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# Concrete Mix Design Step by Step full

Calculation
Concrete mix design is the process of detrmining right proportions of cement, sand and
aggregates for concrete to achieve target strength of concrete.

For concrete mix design, we have to perform many laboratory testing and calculations
to find right mix proportions. This process is usually adopted for Building structures
which requires higher grades of concrete such as M 25 and above and large
construction projects where quantity of concrete consumption is too much.

The Advantages of concrete mix design is that it gives the right proportions of
materials, thus making the concrete use economical in achieving required strength of
structural members. As, the quantity of concrete required for huge, constructions are
huge, economy in quantity of materials such as cement makes the project construction
economical.

Concrete Mix design of M – 20, M – 25, M – 30 and higher grade of concrete can be
calculated from following steps:

## (e) Quality control is done by as per IS: 456

(f) Type of exposure Condition of concrete (as defined in IS: 456) = Mild

## (g) Type of cement used = PSC conforming IS: 456 – 2000

(h) Method of placing Concrete on Site = pumpable concrete

## Procedure for M – 25 Concrete Mix Design:

Step 1: Determining the Target Strength of concrete:-

Himsworth constant for 5% risk factor is 1.65 & standard deviation is taken from IS:
456 2000 for M – 25 Grade of concrete is 4.0.
ftarget = fck + 1.65 x S

Where,

## 0.5 < 0.55, hence it is OK.

Step 3 — Selection of Water Content for mix:

## Maximum water content taken = 186 Kg (maximum size of aggregate = 20

mm)Correction in water content is

Estimated water content for mix = 186+ (3/100) x 186 = 191.6 kg /m3

Cement content =

## Refer IS 456 – 2000, Table 5

Minimum cement Content required for mild exposure condition = 300 kg/m3

## 383.2 kg/m3 > 300 kg/m3, hence, OK.

This value is required to be checked for durability requirement from IS: 456 – 2000

In this example for mild exposure and for the reinforced concrete the minimum cement
content is 300 kg/m3 which are less than 383.2 kg/m3. Hence cement content adopted
= 383.2 kg/m3.

## Table for correction in estimation of coarse aggregate proportion

(Note 1: For every ±0.05 increase or decrease change in w/c, the coarse aggregate
proportion is to be changed by 0.01. If the w/c is less than 0.5, volume of coarse
aggregate is required to be increased to reduce the fine aggregate content in mix. If
water cement ratio is more than 0.5, volume of coarse aggregate is to be reduced to
increase the fine aggregate content. If coarse aggregate is not of angular shape,
volume of coarse aggregate is required to be increased suitably, based on experience
based)

(Note 2: For pump able concrete or congested reinforcement in structure the coarse
aggregate proportion may be reduced up to 10%)

Hence,

Volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of total Volume of concrete = 0.62 x 90%
= 0.558

## b) Volume of cement = (Weight of cement / Specific gravity of cement) x (1/100)

= (383.2/3.15) x (1/1000) = 0.122 m3

W/c = 0.5

## It will satisfy durability & economy.

For making trial -1, mass of ingredients required will be calculated for 4 no’s cube
assuming 25% wastage.

## Wt. of Fine aggregates = (800.94 x 0.016878) kg/m3 = 13.52 kg

Step 7: Correction for absorption / moisture of aggregate:-

## As we assumed the aggregate is saturated surface dry condition, therefore no

correction is required.

## Concrete Trial Mix 1:

The mix proportion determined in Step 6 Make trial mix -1 & with this proportion,
concrete is manufactured and tested for fresh concrete properties requirement like
workability, bleeding and finishing qualities.

## In this Trial Mix,

Slump value = 25 mm

## Compaction Factor = 0.844

From Mix Slum test, the concrete is workable and had a true slump of about 25 mm
and it is free from segregation and bleeding.

## required slump = 50-75 mm

So modifications and changes are needed in trial mix 1 to get the desired workability.

## To increase the workability of concrete mix from 25 mm to 50-75 mm an increase in

water content by +3% is to be made.

The corrected water content for mix = 191.6 x 1.03 = 197.4 kg.

As mentioned earlier to adjust fresh concrete properties the water cement ratio should
not be changed. Hence

## Which also need to satisfy durability requirement.

Volume of aggregate in Concrete = 1 – [{394.8/(3.15×1000)} + {197.4/(1 x 1000)}] =
0.6773 m3

## Weight of Coarse aggregate = 1073.33 kg/m3

For making trial -2, Weight of material required will be calculated for 4 no’s cube
assuming 25% wastage.

## Compaction Factor for mix = 0.852

So, from results of slump of Mix , the concrete is workable and had a true slump of

## Required slump = 50-75 mm

So, it satisfied the desired workability by satisfying the requirement of 50-75 mm slump
value.

## Concrete Trial Mix 3 :

In this trial mix water / cement ratio is to be decreased by 10% keeping water content
constant.

## Volume aggregate in total volume of concrete = 1 – [{438.7/(3.15 x 1000)} +

(197.4/1000)] = 0.664 m3

## Recommended mix Weight of ingredients for grade

of concrete M25:
For Compressive Strength of concrete vs. C/W graph for target strength 31.6 MPa , we
found

## Weight of Cement content = (197.4/0.44) = 448.6 kg/m3

Volume of aggregate in total volume of concrete = 1 – [{448.6/(3.15 x 1000)} +
(197.4/1000)] = 0.660 m3