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AC Test Rig

OBJECTIVE: To study the air conditioning test rig and calculate different
parameters of actual and theoretical COP.

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF A. C. TEST RIG

Blower

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP: The system consists of an air-cooled hermetically


sealed compressor and a cross flow- fin type multi-pass, air cooled condenser.
There are two types of expansion devices. One is thermostatic expansion valve
and the other one is capillary tube. Air is passed over the evaporator tubes using
a blower/fan. A part of the room air is recirculated through a return duct and
mixed with fresh air. A rotameter is provided after the condenser to measure the
volumetric flow rate of the liquid refrigerant. Four pressure gauges are used to
measure pressures. Four thermometers are used to measure inlet and outlet
temperature of evaporator and condenser. Energy meter and voltmeter &
ammeter are provided to measure the energy consumption of compressor.
PRINCIPLE: The test rig is based upon the vapor compression cycle. It consists
of four basic processes they are: Compression, Condensation, Expansion, and
Evaporation.

2
3 Condenser
Compressor

Throttle

4 Evaporator 1

THEORY:

The science of air conditioning deals with maintaining desirable internal air
conditions irrespective of external atmospheric conditions. The factors involved
in any air conditioning installation are:
a) Temperature
b) Humidity
c) Air movement and circulation
d) Air filtering, cleaning and purification
The simultaneous control of these factors within the required limits is essential
for human comfort or for any industrial application of the air conditioning
system. In any air conditioning system, thermodynamic processes control
temperature and humidity. Depending on the season, the air conditioning
processes involve cooling, heating, humidification and dehumidification of air.
Other aspects such as air movements, circulation, purification, etc. are obtained
by installing suitable fans, blowers, ducting and filters. This equipment is
designed to demonstrate different air conditioning processes such as cooling,
heating, humidification, etc. required for different seasons of the year.
OBSERVATIONS:

FIXED PARAMERERS: (SPECIFICATIONS)

TABLE 1

S. NO. PARAMETERS VALUE


1. Compressor Bore 3.65 cm
2. Compressor Stroke 2.63 cm
3. Compressor displacement/rev 27.53 cc
4. Rpm of compressor 2850 rpm
5. Atmospheric pressure 1.03 kgf/cm2
6. Wattmeter constant 1500 rev/kwh

Table 2

S. No. INSTRUMENT RANGE LEAST QUANTITY


COUNT
1. Pressure gauge 30-150 psi 2.5 psi 2
1. Pressure gauge 0-300 lb/in2 2
2. Thermometer 10˚C to 100˚C 1˚C 4
3. Rotameter 0.43 to 4.34 lit/min 0.1 lit/min. 1
4. Voltmeter 0 to 300 v 10 V 1
5. Ammeter 0 to 10 amp 0.2 amp 1
6. manometer 30 c.m. 0.1(water) 2

Refrigerant – R-22:
Sp. Gravity: 1.1
Viscosity: 0.2 cp (at temp 60°c)

Thermometer in
Heater -1 Heater-2
DBT: -10 to 50°c DBT: -10 to 50°c
WBT: -10 to 50°c WBT: -10 to 50°c

Safety devices :

Press. Cutouts
Low press cutout: 0.4 to7 bar
High press. Cut out : 7 to30 bar
VARIABLE PARAMETERS :

Table 3

(A) FOR REFRIGERATION


S.NO. Expansion Rotameter Guage Temperature(0C)
Device Reading pressure(kgf/cm2)
litre/min 1’ 2’ 3’ 4’ 1’ 2’ 3’ 4’
1 Capillary .95 4.9 17 17 4.9 25 69 41.5 0
tube
2 “ .8 4.8 16 16 4.8 25 73 42 2
3 “ .8 4.7 16 16 4.7 25 77 43 4

Wattmeter reading Wattmeter readings


S Voltmeter Ammeter for compressor V*I (Fan+Heater) V*I
.NO. Readings(v) Reading(amp.)
1 230 5.2 10.80 sec for 5 rev 36.69 sec for 5 rev
2 230 5.2 10.25 sec for 5 rev 37.59 sec for 5 rev
3 225 5.4 10.25 sec for 5 rev 37.68 sec for 5 rev

(B) FOR AIR

S.NO Inlet Temp.(oC) Outlet Temp.(0C) Anemometer Anemometer


Reading Readings(c.m.)
DBT WBT DBT WBT (m/s)
1. 30 22 18 19 90 1.18
2. 28 21 18 19 90 1.18
3. 31 21 18 19 90 1.17

