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3

' \ 1 )
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. ./ /" / (, . / 1 ,L / , ,( !, , t ' . t,.'!al;i.J-
f . ,
' , / . ' ' ( ; t l

] *rruRN oF AMMoNTA
Ammoniaistheoldest
(andregarded
byproponents
asthebest)refrigerant
whosereturn
to seaafteryearsashoreis proposedas an ozonefriendlyalternative
to the HCFC
-
refrigerant
R22whichcurrentlydominatesmarineinstallations.Shipowners and system
! designersconsidering
its useas a replacement for R22,whosefutureis under
' environmentalpressure,willfind valuablebackground and guidelinesin
information
! recentLloyd'sRegisterpublications.

! The rootsof ammoniaas a marinecargorefrigerant are loggedin the annalsof the


t- classification
society:lt wasfinallyleftto a Frenchman, Tellier,to makethe first
- successfultransportation of meatoverseas,his littlesteamer"Frigorifique"landinga
! cargoof beeffromthe Argentinein fair conditionafterit had treenpreservedovera
periodof 110days.Thishistoricvoyageoccurredin 1877,and an ammonia-compression
!
plantwas usedon board.'
refrigeration
\-

I he samereportnotes,however,thatthe earlyammoniamachineswerenot at all


'
suitablefor useat sea,owingto the leakageof the ammonia,whichwas not only
t
unpleasant but dangerous.
Ammoniawas laterdisplacedby the high-pressure carbon
t dioxidesystemwhichdominated the marinemarketuntilthe arrivalof the CFCsin the
! early1940s.Ammonia's shareof the reefershipmarket,at leaston Lloyd,s
'- Register+lassedtonnage,has neverexceeded20%.

: Theterm'ammonia', as usedin the Rulesfor ships,refersto anhydrousammoniain


! vapouror liquefiedformwiththe chemicalformulaNH. (refrigerant No R717).lt should
- not be confusedwitha solutionof ammoniain water,commonlyknownas ammonicliquor
or aqueous ammonta.
\-

At roomtemperature and atmospheric pressureammoniais a pungentcolourlessvapour,


-
approximately 40% lighterthanair. Compressed and cooled,ammoniaconctenses to a
'
colourlessliquidabout68%of the waterweight.At atmospheric pressureammonialiquid
- boilsat -33 C

- Ammoniavapouris toxicand inhalation


maybe lethalbut its pungencywillwarn
t' p€rsonnelagainstremaininghannfulconcentrationarea.The characteristicodourcan be
- detectedby smellat lowconcentrations,
typicallylessthan 10 ppm,and ammoniais not a
- cumulativepoison.
some plantoperatorscan becometorerantto about1ooppm,apparenfly without
unpleasant
effects,but this levelis abovethe thresholdlimitvaluefor longtermexposure

Exposureto concentrations
above15ooppmwill damageor destroybodytissue,whirst
exposureto 2500ppmand aboveincreasesthe riskof fatalitv.

Otherhazardsof ammoniahighlighted
by Lloyd,sRegisterinclude:

Liquidammoniasprashedon the skincancausebothchemicarand frostburns.

Ammoniais flammabre of ,,|6to 27o/o


in air at concentrations by vorume.
oil caniedby the ammoniavapourrowersthis limitsignificanfly, and generaily 4% by
volumeis consideredthe satelimitto preventexplosion.

Explosiveor unstabrecompounds c€n be formedby reac{ionswithmercury,harogens,


hypochlorides,oxidesof nitrogenand otherorganiccompounos.

It is highlysolubrein water,dissolvingto riberateheatand formsa strong


solution. arkaline

Arnmoniawithtracewaterattackscopper,zinc,tin cadmiumand mostof


their ailoys
and alsoattacksmanyrubbersand plastics.
-i
I
l,
! l
)

experience
Operating witha newgeneration
withthefirstreefershipequipped of
ammonia plantreportedly
refrigeration supports as an
thecasefor ammonia
to R22and as a longtermsolutionto restrictions
alternative
environmentally-acceptable
imposedby the MontrealProtocoland variousnationalauthorities.

Ammonia(R717)as a refrigerant but the


is not newto marinereefercargoinstallations
hazardsassociated with its useand a pungentodourundermined the achievementof a
highshareof the shipboardmarket,peakingat around20% in the 1950s.
The MontrealProtocoland the EuropeanCommunity's decisionto includeR22,(the
dominanthydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)refrigerantfor marinecargoinstallationssince
the 1970s)in the listof restrictedsubstances promptedthe re-examination of ammoniaas
a potentialsubstitute.

An opportunityfor the modernammonia-based systemto demonstrateits meritswas


providedby a recentseriesof reeferships.The first of five ships went into seryice
recently and its design,specificationand serviceexperiencewas recentlyreviewedby a
Lloyd'sRegisterrefrigeration
specialist.

The LR-classed designoffersa largecargocapacityarrangedin fourholdswhichare


dividedintoa totalof 15 chambersandeighttemperaturezones.l:rozenand chilled
cargoescan be carriedat temperaturesbetween-29' and +15"C.

The refrigerationmachineryroom,locatedbetweenthe aft hold and the accommodalron


structureis providedwith two accessdoorsto the open deck.
To complywithLR rulesandto containall th€ ammoniain one gas-tightcomparlm€nlan
\
indirectsystemwas chosen,withbrine(Caclr)as the secondaryrefrigerant

Thescrewcomoressors
featurebuittin variabte
"fr;#;i':r; i;;r";"Hr.
efficiencyat high as well as low suctionpressures;and their capacitycan be regutated
from 100%with all compressorsoperatingat full loadto approximately1.25o/o wrthone
compressor
smaller at minimum
cluty. 12k a 'y " 'l' " -'
,,^;

The shellandtubetypecondenseriare seawatercooledand,to complywithLR's


guidancenotes,their tubesare madeof a specialstainlofisstecl ruitablefor geawatil
and compatiblewith ammoniarefrigerant.u (, u>,
l"I (' i r.):
l
1... lt,
L;;:,"t'u' P i.)- t"'''t

I t/, I'r
'!
't ,"
Eachliquidreceiverhas a capacityof 20 litresand is providedwitha highpressurefloat
valveactlngas a pilotvalvefor a servo-operatedammoniainlr:ctionvalveon the brine
cooters.

