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Marist College

Spring 2018

Krista Coddington

Julissa Marcano

Nicole Snook

Emily Wylong

1

Table of Contents

PART I ......................................................................................................................5

Interventions .............................................................................................................5

What is Dyscalculia? ................................................................................................6

Focus of Interventions .............................................................................................................. 9

Beach Ball Math Intervention Kit ......................................................................................... 11

Math Anxiety ..........................................................................................................19

Math Anxiety Intervention Kit .............................................................................................. 21

What is ADHD? ......................................................................................................32

Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) ................................................................................... 34

BrainPOP / BrainPOP Jr. ...................................................................................................... 36

Language Deficiency ..............................................................................................41

Vocabulary Journal Intervention .......................................................................................... 43

Co-occurrence of dyscalculia and dyslexia ..........................................................47

Concrete-Representational-Abstract (CRA) with mnemonics ........................................... 51

PART II ...................................................................................................................57

Useful Websites for Support in Mathematics......................................................57

PART III .................................................................................................................63

Useful Apps for Support in Mathematics ............................................................63

2

About the Authors

3

Nicole Snook is currently in her second year of the School

Newburgh, NY.

4

PART I

Interventions

5

What is Dyscalculia?

In general, dyscalculia is a developmental learning disability in mathematical abilities,

which significantly interferes with school achievement and everyday living (Price & Ansari,

2014). With the lack of attention, research and various characteristics, there is no universal

definition of the term dyscalculia (Soares & Patel, 2015; Wadlington & Wadlington, 2008).

Research suggests that dyscalculia affects between 3-14% of individuals (Michaelson, 2007;

Soares & Patel, 2015). Specifically, 3-8% of the school-aged population may have dyscalculia

(Price & Ansari, 2014; Wadlington & Wadlington, 2008). Some researchers believe that there

are different forms of dyscalculia for each area of concern while others believe developmental

dyscalculia covers all difficulties in math (Soares & Patel, 2015). Wadlington and Wadlington

(2008) divided dyscalculia into three subtypes, which are semantic, procedural and visuospatial

memory. Students can have difficulties with retrieving arithmetic facts, understanding and

applying different mathematical procedures, and the ability to perceive how symbols and

numbers are placed on a page as well as visually manipulating objects (Soares & Patel, 2015).

The signs of dyscalculia vary throughout the literature despite having similar

characteristics. Students in elementary school should be able to memorize basic math facts and

have the ability to recall them in order to solve math problems. Those with dyscalculia will have

difficulties recalling math facts (Soares & Patel, 2015). Students may have the ability to

memorize basic math facts but do not understand the underlying meaning. Additionally, those

with dyscalculia will continue to count on their fingers or use other strategies long after peers

who have stopped using such strategies (Price & Ansari, 2014). Recognition of different math

symbols and numbers can be challenging. This is similar to students with dyslexia who have

difficulty recognizing letters. A student may have poor number sense or no flexibility when

6

working with numbers. Also, visualizing numbers and having a mental number line is a

challenge for those with dyscalculia (Price & Ansari, 2014). For example, they can have trouble

automatically knowing that the number eight is closer to ten than the number three. Other

challenges that may be observed in an elementary student with dyscalculia may include counting,

measurement, telling time, number patterns, spatial relations such as maps, math formulas and

strategies, estimation, math vocabulary, and place value (Price & Ansari, 2014; Soares & Patel,

2015).

Researchers have tried to understand the reasons why children have dyscalculia.

Hereditary, low intelligence, emotional disorders, math anxiety, ineffective curriculum, attention

and poor social skills may have an impact on the occurrence of dyscalculia (Price & Ansari,

2014; Wadlington & Wadlington, 2008). Other secondary sources may affect math learning

such as poor teaching, low socioeconomic status (SES) or other comorbid disorders (Michaelson,

2007; Price & Ansari, 2014; Wadlington & Wadlington, 2008). It is important to understand that

dyscalculia is comorbid with other learning difficulties such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity

Disorder (ADHD), and can often co-occur with math anxiety and language deficiencies (Price &

Ansari, 2014). The focus of this handbook is to understand dyscalculia and its comorbid

disorders, and how teachers can use interventions and other resources to support these students.

______________________________________________________________________________

Resources

Price, G. R., & Ansari, D. (2014). Developmental dyscalculia: Characteristics, causes and

7

Soares, N., & Patel, D. R. (2015). Dyscalculia. International Journal of Child and Adolescent

Wadlington, E., & Wadlington, P. L. (2008). Helping students with mathematical disabilities to

8

Focus of Interventions

While the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

(DSM) has grouped Dyscalculia together as a dimension within a single category, Specific

Learning Disability, the fourth edition did define Dyscalculia as its own disorder. In the DSM-

IV, Dyscalculia was defined as a serious impairment of the learning of basic numerical-

arithmetical skills in a child whose intellectual capacity and school are otherwise adequate

disorder, students who struggle with Dyscalculia will present difficulty with the development of

Students presenting with Dyscalculia will often have difficulty with acquisition, recall,

conceptualization and factual and procedural arithmetical knowledge. Students with Dyscalculia

will often engage in wrong or inappropriate application of calculation strategies, have difficulty

generalizing learned content, and will have little or no knowledge of the transfer of skills

To counter the difficulties associated with Dyscalculia, the following skills should be

knowledge, and automatization of factual knowledge (Kaufmann & von Aster, 2012). These

skills can be developed through repeated practice, segmentation of subject matter, small

interactive groups, and the use of cues in strategy learning (Swanson & Sachse-Lee, 2000).

