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ENGLISH A May/June 2012

The summary expected should have included:

- The disadvantages of dependency on oil

- The advantages offered by renewable energy

- The challenges to be faced if renewable energy sources are to be successfully used.

Below are examples of summaries that could illustrate what was expected.

Sample Summary No. 1

The high price of oil has caused us to look for alternative sources of energy, which can be
produced at a lower cost and are now environmentally friendly. Using renewable energy
sources, which are resources that never run out, offers many advantages. They are usually
indigenous to a country and so reduce the need for foreign exchange, do not pollute the
environment, have a multitude of applications and can be accessed anywhere. However, the cost
of implementing the use of renewable energy is very high. To successfully develop its
production and use, large investments are needed. There must be policies that provide
incentives, such as reducing import duties and selling excess electricity.

Sample Summary No. 2

The world is dependent on oil which is a non-renewable resource. We suffer because oil
producing countries often raise the price, and our fuel costs also rise. In addition, oil production
is not environmentally friendly. Developing renewable energy offers advantages. Since it
comes in several forms, a variety of ways of producing it is possible, even in remote places. It
costs less than oil, is more environmentally friendly and saves foreign exchange as there is no
need to import. Developing renewable energy, however, is difficult. It demands much capital
investment. Policies that help by creating incentives to invest, produce and use renewable
energy, are also needed.
ENGLISH A May/June 2013

Included below are the salient points of the passage, and one of the sample summaries.

 Water is vital to all aspects of life and human activity. It is often taken for granted and its
value is overlooked.
 Water scarcity means different things in different places but everywhere it relates to a
country’s economic and social activities and to people’s attitudes to water.
 World shortage is not actual because there is really enough water for all, but the threat is
caused by careless attitudes, outdated management of resources, and waste. The impact
is that a very large portion of the world will face real scarcity by 2025.
 Attention must be given to the problem in order to ensure that future generations have
water and that the needs of the poor are addressed.
 The solution will come from a change in our attitude to water use, the appropriate valuing
of water, and the employment of updated management strategies.

Sample summary:

People today seldom think of water shortage; however, it is predicted that by 2025 this could be
a reality for billions. The crisis will not result from real water scarcity, but from poor
management and attitudes. Addressing the problem means considering all factors related to water
use. Water is critical to each country’s economic and cultural well-being, and ideal practices
must focus on sustainable human development and the reduction of poverty. If water is to be
distributed equitably we have to recognize its value and the need to conserve for the future. The
answer will not be found easily, and requires that management practices be updated to meet
modern requirements.

(111 words)
ENGLISH A January 2015

The points which should have been included are:

 History is full of valuable information, not only about events and dates, but also about
behaviors and the consequences of those behaviors.
 People usually learn about history but do not learn from it, so they make the same
mistakes of earlier generations.
 In order to learn from history, the reader must go beyond superficial study, must analyze
and so learn from the earlier mistakes and best practices.
 Good research skills applied to history can lead to the discovery of effective strategies to
be used in business and social development.
 Since history records human and cultural attitudes and behaviors, individual and national
expectations, societies’ strengths and weaknesses, a study of it shows how to avoid
conflict in a variety of contexts.

Sample Summary 1

History provides considerable information about dates and events, but also stores knowledge and
examples which we, as individuals and leaders, can use in our daily personal and business lives.
To get the benefit from history, we need to approach it inquiringly and analytically. We are then
able to recognize, understand and appreciate character, patterns of behaviour, cultural
peculiarities, social conditions and needs and responses. We also have a chance to understand
more of the interpersonal and intrapersonal factors relating to managing people, our businesses,
and our lives. When we fail to study history appreciatively we miss the warnings, repeat the
experiments and bad practices, and get the same disastrous results as our predecessors did. 114
Sample Summary 2

History books contain useful knowledge of events, situations and human interactions. If we
really want to reap the benefits of this knowledge, we need to use an analytical approach to the
study of history. We will find that it gives us blueprints and advice on how to alleviate a wide
range of negative human activity. We can avoid global and personal conflicts while we improve
our business practices and our social and cultural interaction, both locally and globally. In short,
the application of history’s lessons can be of great benefit to man’s progress. Instead, we learn
only the contents of history and continue to make the same mistakes our ancestors did, so that
history repeats itself. 116 words

Sample Summary 3

History contains a wealth of information relating to dates and events. In addition, not only are
examples of human behaviors and actions recorded, but also the results of such; yet man has the
tendency to simply learn history without using the analytical approach to it that would enable
him to learn from it. As a result, the patterns that history has created are often unnoticed. By
failing to make use of the positive insights provided, the mistakes of previous generations are
repeated. The application of the analytical approach produces guidance for human interaction.
Through it we avoid cultural and social conflicts. The result should be an improvement in human
relations in all spheres.

113 words
ENGLISH A January 2016

Following are the points expected and a sample summary.

 Consumerism refers to the activity of buying and selling in which we all participate.
 Responsible consumerism requires the application of information to decision−making.
 Choices have consequences and if we make the choices we must live with the
 Choices are sometimes made using information or conditions set down by others. These
early decisions affect what we can now know, and condition how we choose. Choices
that may have once been wise may no longer be.
 The choice we make becomes part of a network, in which our choices affect others.
 Modern technology, with its insistence on immediate response, can negatively affect our
ability to make wise choices, so we need to resist, while we explore all the information.

Sample Summary

Since we buy, sell and use goods and services, we are consumers. In choosing or buying we are
expected to use the ability to make responsible decisions. This ability and responsibility allows
us to analyze our behavior as consumers. Recognizing that each choice has consequences with
which we will need to live, we apply knowledge to help us choose. Sometimes, we are hampered
by decisions made by others, which affect what we can know or do. Our ability to choose and to
act responsibly is affected by a network of choices. In addition, modern technology which insists
on immediate response, can negatively affect our ability to make wise choices, unless we resist,
while we explore all the information.