The shellandtube evaporators are of a newcompactdesignwithan extendedsurface


areaand smalldiametersteeltubes.The configurationpromotesa minimalrefrigerant
charge,in this case250k9per unitwhichis aroundone-thirdof thatreouiredfor an
equivalentR22plant.
Separateair conditioning
and domesticammoniarefrigerant units,all connectedto the
commonbrinesystem,containlookg and lokg of ammoniarespectively. The total
amountof ammoniaon boardis around111okg.

The operationof the plantis fullyautomatic.


A computerised systemremotelycontrols
temperaturein the cargochambers,regulatesthe capacityof the compressors,recovers
oil fromthe evaporatorsand purgesair fromthe refrigerationsystem.

Thereis an ammoniaemptyingreceiver,whichhasa capacityor fioo litresthatis


connected to all units,it is fittedwitha liquidlevelindicator,stopvalvesand necessary
Instrumentation. Spareammoniais containedin portablesteelcylindersand,as required
by LR rules,storedin a separatewell-ventilated roomequippedwithsimilarsafety
measuresto thoseservingthe mainrefrigerationmachineryroom.

An ammoniascrubbingsystemis a key elementof the specification.The svstem


embraces
anammonia
scrubber,
emergency
fanffiiiirlt"rsuppry,surphuric
aciostorage
tank,waterammonialiquidmixingdevice,and dump,overflowand upperaft peaktanks.

The Vapburde.lec0o6.t,syslgp3comprises
five detectors:threewith dual sensorsset for
concentrationsof 500ppmand 25ppmlocatedin the refrigerationmachinery
compartment,and two with sensorsset for a concentrationof 25ppmlocatedin th6
1c.ru9b9r ellSust.ducJ ,?,!j-:erfit:urgrelig{Jarve,drscharse
tine t ._. _)
iid-D -- i/'i1 ,:.) /J tt l. T"o
'1.r,,
irr ., -,lo-. _i,

The25ppmsensorsare arrangedto activateaudibleand visualalarms,alerting


engineersto minorleaksor thefactthatthe scrubberhas malfunctioned
and remedial
actionis required.

The500ppm sensorshaveseveral
functions:
to alertengineers
of a seriousleak;to stop
therefrigeration
plantandmachinery
roommainventilationfans;andto startthe
scrubbingsystem.
ti't

The scrubbingsystemis arrangedso that,whenactivated, the pumpsandthe solenoid


valvesin the waterandacid inletpipesare energised,and then,aflera two minutedelay,
the emergency fan is started.The aimof the delayis to ensurethatthe plasticpackingin
the scrubberis thoroughly wetted
t5
beforecontactwiththe ammoniaair mixture.
atw-q" i 2"'t
formingandblockingthe packing,the
To prevent€ldum?lllmqglgglunlbydra1ldeg
''s
wateris dosed '%)surdilffiffid| ( i'c' / t' .J. . . - - ' . i ^ c ' l ^c'tt.t," vef'ra^, tt,', ...r )
L-. aY;t

The outflowfromthe scrubberpassesthroughthe water-ammonialiquidmixerto the


dumpandoverflowtankswhichhavea combinedcapacityof 39m3.The tankshavehigh
and lowlevelswitchesfor startingand stoppingthe transferpump,anda high levelalarm
whichwarnsthe engineersto openthe lineto the upperaft peaktankor overboard.

lf a majorleakoccurswhilethe shipis in harbouror otherconfinedwatersthe


contaminated wateris storedin the tanksystemwhichhas a capacityof over150m3
t. (sufficient
to enablethe scrubberto keepoperatingfor around14hours).The
contaminated wateris then dischargedoverboardat sea.

Thefunctionof thewater-ammonia liquidmixeris to ensurethatammonialiquiddraining


fromthe sumpsaroundthe bottomsof the refrigeiationunits is ade<iuately dilutedin water
beforedischargingto the dump{ank.The valve in the drain line to the mix€racts es a
safeguard.By remainingcloseduntilthe scrubbingsystemis primedwith water,the valve
preventsthe uncontrolleddischargeof ammonialiquidintothe dumptankand possible
explosionwhen it suddenlycomesinto contactwith seawater.

The maintenanceof the ammoniaplantand its associatedsafetyanangementsrequires


suitablyqualifiedand experiencedshipboardengineers.Ownersof ammoniareeferships
fs are recommended to investin specialistcrewtrainingor the appointmentof a specialist
engineerdedicatedto the plant.
I

(rl-'y^r"-
-lC f\ oM

I
Dvn( ovr,lt,u rk
|
T,NK
I

ei,dtv * - u , + u . Lc ^ J ; h - ' , z 1t.r.L/ tct,r! h- 9.frl, -,1t, u^,.^Jd f.


.ol u9,'
1re.tJ 4 u-d- G-.: tl+,i ,ln- nk^, Jv h , - , < _ * J c . c . a.ru o * l o l t-"
.a I er \bl ,=)br f-"zt- k '
4. d u ,-12 lla
2i:, it) ) '/)
/'
i.61161, ,
L'k L/ t:' tJt t?lt L

! Deadlinesmandatedby the MontrealProtocoland relatednationalregulations


! arefast approaching. The production (CFCs),including
of chlorofluorocarbons
! long-termmarinerefrigerantsCFC-12and CFC-11,
. will be effectivelyprohibitedat European
.. rnsnufacturing facilitiesafter year-end1994, l{

- and US productionwill terminateby the end II


H- C - H
,._ of 1995.Fortunately for the marineindustry,
! solutionsare availablefor converting, I
H
._ retrofittingand/orreplacingshipboardair
- conditioning andrefrigeration systemsto
! use hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)and
. hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs).

7
- l l I
! C| F H -C-C l ct-c-ct
. l l t ,
cl
c l F
cFc-.r2 HCrc_22 cFc-t I

Whetherusedfor airconditioning,
ships'storesor cargorefrigeration, manne
systemsare characterised
bytheirrefrigerant
compressor. By far the most
commonshipboard compressor is thereciprocatingtype.Thegeareusedin both
airconditioning
andrefrigeration
plants.centrifugalchillerandscrewsystems
areusedon mostpassenger shipsfor air conditioning.
Theconversion decision
andprocessare govemedbythe specificrefrigerant used.

