland

• Connected Finland claims “Our operated IoT network


is already open and covers more than 50% of Finnish
population. See the current coverage map from here.
We continue expanding our network to fully nationwide
by spring 2017”

165
Public Safety
New Innovations for Public Safety with LTE Technology

Satellite
Standalone LTE
backhaul for LTE
network in a car
base station

Standalone LTE
LTE access to
network in your
drone videos
backpack

167
LTE Networks have Full Toolbox of Public Safety Solutions

Release 12 Release 13 Release 14


• Group • Mission Critical PTT • Mission Critical Video
Communication over LTE
• Enhancements to
System Enablers
Proximity-based • Mission Critical Data
for LTE
Services over LTE
• QoS for public
• Isolated E-UTRAN • IOPS enhancements
safety
Operation for Public for limited backhaul
• Proximity-based Safety (IOPS)
• Study on LMR
Services; device-
• Enhancements to interworking
to-device direct
eMBMS
communication Completion expected mid
Completed March 2016 2017

Releases 8 - 11
• Mobile data, VoLTE, emergency call, QoS, security, wide range of frequency bands, location
services, MBMS, SON, LTE-A performance enhancements

168
Guaranteed Public Safety Solution on LTE Networks

Access control Admission control QoS based scheduling


• High priority in overload control • Allocation priority and pre- • Guaranteed and non-guaranted
• Access class barring emption services

Operator use: • Typically not used • Prioritization typically not used • Partly used, like voice over LTE

Public Safety
services

Shared cell
Commercial
voice & data
services

169
Dedicated Priority Class for Public Safety
QCI Bearer type Priority Packet delay Packet loss Example
1 2 100 ms 10-2 VoIP call
2 4 150 ms Video call
10-3
3 3 50 ms Online gaming (real time)
GBR
4 5 300 ms 10-6 Video streaming
65 0.7 75 ms 10-2 Mission critical user plane PTT voice
66 2 100 ms 10-2 Non-mission critical user plane PTT voice
5 1 100 ms IMS signaling
10-6 Video, TCP based services
6 6 300 ms
e.g. email, chat & ftp
7 7 100 ms 10-3 Voice, video, interactive gaming
8 Non-GBR 8 Video, TCP based services
300 ms 10-6
9 9 e.g. email, chat & ftp
69 0.5 60 ms 10-6 Mission critical delay sensitive signaling
70 5.5 200 ms 10-6 Mission critical data

170
Small number
= high priority
Nokia Product Innovation – Ultra Compact Network
Extreme Distributed Network Architecture

• Nokia Flexi Zone small


cell
• Integrated packet core
functions including IMS
and HSS
• Optional router for
backhaul connectivity
• Battery pack

171
Mobile Broadband Status in
Finland
From Vision to Reality – 1 GB per User per Day

Nokia vision from 2011 ”1 GB per user per day in 2020”

Mobile data in Finland 1 GB per day by end-2017

4300 TB/day today with 5.4M population = 0.8 GB per user/day

173
Fast Growth in Global Mobile Data Usage – Great Starting Point for 5G

Finland

Latvia
Korea
Sweden, Austria
USA, Japan
UK
France, Germany

Mobile data usage per subscription per month


174
Mobile vs Fixed Data Volume Globally

• Mobile carries 3-10% of all data in


typical countries (most data in fixed
network).
• There is one outlier globally – Finland
– where mobile takes 30% of all data

175
Impressive Need for Mobile Broadband – Reliance India Example

Mobile Data Volume


30
• Reliance Jio became #1 operator in
25
the world in terms of data traffic just in
20 two months after the launch – because
PB/day 15 Jio service is free until March 2017
10 • China Mobile and T-Mobile USA carry
5 approx 14 PB/day. AT&T and Verizon
0 are less. All Japanese operators
combined have less than 20 PB/day
• Reliance example shows that there is
clear need for mobile broadband

176
Beyond 5G… in India

Reliance India network is ready Vodafone India considers 7G with


for 6G – September 2016 space roaming – June 2016

177
Thank You!

178
Abbreviations
ACLR = Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio PDCCH = Physical Downlink Control Channel
AMF = Access and Mobility management Function PDCP = Packet Data Convergence Protocol
AP = Access Point PDSCH = Physical Downlink Shared Channel
AUSF = Authentication Server Function PDU = Payload Data Unit
BTS = Base Station PSS = Primary Synchyronization Signal
CPRI = Common Public Radio Interface PTT = Push to Talk
DMRS = Demodulation Referece Signal PUCCH = Physical Uplink Control Channel
DN = Data Network PUSCH = Physical Uplink Shared Channel
eMTC = Enhanced MTS PRACH = Physical Random Access Channel
FDD = Frequency Division Duplex QAM = Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
GBR = Guaranteed Bit Rate QoS = Quality of Service
GP = Guard Period RF = Radio Frequency
HSS = Home Subscriber Server RLC = Radio Link Control
IMS = IP Multimedia Subsystem RRC = Radio Resource Control
IoT = Internet-of-Things SC-FDMA = Single Carrier FDMA
IR = Incremental Redundancy SDAP = Service Data Adaptation Protocol
LDPC = Low-Density Parity Check SDU = Service Data Unit
LMR = Land Mobile Radio SMF = Session Management Function
LOS = Line-of-Sight SON = Self Optimization Networks
LTE = Long Term Evolution SSS = Secondary Sycnhronization Signal
MAC = Medium Access Control TCP = Transmission Control Protocol
MBB = Mobile Broad Band TM = Transmission Mode
MBMS = Multmedia Broadcast and Multicast Service UDM = Unified Data Management function
MIB = Master Information Block UE = User Equipment
MIMO = Multiple Input Multiple Output UPF = User Plane Function
mMIMO = Massive MIMO URLLC = Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications
MTC = Machine Type Traffic TDD = Time Division Duplex
NB-IoT = Narrowband IoT VLOS = Visual LOS
NLOS = Non LOS VoLTE = Voice over LTE
OFDM = Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
PBCH = Physical Broadcast Channel
PCF = Policy Control Function