Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 23



AIM: To learn about the Incinerator.


According to Annex VI of MARPOL 1973/78 Convention of IMO for prevention of air pollution from
ships, the guidelines regarding the waste material storage and disposal of waste at sea need to be strictly
followed. Incineration of various materials such as galley waste, food scraps, accommodation waste, linen,
cardboards, oil sludge from lubricating oil, fuel oil, bilge and purifier, and sewage sludge, is one of the most
effective ways of disposal and saving storage capacity of the tanks and waste storage containments on ships.

Moreover, the residue left from the incineration can be easily disposed of off as it mainly consists of

For all foreign going vessel, an incinerator installed on board the ship on or after 1 January 2000 must
comply with requirements of the standard specifications for shipboard incinerators developed under
resolutions MEPC.76(40) and MEPC.93(45).

The following material not to be incinerated:

1. Annexe I, II and III cargo residues of the present Convention and related contaminated packing
2. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
3. Garbage, as defined in Annex V of the present Convention, containing more than traces of heavy
metals; and refined petroleum products containing halogen compounds
4. Incineration of sewage sludge and sludge oil generated during the normal operation of a ship
may also take place in the main or auxiliary power plant or boilers, but in those cases, shall not
take place inside ports, harbours and estuaries

The temperature of the flue gases must be monitored and should not be less than 850 deg C for
continuous feed and reach 600 deg C within 5 minutes ( time may vary depending upon the capacity of
incinerator) for a batch feed.

Types of incinerator

Vertical cyclone type and horizontal burner type are two

most commonly used incinerator on the ship.

Horizontal burner type

The set up is similar to a horizontal fired boiler with

burner arrangement horizontal to the incinerator
combustion chamber axis. The ash and noncombustible
material remaining at the end of the operation has to be
cleared out manually.


Vertical Cyclone type

In this type, the burner is mounted on the top and the waste to be incinerated in introduced into the
combustion chamber from the top. A rotating arm device is provided to improve combustion and
remove ash and non-combustibles from the surface.

The important parts of the incinerator are:

1. Combustion chamber with diesel oil burner, sludge

burner, pilot fuel heater and electric control panel
2. Flue gas fan which may be fitted with flue gas damper
or frequency inverter
3. Sludge service tank with circulating pump and heater
4. Sludge settling tank with filling pump and heater
5. Water injection (Optional)
6. Rotating arm to remove ash and non-combustibles (for
vertical cyclone type)


A sludge burner is placed in the incinerator to burn and dispose of sewage, sludge and waste oil. An
auxiliary oil burner is also fitted to ignite the refuse. Automatic controls provided for the system secure
the igniter when the refuse starts burning without the need of the igniter. Combustion air is supplied
with the help of forced draught fan.

A loading door, pneumatically operated, is provided to load the refuse. An interlock is also provided
with burner and forced draught fan, which trips when the loading door is in open condition as part of
the safety.

Solid waste is fed from the loading door, and the incineration process starts after closing the door.
Liquid waste is fed into the system when the refractory of the incinerator becomes hot.

After the completion of the incineration process, the incinerator is allowed to cool down, and residue
like ash and the non-combustibles are removed by pulling the ash slide door. The rotating arm in the
verticle cyclone type scrapes off the entire solid residue in the ash box which can be easily disposed of.

During incineration, it is important to control the exhaust temperature, which should not be very high
or too low. The high temperature could leads to melting of metal and can cause damage to the
machinery, whereas too low temperature will not be able to burn the residue and sterilise and remove
odour from the residue.

This temperature control can be achieved by introducing cold-diluted air in the exhaust stream at the
point which is as close to incinerator discharge.


Things to remember

 Keep the incinerator chamber inlet outlet and burner parts clean. A daily inspection must be
carried out before the start in the morning
 Do not throttle the air/steam needle valve more than 3⁄4 turn closed. If the pressure increases
above the defined limit, clean the sludge burner nozzle
 Do not turn off the main power before the chamber temperature is down below 170°C. Keep
the fan running to cool down the chamber
 If experiencing any problem with high temperature in the combustion chamber, flue gas or
control of sludge dosing, replace the dosing pump stator
 Do not transfer sludge to the service tank during sludge burning in a single tank system as it
can damage the refractory
 It is always recommended to heat the sludge overnight, without starting the circulating pump.
Drain off the free water and start the sludge program before performing the incinerator
 Never load glass, lithium batteries or large quantities of spray cans in the incinerator. Avoid
loading large amounts of oily rags or filter cartridges as all these may damage the flue gas fan
 Inspect the cooling jacket every six months (open the cover plates) and clean as required with
steam or hot water
 Read the instruction manual, and never change any settings unless instructed by the makers


Do not incinerate metals as soda and food can plate, flatware, serving spoons/tray, hardware (nuts &
bolts), structural pieces, wire rope, chains, etc., glass such as bottles, jars, drinking glasses, etc.