Theprimaryrefrigerants usedin marinecoolingsystemsare CFC-12and


HCFC-?2. Themandated elimination
of CFCsis nowa realitywithfinal
implementation requiredoverthe nextyearanda half.underthe original
MontrealProtocol,HcFc-z2wasrecognised as a transitional
compound, useful
untilaltemativerefrigerants
becomeavailablecommercially. while signiflcanily
lessdangerous as ozonedepleters,HCFCsare understood to contribute
to
globalwarmingas atmospheric pollutants
witha longlife.
As a result,HCFC-22 is undergoingscrutiny,
andtheMontreal protocol l
production cut dff fl 2o2emaybe accererated withpossibresignificantredustions
takingeffectin Europe,as earryas 1999.whire cunentpricesareattractive.
thereis a highprobability of subsequent
costincreases
andthisshouldbe
considered as a possible negative
factorwhenconsidering
HCFC-22 as a
CFCreplacement.

with a rerativery
shortatmospheric
rife,no chrorine
content,andphysicar and
thermodynamic properties
simirartocFc-12,HFC-134a is an efficient,
safeand
environmentallyacceptablealtemativefor it.
H H F F F F
t l l l l l
H_ c_ c_ H 1{- c_ c_ H H_ c- c_ cI
l
H
l
g t l l l
F F F C I
HFC-t3& HCFC-!z'

Produced by manyworrdwidemanufacturers,
HFC-'|34a is nowcommonry used
in newair conditioning
andrefrigeration
systemsfor commerciar,
industriar
and
marneapprications,whichensuresworrdwideavairabirity
andstrongdownward
costtrends.

cFc-11, anotherrefrigerantfacingimminent phass.out,is usedin a smarl


segment of marineapprications,primariryin ordercruiseships.A possibre
replacement refrigerant
for servicerifeextensionis HCFC-123, whichsharesthe
medium-term priceandsupplyrisksof otherHCFCs.
:i No' (ANHYoR0US)
AMM0NTA
ammonragEs
liquefiedammonia
liquidammonia

APPEARANCE Colourl6s qBs.

ODOUR Pung€ntand suftocating.

THE MAIN HAZARDS


Liquefied Gas.,Sqvereirritation to eyesor skin.
Vapour is dangeroJsif inhaled.

E M E R G E N C YP R O C E D U R E
IF THIS
HAPPENS DO THIS

Stop the flow of gasth6n u5edry powder or carbon dioxido.


FirE fightrrs must waer protactiveclothing and bresthing
FIRE agprratus to protrct againsttoxic fumes. DO NOT sprav water
dircctly into burningammonia.
(Seealsoadditionalintormationirl nore (i) ()n page4).

DO NOT DELAY: Flood sye g€ntty with bla€n ser or clean


LIEUID fr6h wstrr torcing thr eyg opcn if n€edsbs. Continue washing
IN EYE for at least l5 minut6. Obtain mcdical advicaas soon as
oossiblc.

DO NOT DELAY: Flood bflcctad arca with w.tar and remove


contamandadclothing. Condnu! washingfor ar least I 5 mins,
LIOUID Oo not spply !!lv!r or ointmants during th! 24 hour prriod
ON SKIN following d|' iniury. {Frolt bittln arrls to bo dr-frostd bv
immrdista immcrlion in t\6rm wlterl. Obtain mcdical advics
as soon as oossiblG.

VAPOUR Removevictim to frcjt air. ll breathing has stopp€d br is


INHALED w€ak or irregular, givs mouth to mouth or mouth to nosa
rGuscitation. Obtsin mrdicsl advic€ as soon as oossibls.

Avoid conract with liquid or vapour. psr3otrnclto !v!ar brcath-


ing apprratus and protcctive clothing, Unprotor:tndpcrsonnel
SPILI.AGE should leavethe deck. Extinguishsourcesol ignitron. Washawav
smallspillswrth lots o{ w8ter. Largespiltsshouldbe contained
and allowedio evaporate.Inform Port Authoririesif a maior
spill occurs.

\- ad .rd,n6 a.tnmt ,s,4.v -


nfrt a.t
9/rr.
voua I ot.ar.6uuin 1
No.rr
(Anhldrous)
AMMONIA
FIRE AND EXPLOSIONDATA
for 99.8%- 99.98%concentranon

FLASH POINT
AUTO.IGNITION
TEMPERATURE
FLAMMABLE
LIMITS
EXPLOSI O N I lVoderatewhenexposed to tlameIn an enclosed
space.
HAZARD , iseealsonote(ii) on pags4).

CHEMICALDATA
for 99.8% - 99.98% concentration

FORMULA NHr

CHEMICAL Alkali
FAMILY

ls hygroscopic.

A stablecompound, although it will docompos€to nitrog6n


and hydrog€nat elev6tedtsmps (450oC).

REACTIVITY
vvITH

oxtDrsrNG Oangarousrcactiofii-
AGENTS

ACIDS

No danEorourralction but soms €volution of hcat duc to wrtt


ALKALIS
{Sseb6low),
SALT OR
FRESH
WATER

No drngorous rrlction,
AIR

Seenote (iii) on pag€5.


OTHER
CHEMICALS

tq c6ai6t .t.tuant h.o.t'tv -


ttaLtt taol voatQ t ol.h,!at-a 2
i 2 )

' N o .t t (Anhydrous)
AMMONIA
HEALTH DATA
for 99.8%- 99.98%concentration.

TLV 50 ppm

ODOUR 20-50 ppm (seealsonote (iv) on pags5).


THRESHOLD

E F F E C TO F L I E U I D

ON EYES Severechemical burn.

Severechemicrl bum wid,| frGtbite. Frozen areaswill turn


ON SKIN whtte.

BY SKIN Not rsadilyabsorbcd.


ABSORPTION

BY A gas,the.efore the hEzardis unlikely.


INGESTION

EFFECTOF VAPOUR

Ssvar€rrrit8tion, bumiig sansltion on moist araasof tha body.

Sarlre irrit|tion of rBpirstory tract with clnvultive coughing.


WHEN High concmtntionr mrv also sflact harn rction or c!u$
INHALED crasstion of brulttring W raflrr lction. Scc rlso ndtc (ivl on
(.cute.effect) oag"5).