9

focused on basic numerical skills were most effective, as opposed to interventions focused on

promoting precursor skills and/or problem-solving skills. Shorter interventions also appeared to

be more effective than interventions that took place over a longer period of time. Lastly,

interventions that were implemented through direct instruction (teacher performed) were more

______________________________________________________________________________

Resources

Kaufmann, L. & von Aster, M. (2012). The diagnosis and management of dyscalculia. Deutsches

Kroesbergen E. & van Luit, J.E.H. (2003). Mathematics intervention for children with special

research for students with LD. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33(2), 114–136.

10

Beach Ball Math Intervention Kit

Materials:

Brief Description: Using games within the classroom is an effective way to promote direct

familiarity with the number system. The development of fluency is an expected competency of

the Common Core Standards in Mathematics. To make games effective within the classroom,

hold students accountable to what they’ve learned. At the conclusion of the game, ask students

to record what skills they reviewed and practiced, what strategies they used, what strategies they

could use next time to do better, and how the game could be modified to be more challenging

(Rutherford, 2015). This intervention is designed to help students increase their fluency of basic

numeracy skills. The intervention can be adapted to match the academic level of the students.

Students will be engaged in a hands-on, interactive learning experience, which should help

11

Progress Monitoring: Students are given 3-5 curriculum-based measures (CBMs), easily

accessible through easyCBM or Aimsweb, to establish a baseline performance level. CBMs are

focused on the current academic curriculum lesson being addressed. Students are given a

curriculum-based measure at the beginning and the conclusion of each week, resulting in two

Directions:

3. Begin by tossing the beach ball to a student. The student will look at the math fact closest

to his/her right thumb, say the fact aloud and provide an answer. The teacher will

indicate if the student is correct or incorrect, and provide corrective feedback if incorrect.

The student will then write down the math fact and answer on their worksheet.

4. The student throws the beach ball to another student, who will follow the same

procedure.

5. The beach ball gets tossed around the circle until all students have a total of 5 math facts

6. Students review that they have the correct answers for each math fact on their worksheet.

Modifications:

*The math facts written on the beach ball will be age appropriate and applicable to the lesson

being covered in class. For example, in 1st grade, the focus may be on adding two one-digit

12

numbers, whereas in 5th grade, the focus may be on multiplying two-digit numbers.

______________________________________________________________________________

Resources

Adapted from The Game of Target 300 found in Burns, M. (2003). Using games in your math

Rutherford, K. (2015). Why play math games?. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

mathematics/blog/why-play-math-games_/

______________________________________________________________________________

Baseline Data

• Students should be given a curriculum-based measure each day for a total of three to five

• The number of problems answered correctly should be recorded for each CBM given and

graphed

Progress Monitoring

• Students should be given the same curriculum-based measure used for baseline data

• The number of problems answered correctly should be recorded for each CBM given and

13

Example of Baseline and Progress Monitoring Graphed Data

16

14

12

Number Correct

10

0

1-Jan 2-Jan 3-Jan 4-Jan 5-Jan 6-Jan 7-Jan 8-Jan 9-Jan 10-Jan 11-Jan 12-Jan 13-Jan 14-Jan 15-Jan

Date

Baseline Intervention

14

Treatment Integrity Checklist

Participating Students:

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

measure

based measure

ROI or peer comparison

academic unit

Game was played at least once during the week, giving students

the opportunity to practice and use math skills

15

Single-Skill Computation Probe: Student Copy

4 2 2

+5 +6 +1

6 2 6

+1 +6 +3

1 2 1

+7 +7 +1

8 1 3

+2 +7 +5

3 6 3

+1 +2 +4

16

The curriculum-based measure (CBM) shown above was created using the CBM generator on

www.interventioncentral.com. CBMs can also be downloaded from easyCBM at

www.easyCBM.com for free, or from AimsWeb at www.aimsweb.com, which requires the

purchase of an annual subscription.

17

Beach Ball Math Worksheet

Name: ______________________________________

Direction: Write down the math fact your right thumb lands closest to and solve it. After you

have completed five math facts, add the sums of all five together. Whoever has the highest total

wins!

Total __________

18

Math Anxiety

Children with developmental dyscalculia may also suffer with math anxiety.

mathematical operations, hence the term math anxiety. Math anxiety refers to negative reactions

as well as negative emotions associated with math. It involves a state of discomfort during

mathematical tasks that are perceived as threatening to the self-esteem. There are many

interventions that exist to help with any difficulties that the co-occurring anxiety may be

In a study conducted by Ashcraft and Kirk in 2001, individuals with math anxiety

showed smaller working memory spans. They found that the reduced memory capacity led to an

increase in errors. Students who fear math, for any reason, are not reaching benchmarks set by

state assessments, which further hinders their success in math and further minimizes their

confidence (Ashcraft and Kirk, 2001). In this case, it is important to be aware of signs and

symptoms of potential math anxiety happening in the classroom. One sign of math anxiety is

math avoidance. When a student becomes convinced of their inability to successfully complete

math tasks, the student might completely avoid math or put little effort into the task, leading to a

vicious cycle of less mathematical practice that will eventually cause significant gaps in their

Teaching styles can cause anxiety/avoidance for students as whole yet alone students who

already experience difficulty in math due to dyscalculia. With this being said, Marilyn Curtain-

Phillips (2017) acknowledged that there are three practices in the traditional math classroom that

can cause anxiety including imposed authority, public exposure and timed deadlines. She states

that teaching styles need to be altered in order to meet the needs of all students. More emphasis

19

should be placed on using manipulatives, visual aids, hands on activities, etc. to solve problems.