Flammable materials such as bottles or cans containing flammable liquids or gasses and aerosol cans
must not be incinerated.

Loading of glass will result in a rock hard slag, which is hard to remove from the refractory lining.

In the case of a blackout, when the combustion chamber temperature is above 220°C, it is important to
start the flue gas fan as soon as possible in order not to damage the incinerator by accumulated heat in
the refractory lining.

Thus the study about the Incinerator has been carried out.



AIM: To learn about the Sewage Treatment plant.


Legislation preventing the discharge of untreated waste overboard has been in place for some time
with a requirement that it should be retrofitted where not already in use. American legislation defines
three types of sewage treatment units.
A device capable of discharging effluent having no floating solids and a coliform count of less
Type 1
than 1000 per 100ml of effluent.
Type A device capable of discharging effluent with suspended solids not in excess of 150mg/litre
II and a coliform count of less than 200 per 100ml
A device to prevent the discharge overboard of treated or untreated waste.

Ventilation systems are to be kept independent of other vents A log is to be kept of any discharge
overboard from a holding tank

Aerobic (Biological) Treatment plant (Flow through system)


Biological system require a steady and relatively constant flow of solid sewage so the bacteria can
exist in sufficient quantity to maintain effluent discharge at the correct quality. sludge build up is a


possible problem although extended residence in the aeration chamber greatly reduces the amount. For
example, sewage with 80% solid waste is reduced to 20% of its original weight after 12 hours in the
aeration tank.

The process of aerobicity strips oxygen from the water and creates more water, carbon dioxide and


The Trident sewage treatment unit shown above consists of three chambers.
Sewage enters the aeration chamber via a coarse mesh filter where large solids are broken down. The
aeration chamber is where the main biological action takes place. Here air blowers mounted on the
outside of the unit oxygenate and stir the effluent and bacteria mix via a series of pipes and nozzles.
The sewage remains in this aeration tank for some time.

Incoming sewage displaces some effluent of the settling tank (or hopper) where under inactive
conditions biological floc, activated sludge and bacteria, settle out and is returned to the aeration
chamber via air lift pumps also driven by the blowers. A second transfer pipe scum's the surface of the
settling tank and returns it back to the aeration chamber. This returned sludge contains the bacteria to
digest the incoming sewage. Thus the importance of this floc return can be seen

Effluent passing over from this chamber should be clean and ready for disinfecting in the chlorinating
chamber. The level in this chamber is controlled by a pump and float switch arrangement. typical
chlorine levels at discharge is 5ppm.

Valves are fitted to the aeration and primary chambers to allow them to be pumped out and back
flushed as necessary.

The bacteria are susceptible to water conditions including temperature and the presence of toilet
cleaning agents. In this way the system is fitted with by-pass valves so passing contaminated water
overboard. Should the bacteria be killed it takes some time before a new colony forms. There are
special 'feeds' which promote the reestablishment of these colonies.

Physical-Chemical Sewage system

This is based on the separation of the liquid element from the sewage flow. This is disinfected in a 5%
chlorine for 30 minutes to kill off coliform bacteria and then discharged overboard in full MARPOL

One problem with this system is the required space, Only a finite amount of space can be set aside for
the storage of the solid part of the waste which can only be discharged in port or outside territorial
waters when allowed. If these facilities are unavailable the system become inoperative.

There is also the need to carry quantities of Calcium Hypochlorite for conversion to Sodium
HypoChlorite for the disinfection of sewage flow. Calcium Hypochlorite requires very careful


Electrocatalytic Oxidation

Sewage is collected, macerated and passed through a electrolytic cell.

Electrolysis produces Sodium Hypochlorite which is used to oxidise organic material before discharge.
Alternately dosing by chlorine may be used. The effluent passes on through to a settling tank were the
oxidation process is completed

These type of plants can be 50% smaller than biological types, this and the fact that pass through times
are extremely short-typically 30 minutes compared to the several hours of the biological unit- are the
main advantages of this system. The discharge contains no solids and is totally free of coliform

A disadvantage of this system is due to the short exposure time in the oxidiser relatively high levels of
chlorine are required to ensure destruction of the coliform bacteria. It is possible that this chlorine level
can be present to some degree in the discharge Dechlorination plant may be fitted. The Hazards and
regulations regarding the Sewage Systems
Raw sewage discharged into restricted waters will eventually overwhelm the self purification ability of
the limited quantity of water. In a closed dock the effect can be seen in a black sludgy water which
when disturbed gives off an unpleasant smell possibly Hydrogen Sulphide.