WHEN lrritation of .spir8torv tract which mav lesd to permanent


INHALED damagGof the lungs.
(chronic-effect)

tq.d8t,tar. dckdQt tdttt -


oA Cq. .t Vet t( I ol hd A!.n
No.rr (Anhydrous)
AMMONIA
PHYSICALDATA
for 98.8%- 99.98%concenrrarion

S P E C I F I CG R A V I T Y o.ot6t @tso/+oc

BOILING POINT

F R E E Z I N GP O I N T

VAPOUR PRESSURE

C O E F F I C I E N TO F
CUBlCEXPANSION

V A P O U RD E N S I T Y

S O L U B I L I T YI N
WATER

vlscoslTY 81 x l0o pois6 @ -33oC

ELECTROSTATIC
GENERATION

H A N D L I N GA N D S T O R A G ER E C O M M E N D A T I O N S
NORT'IALCARRIAGE
Ambientor balow.
TEMPERATURE
NORMAL CARRIAGE
Atmosphoric or abo\rs
PRESSURE
FILLING RATIO Scc 1.6.4.

HANDLING AND STORAGE MATERIALS


UNSUITABLE SUITABLE
Coppar or its alloyg Mild stod
Aluminium or its alloys Strinlcssstrol
Galvanizcdsurfaces Neogrenc
Phenolicor polyester resin! Polythcn€
PVC

(i) lt is dangerousto extinguishttr" ti.e U"toie,toppinqGil;Ess, b€caus€thil


will allow a dang€rousconcentationof gasto accumurate. Liberaluseof water
spray or fog will reclucethe vapour concsntration but water shoutd
nov€rb€ sprsyed
directly into largevolumesof buming ammonia,
waterspraywit be effectivsin cooringth€ cargotank onry if the
tsmperstureof ths
ammoniaexceeds thc temperaturc 0l tht watcftpray,

(ii) within the frsmmabrsrange,ammonia canbe fired wath


96 moderateessawhsn
exposedto heator flameandbumswith a paleorsngs,lame,
which is not solf
sustaining.Thereforethe exprosionhszardis moderaiewnenexpo3€dto fremc.
The fire hazardmay bEincrssssdif oil or othorcombustible
vapoqrsargp.sscnt.
Fe .ao,.6. ..ctttaht t$tliy -
/,d.tq.ot vordt t.t.',naitt.'. .. 4
N o .l 1 (Anhydrous)
AMMONIA

{iii} Rsactionsof ammonia(anhydrous)with other ch6iicals or chemicalfamilies:


DangerousReaction Somereaction No dangerousReadion
aspossible

Acstaldehyde Alcohois Amines


Acrolein Glycols Halocarbons(satJ
Ethylensoxide Esters Hydrocarbons
l\ilercury Haiocarbons(unsat) Phenols
Halogsns
Aldehydes
Keton€s

{iv1 The pungent odour and irritation of tha vapour are such that no peBon \ /ould voluntarily
remain in an atmospherecontaining a dangerousconcentradon of ammonia.

Fe.d.trt ucUrA riniq -


d.,.F., votttE r tt dri. a.aa
N
MARINE GUIDANCE NOTE

MGN 38 (M+F)
Maritim. and Coaslguard Agency

Gontaminationof Ships'Air GonditioningSystemsby


LegionellaBacteria
Notice to Shipowners,Masters,FishingVesselSkippers,Shipbuildersand Repairers
Thb Noticesupetsedes
Merclunt ShippingNoticeNo. 7275

I
Summary
This note wams against the risk of Legiormaire's Diseasebeing transmitted to hr.r_srans
via air
conditioning plants.
. The Guidance Note identifies main danger areas within the air conditioning syst€m.
. Examples of counter measur€s are given in section 3

PREAMBLE L2 Eiltct - A normal filter comprises a mat of


' 'lpithetic
material of resin bonded fibres
The risk of Legionnaire's Disease being approximately 25 millimetres thick. Such
transmitted to humus via lir conditioning filters are washable whereasothers of the
plants fitted ashore in large buildings, for fibreglassvariety have to b€ repl,aced,As the
example hotels or hospitals, is well filter can becomequite wet from inducted
documented. The bacteria flourishes in rain water, and dirty with matter such as
stagnant water or sludge or, for cxarnple, in lruccts, soot and carto dust, nutrients may be
cooling tower elements wher: the wet mafix available in iderl temperature conditions
material Eray be €ncrusted with scale, dirt or whidr could breed the bacteria.This could be
organic matter sudl as dead insecB, birds and quite a rapid process.
leaves. It is possible that sites may exist in
ships' air conditioning systems where similar
23 Coolcr Unif (Dehumidifier)- Condensate
contasrination can arise notwithstanding that
sunrpsand their drainage anangeurmtc iI not
these are of fundamentally different design
proFdy designedand maintained can result
and the normal a.nbient ai! is salt laden.
in statnant wrt"r rcrlmulatint in the unit,6
L MAIN DANGER AREAS sump in way of the air'flow and,h the event
of blocked drains, an overflow of stagnant
L\ Air Inlet Anangernanfs- Thesemay b€ direct condensatefronr the unit into the air
or indirect from the air conditioning room via conditioning room itseU ciul occur. A further
a ialousie. The design oI jalousie fins is problem is the possibility of water carqrover
relevant in either casebecause with direct air into the distribution air stream if the face
inlets rain water may be drivm into the filter; velocity over the cooler block is greater than
and with indirect inlets stagnant rain water 2 metresper second (400feet per minute),
may accumulate within the space unless unlessan effectivemoistureeliminator is
efficimt drainage and scuppering is fitted. fitted after the cooler.
L4 Humidifier - This item is usually fitted 3.3 Cooler - Careful designof the condensate
according to the owner's requirements. The
normal practice of using
rymp and its drainate is necessary.The sump
steam drains should be regularly inspectedand
humidification shoutd not be a problem. cleaned to eruure that there is no spillage or
However adiabatic humidiliers of ihe water accumulation of stagnant condensate,It is
spray type may offer a special hazard. The recommendedthat the sump be washed
enclosed tank and matrix elements provide through with a super<hlorinated solution of
ideal opportunities for contaminaiion. A 50ppm at intervals not exceedhg 3 uronths.
further problem may occur with the carry
over of water droplets into the distribution air 3'{ Paragraph 3.4 AdiabaticSpray Typc Humidific,s
streasr unless means arc provided to avoid
shoukl,rudr This type,toUa-noiix t*;"XJ;
this.
new ships unless special meaauresare taken .
LS Plcnum lnsuletion - The main air reduce the risk. In existingships an effectiv.e
conditioning unit chamber in modern moisture eliminator shoul=dbJ introa"""J
_
equipment is acoustic and heat insulated with water.carry over into the dischargeair stream is
a PVC GRP scrim faced Rockwool or sirnilar r9uT.9 ro_occur. Regular maintenance anu
material exposed to the air streasr and this srertllsationof the water spray system i
could harbour bacteria if the facing fails to n€cessary.Modification of huurfdifier drains and
keep the irsulation dry: noting th;t in the circulatingtank pipe suctionsand ar"iro "io"fl
region of the cooler unit, or the humidifier De considered if theseale not sited in the
tDtto.
when fitted, corsiderable quantities of water face of thr: unit ,)r ta4.krespectively.
are Present,
3.5 Pletum Insulatron - In new ships a watertight
3. RECOMMENDED COUNTER MEASURES facing should b€ fitted. fn existhg ships ihe
facing of the insulation should be eiamined at
3.1 htekes - The jalousie design and the intake
refit periods to ensure that the insulation
arrangements should be designed to
itself is not becoming saturated,
eliminate spray and there should be proper
attention to efficient drainage where I. SI'MMARY
necessary.
The probability of legionella contamination in
32 Filtcrs - These should be readily accessiblefor ships' air conditioning systems is uncertain.
regular maintenance or replacement. Weekly However opportunities are availabte for this to
-inspection of filters is reconr.srended,*""Nr,i occur, It is therefore recommended that such
or replacing them as necessary. WashablI tysteaE sfrould be properly designed with this in
filters should be thoroughly rirsed in a super- view and thereafter regulariy cleaned and
chlorinated solution of 50 ppm. The uraintained, The frequency of cleaning will
freq.uency of routine inspection itianing or depend on the arrangements in each systeir and
replacement may require to be increased its susceptibility to,fouling but cleaning is
when the current rate of fouling caused by recommended nevertheless at intervals ofiot
polluted ambient air at the intake is hith. more than 3 months.