Handling incorrect responses in a positive manner is also crucial. Relating math to their

everyday lives is also important. By making math practical, this can encourage students who are

experiencing math anxiety to apply more effort. It is important to limit time pressures for

students experiencing math anxiety, as well as, requiring them to perform in front of a larger

group. It is important to target these issues early on so they have the opportunity to form a solid

foundation of mathematical skills as they progress through the educational system. If not

provided with the appropriate support, students with math anxiety will continue to have the

belief that they are unable to master any mathematical concept, leading to a lack of mathematical

______________________________________________________________________________

Resources

Ashcraft, M. H., & Kirk, E. P. (2001). The relationships among working memory, math

https://digitalcommons.brockport.edu/ehd_theses/448/

Krinzinger, H., Kaufmann, L., & Willmes, K. (2009). Math anxiety and math ability in

20

Math Anxiety Intervention Kit

Appropriate Grade Level: K-5

Brief Description: This intervention is designed to help students reduce their math anxiety by

first identifying their feelings, writing/drawing about their thoughts/feelings, and performing a

brief 5-minute breathing exercise prior to the math assignment. The purpose of these tools is to

provide a method for students to label their emotions and reflect on them, and doing so, learn

how to regulate these emotions in order to not let the negative emotions get in the way of

performing math tasks adequately. Finally, students are asked to identify their feelings after the

assignment is complete again. Research suggests that expressive writing can reduce negative

thoughts and emotions in anxious populations as well as increase the accessibility of working

memory resources (Park, Beilock, & Ramirez, 2014). Research also suggests that using mindful

techniques can be beneficial to those experiencing math anxiety (Brunye, Mahoney, Giles, Rapp,

______________________________________________________________________________

Resources

Brunye, T. T., Mahoney, C. R., Giles, G. E., Rapp, D. N., Taylor, H. A., & Kanarek, R. B.

(2013). Learning to relax: Evaluating four brief interventions for overcoming the negative

Park, D., Ramirez, G., & Beilock, S. L. (2014). The role of expressive writing in math

______________________________________________________________________________

21

Intervention Goal: Students will reduce anxiety, rebuild self-confidence and help support

academic success.

Progress Monitoring: Teachers can assess their students’ anxiety by charting the students’

Frequency: The intervention should be utilized until student can appropriately complete math

Materials:

o Collect baseline data by charting students’ feelings prior to using writing/drawing exercise and

o After baseline data is collected, in the beginning of the math lesson, students will be asked to

identify their feelings and write about their thoughts and feelings prior to completing the task.

o After expressing their thoughts and feelings, a 5-minute guided breathing meditation will be

implemented

*Modification: for younger ages, 5 minutes may be too long, teacher may modify time

based on what they feel is appropriate. Time can gradually increase to 5 minutes with

practice.

o Explain to students that for the next 5 minutes they are going to be sitting still and quietly to

22

o It is important to explain to students why they are doing this exercise and why it is important

o Say: “We are going to practice breathing to help us think more clearly, we are going to be

paying attention to our breath and notice how it makes our body and brains feel. Breathing helps

o Encourage the students to sit comfortable in their chair, back straight, feet on the floor, hands

on the lap.

o Ask the students to gently close their eyes and pay attention to their breathing, when you say

“begin” and not to open their eyes until you say “now you can open your eyes”

o If you notice students are struggling with keeping their eyes closed, you can ask for them

to look down at their hands (the most important thing is to avoid visual distraction)

o As you begin the exercise, tell students to “take slow breaths” (you can help students pay

attention to their breathing by telling them to put their hand on their tummy to feel their tummy

o To help guide the breathing say: “breathe in through your nose and breathe out through your

mouth, breathe in like you’re smelling a flower and breathe out like you’re blowing a bubble”

o When the time is up, tell the students to open their eyes slowly and take another deep breath

o After completing the breathing exercise, students will begin their math assignment.

o After completing the math assignment, students will identify their feelings again.

23

Sample Feelings Baseline/ Progress Monitoring Assessment

Name:

Date:

1. Circle how you are feeling about the math work you are about to do.

2.

NOTES

***ask the students to identify their feeling after the assignment as well using the same

scale

***number one on “my thoughts and feelings” worksheet (this will only be used for the

first two weeks to collect baseline prior to completing number 2 and breathing exercise)

24

My Thoughts and Feelings Worksheet

Name:

Date:

1. Circle how you are feeling about the math work you are about to do

2. Why does it make you feel this way? Or draw a picture of why this math work makes you

3. Circle how you are feeling about the math work you just completed

25

Progress Monitoring: Feelings

Student Name:

Baseline Data

26

Intervention Data

27

Examples of Progress Monitoring

28

Treatment Integrity Checklist:

1. 5 baseline data points were collected based on how students identified their

emotions on number 1 and number 3 on My Thoughts and Feelings worksheet

2. 12- 16 intervention points were collected based on how students identified their

emotions before and after the math assignment using the My Thoughts and Feelings

worksheet

4. Students wrote and/or drew about why they felt the way they did about having to

complete the assignment

5. A complete 5 minute guided breathing meditation was implemented after doing the

writing/drawing exercise

9. Students were seated comfortably with backs straight, feet on the floor, and hands

on their lap

10. Students participated by closing their eyes or looking down at their hands and

breathing slowly

12. Students identified their emotion again after completing the math assignment

29

Additional Resources for Math Anxiety

https://childhood101.com/fun-breathing-exercises-for-kids/

This website provides printable “breathing exercise cards” to practice at home or school. These

cards can be beneficial in helping explain why breathing is important and if the teachers need to

modify the intervention slightly. They can also be sent home so students can practice breathing

30

Belly Breathing

http://www.pbs.org/parents/adventures-in-learning/2015/09/calming-breathing-exercise-for-kids/

This website helps explain what and why belly breathing helps us calm down. It can be helpful

to teachers when explaining to students why they are practicing breathing. It is parent friendly as

well, which can help parents understand and possibly incorporate in their home lifestyle as well

31

What is ADHD?