When the quantity of sludge is reasonable aerobic bacteria digest the sewage breaking it down to
simple compounds and Carbon dioxide using up Oxygen in the process. These compounds and Carbon
dioxide promote plant life which returns oxygen to the water.

When the quantity of Oxygen becomes so depleted that the aerobic bacteria can no longer function,
anaerobic or bacteria not requiring Oxygen to function will take over. The breakdown of the sludge is
then associated with the same process of decay with foul smelling and dangerous gasses being
produced. Therefore the principal means of sludge conditioning on board is that of aerobic action,
Types of sewage disposal


There are four main types of sewage disposal systems fitted to ships;

1. Discharge from the toilet bowl into a common drain leading to overboard via storm
2. As above except common drain leads to a storage tank with or without aeration.
Contents discharged ashore or at sea when appropriate.
3. Sewage treatment systems with sewage being collected and treated to produce an
effluent suitable to discharge without effect on environment.
4. Vacuum collecting system where the drains are kept at a slightly negative absolute
pressure , on flushing water, sewage and air are drawn into the drains being led to a
collecting or treatment tank which is kept at atmospheric pressure.

Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial action

When the sewage enters the drainage system it is acted upon by aerobic bacteria and is broken down,
during this process the naturally occurring Aerobic Bacteria strip the water of oxygen and produce;
more water, Carbon Dioxide, and more bacteria.

If, however, there is insufficient oxygen for these bacteria then alternative bacteria dominates. These
Anaerobic Bacteria produce Hydrogen Sulphide, Methane and Ammonia. These gasses are either
highly toxic or flammable or both. In particular Hydrogen Sulphide is toxic to humans in
concentrations down to 10ppm and its flammable vapours are heavier than air so may build up in lethal
pockets in enclosed spaces.

Safety Parameters

The generation by anaerobic bacteria these toxic and flammable gasses is present in all types of
systems to some degree. The possibility of anaerobic action within a sewage treatment plant should be
reduced as far as possible.

Should these gasses be generated and allowed to enter the accommodation could lead to disaster.

 The following are some methods which may help to reduce the risks;
o The fitting of proper ventilation in toilet spaces and the fitting of water traps can only
be seen as secondary measures to reducing the risk. The primary concern is to eliminate
the possibility of generating the gasses in the first place.
o Where sewage is stored in tanks for discharge, some method of maintaining an adequate
level of oxygen in the water must be in place. Examples of these may be by direct air
injection or by air entraining into the liquid whilst pumping through a nozzle.
o Where active aeration is not fitted then the contents of the storage tank should be
changed within a maximum of a 24 hour period unless some other means of treatment is
used.. The conditions in the tank should be closely monitored
o Where aerobic treatment plants are used then manufacturers operating instructions
should be closely adhered to. A system of maintenance should be in place.


Maintenance of Aerobic treatment units.

1. Thorough , regular cleaning and inspection with particular attention being paid to areas behind
internal division plates
2. Checks on alarms and trips
3. Checks on aeration equipment
4. Checks on transfer systems in the tanks

It is recommended that a low air pressure switch rather than a motor failed alarm be fitted to the air
blower motor hence eliminating the danger of the fan belts snapping and going undetected.

Tank Ventilation arrangements.

Ventilation pipes should be in good condition and free from obstructions. They should be of a size to
minimise pressure drop and ensure good gas clearance. They should be self draining to prevent
blockage by water.

Any flame gauze's or other fittings should be checked for cleanliness.

Accommodation ventilation arrangements

The ventilation should be sufficient to ensure proper balance allowing each compartment to be
correctly supplied. The ventilation system should be correctly maintained and checked for cleanliness.

Air extraction is of vital importance and the cleanliness of grills should be checked, the opening under
doors should not be blocked, vent louvers should be correctly position to ensure all spaces are properly

The forced ventilation equipment should be regularly checked and maintained.

Suspended solids

The quantity of solid waste in the effluent is weighed. After drying on an asbestos mat filter element.

Biological Oxygen demand (B.O.D.)

Aerobic bacteria use Oxygen in the process of breaking down the sewage. At the end of the process the
action of the bacteria reduces and so does the Oxygen demand. The effectiveness of a sewage
treatment plant may be gauged by taking a one litre sample and incubating it for 5 days at 20oC. The
amount of Oxygen consumed in milligrams per litre or ppm is termed the B.O.D.

Coliform count

It is possible that the effluent contain bacteria and viruses hazardous to health if it has not been
properly treated at the final stage. An indication of this is a count of the Coliform bacteria which are
found in the intestine.