The Maritime and CoastguardAgenry


SpringPlace
105Corrmercial Road
SOUTI{AMPTON
so15 1EG

Tel:01tu3329175
Fa:<:07703
329167
April 1998 ^/l
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2-4Humidlficr - This item is usually fitted 33 Coolcr - Careful design of the condensate
according to the owner's requirements. The sunp and ils drainage is necessary. The sump
normal practice ol using steam drains should be regularly inspected and
humidification should not be a problem, deaned to ensure that there is no spillage or
However adiabatic humidiJiers of ihe water accumulation of stagnant condensate. It is
spray type may ofter a special hazard. The recommended that the sump be washed
enclosed tank and matrix elements Drovide tfuough with a super-chlorinated solution of
ideal opportunities tor contaminaiion. A 50 ppm at intervals not exceeding 3 months.
further problem may occur with the carry
over of water droplets into the disbibution air 3'{ Para€raph 3.4 AdiabaticSpny Typc Humidificrs
strea:n unless means ale provided to avoid shoutdreadr This ryp€ shotrldioiL
thls. nrstaI# ;
new ships unless special measures are taken to
reduce the risk. In existing ships an effective
2 - SP l e n u m I n s u l s t i o n - T h e m a i n a i r
moisture eliminator should bi introauceJ ti
conditioning unit chamber in modern
water carry over into the discharge air stream
equipment is acousticand heat insulated with is
f o u n d t o r : r c c u r .R e g u l a r m u i i t " r , u r r . u
a PVC GRP scrim faced Rockwool or sisrilar ur,I
sterilisationof the water spray system
material exposed to the air stream and this is
necessary. Modification of hurrridifiir arains "r,a
could harbour bacteria if the facing fails to
circulating tant< pipe suctions and drains should
keep the insulation dry: noting thlt in the
b€ considered iJ theseare not sited in the bottom -
region oI the cooler unit, or the humidifier
face of the unit or ta4k respectively
when fitted, coruiderable quantities of water
are Pr6enl,
3.5 Plcaum Insulalioa - [n new ships a watertight
3. RECOMMENDED COUNTER MEASURES facing should be fitted. In existing ships lhe
facing of the insulation should be exanined at
3.7 Intakcs - The jalousie design and the intakc refit periods to ensure that the insulation
arrangements should be designed to itself is not becoming saturated.
eliminate spray and there should be proper
attention to efficient drainage where {.SUMMARY
necessary.
The probability of legionella contamination in
32 Filtcis - Thes€ should be readiJy accessiblefor ships' air conditioning systems is uncartain.
regular maintenance or replaccment. WeekJy However opportunities are available for this to
.inspection of filters is recommended, washing occur. It is therefore rccommended that such
or replacing them as necessary.Washable syst€su should be properly designed r.dth this in
tilt€6 shou.ld b€ thorough.ly rinsed in a superJ view rnd thereafter regularly ctcaned and
chlorinated solution of 50 ppm. ihe maintained.. The f requency of cleaning will
Ireguency oI routine inspection cleaning or qepend on the arrangements in each system
rnd
replacement may require to be increased its susceptlbllity to foullng but cllaning is
when the current rate oI fouling causedby recomqrended nevertheless at interuals of irot
polluted ambient air at the inta.keis high. more than 3 months.

The Maritirne and CoastguardAgency


Spring Place
105Cosrmercia,l Road
SOL'THAMPTON
sols 1Ec
Tel: 01703329775
Fax:01703329161

April 1998 --
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MARINE REFTIGERATIOII
AND
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R12 R22 Rl1 R5O2
CARBON AMMONIA

FoRMULAcor
CHEMTCAL NHr ccr?FtrcHcrFt ccr3F \.
T!li: lllli
(mixture)
-33 -30 -40') 23 -45
Saturation Temp. -18
(-28) (-41) l74l (-50)
at Atmos' Press. (-1Og) e22')
oc (oF)

2'3 1'8 3'0 O'2 3'4


Evap. Press. when 23.6
(34) (43) (3) (50)
Evaporating at - (332) Q6')
-t5oc bar (lbli# )
(abs)

l'2 13'0 \'


72 11'6 7'4 l2'O
Condensing Press
(1046) (169) (1Og) i.174) (18) (189) !
when condensing at
3ooc bar (lb'/int )