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurological disorder that is

(2010), 3-5% of elementary school children in the United States are diagnosed with ADHD.

Students with ADHD may have an array of behavioral difficulties in school such as negative

interruptions, fidgeting in their seat, following directions, shouting out answers, being distracted

and speaking to peers. According to Lucangeli and Cabrele (2006) research has focused on the

academic performance of reading and ADHD rather than mathematics. Attention, difficulty with

are classified as being learning disabled because of deficits in an array of academic skills

(DuPaul & Stoner, 2010). Students with ADHD may also have dyscalculia.

According to Soares and Patel (2015), the comorbidity rate of ADHD and dyscalculia is

11% with male students being closer to 20%. Some researchers suggest that inattentiveness is

elementary study with 121 non-disabled boys and 107 boys with ADHD, it was found that those

with ADHD had low problem-solving abilities as well as low computation skills. The arithmetic

tasks consisted of addition, subtraction and multiplication. Those with ADHD performed slow

in number recognition and typing numbers on a computer. There were behaviors that occurred

that are associated with ADHD such as looking away, speaking during the task and being restless

in the chair (Lucangeli & Cabrele, 2006). ADHD students are often slower in their mathematical

problem-solving skills and calculation as well as less accurate responses. Since students with

32

ADHD have a high risk of developing poor academic skills like math, school psychologists,

teachers and other support staff need to work together. Together, they should form interventions

that address ADHD behavioral symptoms such as attention but also the academic skills that are

______________________________________________________________________________

Resources

DuPaul, J. G., & Stoner, G. (2010). Interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In

Lucangeli, D., & Cabrele, S. (2006). Mathematical Difficulties and ADHD. Exceptionality,

14(1), 53-62.

33

Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)

Computer assisted instruction (CAI) is a favorable intervention for elementary students

with ADHD and learning disabilities as it provides additional instructional supports (Harlacher,

Roberts & Merrell, 2006). These types of interventions can be class wide universal interventions

interventions are useful because they benefit all students. Today, there are many schools that

have access to computers in the classroom or at least have a computer room in the school. CAI

may be more easily implemented today due to access (Botsas & Grouios, 2014). Teachers can

implement the intervention as a way to teach initial skills or be used to review already learned

material (DePaul & Stoner, 2010). According to DePaul and Stoner (2010), CAI can improve

Researchers have observed students being more engaged in their academic learning

increase on task behavior and promote attention. Interventions with increased stimulation can

boost a student’s interest in a topic, which will have a positive impact on attention and

achievement (Botsas & Grouios, 2017). Computer interventions incorporate many engaging and

reinforcing features that can support students. They can provide immediate and specific

feedback, provide animations and other interactive features, highlighting symbols or key words,

provide step by step objectives, use multiple visual and audio features that can be turned off and

provide activities in smaller chunks (DePaul & Stoner, 2010; Harlacher, Roberts & Merrell,

2006; Murray & Rabiner, 2014). Murray and Rabiner (2014) argue that even though CAI may

not always be free to teachers and can be expensive, these types of interventions can be less

34

______________________________________________________________________________

Resources

Botsas, G., & Grouios, G. (2017). Computer assisted instruction of students with ADHD and

academic performance: A bride review of studies conducted between 1993 and 2016, and

Harlacher, J. E., Roberts, N. E., & Merrell, K. W. (2006). Class wide Interventions for

Students with ADHD: A Summary of Teacher Options Beneficial for the Whole Class.

Murray, D. W., & Rabiner, D. L. (2014). Teacher Use of Computer-Assisted Instruction for

35

BrainPOP / BrainPOP Jr.

Brief Description: BrainPOP is an animated web-based program that includes animated videos

and multiple learning tools for students and teachers. BrainPOP offers lessons plans in many

subject areas such as science, social studies, arts and music, English and math. The following is

an example of a number sense lesson plan, which is one of many lessons that can be

implemented in a classroom. In this number sense lesson plan, students work with real

jellybeans as math manipulatives and in an online game. The real and virtual jellybeans will be

used to practice number sense concepts such as greater than or less than, counting, addition and

subtraction, estimation and algebraic thinking. This lesson is aligned with New York States

Common Core State Standards. This lesson can be implemented after the main class instruction

on the target skill or can be integrated into the main class instruction of new material.

Intervention Goal: BrainPOP will provide students with helpful learning tools, extra practice

and immediate feedback in many areas of math. Students will improve their attention and skills

in mathematic instruction, which will enhance their overall academic success. This intervention

will specifically enhance concepts in counting, number sense and math facts though practice and

hands on manipulatives.

36

Location: Whole Class, Small-Group Instruction, Individual Instruction, Home

Duration & Frequency: This intervention can be implemented throughout the entire unit/lesson

or until the student becomes proficient in the material. The videos are 3-5 minutes long and the

online and hands on games are 5-10 minutes long. The recommended frequency of this

intervention is once or twice per week depending on the lesson. This intervention may also be

Materials:

https://www.brainpop.com

measurements (CBM). The teacher should collect three to five baseline points for the target skill

with whichever progress-monitoring tool they choose. Intervention Central has a great CBM

((http://www.interventioncentral.org/curriculum-based-measurement-reading-math-assesment-

tests). Collect at least two data points for six to eight weeks in order to see if the intervention

37

works at improving mathematical performance. The same CBM should be used before and after

the intervention.

