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1 vues8 pagesNorma internacional de estruturas marítimas

Numerical Prediction of Wave Loads on Subsea Struc

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1 vues8 pagesNumerical Prediction of Wave Loads on Subsea Struc

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Proceedings of The Fourteenth (2004) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

Toulon, France, May 23−28, 2004

Copyright © 2004 by The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers

ISBN 1-880653-62-1 (Set); ISSN 1098-6189 (Set)

Maritime Research Institute Netherlands (MARIN)

Wageningen, The Netherlands

ABSTRACT passage through the splash zone, or the added mass and damping when

the subsea structure is submerged or close to the seabed. In order to

Existing simulation methods are not able to determine in detail the determine these loads, model tests are necessary. Otherwise only

wave loads on a complex sub-sea structure when it is passing through simplified formulations or empirical relations for added mass and

the splash zone. To determine these loads, model tests are necessary. damping can be used.

Otherwise only simplified formulations or empirical relations for added

mass and damping can be used. The improved Volume Of Fluid

(iVOF) method presented in this paper is a potential candidate for the

better numerical prediction of the behaviour of a sub-sea structure in

the splash zone. The simulated flow around and through the structure

looks very realistic and shows a strong resemblance with observations

from model tests. The quantitative comparison of the vertical load on

the sub-sea structure shows that the total load levels are well predicted.

This good initial comparison shows the potential of the iVOF method

for the simulation of the behaviour of sub-sea structures in the splash

zone. However, significant further development and validation is

needed before a fully coupled simulation of a sub-sea structure and its

lifting vessel in waves can be carried out. This possibility is also

affected by the long simulation times required at the moment. As an

intermediate step the method might be used to determine the wave

loads and added mass in an uncoupled simulation.

INTRODUCTION

For the development of deep and ultra deep fields, the safe and Fig. 1: Examples of different complex subsea structures in the splash

economical installation of subsea equipment is of vital importance. The zone

practically continuous swells West of Africa result in significant

motions of the installation vessels, in other areas the possible wind seas The present paper presents a new methodology, which was initially

can induce significant wave loads on the subsea structure when it is developed for the simulation of sloshing in tanks and green water

lowered through the splash zone. loading on the deck of ships (Buchner, 2002). This improved Volume

Of Fluid (iVOF) method is able to simulate the non-linear wave loads

These subsea structures have a large variety of shapes and their shape is on structures in the wave zone, including the flow in and out of the

typically very complex (see Figure 1). Consequently, the prediction of structure. The present paper is part of a research project that has the

the motions and loads during the installation is not an easy task. The objective to come to a fully coupled lift simulation: the time domain

state-of-the-art approach for the evaluation of such operations is based simulation of the moving lifting vessel with its lifting gear on one side

on time domain simulations of the combined installation vessel and and the subsea structure in the splash zone on the other side. To achieve

subsea structure. However, with the existing simulation methods it is this objective, first the loads of the waves on the subsea structure have

impossible to determine in detail the wave loads either during the to be studied in detail.

284

The present paper focuses on this aspect. The results of model tests will condition on the free boundary. In the VOF method a VOF function F

be used for validation. In the next phase of the project the resulting (with values between 0 and 1) is used, indicating which part of the cell

motions of the subsea structure and the coupling with the behaviour of is filled with fluid. The VOF method reconstructs the free surface in

the lifting vessel will be studied. each computational cell. This makes it suitable for the prediction of all

The paper first summarises the iVOF method included in the phases of the local free surface problem.

ComFLOW program. Then results of simulations with a typical subsea First the mathematical and numerical model will be summarised. This

structure in the splash zone are presented. A comparison is made with will be limited to the main aspects, because the detailed numerical

results of dedicated model tests with the same structure. The aspects are outside the scope of the present paper. Excellent overviews

comparison gives good insight in the special capabilities of the method. of the numerical details of the method can be found in the references.

To distinguish between the original VOF method of Hirt and Nichols,

THE IVOF METHOD 1981 and the present extended method, the name improved-VOF

(iVOF) method will be used in the rest of this paper.

ComFLOW is a Navier-Stokes solver, based on a (improved) Volume

Of Fluid (VOF) method. The program has been developed initially by Mathematical model

the University of Groningen/RuG (Prof.dr. Arthur Veldman) to study

the sloshing of liquid fuel in satellites. This micro-gravity environment The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations describe the motions of a

requires a very accurate and robust description of the free surface. fluid in general terms. They are based on conservation of mass

Coupled dynamics between the sloshing fluid and the satellite were (Expression 1) and momentum (Expressions 2 through 4).

investigated as well (Gerrits, Loots, Fekken and Veldman., 1999 and

Gerrits, 2001). In close co-operation with MARIN, this methodology

was later extended to the calculation of green water loading on a fixed ∂u ∂v ∂w

bow deck (Fekken, Veldman and Buchner 1999, and see Figure 2). + + =0 (1)

∂x ∂y ∂z

Also anti-roll tanks, including the coupling with ship motions (Daalen,

Kleefsman, Gerrits and Luth and Veldman 2000), were investigated.