4 6 4 38 3'5
::'J1"""":'*'n'"""o'L :
for same dutY
"* '
5'09 4' 37
c.o.P. 2.56 4,76 4'7 4'661
!
"
The refrigerants such as Rl2, R22' Rll and RS02 ate Halogenated Hydro-carbons"
i.e.CompoundsofCarbonandHydrogeninwhichsomeofthehydrogeniereplacedby-
Chlorine (CI) or Fluorine (F). \.
agreement to mean:-
The numbering system is by international
derived from
R Followed by a two digit number is a refrigerant
hvdrogen
Methane (CH1). The first digit being the number of
atoms
atoms +1r the second digit being the number of fluorine

R Followed bv a three digit number (the first number being"l")


(C2H5)'The second digit
denotes a refrigerant derived from ethane
the number
being the number of hydrogen atoms +1' the third being
of fluorine atoms.

being "5"
R Followed by a three digit number' the first number :
denotes a mixture of other halogenated hydrocarbons'

Itisinterestingthatthesecompoundsarechemicallyinertandrelativelysafe
which are dangerous, highly *
end yet they are formed from a combination of elements
reactive and exPlosive
ILEFFLIG;EFLAIVTS

L cARBoN DIoXIDE:-
v Until the 1950's waa the most regular refrigerant, after which it went out of use
- for new buildings.
From the teble of properties, it can be seen that its evaporator pressure for a
'
t"rperature of -150c is 23.6 bar, this gives a condensing pressure at 300c
! of 72 bar requiring very heavy scantlings for the gystem.
: Additionally its critical temperature is just within the very high sea
! temperatures that can occur in certain regione.

-
AMMoNTA:-
\- Was never popular with marine systems as it is toxic. It ie also corrosive to the
\- copper alloys, limiting the materials that can be included in l.he system,
It has considerable cost advantages for large, low temperature installations such
"" fish factory vessels.
-
! R12 (Freon):-
g Was the first of the halogenated hydrocarbon refrigerants, Has considersble
. advantages regarding system pressures and simple comprees6rs.
Can not be used at very low- temperatures without the eveporetor pressure
'
f"Uin8 below atmospheric,

,.- R22:-
, Has an initial cost greater than R12. It ie now the most widely used refrigerant
at sea. Can operate to low tempelatures (-410C) without evaporator preasure
t
being sub-atmospheric.

: t

This is a very Iow pressure refrigerant and needs a relrtively large volume
._
flow rate for a given duty.
- With the use of centrifugal compressors itts main application is large air
\' conditioning systems. Has a high C.O.P. Siving a considerable saving in power.

R502:-
Particularly suitable for hermetic compresaora ( motor and compressor all in a gas
- tight casing).
REFRIGERATOFT COYTPRESSORS

RECIPROCATING.

"In Line", "Vee" or


The most common is the reciprocating tyPe, arranSed as
a "W" configuration.
In the typical machine the refrigerant enters the suction belt/crankcaae via a
stop valve and is then drawn into the cylinders through plate type non-return
valves.
The pressurised vapour is discharged via another eet of plete valvee and leaves
the compressor through a stop valve.
The discharge valve assembly cage is often sPring loaderl sc,, in the event of a
sudden increase in cylinder pressure (as would be caused by Iiquid getting
beck to the cylinders), the whole valve essembly iifts.

' Notel
l,'
The compressor is designed to compress a v&Pour' not to PumP a liquid.
Sone attention is paid in deaign to enable the machine to oPerate while
passing small amounts of liquid, however a large amount of conpressor
failures are cauged by "liquid eldggin8rr where exces6ive amounts of
liquid are preaent at the compressor guction.

The crankcase is kept at suction presaure. i$$ia added by either shutting the
lrisitrg a ,BPecial ot\i!trffiffin pump. Care is always tallcir to
.nqghine down or by
.aloid'.atr""entry at rthia! dperetion- 'ae' mcis$fl{i.4&r' the air ie aoliouely, detrlmental
operation. Similar precautions are teken when charging with
refrigerant.

Modern refrigerants are "searchinS" fluids' similar to solvent cleaners and find
leaks easily. Due to this the seal arrangement at the crankshaft is of particular
"cooled" type with the compressor lubricant
importence. These seals are of the
providing the cooling.

The machine would usually be fitted with an H.P. cut out on the discherge side'
an L.P. cut out on the euction side and a .low lube oil lltre8sure ,rr*itch$ <
These are 'all'Bifety' iut outd, rather than the compressor operation control )
switches and they would be manually reeeL I
''
5ll, t1,c e"

I
Q , t ' , 1, l ' !"' La -
(!'\'t
l)v I
' l' c'"^t''t/ '
2tod'7

L{ ./ ,l', {rl ^l
..1
CENTRIFUGAL.

! Developed to cater for the wery high refrigerint flow rates in fully eir
! conditioned pas6enger ships. They are pelticularly suited to this duty as they
,, can be very efficient for the steady evaporator temPeratures (and hence
pregsures) required.
-
they would be particularly unsuited for cargo applications where a wide rangle
! of compression ratios ia required. (Differing evaporator temperatures for
.- different cargoes).
,- The big advantage of centrifugel compreseors is in the ellmtnetiop of rubblrlg
"trfaces end valve gear.
.
'
! s c R E wc o M P R E S s o R-s' ., . r;' ".'l ,
. - l
\-. Are the most popular type for new building cargo reefefs.
A typical twin rotor hae e four lobe nale rotor and a six lobe female.
-
The drive can be by end gearing, but current practice is to drive one rotor and
' Iet the other idle.
: Clearences between the rotors end between the lobe tips and the cylinders are
r- 6nall and sealed by oil injection. The high rate of oil suppty also takes away the
heat of conpression. Consequently e large oil cooler is needed with these
'
machines.

r.- Usually they are constant speed machinee with vari,ation in caPacity being
v &hieved by a slide ByBt€E that alters the.effective length of the rotors. This
"stepless" control over capacity and aleo allows "off load" startinS.
"tves
.'
- High compression ratios (18:1) are claimed. This will give cargo space
r-., temperatures of less than -300C with single stage compression (assunee R22)

Advantage6 of Screw Compressors.