BrainPOP can help teachers keep track of their student's progress through My BrainPOP.

teachers can provide students feedback on their quizzes, worksheets and other activities. Class

quiz results can be broken down question by questions to see which ones students are having the

most trouble with. Teachers can build their own quizzes with the Quiz Mixer. Additionally,

class game results can provide teachers knowledge about student performance.

Directions:

2. The teacher should choose between counting, number sense or math facts depending on

4. Type in your target skill in the search bar or find your topic in the math tab.

5. Depending upon the target skill, play the appropriate BrainPOP Jr. movie (repeated

subtraction, counting on, basic subtraction, making equal groups, adding and subtracting

7. After the movie, put on the jellybean game and demonstrate how to navigate the portion

of the game you would like the class to play. You can play a few rounds with the class

8. Form pairs and have each pair play the jellybean game together for 5-10 minutes.

38

9. Have students take turns answering the questions. One student can say the answer and the

other student can click or fill out the answer on the computer.

10. Each pair can explain why they said their answer.

11. The class can come back together and discuss their strategies for the game

13. Introduce the hands-on game to students. Object of the game is to re-create the online

jellybean game or create a new game that can be used to practice the target skill.

example: In pairs, students can take turns dividing the beans into piles and asking which

pile has more or less, add or subtract each pile, count them or use estimation.

14. Pass out jellybeans and give students time to form their own game.

15. Allow 10 minutes to play their games with partners. Switch partners as needed

16. Bring students back as a class and ask for volunteers to explain their game and their game

strategies

17. Have students reflect what they learned during the online game as a class or with a peer

Modification Note:

As students become comfortable, you may have students pair up and play the hands on or

virtual Jelly Bean game for 5-10 minutes, and then progress monitor and not show the movie.

Instead of coming back as a class to talk about their games, students can just play their games for

extra practice time. Timing of the games or the frequency of the amount of times students play

during the week depends on students’ progress or what tier they are in.

Can be implemented in the form of learning centers. Students can be paired up depending

upon the number of students in the class. Each center can be an activity from the target skill

39

BrainPOP page. As students move between centers, put on transition music, ask the student to

jump like an animal or jump a certain way. Transitions between learning centers can help

Counting

Level 1: Type in the number of jellybeans

Level 2: Basic addition and subtraction with beans

Level 3: Counting arrays of jelly beans (addition and subtraction with multiple

digits)

Number Sense:

Level 1: Choose the larger group of jellybeans

Level 2: Estimate the number of jellybeans

Level 3: More difficult combination of levels 1 and 2

Math Facts

Level 1: Addition and subtraction with numbers and beans

Level 2: Addition and subtraction to "Make 10"

Level 3: A mix of slightly harder problems

**Note that you can click the clock in the main menu to turn off the timer during

game play.

______________________________________________________________________________

Resources

https://educators.brainpop.com/new-subscribers/explore-brainpop-jr/

BrainPOP. (2018). Math facts and number sense lesson plan: The jellybean game. Retrieved

from https://educators.brainpop.com/lesson-plan/the-jelly-bean-game/

40

Language Deficiency

Language is the foundation to all communication. Unfortunately, roughly six to eight

million individuals in the United States have some form of language impairment. Language

deficiencies affect children and adults different. Children who acquire a deficiency during

childhood may not have a fully developed language. It is estimated an average of 2-8% of

school-aged children have some form of a language deficit (National Institute on Deafness and

The language of mathematics is filled with complex vocabulary, terms, phrases, and

symbols. For students who struggle to read and comprehend, math can also be difficult.

there are a few studies which touch upon this topic. Researchers have found that vocabulary

development greatly improves comprehension. Therefore, students who do not understand the

vocabulary used in math instruction will not understand how to compute mathematic problems.

In turn, students may not understand the language used in the textbook, in word problems, verbal

instructions, and may struggle to begin to plan how to execute problem solving (Aiken Babineau,

2010).

One study found that math vocabulary is rarely taught directly in the classroom.

Researchers conducted a study, giving vocabulary checklists to high school students and found

that many struggled with basic mathematic vocabulary terms. Another study done found a

correlation between reading comprehension and mathematic skills. The researchers found that

improved students’ math skills (Aiken Babineau, 2010). The following intervention will show

41

how to use a vocabulary journal to increase students’ ability to comprehend and efficiently use

mathematical vocabulary.

______________________________________________________________________________

Resources

Aiken Babineau, K. (2010). Supporting students in the language and vocabulary of math. Speech

students-in-language-and-1159

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (2016). Statistics on voice,

https://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/statistics/statistics-voice-speech-and-language

42

Vocabulary Journal Intervention

Target: This intervention is intended to increase students’ ability to effectively comprehend and

Duration & Frequency: Recommended 5 days a week for 15 minutes. The intervention should

Materials:

http://www.p12.nysed.gov/ciai/mst/math/glossary/home.html

Directions:

3. Read the first vocabulary word to the student. Have the student write the word down at the

4. Have the student indicate their level of knowledge of the word – 1 meaning they have

never heard of the word before, to 5 meaning they know the definition of the word and

43

5. Briefly discuss and explain the first vocabulary word with the student. Give the

6. Next, have the student create his or her own definition for the vocabulary word, written in

7. Have the student draw a picture or write an example of the vocabulary word.

Have each student review the weekly vocabulary words at least once a week. Let students

engage in peer collaboration by encouraging students to pair up and discuss the vocabulary

words, play a game of Pictionary with the words, sort the words into categories,

compare/contrast terms in Venn Diagrams, etc. Practicing the vocabulary words throughout the

Progress Monitoring: Students are given a curriculum-based assessment, weekly math tests

created by the teacher from the curriculum. Students should be given the curriculum-based

measure (CBM) prior to starting implantation of the intervention to obtain baseline data.

