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Review of related literature

Jackfruit seed

The protein and carbohydrate contents of prepared biscuits decreased with higher replacement of
jack seed flour. But moisture, fat, crude fiber and ash content increased with higher replacement of jack
seed flour. The sensory parameter indicated that up 20% level incorporation biscuits were not significantly
different with 0% jackfruit seed flour (plain biscuit) biscuit based on all sensory parameters. But higher
level of jackfruit seed flour biscuit rejected by the panelist as it was dark color and hard texture.
(Shariful Islam 2015).

jackfruit seed flour contained the highest essential amino acid composition followed by
germinated jackfruit seed and raw jackfruit seeds. Amino acid leucine was the most abundant amino acid
in thermal jackfruit seed flour, while lysine and phenylalanine were the highest compositions found in
germinated jackfruit seed flour respectively. The thermal jackfruit seed flour had the highest protein content
(24.94%) while germinated jackfruit seed flour had the highest vitamin C content (78.78 mg/100 g). The
flour composition of three different treatments showed that the starch content was highest in germinated
jackfruit seed flour while energy value significantly highest in thermal jackfruit seed flour jackfruit seed
flour contains vitamin C and also a significant amount of protein and dietary fiber. (Zuwariah 2018).

Nowadays consumers are more concerned about their health, so the need for the nutraceuticals
has been increased. In view snack ball was prepared using varied concentrations of jackfruit seed flour and
ragi in three different formulations study also quantifies changes in thiobarbituric acid, free fatty acid, total
phenolic content and antioxidant activity of snack bar packed in polypropylene and metalized polyester
films and stored under room temperature conditions for 28 days of storage study. During storage at room
temperature thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid content were increased while total phenolic content and
antioxidant activity were decreased with increase in temperature and progression of storage period.
Maximum retention of phytochemicals was observed in the snack ball packed in polypropylene as
compared to metalized polyester films and stored at room temperature conditions study indicates potential
application of jackfruit seed flour for preparation of low cost nutritious value added product. (Meethal
2017).

Jackfruit seed was converted into flour and used as a protein and carbohydrate supplement in diets
or also used as a functional agent in a variety of formulated foods in bakery product. The seeds were lye
peeled, dried and milled into flour. The flour has good ability to bind water and lipid. The seed flour was
effectively used in some food stuffs such as biscuit. In research the biscuit with 20% concentration of
jackfruit seed flour with different particle size was prepared. The particle size of jackfruit seed flour was
taken 0.69mm. 0.73 mm, 0.77 mm and 0.82 mm. The overall acceptability of biscuits and cake with jack
seed flour particle size 0.77mm and 0.72mm respectively was judged as very good. (Barge 2019).

Jackfruit seeds (JS) that had been subjected to a combination of soaking, boiling, and fermentation
(SBF). Five diets were formulated with the processed Jackfruit seed meal (JSM) representing 0, 8, 16, 24,
and 32% of the diet DM. Processing reduced tannins and oxalates in raw JS by over 80%. Increasing levels
of the processed JSM in broiler diets depressed growth and feed conversion. Soaking-boiling-fermentation
treatment does not appear to be an effective method to improve the nutritional value of Jackfruit seeds for
broiler chickens. (Ndyomugyenyi 2016).
Jackfruit seeds make-up around 10 to 15% of the total fruit weight and have high carbohydrate
and protein contents, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients. To increase the shelf life, jackfruit
seed flour is a better option, so that the analysis had done. Jackfruit seed flour was a cheap source of protein
(13.49%), ash (2.47%) and carbohydrate (70.73%). The calorific value was 357.665 kcal/100g. It was also
rich in potassium (6466 ppm), magnesium (4582 ppm) and sodium (8906 ppm). High water absorption
capacity (2.91ml/g), oil absorption capacity (0.884ml/g) and bulk density (0.873g/ml) were recorded for
JSF. It had a least gelation capacity of 17%. The addition of JSF at different proportions (5%, 10%, 15%
and 20%) to the pasta increased the nutrient content and textural properties. 10% substituted pasta has got
the maximum consumer acceptability. (Abraham 2014).

Jackfruit contains some vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamine and riboûavin also some
minerals like calcium, potassium, iron, sodium, zinc, niacin and many other nutrients. Jackfruit contain
antioxidant which help in prevention from free radicals. It contains potassium and calcium so it regulates
the blood pressure and beneficial to bones growth. It also helpful as anti-inûammatory, antibacterial, ant
cariogenic, antifungal and in inhibition of melanin biosynthesis, wound healing effects. The jackfruit peels
utilization only 10 % for food applications that is pectin extraction. While 90% is for non-edible
applications of bioûlm, bio sorbent, bio hydrogen, and activated carbon. It contains phytonutrients like
lignans, isoûavones and saponins, their health benefits are wide-ranging from anticancer to
antihypertensive, antiaging, antioxidant and antiulcer. Protein, dietary fiber and carbohydrate contents of
jackfruit seeds is 13.50%, 3.19% and 79.34%, respectively. The jackfruit seed has been utilized for
processing like flour for bakery, extruded products, chapaties, starch extraction and confectionary.
Application of jackfruit seeds in medicines, seeds are believed to be helpful in digestion. (Mandave 2018).
Jackfruit is an important naturalized plant of Southeast Asia which is rich with starch sources.
Due to its eco-friendly nature and cost effectiveness jackfruit seed powder can be used as an alternative to
chemical coagulants. Water treatment becomes more cheap and can be implemented in different countries.
(Rahman 2018).

