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Tutorial 1

1. (a). The rear window of an automobile is defogged by passing warm air over its inner surface. If the
warm air is at 𝑻∞,𝒊 = 40 °C and the corresponding convection coefficient is hi = 30 W/m2K, what are
the inner and outer surface temperatures of 4-mm-thick window glass, if the outside ambient air
temperature is 𝑻∞,𝒐 = −10 °C and the associated convection coefficient is ho = 65 W/m2K?

(b). Steam at 320°C flows in a stainless steel pipe (k = 15 W/m°C) whose inner and outer diameters are
5 cm and 5.5 cm, respectively. The pipe is covered with 3-cm-thick glass wool insulation (k = 0.038
W/m°C). Heat is lost to the surroundings at 5°C by natural convection and radiation, with a combined
natural convection and radiation heat transfer coefficient of 15 W/m2 °C. Taking the heat transfer
coefficient inside the pipe to be 80 W/m2 °C, determine the rate of heat loss from the steam per unit
length of the pipe. Also determine the temperature drops across the pipe shell and the insulation.

2. When the transportation of natural gas in a pipeline is not feasible for economic or other reasons, it is
first liquefied at about -160°C, and then transported in specially insulated tanks placed in marine ships.
Consider a 6-m-diameter spherical tank that is filled with liquefied natural gas (LNG) at -160 °C. The
tank is exposed to ambient air at 18 °C with a heat transfer coefficient of 22 W/m2 °C. The tank is thin
shelled and its temperature can be taken to be the same as the LNG temperature. The tank is insulated
with 5-cm-thick super insulation that has an effective thermal conductivity of 0.00008
W/m °C. Taking the density and the specific heat of LNG to be 425 kg/m3 and 3.475 kJ/kg °C,
respectively, estimate how long it will take for the LNG temperature to rise to -150°C.
3. (a). Derive an expression for temperature distribution of a plane wall of thickness L, in which there is
volumetric energy generation (𝒒̇ ) and the right surface is maintained at a temperature of Tw, the left
surface is perfectly insulated. Also derive the expression for maximum temperature?

(b). A radioactive material of thermal conductivity k is cast as a solid sphere of radius ro and placed in
a liquid bath for which the temperature 𝐓∞ and convection coefficient h are known. Heat is uniformly
generated within the solid at a volumetric rate of 𝒒̇ . Obtain the steady-state radial temperature distribution
in the solid, expressing your result in terms of ro, 𝒒̇ , k, h, and 𝐓∞ .

4. A truncated solid cone is of circular cross section shown in Fig. 1, and its diameter is related to the axial
coordinate by an expression of the form 𝐷 = 𝑎𝑥 3/2 , where 𝑎 = 1.0 𝑚−1/2 . The sides are well insulated,
while the top surface of the cone at x1 is maintained at T1 and the bottom surface at x2 is maintained at
T2.

Fig. 1
(a). Obtain an expression for the temperature distribution T(x). (b). What is the rate of heat transfer
across the cone if it is constructed of pure aluminum with x1 = 0.075 m, T1 = 200 °C, x2 = 0.225 m, and
T2 = 30 °C?
Tutorial 1 Solutions
1.(a)

1.(b)
A steam pipe covered with 3-cm thick glass wool insulation is subjected to convection on its surfaces. The rate
of heat transfer per unit length and the temperature drops across the pipe and the insulation are to be determined.

Assumptions

1. Heat transfer is steady since there is no indication of any change with time.

2. Heat transfer is one-dimensional since there is thermal symmetry about the center line and no variation in
the axial direction.

3. Thermal conductivities are constant.

4. The thermal contact resistance at the interface is negligible.

Properties The thermal conductivities are given to be k = 15 W/m°C for steel and k = 0.038 W/m°C for glass
wool insulation Analysis The inner and the outer surface areas of the insulated pipe per unit length are
Ai  Di L   (0.05 m)(1 m)  0157
. m2
Ao  Do L   (0.055  0.06 m)(1 m)  0.361 m2

Ri R1 R2 Ro
The individual thermal resistances are T1 T2
1 1
Ri    0.08 C/W
hi Ai (80 W/m .C)(0.157 m 2 )
2

ln( r2 / r1 ) ln( 2.75 / 2.5)


R1  R pipe    0.00101 C/W
2k1 L 2 (15 W/m. C)(1 m)
ln( r3 / r2 ) ln(5.75 / 2.75)
R 2  Rinsulation   3.089 C/W
2k 2 L 2 (0.038 W/m. C)(1 m)
1 1
Ro    0.1847 C/W
ho Ao (15 W/m 2 .C)(0.361 m 2 )
Rtotal  Ri  R1  R 2  Ro  0.08  0.00101  3.089  0.1847  3.355 C/W

Then the steady rate of heat loss from the steam per m. pipe length becomes

T T (320  5) C
Q  1  2   93.9 W
Rtotal 3.355  C / W

The temperature drops across the pipe and the insulation are


Tpipe  QR pipe  ( 93.9 W)(0.00101  C / W)  0.095 C

Tinsulation  QRinsulation  ( 93.9 W)(3.089  C / W)  290 C

2.
A 6-m-diameter spherical tank filled with liquefied natural gas (LNG) at -160°C is exposed to ambient air. The
time for the LNG temperature to rise to -150°C is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Heat transfer can be considered to be steady since the specified thermal conditions at the
boundaries do not change with time significantly.
2 Heat transfer is one-dimensional since there is thermal symmetry about the midpoint.
3 Radiation is accounted for in the combined heat transfer coefficient.
4 The combined heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform over the entire surface.
5 The temperature of the thin-shelled spherical tank is said to be nearly equal to the temperature of the LNG
inside, and thus thermal resistance of the tank and the internal convection resistance are negligible.

Properties The density and specific heat of LNG are given to be 425 kg/m3 and 3.475 kJ/kg°C, respectively.
The thermal conductivity of super insulation is given to be k = 0.00008 W/m°C.

Analysis The inner and outer surface areas of the insulated tank and the volume of the LNG are

A1  D1 2  (6 m) 2  113.1 m 2


A2  D 2 2  (6.10 m) 2  116.9 m 2
V1  D1 3 / 6  (6 m) 3 / 6  113.1 m 3
The rate of heat transfer to the LNG is
r2  r1 (3.05  3.0) m
Rinsulation   5.43562 C/W
4kr1 r2 4(0.00008 W/m. C)(3.0 m)(3.05 m) LNG tank
1 1
Ro    0.00039 C/W -160C
ho A (22 W/m 2 .C)(116.9 m 2 )
Rtotal  Ro  Rinsulation 0.00039  5.43562  5.43601 C/W
Rinsulation Ro
 T 2  T1 [18  (160)]C
Q   32.74 W T 1 T2
R total 5.43601 C/W
The amount of heat transferred to increase the LNG temperature from -160°C to -150°C is
m  V1  (425 kg/m 3 )(113.1 m3 )  48,067.5 kg
Q  mCT  (48,067.5 kg) (3.475 kJ/kg. C)(-150) - (-160)C  1,670,346 kJ
Assuming that heat will be lost from the LNG at an average rate of 32.74 W, the time period for the LNG
temperature to rise to -150°C becomes
Q 1,670,346 kJ
t    51,018,498 s  14,174 h  590.5 days
Q 0.03274 kW

3a.
3b.

4.