Students should be given the same CBM at the end of each week for the duration of the

intervention.

44

Vocabulary Journal Worksheet

Word:______________________________________ Rating: 1 2 3 4 5

My Definition:

Example/Sketch:

Word:______________________________________ Rating: 1 2 3 4 5

My Definition:

Example/Sketch:

45

______________________________________________________________________________

Resources

https://www.ocde.us/ACCESS/EL/Documents/Teaching%20Systematic%20Vocabulary

%20%20indepth.pdf

Marzano, R.J. (2004). Building background knowledge for academic achievement: Research on

what works in schools. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum and

Development.

Marzano, R.J., Pickering, D.J. (2005). Building academic vocabulary: Teacher’s manual.

http://www.bemidji.k12.mn.us/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Vocabulary-Journal-

Vocabulary2.pdf

46

Co-occurrence of Dyscalculia and Dyslexia

For students with dyscalculia, the act of performing even the simplest of math tasks can

be cognitively taxing. In many cases, mathematics can become even more challenging when

students have both dyscalculia and dyslexia, together. These two disorders are known as

neurodevelopmental disorders can frequently co-occur. While the etiology of both dyscalculia

and dyslexia are not well known, it is approximated that the overlap of these two disorders can

be as high as 20-70% (as cited in Kuhn, 2015). As much of the literature surrounding

dyscalculia and dyslexia is mixed, it is difficult to fully understand how these two disorders

together can impact a student's ability to comprehend and perform arithmetic problems.

reading disabilities, such as dyslexia. Students with dyslexia often demonstrate difficulties with

word recognition, reading fluency, spelling, and writing. They may also demonstrate difficulties

with phonological skills, including phonemic awareness, as well as the inability to rapidly name

letters and names (Kumar & Raja, 2009); however, academic impairments of students with

dyslexia are not limited to only reading and spelling. In fact, these impairments can also include

aspects of math; specifically, phonological processing deficits in students with dyslexia can

impair aspects of mathematics that rely on the manipulation of verbal code, such as counting

While not much research has been conducted to look at phonological processing in

relation to mathematics, a longitudinal study, from second to fifth grade, was conducted by

Hecht, Torgesen, Wagner, and Rashotte (2001) to look at this relationship in regards to

mathematical computation skills. Mathematical computation skills include the speed in which a

47

student can answer simple arithmetic equations, such as one-digit addition and subtraction

problems, and how accurately a student can solve more complex problems, such as long division

and fraction equations (Hecht, Torgesen, Wagner, & Rashotte, 2001). Results of this study

suggest that phonological memory, rate of access to phonological codes in long-term memory,

and phonological awareness, which are the same phonological processing abilities in reading,

also appear to contribute to growth in general mathematic computation skills (Hecht, et. al.,

2001).

In regards to literacy skills and mathematics, some researchers have also looked into how

literacy skills can impact a student's ability to perform arithmetic word problems. While

working with word problems, students must first be able to read the problem, understand the text

that describes the task (Kyttälä & Björn, 2014) and then use numbers to solve the problem.

Fuchs, Fuchs, Compton, Powell, Seether, Capizzi, et. al. (2006), found that besides arithmetic,

nonverbal problem solving, concept formation, sight word efficiency, and language all emerged

as unique correlates of arithmetic word problems. Although a study conducted by Kyttälä and

Björn (2014) looked at students in the eighth grade, their study suggests that literacy skills were

significantly associated with mathematical word problem skills. More specifically, results

indicated that reading comprehension skills predict successfully solving word problems in boys

and technical reading predicts both calculation skill and word problem skill across genders

(Kyttälä & Björn, 2014). If a student is unable to read fluently, or identify sight words with

automaticity, it can impact a student's ability to remember key information that they have read

While there appears to be many links between dyslexia and dyscalculia, research has

shown that these two learning disorders have two distinct and domain-specific cognitive profiles.

48

Specifically, research conducted by Landerl, Fussenegger, Moll, and Willburger (2009) has

suggested that students with dyslexia have a phonological deficit and students with dyscalculia

have a number processing deficit. Results of this study showed a phonological deficit in

dyslexia-only and dyslexia/dyscalculia groups, but not in the dyscalculia-only group and deficits

dyslexia/dyscalculia group, results suggest that cognitive deficits resulted from a combination of

the two learning disorders (Landerl, et. al., 2009). Although the cognitive profiles of these two

learning disabilities differ, some research suggests that some aspects of literacy and arithmetic

may share some cognitive processes, which are more domain-general; these abilities include

deficits in working memory, processing speed, and verbal processes (Kumar & Raja, 2009;

______________________________________________________________________________

Resources

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Compton, D. L., Powell, S. R., Seethaler, P. M., Capizzi, A. M., et al.

29-43. doi:http://dx.doi.org.online.library.marist.edu/10.1037/0022-0663.98.1.29

Hecht, S. A., Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (2001). The relations between

49

doi:http://dx.doi.org.online.library.marist.edu/10.1027/2151-2604/a000205

Kumar, S. P., & Raja, B. D. (2009). Treating Dyslexic and Dyscalculia Students. Journal On

Kyttälä, M., & Björn, P. M. (2014). The role of literacy skills in adolescents' mathematics word

doi:http://dx.doi.org.online.library.marist.edu/10.1016/j.lindif.2013.10.010

Landerl, K., Fussenegger, B., Moll, K., & Willburger, E. (2009). Dyslexia and Dyscalculia: Two

50

Concrete-Representational-Abstract (CRA) with mnemonics

Brief Description:

Math computation for students with dyscalculia and dyslexia can be incredibly difficult

and as such it is important for interventions to be put in place for those students. Mnemonic

strategy interventions, such as using acronyms and acrostics may help improve computational

fluency for students as these methods allow students to rely on easily remembered cues rather

than repetition (as cited in Nelson, Burns, Kanive, & Ysseldyke, 2013). While solving

arithmetic word problems, students should utilize a mnemonic such as, "RUN," which reminds

the student to Read the problem, Underline important information, and Name the problem. After

identifying key factors in the word problem (i.e., numbers and operation), the student should

CRA is a three-phase model that relies on explicit instruction and the use of

manipulatives to help students develop computation skills. The first phase, identified as the

concrete phase, involves the use of manipulatives. Teachers first model a math concept with

concrete materials and then provide students with opportunities to practice using these concrete

materials. The representational phase is again modeled to the student and this phase involves

drawing pictures that represent concrete objects that were previously used. After being modeled

to the student, he/she should be provided with opportunities to practice this skill. The third, and

final, stage is known as the abstract stage. In this stage, the teacher models the math concept

51

using only numbers and mathematical symbols. Again, after this demonstration, the student

should be provided with opportunities to practice (Agawal & Morin, 2016; Bouck, Park, &

Nickell, 2017).

individual setting.

Intervention Goal: Blending a mnemonic strategy with the use of CRA will first provide

students with a framework for solving arithmetic word problems and then the opportunity to use

manipulatives and visual representations to help them accurately solve arithmetic word

problems.

Frequency and Duration: This intervention should be implemented for 30 minutes for 6-8

weeks.

student's math computation skills. Baseline data should be collected a minimum of three times

around arithmetic word problems, it is important that the teacher collect baseline data using these

types of problems.

To determine the effectiveness of the intervention put into place, it is important conduct

progress monitoring on the student's skill achievement. Progress monitoring data, in the form of

the same type of CBAs utilized for collecting baseline data, should be collected 2-3 times per

52

week. Specific CBAs that are created should be aligned to the specific target skill and at the

appropriate grade and/or skill level of that student. For example, if students are working on

addition and subtraction, the CBA should reflect those skills at their grade and/or skill level.

Materials:

• Math worksheet with arithmetic word problem(s) that also include the mnemonic

• Pencil

• Hands-on manipulatives (i.e., pencils, paper clips, pop cubes, baby bear counters, etc.)

https://www.learningresources.com/category/subject/math/manipulatives.do

2) Teacher should then demonstrate each step to the student and encourage the student to

3) Encourage the student to write a number sentence using the information gathered from

the reading.

a) Example: Mark has three pencils and Sean has seven pencils. How many pencils do they

have in all?

53

3+7=10

4) After completing this, the teacher should incorporate the CRA model to help the students

representations. The teacher and student(s) should draw pictures to understand the

concept.

c. Abstract: Teacher demonstrates that the problem can be solved without manipulatives

• After providing a demonstration to the student, teachers can then act as a guide for

subsequent problems and eventually work toward having the student work independently.

• During guided instruction and independent practice, students should be asked to raise their

hand when they are finished with the problem. The teacher should check their work and

provide them with immediate feedback before moving on to the next problem.

54

Example Worksheet

Name:____________________________ Date:_____________________

Word Problems

Directions: When solving word problems, remember to RUN!

U: Underline important information

N: Name the problem

1. Sarah has one teddy bear. Megan has two teddy bears. How many teddy bears in all?

2. David has one brother and three sisters. How many siblings does he have in all?

______________________________________________________________________________

55

Resources

Bouck, E., Park, J., & Nickell, B. (2017). Using the concrete-representational-abstract approach

doi:http://dx.doi.org.online.library.marist.edu/10.1016/j.ridd.2016.11.006

Nelson, P. M., Burns, M. K., Kanive, R., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (2013). Comparison of a math fact

rehearsal and a mnemonic strategy approach for improving math fact fluency. Journal of

doi:http://dx.doi.org.online.library.marist.edu/10.1016/j.jsp.2013.08.003

56

PART II

Useful Websites for Support in

Mathematics

57

Elementary Math

Website: https://elemath.hallco.org

Overview: Elementary Math is a free website developed by Christie Bailey and colleagues who

is a professional learning specialist in the Hall Country School District outside of Atlanta

Georgia. This website provides teachers with an array of resources for math instruction.

Instruction, Number Talks, RTI, Math Videos, Singapore Math and calendar math are the links at

the top of the website which includes various resources. These resources can be useful for

teachers when brainstorming interventions and instructional methods. Specifically, this website

includes intervention and progress monitoring tools under the RTI tab. These are evidence-based

interventions with progress monitoring suggestions within each intervention. The interventions

are categorized by early learning interventions, general problem solving interventions, a link to

intensive interventions, k-2nd and 3rd-5th. Teachers may benefit from this resource since the

intervention document includes everything that is needed. Having interventions planned out

58

Math TV

Website: https://www.mathtv.com/

Overview: Math TV is a free website that is aligned with textbooks published by XYZ textbooks

authored by Charles P. McKeague. This website can be accessed by students, parents, and

teachers and includes several materials that can be utilized for mathematics instruction, including

textbooks, videos, online homework, and worksheets. The main website includes several math

videos on the topics of: basic mathematics, including whole numbers, fractions, mixed numbers,

decimals, ratios, proportions, and percents; algebra; geometry; trigonometry; calculus; and high

school. These videos could be helpful to students who need extra instruction, demonstration, and

practice. This information could also be useful to parents when assisting their children with

homework. Teachers, who may or may not utilize these textbooks, may also wish to incorporate

these videos in their lesson plans. With the purchase of these textbooks, teachers can also utilize

the XYZ homework website for free. It is also important to note that within each topic, a

59

Mathematics Standards

Website: www.corestandards.org/Math/

Overview: For those interested in becoming more familiar with the mathematics standards, this is

a good tool.. The common core state standards website is not only a useful tool for teachers, but

it is also useful for other school staff, including school psychologists. This information can be

useful for choosing and creating lesson plans, as well as assisting in the development of

interventions for students who may not be responding to the core mathematics curriculum.