-
Fewer uoving parte (e.g. Valvee) hence less frequent overhauls (Periods of
' 25000 hours are claimed by the manufacturera).
\- Wide range of evaporator temPelaturqF with single stage comPreaeion. (Low
._ bmperatures with reciprocating nachines may require tvro 6ta,ge conpression)
StepleEs""control over ca.Pepity. possible.
'
Can cope with "liquid slugginS" better than other tyPes.

r- Disedvanteges.
- Oil injection necessary and hence the use of large eophisticated oil separetorg is
needed.
'
Oil coolere needed, complicating the system.
! very hiSh speed operation (>3000 r.p.m.) hence nolsy.
r- At steady loads are they slightly less efficient that e<;uivrtlrnt reciprocating
. tYPe'
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OII-S

with screw
The purPose of the oil is to lubricate and sea/, particularly
compressors.
The oil comes into contact with the refrigelant and its miscibility is an imPortant
factor.Theoilbeingahydro-carbonwouldnormallybeverymieciblewiththe
freons in the working range of temPeratures'
oiliscarriedoverfromthecompressor,butmostofitisreturnedPeriodically
from the oil seParator. This meens that the Ievel in the sumP is a balance
between the oil in circulation and the oil in the machine'

goes through
The separator is never one hundred Percent effective and some oil
with the liquid
the system. After the condenser the oil is present in a solution
refrigerant.
! l preventing the deposition of this oil on the heat transfer surfaces is the main
problem. A build uP of dePosited oil will seriously affect heat transfer'
The evaporator coil size is usually designed to engure a high enough flow
velocity of the refrigeran!, toi entrain the oifr At low flows the oil will deposit'
hence some of this type of contamination will always occur'

As the oil reaches the cold part of the sy6ten, it is essential that its behaviour
hence
at low temperatures does not effect the Plantr i'e' the oil must not conged
itg pou! point and viscosity must be co"rect.
| r ' ! / ' ' (
' l ' '
"1" "t r ts"l" )
,.,., .' , l r ' ' 1 r ' '- "
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r;;ct 'r''
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,-f r
'..'r I,'- )rl'"titt
_ .'l^.,-,) ' , ,o
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, I r- l l-l !/ . " ; :
' IL r " ' l ) / '

I ; i l 'i',r ' 'll'oir r


-{,^tiy'l/lr
I i,c
FI-OCI'I-ATIO} T

Chenical Definition:-
Tbe coalescence of a finely diwided precipitate into larger particles'

Flocculen*-
Chemical Definition:-
Existing in the form of cloud-like tufts (or flocs).

Cooling of oils can cause a var to form end precipitate, eventually forming wax
crystals.
when in the crystal atate the war is defined aa a flocculent, the temPerature at
"Floc Point"
which thie occurs is called the
The floc point is determined by coling a)adiiiiili of refri8era.nt containing lOiI oil,
the tempergture at which the war precipitates is the floc poinl

War crystala in e refrigerator would have a detrimental effect on expaasion valvee


and muet be avoided'
'-"y' " 1'''

In general' pa.raffin biied oils are not uaed, the naphtha based type beinS
prefened.
Refrigerator oils are de-waxed to acNeve a low pour and floc poinl

The "As new' behawiour of a refrigerator oil can be affected if there weFe any
kind of c,ontanination that hes an effect on the oil hence if contamination is
suspected then the oil should be changed.

?ou,ft o['vl "' !^ dL ' "'


j ' rr (, non r:.t'li '''
ctt'
f t,c l.'\ a.I,t al ,,t ,'.
COPPER,PIATIXG.

Under sore internal operating conditions of refrigeration systeus


eoploying halogenated refrJ.gerants, bighly poJ.Lshed netal par:ts
of tlra colpresaor develop a alelrosit of col4rer. Parts nhich Butfor
include cylinder ralls, pistons, vrlv€3, bearings and even geale.

Plating is rost gollon on parts tiat develop heat, such ra


fristional eurfaces and disc,harge valves. If al loryed to accuru-
late, the deposit lay becole thick enough to cause blnding of
rcving parts and cotpre.saor failure. lfre copper ay e[anate fror
tubing, rotor gindings (in sealed rotary ccrrpreaaor syeters), or
ary other pari of tlre syat€l rade of or containingr ttre retal.

@pper is not used in anonia aystetrs so that plating is not a


problel rith tlr€ae aysterrs.
Plating does not ocsur in sulphur dioride syst€ra, atr though
coppai Ls present. Salogelrateat rsfrigerant Eyat€[B, auch as tbose
ritlr heons anat ttethyl CblorJde; are affested.
ll'lre reaaon for copper platLng ls not fully undergtood. Oi!. does
diasolva copper, but teets proy6 tbat the golution gill reraLn
intact unless otber Lnfluanccs, guch as roisture, are preaent to
cause lrr€clpitation. Copper platfurg yill occur on glaaa aurfaces,
ro that the tbeor1l of precLpLtatton by straigbt electrostatl.c
displacelent al'lrears to be unfounded.
'Ibeories involving hydrolysis,. ealts reaulting fror acid reaction
ritlr copper, ironing out of particles resulting fron rear, stray
electrlcal curents c.auBing el'eqtroplrtLng, and othsrs have all
been considered and rcrre or leaa Aiaproved.
\' rt is tairry uell establiehed that-sy'tqlrs containLng loist.gqe
are rore. eusceptible to copper platl.ng tban alr!, systers. Ihs
probler is less serlous ln systels containl.ng htgh quallty oils.
Tho anauer to tbe problel of coplr€r plating, then, appears to be
one of raintaining a roLsture-fre€ rtzstet and usLng only bighly
reflned lubricating olIs.
OIL SEPARATOR

:)? 'r|t'V"
.::ia,. ,: ?kcJ'\

r . r . f l I
I\o"i'"

it
with the refrigerant from the comPreesor'
Due to the normal carry over of oil
isnormaltofitanoilseparatorinthecomPressordischargeline.
thus some separatioir is achieved
The mixture enters the "uput"to" tangentially
The most ettective:iLiil'atibn is accomPlished bv the
b.v. ggSlgneratio$
coalescingeffect'ofd{'ii5.i,ooldeuijtilHTheoilisreturnedperiodicallytothe
coDPreasor sump.
sePerator tends to cool down and on
During when the comPressor is off line'the
When this lieuid is returned to
st^art uP refriSerant condenses in the eeparator'
foam which affects lubrication'
the crank case it csuses the oil to
to reduce this effect by causing the
A heater is often fitted in the seParator
refrigerant to vaPorise'
Lr

The reefer trade is doninated by the carriage of fruit'


When carrying fruit' verious Sasses are liberated into the container of hold'
The fruit absorbs oxygen and generates heaL It also liberetes carbon dioxide.