Furthermore, the entry of a wedge in a fluid was studied as part of the ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u 1 ∂p ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u

RuG-MARIN co-operation (Buchner, Bunnik, Fekken and Veldman +u +v +w =− + ν + + + Fx (2)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρ ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2

2001), as well as the wave impact loads on fixed structures (see Figure ∂x

3).

∂v ∂v ∂v ∂v 1 ∂p ∂2v ∂2v ∂2v

+u +v + w = − + ν + + + Fy (3)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρ ∂y ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2

∂w ∂w ∂w ∂w 1 ∂p ∂2 w ∂2 w ∂2 w

+u +v +w =− + ν + + + Fz

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρ ∂z ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2

(4)

ur

F =(Fx, Fy, Fz) is an external body force, such as gravity.

with:

Figure 2: Example of earlier application of the method: green water on p = pressure

the deck of an FPSO t = time

u = velocity in x-direction

v = velocity in y-direction

w = velocity in z-direction

x = x-position

y = y-position

z = z-position

v = kinematic viscosity

ρ = fluid density

as:

r

∇⋅u = 0 (5)

∂u 1

loading on a fixed platform + ∇p = R (6)

∂t ρ

The VOF algorithm as developed by Hirt and Nichols (see Hirt and ur

Nichols, 1981) is used as a basis for the fluid advection. The method R now contains all convective, diffusive and body forces.

solves the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with a free-surface

285

Numerical model: geometry and free surface description F(low)-cells : All cells with Fb ≥ 0

B(oundary)-cells : All cells adjacent to a F-cell

For the discretisation of a computational domain in numerical

(e)X(ternal)-cells : All remaining cells

simulations a large number of different methods are available.

Basically, they can be divided into:

The free-surface cell labelling is a subdivision of the F-cells. The

• Structured and unstructured grids.

subdivision consists of 3 subclasses:

• Boundary fitted and non-boundary fitted grids.

E(mpty) cells : All cells with Fs = 0

In the iVOF method a structured (Cartesian) non-boundary fitted grid S(urface) cells : All cells adjacent to an E-cell

(not necessarily equidistant) is chosen. This has the following F'(luid)-cells : All remaining F-cells

advantages related to the use of the method for the prediction of wave

loading: Figure 5 shows an example of geometry cell labelling and free-surface

• Easy generation of the grid around complex structures. cell labelling for a wedge entering a fluid.

• A lot of research on surface tracking on orthogonal grids has been

carried out.

• Moving objects in the fluid can be dealt with in a similar way as

fixed boundaries, without re-gridding.

The main disadvantage of this discretisation method is the fact that the

boundary and free surface are generally not aligned with the gridlines.

This requires special attention in the solution method, as will be shown

below.

to track the amount of flow in a cell and through a cell face:

• Volume aperture: the geometry aperture Fb indicates which

fraction of a cell is allowed to contain fluid ( 0 ≤ Fb ≤ 1 ). For Figure 5: Geometry cell labelling (left) and free-surface cell labelling

bodies moving through the fluid, the geometry aperture may vary (right) for a wedge entering a fluid

in time. The time-dependent fluid aperture Fs indicates which

fraction of a cell is actually occupied by fluid and satisfies the The discretisation of the Navier-Stokes equations is done on a

relation 0 ≤ Fs ≤ Fb . staggered grid, which means that the pressure will be set in the cell

centres and the velocity components in the middle of the cell faces

• Edge aperture: the edge apertures Ax, Ay, and Az define the

between two cells. This is shown in 2D in Figure 6.

fraction of a cell surface through which fluid may flow in the x, y

and z direction respectively. Obviously, these apertures are

between zero and one.