Vanilla
Vanilla is one of those powerful ingredients we use all the time but probably take for granted.
Whether it's vanilla extract in your chocolate chip cookies or scraped vanilla beans for custard o ice cream.
Vanilla is called for in all kinds of recipes with so many uses and so many different types of vanilla from
Bourbon to Mexican. Vanilla is an omnipresent ingredient whose value cannot be overstated (Speigel
2014).
The farmers move quickly through snaking vines, seeking out the pale and waxy flowers bloom
that just bloom one morning each year. They use thin pointed sticks to lift the delicate membrane that
separates the male and female parts of the flower. With thumb and forefinger, they push the segments into
each other to ensure pollination (Sethi 2017).
Milk
Billions of people around the world consume milk and dairy products every day. Not only are milk
and dairy products a vital source of nutrition for these people, they also present livelihoods opportunities
for farmers, processors, shopkeepers and other stakeholders in the dairy value chain. But to achieve this,
consumers, industry and governments need up-to-date information on how milk and dairy products can
contribute to human nutrition and how dairying and dairy-industry development can best contribute to
increasing food security and alleviating poverty. (Muehlhoff 2013).
Milk is a considerable resource of products whose composition varies. Four components are
dominant in quantitative terms: water, fat, protein and lactose; while the minor components are minerals,
enzymes, vitamins, and dissolved gases. It satisfies the demand of the consumer who seeks more and more
innovative products with consistent quality. The dairy industry needs to utilize all the riches of this raw
material, which is both simple in appearance and complex in composition. In general, cow milk is less rich
in lactose, fat content and protein. On the other hand, the mineral content is similar. (mourad 2014).
Dairy and milk consumption are frequently included as important elements in a healthy and
balanced diet. It is the first food for mammals and provides all the necessary energy and nutrients to ensure
proper growth and development, being crucial in respect to bone mass formation. However, several
controversies arise from consumption of dairy and milk products during adulthood, especially because it
refers to milk from other species. Despite these controversies, epidemiologic studies confirm the nutritional
importance of milk in the human diet and reinforce the possible role of its consumption in preventing several
chronic conditions like cardiovascular diseases. (pereira 2013).
Several dairy products such as cream, butter, yogurt, kefir and cheese have been produced and
consumed worldwide for millennia. Therefore, the impact of milk and dairy products on human health is
quantitatively relevant and has been the subject of several investigations on both whole products and their
isolated components. In particular, the fat portion of milk (largely composed of SFA's) and some of its
minor components, notably calcium and oligosaccharides are being actively researched for their potential
health roles (Strata 2014).
Almost no one will dispute when a baby is born, breast milk is the best nutrition a mother can
provide. All mammals nurse their young and breast milk benefits to a new born infant in ways above and
beyond nutrition. In fact, until 1 to 2 years of age the American Academy of Pediatrics, the World Health
Organization, the Institute of Medicine and more promote breast-feeding as optimal (Caroll 2014).
The world's largest packaged food company announced the talks on Monday, after Reuters
reported that R&R maker of Cadbury Flake Cones, Row tree’s Fruit Pastille lollies and Kelly's Cornish ice
cream was in talks with Nestle to form a 50/50 joint venture in a 3 billion euro ($3.4 billion deal). Nestle
said it will contribute its ice cream businesses in Europe, Egypt, Philippines, Brazil and Argentina as well
as its European frozen food businesses, excluding pizza but including products like frozen cake brand
Redenbacher. All of UK-based R&R owned by French private equity firm PAI will go into the joint venture
that will be equally owned by both parties. "It's good news and in line with what they started to do four or
five years ago "Vontobel analyst Jean-Philippe Bertschy said "We've been pushing for that for a long time
but I thought they would never get rid of ice cream" (Geller 2015).
Sugar
Sugars belong to glycan/carbohydrate group of chemicals. Realization of their sweetness was earlier
as compared to its use as an energy source and an important dietary component. Although sugar is vital for
defraying many physiological functions of our body properly, “Sweet tooth” or “Craving for sugar” is of
common occurrence in children. Of late, we have realized that an excess consumption of sugar is harmful
leading to various elements affecting our health, more so in children and women. So one should not only
be careful while consuming excess amount of sugar (more than the recommended) in one’s diet, but rather
advertently avoid it. (Misra 2016).
Sugars are carbohydrates and cover a range of mono- and di-saccharides. When sugars occur
naturally in foods such as fruit, vegetables and dairy products, they are referred to as intrinsic sugars.
However, the major source of sugar in the Australian diet is sucrose from sugar cane that is added to foods
and is termed extrinsic sugar. Sucrose is widely used in processed foods and drinks as a sweetener and also
plays a role as a flavor and preservative. Fructose and/or high fructose corn syrups are commonly used as
a sweetener in the US. These are not commonly used in the Australian food supply. (Boylan 2015).
Excessive consumption of added sugars in the human diet has been associated with obesity, type 2
diabetes (T2D), coronary heart disease (CHD) and other elements of the metabolic syndrome. Recent
studies have shown that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a critical pathway to metabolic
syndrome. This model assesses the health and economic benefits of interventions aimed at reducing intake
of added sugars. (vreman 2018).
Sugars naturally present in honey, syrups, fruit juices and fruit juice concentrate according to the
WHO Nutrition Guidance Expert Advisory Group (NUGAG) Subgroup on Diet and Health. It is
compulsory to remember that Non-communicable diseases are leading causes of death of 68% (38 million)
of the world’s deaths and high free sugars intake is strongly associated with risk of these pathologies.
Accordingly, WHO strongly recommends reducing free sugars intake to less than 10% of total energy
intake, and a further reduction to below 5%, which represents 25 grams or 6 teaspoons per day. (Tur Marí
2017).

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