A coliform count in a 100ml sample incubated for 48 hrs at 35oC. Another test at the same temperature
but over a 24 hour period produces a colony of bacteria.


Annex IV of MARPOL 73/78 (IMO) regulates the disposal of waste from ships internationally. In
addition certain countries have their own national and regional controls.

In general this means that untreated sewage can only be dumped outside 12 miles offshore, and treated
disinfected waste outside 4 miles.

Thus the study about the Sewage Treatment Plant has been carried out.



AIM: To learn about the Oily Water Seperator.


To minimize the oily content in bilge water, which can be discharged from the ship, MARPOL
has a regulation under ANNEX I which limits the oil content in the bilge water that vessel can
legitimately discharge into the sea. It is now a requirement for all vessels to have an oil discharge
monitoring and control system along with an oil filtering equipment known as the Oily Water
Separator (OWS).

As the name indicates, the function of oily water separator is to separate maximum amount of
oil particles from the water to be discharged overboard from engine room or cargo hold bilges, oil
tanks and oil contaminated spaces. As per the regulation, the oil content in the water processed from
the OWS must be less then 15 parts per million of oil.

Construction and Working of OWS

OWS consists of mainly three segments:
Separator unit

 This unit consists of catch plates which are inside a coarse separating compartment and an oil
collecting chamber.
 Here the oil having a density which is lower than that of the water, which makes the former rise
into the oil collecting compartment and the rest of the non-flowing oil mixture settle down
into fine settling compartment after passing between the catch plates.
 After a period of time more oil will separate and collect in the oil collecting chamber. The oil
content of water which passes through this unit is around 100 parts per million of oil.
 A control valve (pneumatic or electronic) releases the separated oil in to the designated OWS
sludge tank.
 Heater may be incorporated in this unit for smooth flow and separation of oil and water.

 First stage helps in removing some physical impurities to achieve fine filtration in the later


The Filter unit

 This is a separate unit whose input comes from the discharge of the first unit.
 This unit consists of three stages – filter stage, coalescer stage and collecting chamber.
 The impurities and particles are separated by the filter and are settled at the bottom for
 In second stage, coalescer induces coalescence process in which oil droplets are joined to
increase the size by breaking down the surface tension between oil droplets in the mixture.
 These large oil molecules rise above the mixture in the collecting chamber and are removed
when required.
 The output from this unit should be less than 15 ppm to fulfil legal discharge criteria.
 If the oil content in water is more than 15 ppm then maintenance work such as filter cleaning or
renewal of filters is to be done as required.

Oil Content Monitor and Control Unit

 This unit functions together in two parts – monitoring and controlling.

 The ppm of oil is continuously monitored by Oil Content Monitor (OCM); if the ppm is high it
will give alarm and feed data to the control unit.
 The control unit continuously monitors the output signal of OCM and if alarm arises, it will not
allow the oily water to go overboard by means of operating 3 way solenoid valve.
 There are normally 3 solenoid valves commanded by control unit. These are located in the first
unit oil collecting chamber, second unit oil collecting chamber and one in discharge side of
the oily water separator which is a 3 way valve.
 The 3 way valve inlet is from the OWS discharge, where one outlet is to overboard and second
outlet is to OWS sludge tank.
 When OCM gives alarm, 3 way valve discharges oily mixture in the sludge tank.

Thus the study about the Oily water sperator has been carried out.



AIM: To learn about the Oily Inert Gas System.


Inert gas- This is a gas which contains insufficient oxygen to support combustion of hydrocarbons

Inert conditions- This is where a space has had its oxygen content reduced to 8% or less

Inert gas plant- This is a system specially designed to supply cool, clean, pressurised, monitored and
controlled inert gas.

Gas freeing- Opposite to inerting and is the replacement of an inert atmosphere with one of fresh air.

The choice of whether an inert gas system is fitted to a vessel is based on the initial cost of installation
and maintenance, the planned cargos to be carried and the possibility of the being tainted by the inert
gas and the possibility that the inert gas system in itself will introduce a risk. For an example of the
latter procedures would have to ensure that the space is well ventillated of the inert gas before a person
could enter.

Sources of inert gas

The use of the term Inert Gas is a misnomer in so far as the true inert gasses such as Helium and
argon are prohibitively expensive to use.

Similarly the use of semi-inert gasses such as Nitrogen and Carbon-dioxide are too expensive to use on
bulk, nitrogen is often seen in use on gas carriers in barrier spaces or for the clearing and inerting of
pipelines and pumps.

The gas most commonly used is the exhaust product of combustion.