FORMULAE USED:
a. COP of saturation cycle: COPsat = h1 – h4 / h2 – h1
1,2 – Compressor inlet and outlet respectively
2,4 – Throttle valve inlet and outlet respectively
To find these enthalpies we should know temp.and press. at specified point
b. COP of actual cycle: COPactual = h1’ – h4’ / h2’ – h1’
h1’ = Actual enthalpy at exit of evaporator
h2’ = Actual enthalpy at exit of compressor
h3 ‘ = Actual enthalpy at exit of condenser
h4’ = Actual enthalpy at inlet of evaporator
c. COP of carnot cycle:
COPcarnot = T1 / T2- T1
T1 = Saturation temp. at compressor inlet pressure
T2 = Saturation temp at compressor outlet pressure
d. Eficiency of the cycle :
η = [COPactual / COPcarnot] ×100 %
e. Power consumption P (by compressor and blower)
P = No of revolutions × 2.4 / Time taken kW
[Since 1500 rev = 1 kw. So 1 rev =3600/1500 = 2.4 kW]
f. Power consumption by heater, Ph
Ph = [{(rev. × 2.4) / Time taken} – Fan Power] kW
g. Mass flow rate of refrigerant, m
M = [Rotameter rate (m3/hr) / Sp. Volume from table (m 3/kg)] ×1.45
kg/hr
h. Volumetric efficiency of compressor ηvol
ηvol = m × sp. Volume of sucked vapour / Piston displacement per hr.
= [(m × Vs) / {(л / 4) × D2 × L × N × 60}]
m = Mass flow rate of refrigerant in kg/hr.
D = Piston diameter in m.
L = Piston stroke length in m.
N = r.p.m. of compressor.
i. Heat lost by refrigerant in condenser.
Qcond = m (h2’ – h3’) kJ/hr
j. Heat gained by refrigerant in evaporator (Qev)
Qev = m (h1’ – h4’) kJ/hr.
k. Actual COP = Qa/ Power consumed by compressor.

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS:

From P-h diagram for R-22,


h1=406 kJ/kg, h2=438 kJ/kg, h3=252 kJ/kg, h4=252 kJ/kg
Also, T1=0C=273K, T2=340.5K, T2`=820.5K, T3=320.5K
Finally, v1=.0407*10-3m3/kg & v2=.9*10-3m3/kg

a. COPsat = h1 – h4 / h2 – h1
= 406-252/438-406 =4.81
b. COPcarnot = T1 / T2- T1 = 273/44.5 =8.13
Actual Cycle:
From table,h1`=417655kJ/kg,h4`=260.947kJ/kg
h2`=Cp(T2`-T2)=0.951(67-44.5) + 417.214 =438.63 kJ/kg

c. COPactual = h1’ – h4’ / h2’ – h1’


= (417.6558-260.947)/(438.63-417.655) = 7.36

d. Power consumption P (by compressor and blower)


P = No of revolutions × 2.4 / Time taken kW
= 5*2.4*103/36.69 = 327.06W

h. Power consumption by heater, Ph


Ph = [{(rev. × 2.4) / Time taken}] kW
= 5*2.4*103/10.3 = 1.11 kW
i. Mass flow rate of refrigerant, m
M = [Rotameter rate (m3/hr)/Sp.Volume from table (m3/kg)]×1.45 kg/hr
=.95*10-3*60/.9*10-3 = 63.33kg/hr

g. Volumetric efficiency of compressor ηvol


ηvol = m × sp. Volume of sucked vapour / Piston displacement per hr.
= [(m × Vs) / {(л / 4) × D2 × L × N × 60}]
= 63.33*27.5*100/472 = 36.89%

h. Refrigerating effect = Q4-1


= m*(h1-h4)
= (63.33/3600)* (438.986-260.497)
=3.13 kW
i. Net work done = Q1-2 – Q3-4
= m*Cp*[(T2-T1) – (T3-T4)]
= 2.913 kW
i. COP actual = Refrigerating Effect / Net work
= 3.13/2.91 = 1.075

RESULTS:

S. NO PARAMETERS SET I SET III SET II


1. COPsat
2. COPact
3. COPcarnot
4. Efficiency
5. Power consumed by
a. Compressor
b. Blower + Heater
6. Volumetric Efficiency
7. Heat lost by Air
8. Practical COP

QUESTIONS:

Q.1: what is a psychometric difference between summer air conditioning and


winter air conditioning?

Q.2: which refrigerant is used in a/c test rig and why?

Q.3: compare refrigeration tutor and a/c tutor with respect to –


a) Evaporator temp. And press.
b) Condenser temp. And press.
c) Refrigerant used
d) Compressor used
e) Mass flow rate of refrigerant
f) Cooling capacity
g) Applications
h) Capillary tube dia. and length
i) Method of measuring actual refrigerating effect

Q.4: what is the function of solenoid valve?

Q.5: why two different heaters are used in a/c test rig?

Q.6: why two expansion devices (capillary tube & expansion valve) are used?