Teachers, or other interested persons, can view the mathematic standards based on grade level

(Kindergarten through 12th grade) or by specific domain, which include: counting and

cardinality; operations and algebraic thinking; number and operations in base ten; number and

expressions and equations; functions; and statistics and probability. More specifically, it is

important to have an understanding of these standards because they indicate what students

should understand and what they should be able to perform at each grade level.

60

AAA Math

Website: http://worldplenty.com/

Overview: AAA Math is a useful website for students as it allows students to practice math using

different interactive arithmetic lessons. This website provides lessons for grades kindergarten

through eighth grade; students can access lessons by grade level, located at the top of the screen,

or by subject, located on the left hand side of the screen. Specific topics included on this website

include: addition, algebra, comparing, counting, decimals, division, equations, mental math,

money, and many others. According to information provided by the website, there is unlimited

practice for each topic, which help students achieve mastery. Additionally, immediate feedback

61

Math Goodies

Website: https://www.mathgoodies.com

Overview: Math Goodies is a useful website for parents, teachers and students as it provides free

worksheets by grade, worksheet creator, games, lessons, puzzles, a glossary, calculators and an

array of articles. This website is aligned with the Common Core State Standards for grades 3-7

and includes over 500 pages of math activities. There is a link for Elementary Math Lessons that

includes lessons on factors, prime and composite numbers, exponents and much more. Each

lesson provides readers a description. Once you click on the desired lesson, examples of the

lesson are provided along with links to additional lessons and related activities. Additionally,

premade math worksheets are provided for many topics and are separated by grade. The math

generator allows teachers to create worksheets that can be customized. Games are designed to

engage students on math lessons and aid in the development of math fluency. The math glossary

is a great resource for students. Math puzzles provide additional support to students who need

extra help in math vocabulary. If students do not have someone at home to check their work or if

they do not have a calculator, this website provides an array of calculators. For students in upper

elementary school students, math problems are also provided as “Problem of the Week”. Finally

articles for parents or teachers are included which focus on many topics in mathematics and

education.

62

PART III

Useful Apps for Support in

Mathematics

63

Math Wizard for Kids

Cost: $2.99

https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/math-wizard-for-kids/id1187272174?mt=8

Description: This app is available in the Apple app store for the iPhone and iPad. Math

instruction for this app is geared toward students ages 5 to 12. Included in this app are a

'Sandbox,' which is described as an open-ended activity that allows students to experiment with

algebra rules, and 'Exercises,' which focus on addition, subtraction, equality, inequality, isolating

a variable, and brain teasers. More specifically, the 'Sandbox' helps students learn and

understand: addition and subtraction, the meaning of equality and inequality in math, what math

symbols are (+.-. =, >, <), and how to manipulate terms of math expressions and equations.

Cost: Free

https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/big-math-flash-cards/id929492658?mt=8

Description: This app is available for purchase in the Apple app store for the iPhone and iPad

and is useful for students who need to develop automaticity in mathematic fact fluency. With

this, app students can practice single and multiple digit addition, subtraction, multiplication, and

division. Similar to a normal flashcard, a question is presented on the front of the card. On the

back of the card, a list of possible answers is provided for the student to choose from. Students

are given immediate feedback, which is helpful in tracking student progress. To unlock all the

features of this app, Big Math Flash Cards School can be purchased in the Apple app store for

$2.99.

Math Vs Zombies

Cost: $4.99

https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/math-vs-zombies-math-games-grade-k-

5/id470896560?mt=8

ages 5-11; this app can be purchased through the apple app store. This app is geared toward

motivating students to practice addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division skills while

saving zombies. This app is aligned with Common Core State Standards for Kindergarten

through 4th grades and includes a report card section for parents and teachers as a way to

monitor student progress.

64

Lobster Diver

Cost: Free

https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/lobster-diver/id416577542?mt=8

Description: Lobster Diver is a free educational app that can be downloaded on your iPad,

iPhone and iPod touch through the Apple app store. This game is ideal for upper elementary and

middle school students in grades 3-8. The game consists of motivating students in order to

understand ways of representing numbers and number systems. Additional goals of the game are

to have students learn how to use fractions, understand fractions on number lines and compare

fractions. An updated version of this game is called Pearl Diver: Number Line Math Game

which is also free. This version is aligned with Common Core State Standards and includes a

Spanish version.

Reflex Student

Cost: Free

https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/reflex-student/id892510181?mt=8

Description: Reflex math is now available on the iPad intended for students in grades 2-8.

Reflex is an award winning research-based system that helps students recall math facts in

addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. This app includes an English, French and

Spanish version. The game will monitor students’ progress and will alter the game based on

progress. This game has been used throughout the tiers of Response to Intervention. With the

variety of math games, students will have many games to choose from that will fully engage

them into learning mathematics.

Cost: $3.99

https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/mystery-math-town/id619404402?mt=8

Description: The students mission is to help a friendly ghost rescue fireflies that are hiding in the

Mystery Math Town. Students can unlock rooms by solving math facts. Mystery Math Town is

compatible with the iPad and can be downloaded in the Apple app store. The game allows

parents and teachers unlimited user accounts so all students in the class can have their own

customized profile based on strengths and weaknesses. Students can benefit from this game

since the math skills are customizable in addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

Besides putting in the answers, players can learn how to form their own math equations.

65

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