 This may have three sources

o Exhaust from an internal combustion engine such as a diesel engine or gas turbine. The
relatively high Oxygen content in the output must be reduced to make it suitable and
this is generally achieved by the use of an afterburner. This is an uncommon system and
will not be dealt with currently
o Boilers
o Gas oil or heavy oil powered inert gas generator. This generally takens the form of an
insulated combustion space similar in layout to a tank boiler with the insulation taking
the place of the water,with rotary cup burner

Purging- This is the introduction of inert gas into an inerted space to;

1. further reduce O2 content

2. reduce hydrocarbon level in the inert gas so that air may be introduced without the mix
entering the flammable range.


Limits of flammability

Oxygen control
Theoretically any mix with less than 11.5% oxygen will not support combustion, However, for safety
the level is reduced to 8% vol. This allows for calibration errors in monitoring equipment as well as
any lack of homogeneity in the tanks.

The tank is kept at positive pressure to ensure no ingress of air.( say 100mmwg at the deck ).

Hydrocarbon control
The principle means of ensuring safe operation is the reduction in oxygen, high levels of HC should
not effect the safe operation and may in fact aid by producing an over rich atmosphere.

If it is required to gas free then the level of HC must be reduced to prevent the mix entering the
flammable range, then the HC level is reduced by purging.

Gas replacement
There are two principle means of gas replacement, these are;

Dilution-The important factors for these is that the vent is situated at the top of the tank and the inlet
gas stream must have sufficient velocity to reach the bottom of the tank

Displacement- This requires a stable interface between the heavier and lighter gas, if the replacement
gas is heavier it enters at the top with low velocity , the lighter gas is vented up a purge pipe reaching
the base of the tank.

General policy of cargo tank atmosphere control.

It is the masters responsibility for keeping a non-explosive atmosphere within the tank, and to ensure
all personnel concerned with the operation are well versed.

To ensure the I.G. system is fulfilling its requirements it is the Chief Officers responsibility to


 Maintain Oxygen content at less than 8% especially when tank cleaning

 Maintain gas pressure at 100 mmWg
 Ensure correct level in Pv breaker
 Blanks and v/v's to be checked before operation
 Ensure no tank is overfilled when loading, ballasting.

The efficacy of the I.G. plant to produce inert gas at less than 8% Oxygen is the chief engineers

The correct operation of the I.G system should allow the following benefits;

Closed loading procedures

 Reduced cargo discharge times

 Simplification of the tk cleaning procedures
 Reduction of oxygen dependent corrosion
 Limited repair work on hull without the need to gas free

Pyrophoric ignition
In an oxygen deficient atmosphere where there is Hydrogen sulphide present the iron oxide can be
reduced to iron sulphide, with the reintroduction of air the iron reconverts to iron oxide with
considerable heat and possible incandescence.

Hence, when gas freeing it is important to maintain the mix outside the flammable

Components of plant

Boiler uptake valve- Provides a take off point for the flue gas, A cleaning arrangement is fitted to
prevent soot build up.

Scrubber- Flue gas passes to the scrubber via the uptake valve, here it enters at the bottom via a
waterseal and passes up through a series of sea water sprays and baffle plates being cooled and cleaned
before exiting via a demister

The water is supplied via the scrubber pump, the sprays reduce the temperature to within 2oC of the
sea water temperature, the sulphur dioxide content is reduced 90%, and the gas is clear of soot.

The tower is rubber lined and other parts are made of inconel or glassfibre to protect against the SO2
.The water seal at the bottom is provided by the weir arrangement fitted to the drain system.

The following alarms are fitted;

o High water level alarm and trip

o Low water level alarm
o Low water level alarm


Fans-Two types of fans are fitted, a steam turbine driven one of sufficient capacity to supply I.G
requirements during cargo ops, and an electrically driven unit with sufficient capacity for topping up

Shut down of the fans occurs due to;

o High gas temperature after the blowers

o Low scrubber water pressure, high scrubber water lvl.
o Blower failure.

A blank on a stub pipe may be removed to allow the fans to blow fresh air up the I.G. main when gas

Recirculating and regulating valves- The pressure within the tanks is controlled by automatic or
manual operation of the regulating v/v, if the demand is low and the regulating v/v nearly closed then
the recirculating v/v opens thereby reducing the possibility of the fan overheating by passing the gas
back to the scrubber tower.

Oxygen monitor- Fitted just upstream of the regulating v/v and initiates an alarm if oxygen content
above 8%.

Deck water seal- The inert gas leaving the engine room to deck passes through the deck water seal
whose purpose is to prevent gases from passing back to the engine room from the cargo tanks. A
demister is fitted on the outlet side.

The seal is internally rubber lined and a heating coil fitted to allow use in low temperatures. The weir
controlled water level has a low level alarm fitted.