The liberation of carbon dioxide requires frequent air changes. As meny as 3O to

40 per hour.

The reasons for controlling the carbon dioxide concentration are:-

ai A 5% concentration is dangerous to human life'

ft Some fruits, e.g. Bananas, give off ethylene which can cause the remainder
to ripen more rapidly. As carbon dioxide and ethylene are preaent
toSether' the carbon dioxide content is taken as an indicator of the
ethylene content, (Ethylene content difficult to meesure)

Some fruits, e.g. Apples, develop internal browning if ,'kePt in a


'tt
G',n'r"t o "f: "J o, c"L'lt"t rL' Js
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carbondioxide.or,r"r,il" u*;;;";;;;-
(Qoreputrefactioncausedby apaerobipbacteriali :j,t-:TilA 1 L+c 1,,"..
Y ":kC"* "+IA>q |-E/f"4fu.i* 't' '-e'e
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duthorities oiten require carbbn dioxide cbncentration less then(.g.5X
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Secondary refrigerants e.g. Brine, may be used if the system is large.


For smaller systems direct exPansion, without e secondary refrigerant' is
preferred as the heat transfer with brine is always a sensible heat operation
over a small temperature increese. This causes very high pumping loads.
For Iarge systems the conpressor, deeigned to compress a vapourr is ill suited
to circulate large nass flows of refrigerent over long distances.

AdvantaSles of the brine (Calcium Chloride) systen:-


Primary refrigerant circuit ie small
Temperature control over various epaces is simPle and flexible

Disadventages
High pumping loads as brine is viecous
Corrosion problems exist and Protection is necessary (Caustic Soda)
More heat exchangers in the system

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Ske.tchof cooler battery and ductwork for a ceil
l wtth a stack of five containers. Thesewould all be
I maintained at the same temperaturc
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Containers are usually limited to 20 ft. in length to ensure a uniform


temperature along the length. (longer types are occesionally used),
Two types of container are used, th.e Integtat container , with its own
refrigeration unit and the Porthole container.
L
Porthole:-
Fitted with two air supply connections at one end. When stacked in the ship
they are connected to the ships cold air trunking. The same air is delivered to I
the whole stack so they must all require the same temperature. cargoes which
may cross taint must not be cooled with common air supply. i ,,'

' ( The containers sit on top of each other, located by guides. A sliding cleerance
exists in the guide to allow for installation and removal, Hence, as the ship
moves in a seaway' there is a tendency for the whole stack to flop from eide to
side. Due to this, the connections between the container nnd the ships trunking
must be flexible and be a tightly sealed.

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Integral:-
internal combustion en6line --
Can have its own electric refrigerator powered by an
on the quayside and the
or by the shiPs electrical power' The engines are used
land leg of the voyage
water supply' This
On the sea tliP the shiP Provides electric power and a
condensers would tend
requires complicated ships pipe systeme, but air cooled
to overheat the holds.

-
of reefer boxesr but the
Earlier container ships had insulated holds for carriage
nain insulation was etiU the container shell'
More recently hold insulation has been diePensed with'
PS]TCIJR,OPIETER,

Used to determine the relative humidity of the acmospnet'e. The basic instrument
uses two matched thermomeLers, one with its bulb surround by a damp *'ick and
the other with its bulb dry.
The instrument is whirled in the air to give a considerable air movement over
the bulbs,
In dry air, some of the water on the wet bulb evaporates (absorbs latent heet),
this reduces the temperature of this thermometer.

The difference between lhe two temperatures is a measure of how much


evaporation occurred on the wet bu]b. This is related to the moisture in the
atmosphere. For example if it was raining (air saturated) no evaporation would
take place,

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IlTck around
ve! bu/b

l4taler reservoir

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Air conditioning aims to produce an atmosphere thet is clean, pure


and within a
defined comfort zone.

saturated air is air that holds the maximuu possible amount of water val*)ur
aE
a particular temperature. (A crosed vessel containing water and
dry air, would
after a period of time, cont€.in Saturated air),
Relative Humidity (R.H) is a percentsge ratio of:_
Mass of water vapour present in unit volume of eir
R.H =
Mass of water vapour x 100
to saturete same volrrme of air

Reletive humidity is measured by using wet and dry bulb thermometers.


( Psychroroeter).

The ambient wet and dry bulb temperatures are located on a psychromtric chart
to give the relative hunidity.

The human body, when perspiring, roughty corresponds td the wet


bulb
thermometer. Evaporation can not readily take place in high
relative humidities.

The comfort zone, defined on the psychrometic chart, gives


temperature ranges
and relative humidity values within which the body can cope
easily.
The significence of rel,ative humidity cen be illuatrated by the
fact ttl€lt at z*c
(720F) a peraon would feel quite cold in low relative
humidities.

Air conditioning, as well as prowiding conditione within a comfort


zone, muBt
avoid the possibility of "cord shock" when entering accommodation -
through a
high temperature gradient.
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Single Duct System:-


Does not allow individual adjustment. (Except by flow rate regulation)
Hunidity control is available
Recirculeted air is by a central duct
Cooling is ueually be direct expansion of R22.

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Twin Duct System:- ( bcfl" " Co'.-l-rol)


fs the most flexible system.
Gives the greatest individual choice
Expensive.

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Undercharge:-
Low compressor suction and discharge pr€ssures.
High superheat at compressor suction. (possibility of ove'heating
and oir
breakdown at compressor delivery),
Largle vs.pour bubbles in liquid sight gl,ass.
Extended running periods.
Room temperatures rising
Motor current lower than usual.

Overcharge:-
Liquid level in condeneer too high. (Reducing available
condensing surface with
a conesponding increase in saturation temperature and pressure).
Possibility of excessive flow to evaporator (Giving icing
at compressor suction)
Large pressure drop across expansion valve.

Air In system:-
Small bubbles in sight glass
Compressor may overheat.
High discharge pressure with normal condensing temperature,
ff excessive, may reduce cooling capacity of the system (Giving
long running
periods)

Moisture fn System:- (Norually comes in with air.)


May freeze at the expansion valve (Giving indication
of undercharge)
Will contribute to corrosion in the BysteB.
May cause lubrication problems and oil breakdown.

Flooding:- (Lieuid getting back to the compressor suction.


) Liquid Slugging
Incorrect expansion valve adjustment.
Solenoid valve leakingi.
Overcharge.
Oil contamination of evaporator coils.
Icing of evaporator Coils.