Ax =

y 0.2 v

Fb -F s= 0.5

p u p u p

Fs = 0.3

v

Ay= 0.5 x p

Figure 4: Two-dimensional example of a grid cell using apertures

After the apertures have been assigned to the grid cells and the cell

edges, every cell is given a label to distinguish between boundary, air

and fluid. Two classes of labelling exist: Geometry cell labels and fluid Figure 6: Location of the pressure and velocity components in the

cell labels. The geometry labelling at each time step divides the cells staggered grid

into three classes:

286

The Navier-Stokes equations are discretised in time according to the In the detailed work of Gerrits, 2001 other aspects of the numerical

explicit first order Forward Euler method as follows: method are described in detail, such as:

• Discretisation of Rcn

∇.u n + 1 = 0

r • Discretisation near the free-surface

(7)

• In- and outflow discretisation

• Pressure Poisson equation

un + 1 − un

r r ur n • Free surface reconstruction and displacement

+ ∇p n + 1 = R (8) • Use of the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy (CFL) number

∆t

• Calculation of forces

∆t is the time step and n+1 and n denote the new and old time level.

Summarising, the following functionalities are presently available in

The conservation of mass in Expression (7) and the pressure in

ComFLOW (see references):

Expression (8) are treated on the new time level n+1 to assure that the

r - Calculation of the fluid motion by solving the incompressible

new u is divergence-free (no loss of fluid). Navier-Stokes equations.

- One type of fluid flow is considered, with a void where no fluid is

The spatial discretisation will now be explained using the present.

computational cell shown in Figure 7. - Possibility to model an arbitrary number of fixed objects in the

fluid. The objects are defined piecewise linearly.

- Options to use no-slip or free-slip boundary conditions at the solid

boundaries. At the free surface continuity of tangential and normal

stresses (including capillary effects) is prescribed. Inflow and

N outflow boundary conditions for fluid velocities and/or pressures

can be defined.

- The fluid simulations are carried out on a Cartesian grid with user-

NW NE defined stretching. The Cartesian grid is fixed in the domain.

When the domain is moving a virtual body force is added to the

forcing term in the Navier-Stokes equations. The fluid motions are

hy thus solved in a domain-fixed co-ordinate system.

W w C e E - To distinguish between the different characters of grid cells, the

cells are labelled. The Navier-Stokes equations are discretised and

solved in cells that contain fluid. The free-surface displacement is

SW SE described by the Volume Of Fluid method with a local height

function. This local height function is the main difference between

the original VOF method and the iVOF method and reduces

S flotsam and jetsam (small droplets disconnecting from the free

surface)

hx - The generation of waves, which has been accomplished by

specifying fluid velocities at the inflow boundary of the fluid

Figure 7: Spatial discretisation cell, using compass indication for cell domain. The fluid velocities are obtained from potential flow.

phases Linear waves (Airy waves) and fifth-order waves (Stokes waves)

have been implemented. The linear waves have been stretched

Expression (7) is applied in the centres of the cells and a central towards the actual position of the free surface using Wheeler

discretisation is used. In the cell with centre w the discretised equation stretching.

becomes: - Several absorbing boundary conditions at the outflow boundaries.

- The possibility to use the velocity field from a (de-coupled) linear

diffraction theory. Linear diffraction theory is used to compute

body motions and fluid velocities which are then used in

uCn +1 − uW

n +1

v n +1 − vSW

n +1

+ NW =0 (9) ComFLOW to prescribe the body motions and fluid velocities on

hx hy the inflow and outflow boundaries.

- An off-line coupling with a structural-analysis code has been

established to compute the response of a structure to high peak

The momentum Expression (8) is applied in the centres of the cell loads.

faces, thus the discretisation in point C becomes:

SIMULATION AND MODEL TEST RESULTS

The iVOF method has now been applied to the problem of a subsea

uCn +1 − uCn pen +1 − pwn +1 structure in the splash zone.

+ = RCn (10)

∆t hx

Specific model tests were carried out to validate the simulations. Figure

8 shows the model of the subsea structure in the model basin. It was

build at scale 1:40 and its main dimensions are given in Figure 9 and

Table 1. Two series of tests were carried out:

287

A. Tests with the subsea structure captive in a force and moment

frame to determine the wave exciting loads in 6 degrees of

freedom.

B. Tests with the subsea structure free-hanging in slings.

For the present paper only the results for Series A with the captive

model are used. Series B will be used in a later phase to check the fully

coupled motion of the subsea structure in waves.

structure (1:40 scale)

M 266 t

KG 4.96 m

Kxx 2.68 m

Kyy 4.96 m

Kzz 4.80 m

two extreme positions tested: just above the free surface and just fully

submerged

the subsea structure in waves observed during the tests. This flow is

characterised by aspects such as:

• Added mass and damping effects of the water under, above and in

the subsea structure

• Buoyancy effects in the waves

• Impact loads against horizontal plates in the subsea structure

• Flow through openings in the top and bottom of the subsea

structure

Figure 9: Main dimensions of the subsea structure model (dimensions • Complex flow through the equipment of the subsea structure

in m full-scale, scale model 1:40) • Water captured temporarily in certain parts of the subsea structure

Figure 10 shows the captive force measurement set-up in the basin and In the free-hanging situation during the lift, this can result in unwanted

Figure 11 presents the two extreme positions tested: the subsea oscillations, slack lines and larger vertical loads in the slings than

structure just above the free surface and just fully submerged. In expected.

addition to these positions, also an intermediate draft was tested.