As the seal is a primary safety feature it is supplied from the general salt water system when the
scrubber pump is not in use. Checks are made on the pipe from the seal to the regulating v/v to ensure
no HC prescience which would indicate corrosion damage.

Non-return v/v- Purpose similar to the deck seal

Deck isolating valve-Allows the isolation of the deck system from the engine room system

Pressure/vacuum breaker ( PV)- This is the safety valve for the

system and prevents both under and over pressurisation of the
tanks. Flame screens are fitted to the PV breaker vent. The PV
breaker may be of the mechanical or liquid type. The liquid type
is filled with a liquid of the correct specific gravity, such as
monoethylene Glycol and water.


Deck distribution system

After the PV breaker the inert gas is led down a main and valveless distributors to all the tanks,
excepting the slops tanks whose lines contain isolating valves. On the main there are three PV hi
velocity safety vents, the slops tanks are fitted with individual safety vents of same design.

On the for'd end of the main is the for'd pressure release which allows regulation of the inert gas
pressure during loading

During loading the ballast is discharged at the same time as the cargo is loaded thereby limiting vapour
release to deck, the I.G. plant is kept running in a state of readiness so in the event of sudden cargo
stoppage pressure is not lost via the for'd pressure release; this may have to be throttled in to prevent
overloading the fans.

Closed system-
This describes the common I.G. main connected to
all the tanks, this has the following advantages

- The tanks are always kept at a positive pressure

- The volume of gas acts as a buffer for variations in

loading/discharging rates

A disadvantage is that HC's can reenter a purged tank

Gas at inlet Gas at outlet

Temperature 170oC 5oC above sea water

O2 3-4% less than 5%

SO2 & SO3 0.2 - 0.3% less than 0.02%

CO2 12 - 14% 15-16%

N2 77% 17%

Solids 150 mg/m3 8 mg/m 3

Due to the corrosive nature of the atmosphere in the scrubber and the inside of the scrubber is specially
considered and is normlly coated with a glass fibre product or similar The scrubber is supplied by two
sea water pumps. A small capacity seal water pump which is run on a continuous bases and ensures
that the bottom of the scrubber is continuouly full to the weir level thereby ensuring that there is a gas
seal. A larger capacity spray water pump which is run when the system is in use supplying inert gas.
The drains from the scrubber is very acidic and special cosideration is given to the pipe run which may
be internally coated


Deck Seals
There are thre types of deck seals in common use;


The seal is kep full using a continuously runing seal water pump which may be backed up with a
crossover from a secondary system as required. Should the pressure on the downstream side exced the
upstream side the water is pushed up the inlet pipe. The height of this pipe ensures that the head
pressure generated is greater than either the pressure release valve or anywater seals




When loading cargo tanks at high rates, steps must be taken to avoid
pressure build up which can cause structual damage. This requires the
release of the vapours from the tank. This could be by pipes led up
the mast with a release point via a flame trap. An alternative as
shown provides a high velocity release which carries the gas well
clear of the ship. Depending on the pressure, the area between the
fixed cone and the orifice plate will change allowing the velocity to
be maintained. At high pressures the orifice is forced upwards against
the bellows force, thus increasing the flow area. At low pressure the
counterweight pulls the orifce downwards thereby reducing the flow
area and maintaining the gas velocity

Thus the study about the Inert Gas System has been carried out.



AIM: To learn about the Air Condition and Ventilation.


Air conditioning is the control of humidity, temperature, cleanliness and air motion. Winter
conditioning relates to increasing temperature and humidity whilst summer conditioning relates to
decreasing temperature and increasing humidity

SPECIFIC HUMIDITY-Is the ratio of the mass of water vapour to the mass of dry air in a given
volume of mixture.

PER CENT RELATIVE HUMIDITY-is the mass of water vapour per m3 of air compared to the
mass of water vapour per m3 of saturated air at the same temperature. This also equals the ratio of the
partial pressure of actual air compared to the partial pressure of the air if it was saturates at the same
temperature. i.e.

m/mg = p/pg


Barometer pressure = partial pressure of N2 + p.p.O2 + p.p.H2O,

from Daltons Law viz:

 Pressure exerted by, and the quantity of , the vapour required to saturate a
given space ( i.e. exist as saturated steam ) at any given temperature, are the
same whether that space is filled by a gas or is a vacuum.
 The pressure exerted by a mixture of a gas and a vapour, of two vapours, or of
two gasses, or a number of same, is the sum of the pressure which each would
exert if it occupied the same space alone, assuming no interaction of


When a mixture of dry air and water vapour has a

saturation temperature corresponding to the partial
pressure of the water vapour it is said to be saturated.
Any further reduction of temperature (at constant
pressure) will result in some vapour condensing. This
temperature is called the dew point, air at dew point
contains all the moisture it can hold at that temperature,
as the amount of water vapour varies in air then the
partial pressure varies, so the dew point varies.


It can be seen that cooling a superheated vapour at constant pressure will bring it to the
saturated vapour line, or Dew point. It can also be seen that cooling at constant temperature raises the
partial pressure until the dew point is reached.

Therefore from the above equation for determining the relative humidity,

%R.H. = m/mg x 100 = p/pg x 100

= pdew/pg point x 100

where g refers to the sat condition. This means dry air contains the maximum moisture content (100%
R.H.) at the saturation conditions.


This chart is used for finding the relative humidity of air which has been measured using a
'wet and dry bulb' thermometer. This is a pair of thermometers, one of which has its bulb wrapped in a
damp cloth. The drier the air,the greater the evaporation of water off the cloth and therefore the lower
the reading on the 'wet bulb' thermometer.



The core components of the system such as the oil seperator, filter drier and condenser are
dealt with on the Fridge system page, instead described are those components which are generally
unique to air conditioning plant.


May be reciprocating or rotary. In nearly all cases a method of varying the quantity of delivery is
incorporated. For reciprocating compressors this may take the form of an unloader and for rotary
variable speed drive.


The compressors have protection systems similar to their fridge counterparts with High
Pressure and Low Pressure cut outs that require manual resets. In addition to this an interlock is fitted
so that the compressor cannot be started if the air handling unit fan is not running. Should the fan be
stopped the compressor will cut out.

An alternative to this is to fit solenoid valves before the compressor, as in the diagram
above, which open only when the fan is running. The compressor will trip on Low suction pressure.

The purpose of both these systems is to prevent liquid returning to the compressor.

Air Handling Unit

One or more is fitted. In the diagram above a single unit contains two individual evaporators which are
independently supplied by a compressor. A belt driven fan delivers air to the evaporators via a fine
mesh air filter. This filter is removed on a regular basis and washed in a soapy solution containing

The air passes over the evaporator where it is cooled and releases water vapour. The water
condenses and is fed away via a drip tray and pipework, the water is quite clean and can be used for
domestic purposes after treatment although this practice is not common. On the above design a catcher
has been fitted to remove water droplets entrained in the air, these are not always fitted.

A perforated pipe is fitted after the evaporator allowing low quality steam to be fed into
the air improving its humidity when too dry.


On board every rig or vessel, there is an accomodation module or living quarter which houses the crew
of about 200 men or more working day and night offshore and in this quarter area, there is a set
of offshore heating, ventilation and air conditioning, and refrigeration systems providing 24 hours non-
stop either cooling ( in summer) or heating ( in winter ) for the comfort of the crew members.

•Water and air-cooled DX / condensing units

•Water and air-cooled chill water units

•Package air-handling and fan coil units


•Package self-contained units

•Cabins units, terminals, diffusers and accessories
•Cold room and freezer evaporators, room controllers and timer panels
•Control systems for platform integration, F&G interface, local AHUs
•Refrigeration valves, separators, condensers, and accessories
•Fire and hydrocarbon rated dampers, blast dampers, local control stations

The system package also involves supplying air conditioning systems specifically designed for the
marine and offshore industries with custom-designed marine and explosion-proof chilled water
systems (marine chillers) as well as marine condensing units for clients, and these air conditioning
systems on board the rig or vessel could either include:
•Direct expansion (DX) cooling systems with environmentally friendly refrigerants such as R134a,
R404a, R407c; sea water or fresh water cooled or air cooled

•Chilled water central cooling systems for complete accommodations Integrated or local heating
•Electric duct heaters
•Cabin units with integrated re-heaters
•Hot water heating coils (duct or AHU mounted) complete with two-way or three-way control valves
•Steam heating coils complete with two-way or three-way control valves and traps
•Thermal oil heating coils (duct or AHU mounted) complete with two-way or three-way control valves
•Electric unit blast heaters (safe and hazardous areas)
•Thermal oil unit blast heaters (safe and hazardous areas)

A well-designed air distribution system shall result in an efficient air conditioning system. A low-
velocity duct system is practical in facilities where space is of secondary importance and a high-
velocity duct system is often most practical in a facility where space is at a premium. In this instance,
spiral high press duct is used.

1. Due to space constraints and considering the air flow requirements in offshore service, the designer
may have to go for high pressure ducting. The pressure drop in supply air ducting will be in the range
of 1000 to 1500 Pa and that in return air ducting will be in the range of 500 to 1000 Pa.