288

Figure 13: Numerical model of subsea structure

simulation in waves

for the 3 different submergence levels. In the simulations only one

Figure 12: several examples of complex flow in and around the subsea wave oscillation was calculated. This was done because the calculation

structure in waves is extremely time consuming: 65 hours on a 2.4 MHz PC for a

simulation of 1 wave period!

The numerical model of the subsea structure above the approaching

wave is shown in Figure 13. This model was built with basic shapes A quantitative comparison of the vertical load on the subsea structure is

such as beams, boxes and cylinders. The dominant components in the given in Figure 16. The simulated load is given in blue and measured

subsea structure were all modelled. The computational domain load is given in red.

contained a total number of 170 * 100 * 100 (= 1700000) cells.

The comparison between the simulation and model test is reasonably

Figure 14 shows a number of snapshots of the flow around the subsea good. The total load levels are reasonably predicted. However, the

structure in different phases during a simulation in waves. The flow simulation shows load peaks that are not present in the model tests and

around and through the structure looks very realistic and shows a strong lacks some of the oscillations that are observed in the tests. These

resemblance with the observation from the model tests. differences need further investigation.

289

CONCLUSIONS

candidate for the better numerical prediction of the behaviour of a

subsea structure in the splash zone. Based on the initial comparison

between dedicated model tests and simulations the following

conclusions seem justified:

- The simulated flow around and through the structure looks very

realistic and shows a strong resemblance with observations from

model tests.

- The quantitative comparison of the vertical load on the subsea

structure shows that the total load levels are well predicted.

- However, the simulation shows load peaks that are not present in

the model tests and misses some of the oscillations that are

observed in the tests. These differences need further investigation.

This good initial comparison shows the potential of the iVOF method

for the simulation of the behaviour of sub-sea structures in the splash

zone. However, significant further development and validation is

needed before a fully coupled simulation of the sub-sea structure and its

lifting vessel in waves can be carried out. This possibility is also

affected by the long simulation times required at the moment. As an

Figure 15: Simulated horizontal force on the subsea structure for the 3 intermediate step the method might be used to determine the wave

different submergence levels loads and added mass in an uncoupled simulation.

REFERENCES

Numerical Study on Wave Run Up on an FPSO Bow”,

OMAE2001, Rio de Janeiro, 2001.

Buchner, B.; “Green Water on Ship-type Offshore Structures”, PhD

thesis Delft University of Technology, 2002.

Daalen, E.F.G. van, Kleefsman, K.M.T., Gerrits, J., Luth, H.R. and

Veldman, A.E.P.; “Anti Roll Tank Simulations with a Volume Of

Fluid (VOF) based Navier-Stokes Solver”, 23rd Symposium on

Naval Hydrodynamics, Val de Reuil, September 2000.

Fekken, G., Veldman, A.E.P. and Buchner, B.; “Simulation of Green

Water Flow Using the Navier-Stokes Equations”, Seventh

International Conference on Numerical Ship Hydromechanics,

Nantes, 1999.

Gerrits, J., Loots, G.E., Fekken, G. and Veldman, A.E.P.; “Liquid

Sloshing on Earth and in Space”, In: Moving Boundaries V (Sarler,

B., Brebbia, C.A. and Power, H. Eds.) WIT Press, Southampton, pp

111-120, 1999.

Gerrits, J.; “Dynamics of Liquid-Filled Spacecraft”, Numerical

Simulation of Coupled Solid-Liquid Dynamics, PhD thesis, RuG,

Figure 16: Simulated (blue) and measured (red) vertical force on the 2001.

subsea structure Hirt, C.W. and Nichols, B.D.; “Volume Of Fluid (VOF) Method for the

Dynamics of Free Boundaries”, Journal of Computational Physics,

39, pp 201-225, 1981.

Kleefsman, K.M.T., Fekken, G., Veldman, A.E.P., Bunnik, T.,

Buchner, B. and Iwanowski, B.; “Prediction of green water and

wave impact loading using a Navier-Stokes Based Simulation

Tool”, OMAE conference, Oslo, 2002.

290