2. Ducts that may carry contaminated air or run through areas that may become contaminated shall be
gas tight. Duct systems shall be designed within prescribed limits of available space, friction loss,
noise level, heat loss or gain, and pressure containment.

3. Circular ducting (machine fabricated by using GS strip bands of 100 or 150 mm width) is
recommended, as the helically wound longitudinal joints provide adequate mechanical strength.

4. Ductwork connections to the outside atmosphere and through fire barriers would need to be
provided with fire / gas dampers rated to that of the fire barrier penetrated.

5. Ducts shall be constructed in accordance with applicable Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning
Contractors National Association (SMACNA) standards.

6. Special attention shall be paid to ductwork connections to fan inlets and outlets in order to maximize
the fan performance. See AMCA publication 201.

7. Flexible ducting shall be kept to a minimum and be used only for vibration damping or thermal
expansion purposes.


8. Return air shall be ducted to get a proper air balance. Some contractors may use return air plenums
above a false ceiling, which results in unbalanced operations within a short period of commissioning,
as the space above the false ceiling is being used for other services too.

HVAC control system :-

The HVAC system shall as a minimum have the following control provisions:

1. Auto/manual operation selecting facilities

2. Start/stop of fans
3. Fan and damper status/alarm
4. Alarm for loss of pressurization/flow
5. Auto/stand-by selecting facilities for fans
6. Temperature status/alarm for temperature sensitive areas
7. The system logic shall be equipped with manual reset
8. Controlled shutdown
9. Emergency shutdown and facilities for safe re-start after an incident


Careful consideration should be given to the location and layout of HVAC systems and associated
plant and components to enable adequate routine inspection testing and preventative and breakdown
maintenance to be carried out without prejudicing safety of the installation.

1. Suitable access platforms and routes for entry and removal of expendable components or failed
equipment should be provided.

2. Access doors into plant and ductwork would need to be of sufficient size to enable servicing to be
adequately carried out.

3. HVAC systems should be laid out with safety aspects in mind. They should be kept clear of areas
prone to damage from normal operations. Where practicable, hydrocarbon fuel lines and main power
and signal cables would need to be kept clear of HVAC systems

Hull Ventilation systems -

Involves dedicated ventilation systems as well as component equipment such as fans, louvers, and
moisture eliminators with filter coalescers in stainless or galvanised, and such Hull ventilation system
could be in these machinery spaces :

•Engine room ventilation

•Mud pit ventilation (explosion-proof fans)

•Shale shaker room ventilation (explosion-proof fans)

•Machinery space areas
•Hazardous-area ventilation
•Hazardous-area cooling


Ventilation DESIGN CONCEPTS :-

Area classification enables all parts of the rig installation to be identified as one of the following:

1. Zone 0 (Hazardous Areas), in which an explosive gas / air mixture is continuously present or present
for long periods.
2. Zone 1, in which an explosive gas / air mixture is likely to occur in normal operation.
3. Zone 2, in which an explosive gas / air mixture is not likely to occur in normal operation, and if it
occurs it will exist only for a short time.
4. Non-hazardous areas - manned and un-manned areas in which an explosive gas / air mixture will not
occur in normal operation.

The design of a confined ventilation system shall ensure the desired airflow characteristics when
personnel access doors or hatches are open. When necessary, air locks or enclosed trap shall be used to
minimize the impact of this on the ventilation system and to prevent the spread of airborne
contamination within the facility. The ventilation system design shall provide the required confinement
capability under all credible circumstances including a single-point failure in the system.

Maintenance of a pressure differential between hazardous and non-hazardous areas (generally in the
range of 30 to 70 Pa) is essential to prevent ingress of toxic or hazardous gases like H2S or CO or
CO2. Hazardous areas (zone 0 and zone 1) shall be at negative pressure whereas the non-hazardous
zones shall be at positive pressure. Positive pressurization is achieved by dumping more outside air
flow than it is exhausted from the spaces. Requirements include:

1. Living accommodation should preferably be located in a non-hazardous area and shall be at a

positive pressure with respect to outside ambient. Usually the passage or corridor is positive against
the outside environment to prevent any ingress of gas into the living module.
2. Mechanically ventilated enclosed escape ways shall have overpressure against neighboring areas.
3. All process areas such as mud storage, mixing, chemical storage rooms, shale shakers and pump
rooms should be at negative pressure with respect to adjacent lower classification zones. Arrangements
shall be made to enclose the various mud handling processes within hoods, booths or enclosures so as
to trap fumes, dust and gas at source and exhaust to a safe point of discharge to the outside
4. All areas housing hazardous equipment such as battery rooms shall be maintained at negative

Thus the study about Air condition and Ventilation has been carried out.